WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamic charge interactions

  1. Langevin dynamics of conformational transformations induced by the charge-curvature interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Gorria, C.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2009-01-01

    The role of thermal fluctuations in the conformational dynamics of a single closed filament is studied. It is shown that, due to the interaction between charges and bending degrees of freedom, initially circular chains may undergo transformation to polygonal shape.......The role of thermal fluctuations in the conformational dynamics of a single closed filament is studied. It is shown that, due to the interaction between charges and bending degrees of freedom, initially circular chains may undergo transformation to polygonal shape....

  2. Electrostatic solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using molecular dynamics with density functional theory interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Timothy T.; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Mundy, Chistopher J.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the solvation free energies of single ions in water is one of the most fundamental problems in physical chemistry and yet many unresolved questions remain. In particular, the ability to decompose the solvation free energy into simple and intuitive contributions will have important implications for models of electrolyte solution. Here, we provide definitions of the various types of single ion solvation free energies based on different simulation protocols. We calculate solvation free energies of charged hard spheres using density functional theory interaction potentials with molecular dynamics simulation and isolate the effects of charge and cavitation, comparing to the Born (linear response) model. We show that using uncorrected Ewald summation leads to unphysical values for the single ion solvation free energy and that charging free energies for cations are approximately linear as a function of charge but that there is a small non-linearity for small anions. The charge hydration asymmetry for hard spheres, determined with quantum mechanics, is much larger than for the analogous real ions. This suggests that real ions, particularly anions, are significantly more complex than simple charged hard spheres, a commonly employed representation.

  3. Photoinduced charge-order melting dynamics in a one-dimensional interacting Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Sumio

    2017-07-01

    Transient quantum dynamics in an interacting fermion-phonon system are investigated with a focus on a charge order (CO) melting after a short optical-pulse irradiation and the roles of the quantum phonons in the transient dynamics. A spinless-fermion model in a one-dimensional chain coupled with local phonons is analyzed numerically. The infinite time-evolving block decimation algorithm is adopted as a reliable numerical method for one-dimensional quantum many-body systems. Numerical results for the photoinduced CO melting dynamics without phonons are well interpreted by the soliton picture for the CO domains. This interpretation is confirmed by numerical simulation of an artificial local excitation and the classical soliton model. In the case of large phonon frequencies corresponding to the antiadiabatic condition, CO melting is induced by propagations of the polaronic solitons with the renormalized soliton velocity. On the other hand, in the case of small phonon frequencies corresponding to the adiabatic condition, the first stage of the CO melting dynamics occurs due to the energy transfer from the fermionic to phononic systems, and the second stage is brought about by the soliton motions around the bottom of the soliton band. The analyses provide a standard reference for photoinduced CO melting dynamics in one-dimensional many-body quantum systems.

  4. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Aniket; Lochan, Abhiram; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.; Gupta, Neeraj; Sharma, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  5. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  6. Dynamical interaction of He atoms with metal surfaces: Charge transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, F.; Garcia Vidal, F.J.; Monreal, R.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistent Kohn-Sham LCAO method is presented to calculate the charge transfer processes between a He * -atom and metal surfaces. Intra-atomic correlation effects are taken into account by considering independently each single He-orbital and by combining the different charge transfer processes into a set of dynamical rate equations for the different ion charge fractions. Our discussion reproduces qualitatively the experimental evidence and gives strong support to the method presented here. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  7. Protein Charge and Mass Contribute to the Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Protein-Protein Interactions in a Minimal Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Wang, Hong; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2013-01-01

    We constructed and simulated a ‘minimal proteome’ model using Langevin dynamics. It contains 206 essential protein types which were compiled from the literature. For comparison, we generated six proteomes with randomized concentrations. We found that the net charges and molecular weights of the proteins in the minimal genome are not random. The net charge of a protein decreases linearly with molecular weight, with small proteins being mostly positively charged and large proteins negatively charged. The protein copy numbers in the minimal genome have the tendency to maximize the number of protein-protein interactions in the network. Negatively charged proteins which tend to have larger sizes can provide large collision cross-section allowing them to interact with other proteins; on the other hand, the smaller positively charged proteins could have higher diffusion speed and are more likely to collide with other proteins. Proteomes with random charge/mass populations form less stable clusters than those with experimental protein copy numbers. Our study suggests that ‘proper’ populations of negatively and positively charged proteins are important for maintaining a protein-protein interaction network in a proteome. It is interesting to note that the minimal genome model based on the charge and mass of E. Coli may have a larger protein-protein interaction network than that based on the lower organism M. pneumoniae. PMID:23420643

  8. Charge transfer dynamics from adsorbates to surfaces with single active electron and configuration interaction based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan, E-mail: r.ramakrishnan@unibas.ch [Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Nest, Mathias [Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-13

    Highlights: • We model electron dynamics across cyano alkanethiolates attached to gold cluster. • We present electron transfer time scales from TD-DFT and TD-CI based simulations. • Both DFT and CI methods qualitatively predict the trend in time scales. • TD-CI predicts the experimental relative time scale very accurately. - Abstract: We employ wavepacket simulations based on many-body time-dependent configuration interaction (TD-CI), and single active electron theories, to predict the ultrafast molecule/metal electron transfer time scales, in cyano alkanethiolates bonded to model gold clusters. The initial states represent two excited states where a valence electron is promoted to one of the two virtual π{sup ∗} molecular orbitals localized on the cyanide fragment. The ratio of the two time scales indicate the efficiency of one charge transfer channel over the other. In both our one-and many-electron simulations, this ratio agree qualitatively with each other as well as with the previously reported experimental time scales (Blobner et al., 2012), measured for a macroscopic metal surface. We study the effect of cluster size and the description of electron correlation on the charge transfer process.

  9. Coulomb interactions in charged fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernizzi, Graziano; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera

    2011-07-01

    The use of Ewald summation schemes for calculating long-range Coulomb interactions, originally applied to ionic crystalline solids, is a very common practice in molecular simulations of charged fluids at present. Such a choice imposes an artificial periodicity which is generally absent in the liquid state. In this paper we propose a simple analytical O(N(2)) method which is based on Gauss's law for computing exactly the Coulomb interaction between charged particles in a simulation box, when it is averaged over all possible orientations of a surrounding infinite lattice. This method mitigates the periodicity typical of crystalline systems and it is suitable for numerical studies of ionic liquids, charged molecular fluids, and colloidal systems with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. Capacitance, charge dynamics, and electrolyte-surface interactions in functionalized carbide-derived carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Dyatkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the dynamics of ionic liquid electrolyte inside of defunctionalized, hydrogenated, and aminated pores of carbide-derived carbon supercapacitor electrodes. The approach tailors surface functionalities and tunes nanoporous structures to decouple the influence of pore wall composition on capacitance, ionic resistance, and long-term cyclability. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering probes the self-diffusion properties and electrode-ion interactions of electrolyte molecules confined in functionalized pores. Room-temperature ionic liquid interactions in confined pores are strongest when the hydrogen-containing groups are present on the surface. This property translates into higher capacitance and greater ion transport through pores during electrochemical cycling. Unlike hydrogenated pores, aminated pores do not favorably interact with ionic liquid ions and, subsequently, are outperformed by defunctionalized surfaces.

  11. Capacitance, charge dynamics, and electrolyte-surface interactions in functionalized carbide-derived carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyatkin, Boris; Mamontov, Eugene; Cook, Kevin M.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the dynamics of ionic liquid electrolyte inside of defunctionalized, hydrogenated, and aminated pores of carbide-derived carbon supercapacitor electrodes. The approach tailors surface functionalities and tunes nanoporous structures to decouple the influence of pore wall composition on capacitance, ionic resistance, and long-term cyclability. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering probes the self-diffusion properties and electrode-ion interactions of electrolyte molecules confined in functionalized pores. Room-temperature ionic liquid interactions in confined pores are strongest when the hydrogen-containing groups are present on the surface. This property translates into higher capacitance and greater ion transport through pores during electrochemical cycling. Unlike hydrogenated pores, aminated pores do not favorably interact with ionic liquid ions and, subsequently, are outperformed by defunctionalized surfaces.

  12. Dynamics of very low energy photoelectrons interacting with image charge of Cs/Cu(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Arafune, R.; Ueda, S.; Uehara, Y.; Ushioda, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the very low energy photoelectron spectra of Cs-covered Cu(111) surfaces, and determined the mechanism for the appearance of a spike structure due to the interaction of emitted electron with its image charge. At high Cs coverage of 0.10 and 0.14 monolayers (ML), the spike structure appeared at the vacuum level. No such structure was found at low coverage of 0.06 ML. The vacuum level at high coverage lies in the energy gap at the Γ point in the surface Brillouin zone of the Cu(111) surface, while it lies outside the energy gap at low coverage. These results confirm the validity of our proposed mechanism that the spike structure appears when the vacuum level lies in the energy gap

  13. Relativistic point dynamics general equations, constant proper masses, interactions between electric charges, variable proper masses, collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Arzeliès, Henri

    1972-01-01

    Relativistic Point Dynamics focuses on the principles of relativistic dynamics. The book first discusses fundamental equations. The impulse postulate and its consequences and the kinetic energy theorem are then explained. The text also touches on the transformation of main quantities and relativistic decomposition of force, and then discusses fields of force derivable from scalar potentials; fields of force derivable from a scalar potential and a vector potential; and equations of motion. Other concerns include equations for fields; transfer of the equations obtained by variational methods int

  14. Dynamics of a charged particle in a circularly polarized travelling electromagnetic wave. Self-consistent model for the wave-particle dynamical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)

  15. Experimental study of nonlinear interaction of plasma flow with charged thin current sheets: 2. Hall dynamics, mass and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savin

    2006-01-01

    cyclotron one, in extended turbulent zones are a promising alternative in place of the usual parallel electric fields invoked in the macro-reconnection scenarios. Further cascading towards electron scales is supposed to be due to unstable parallel electron currents, which neutralize the potential differences, either resulted from the ion- burst interactions or from the inertial drift. The complicated MP shape suggests its systematic velocity departure from the local normal towards the average one, inferring domination for the MP movement of the non-local processes over the small-scale local ones. The measured Poynting vector indicates energy transmission from the MP into the upstream region with the waves triggering impulsive downstream flows, providing an input into the local flow balance and the outward movement of the MP. Equating the transverse electric field inside the MP TCS by the Hall term in the Ohm's law implies a separation of the different plasmas primarily by the Hall current, driven by the respective part of the TCS surface charge. The Hall dynamics of TCS can operate either without or as a part of a macro-reconnection with the magnetic field annihilation.

  16. Interactions between charged spherical macroions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.J.; Falk, M.L.; Robbins, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to study the screened interactions between charged spherical macroions surrounded by discrete counterions, and to test previous theories of screening. The simulations were performed in the primitive cell of the bcc lattice, and in the spherical Wigner endash Seitz cell that is commonly used in approximate calculations. We found that the Wigner endash Seitz approximation is valid even at high volume fractions φ and large macroion charges Z, because the macroion charge becomes strongly screened. Pressures calculated from Poisson endash Boltzmann theory and local density functional theory deviate from MC values as φ and Z increase, but continue to provide upper and lower bounds for the MC results. While Debye endash Hueckel (DH) theory fails badly when the bare charge is used, MC pressures can be fit with an effective DH charge, Z DH , that is nearly independent of volume fraction. As Z diverges, Z DH saturates at zψ max R m /λ, where z is the counterion charge, R m is the macroion radius, λ is the Bjerrum length, and ψ max is a constant of order 10. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Dynamics of Charged Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In three spacetime dimensions the world volume of a magnetic source is a single point, an event. We make the event dynamical by regarding it as the imprint of a flux-carrying particle impinging from an extra dimension. This can be generalized to higher spacetime dimensions and to extended events. We exhibit universal observable consequences of the existence of events and argue that events are as important as particles or branes. We explain how events arise on the world volume of membranes in M theory, and in a Josephson junction in superconductivity.

  18. Electrolyte containing lithium cation in squaraine-sensitized solar cells: interactions and consequences for performance and charge transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Vittoria; Barbero, Nadia; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido; Sliwa, Michel; Sauvage, Frédéric

    2017-10-18

    By optimizing the lithium concentration in an electrolyte to 50 mmol L -1 and the dye-to-chenodeoxycholic acid ratio in a VG1-based dye solution, we achieved 4.7% power conversion efficiency under standard AM 1.5G conditions. In addition to this performance, we herein discuss the role played by lithium in the electrolyte and its interplay in the charge transfer processes from ms to fs dynamics. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, photoluminescence and pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy, we conclude that although lithium increases the electron diffusion length, this has no satisfactory impact on electron injection and even slows dye regeneration. This study provides evidence that lithium is not only specifically adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 but prompts a molecular reorganization of the self-assembled dye monolayer, forming harmful H-aggregates.

  19. Coupled spin, elastic and charge dynamics in magnetic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamra, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this Thesis, I address the interaction of magnetic degrees of freedom with charge current and elastic dynamics in hybrid systems composed of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. The objective, invariably, is to control and study spin dynamics using charge and elastic degrees of freedom. In

  20. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  1. Charged current weak interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    1977-01-01

    We review high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions. An overview of the experimental data is given, including a discussion of the experimental status of the y anomaly. Locality tests, μ-e universality and charge symmetry invariance tests are discussed. Charm production is discussed. The experimental status of trimuon events and possible phenomenological models for these events are presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Higher charges in dynamical spin chains for SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Ferretti, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We construct, to the first two non-trivial orders, the next conserved charge in the su(2|3) sector of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. This represents a test of integrability in a sector where the interactions change the number of sites of the chain. The expression for the charge is completely determined by the algebra and can be written in a diagrammatic form in terms of the interactions already present in the hamiltonian. It appears likely that this diagrammatic expression remains valid in the full theory and can be generalized to higher loops and higher charges thus helping in establishing complete integrability for these dynamical chains

  3. The charged bubble oscillator: Dynamics and thresholds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nonlinear, forced oscillations of a bubble in a fluid due to an external pressure field are studied theoretically. ... for the system, delineating different dynamics. Keywords. ..... (c) Power spectral density of the charged and uncharged bub-.

  4. Multipole interactions of charged particles with the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1982-01-01

    The full multipole expansion for the lagrangian and hamiltonian of a system of point charges interacting with the electromagnetic field is studied in detail. Both classical and quantum theory are described for external and dynamical fields separately. One improvement with respect to the known Fiutak's paper is made. (author)

  5. Dynamical instability of a charged gaseous cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss dynamical instability of a charged dissipative cylinder under radial oscillations. For this purpose, we follow the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to evaluate linearized perturbed equation of motion. We formulate perturbed pressure in terms of adiabatic index by applying the conservation of baryon numbers. A variational principle is established to determine characteristic frequencies of oscillation which define stability criteria for a gaseous cylinder. We compute the ranges of radii as well as adiabatic index for both charged and uncharged cases in Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that dynamical instability occurs in the presence of charge if the gaseous cylinder contracts to the radius R*.

  6. Charge structure of K-p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettgens, R.; Ransone, G.; Sixel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The charge transfer distribution, its average, dispersion and skewness are studied in K - p interactions at 110 GeV/c and lower energies. The ratio of dispersion squared to rapidity plateau height is found to be energy independent as suggested by the neutral cluster models. The short range charge correlations in rapidity are observed at all energies; at 110 GeV/c there is also evidence for a long range component. (author)

  7. Correction of the deterministic part of space–charge interaction in momentum microscopy of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schönhense, G., E-mail: schoenhense@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Medjanik, K. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Tusche, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, 06120 Halle (Germany); Loos, M. de; Geer, B. van der [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands); Scholz, M.; Hieke, F.; Gerken, N. [Physics Department and Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Univ. Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wurth, W. [Physics Department and Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Univ. Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); DESY Photon Science, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Ultrahigh spectral brightness femtosecond XUV and X-ray sources like free electron lasers (FEL) and table-top high harmonics sources (HHG) offer fascinating experimental possibilities for analysis of transient states and ultrafast electron dynamics. For electron spectroscopy experiments using illumination from such sources, the ultrashort high-charge electron bunches experience strong space–charge interactions. The Coulomb interactions between emitted electrons results in large energy shifts and severe broadening of photoemission signals. We propose a method for a substantial reduction of the effect by exploiting the deterministic nature of space–charge interaction. The interaction of a given electron with the average charge density of all surrounding electrons leads to a rotation of the electron distribution in 6D phase space. Momentum microscopy gives direct access to the three momentum coordinates, opening a path for a correction of an essential part of space–charge interaction. In a first experiment with a time-of-flight momentum microscope using synchrotron radiation at BESSY, the rotation in phase space became directly visible. In a separate experiment conducted at FLASH (DESY), the energy shift and broadening of the photoemission signals were quantified. Finally, simulations of a realistic photoemission experiment including space–charge interaction reveals that a gain of an order of magnitude in resolution is possible using the correction technique presented here. - Highlights: • Photoemission spectromicroscopy with high-brightness pulsed sources is examined. • Deterministic interaction of an electron with the average charge density can be corrected. • Requires a cathode-lens type microscope optimized for best k-resolution in reciprocal plane. • Extractor field effectively separates pencil beam of secondary electrons from true signal. • Simulations reveal one order of magnitude gain in resolution.

  8. On the interaction of color charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.I.; Arbuzov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potential type solutions of the classical equations of Yang-Mills fields are obtained for the theory with the effective Lagrangian which has been formulated earlier in the framework of QCD with the account for the gluon self-interaction in the infrared region. When we consider the problem of the interaction between the colour source ad a probe colour charge, the chromoelectric solution gives the potential with the Coulomb behaviour at infinity

  9. Charged current weak interaction of polarized muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smadja, G.; Vesztergombi, G.

    1983-01-01

    The polarization of the muon beam can be used to test the presence of right-handed couplings in charged current interaction of muons in process μ+N->#betta#+X. The experimental feasibility and the limits which can be obtained on the mass of right-handed intermediate boson are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Atomic interactions of charged particles with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichsel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Ideas about the interactions of charged particles with matter are discussed. First, some experimental information is presented. Concepts related to collision cross sections and the Bethe model for them are given. The stopping power is derived and applied to the discussion of depth dose functions ('Bragg curves'). Some details of the energy loss in microscopic volumes are discussed

  11. Dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppae, J.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have various climate effects and adverse health effects, which both depend on the size and number concentration of the particles. Freshly-formed particles are not large enough to impact neither health nor climate and they are most susceptible to removal by collisions with larger pre-existing particles. Consequently, the knowledge of both the formation and the growth rate of particles are crucially important when assessing the health and climate effects of atmospheric new particle formation. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles with a specific interest towards the particle growth rate and processes affecting the aerosol charging state. A new model, Ion-UHMA, which simulates the dynamics of neutral and charged particles, was developed for this purpose. Simple analytical formulae that can be used to estimate the growth rate due to various processes were derived and used to study the effects of charged particles on the growth rate. It was found that the growth rate of a freshly-formed particle population due to condensation and coagulation could be significantly increased when a considerable fraction of the particles are charged. Finally, recent data-analysis methods that have been applied to the aerosol charging states obtained from the measurements were modified for a charge asymmetric framework. The methods were then tested on data obtained from aerosol dynamics simulations. The methods were found to be able to provide reasonable estimates on the growth rate and proportion of particles formed via ion-induced nucleation, provided that the growth rate is high enough and that the charged particles do not grow much more rapidly than the neutral ones. A simple procedure for estimating whether the methods are suitable for analysing data obtained in specific conditions was provided. In this thesis, the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles were studied in

  12. Pion double charge exchange and hadron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will review theoretical results to show how pion double charge exchange is contributing to our understanding of hadron dynamics in nuclei. The exploitation of the nucleus as a filter is shown to be essential in facilitating the comparison between theory and experiment. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Moment approach to charged particle beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have derived the hierarchy of moment equations that describes the dynamics of charged-particle beams in linear accelerators and can truncate the hierarchy at any level either by discarding higher moments or by a cumulant expansion discarding only correlation functions. We have developed a procedure for relating the density expansion linearly to the moments to any order. The relation of space-charge fields to the density has been derived; and an accurate, systematic, and computationally convenient expansion of the resultant integrals has been developed

  14. Dynamics of Charged Particulate Systems Modeling, Theory and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Zohdi, Tarek I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this monograph is to provide a concise introduction to the dynamics of systems comprised of charged small-scale particles. Flowing, small-scale, particles ("particulates'') are ubiquitous in industrial processes and in the natural sciences. Applications include electrostatic copiers, inkjet printers, powder coating machines, etc., and a variety of manufacturing processes. Due to their small-scale size, external electromagnetic fields can be utilized to manipulate and control charged particulates in industrial processes in order to achieve results that are not possible by purely mechanical means alone. A unique feature of small-scale particulate flows is that they exhibit a strong sensitivity to interparticle near-field forces, leading to nonstandard particulate dynamics, agglomeration and cluster formation, which can strongly affect manufactured product quality. This monograph also provides an introduction to the mathematically-related topic of the dynamics of swarms of interacting objects, ...

  15. Dynamics of a charged particle in a linearly polarized traveling wave. Hamiltonian approach to laser-matter interaction at very high intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.; Patin, D.

    2005-01-01

    The basic physical processes in laser-matter interaction, up to 10 17 W/cm 2 (for a neodymium laser) are now well understood, on the other hand, new phenomena evidenced in particle-in-cell code simulations have to be investigated above 10 18 W/cm 2 . Thus, the relativistic motion of a charged particle in a linearly polarized homogeneous electromagnetic wave is studied, here, using the Hamiltonian formalism. First, the motion of a single particle in a linearly polarized traveling wave propagating in a non-magnetized space is explored. The problem is shown to be integrable. The results obtained are compared to those derived considering a cold electron plasma model. When the phase velocity is close to c, it is shown that the two approaches are in good agreement during a finite time. After this short time, when the plasma response is taken into account no chaos take place at least when considering low densities and/or high wave intensities. The case of a charged particle in a traveling wave propagating along a constant homogeneous magnetic field is then considered. The problem is shown to be integrable when the wave propagates in vacuum. The existence of a synchronous solution is shown very simply. In the case when the wave propagates in a low density plasma, using a simplifying Lorentz transformation, it is shown that the system can be reduced to a time-dependent system with two degrees of freedom. The system is shown to be non-integrable, chaos appears when a secondary resonance and a primary resonance overlap. Finally, stochastic instabilities are studied by considering the motion of one particle in a very high intensity wave perturbed by one or two low intensity traveling waves. Resonances are identified and conditions for resonance overlap are studied. (authors)

  16. SDI: Statistical dynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Peilert, G.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1991-01-01

    We focus on the combined statistical and dynamical aspects of heavy ion induced reactions. The overall picture is illustrated by considering the reaction 36 Ar + 238 U at a projectile energy of 35 MeV/nucleon. We illustrate the time dependent bound excitation energy due to the fusion/relaxation dynamics as calculated with the Boltzmann master equation. An estimate of the mass, charge and excitation of an equilibrated nucleus surviving the fast (dynamic) fusion-relaxation process is used as input into an evaporation calculation which includes 20 heavy fragment exit channels. The distribution of excitations between residue and clusters is explicitly calculated, as is the further deexcitation of clusters to bound nuclei. These results are compared with the exclusive cluster multiplicity measurements of Kim et al., and are found to give excellent agreement. We consider also an equilibrated residue system at 25% lower initial excitation, which gives an unsatisfactory exclusive multiplicity distribution. This illustrates that exclusive fragment multiplicity may provide a thermometer for system excitation. This analysis of data involves successive binary decay with no compressional effects nor phase transitions. Several examples of primary versus final (stable) cluster decay probabilities for an A = 100 nucleus at excitations of 100 to 800 MeV are presented. From these results a large change in multifragmentation patterns may be understood as a simple phase space consequence, invoking neither phase transitions, nor equation of state information. These results are used to illustrate physical quantities which are ambiguous to deduce from experimental fragment measurements. 14 refs., 4 figs

  17. Charge-carrier dynamics and Coulomb effects in semiconductor tetrapods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauser, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the Coulomb interaction and its influence on localization effects and dynamics of charge carriers in semiconductor nanocrystals were studied. In the studied nanostructures it deals with colloidal tetrapod heterostructures, which consist of a cadmium selenide (CdSe) core and four tetraedrical grown cadmium sulfide (CdS) respectively cadmium telluride (CdTe) legs, which exhibit a type-I respectively type-II band transition. The dynamics and interactions were studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and absorption measurements both on the ensemble and on single nanoparticles, as well as time-resolved PL and transient absorption spectroscopy. Additionally theoretical simulations of the wave-function distributions were performed, which are based on the effective-mass approximation. The special band structure of the CdSe/CdS tetrapods offers a unique possibility to study the Coulomb interaction. The flat conduction band in these heterostructures makes the electron via the Coulomb interaction sensitive to the localization position of the hole within the structure. The valence band has instead a potential maximum in the CdSe, which leads to a directed localization of the hole and the photoluminescence of the core. Polarization-resolved measurements showed hereby an anisotropy of the photoluminescence, which could be explained by means of simulations of the wave-function distribution with an asymmetry at the branching point. Charge-carrier localization occur mainly both in longer structures and in trap states in the CdS leg and can be demonstrated in form of a dual emission from a nanocrystal. The charge-carrier dynamics of electron and hole in tetrapods is indeed coupled by the Coulomb interaction, however it cannot be completely described in an exciton picture. The coupled dynamics and the Coulomb interaction were studied concerning a possible influence of the geometry in CdSe/CdS nanorods and compared with those of the tetrapods. The interactions of the

  18. Coulomb interactions via local dynamics: a molecular-dynamics algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasichnyk, Igor; Duenweg, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    We derive and describe in detail a recently proposed method for obtaining Coulomb interactions as the potential of mean force between charges which are dynamically coupled to a local electromagnetic field. We focus on the molecular dynamics version of the method and show that it is intimately related to the Car-Parrinello approach, while being equivalent to solving Maxwell's equations with a freely adjustable speed of light. Unphysical self-energies arise as a result of the lattice interpolation of charges, and are corrected by a subtraction scheme based on the exact lattice Green function. The method can be straightforwardly parallelized using standard domain decomposition. Some preliminary benchmark results are presented

  19. [Interaction of protein with charged colloidal particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdenko, E V; Kuznetsova, S M; Basova, L V; Tikhonenko, S A; Saburova, E A

    2011-01-01

    The functional state of three proteins of different molecular weight (urease, lactate dehydrogenase, and hemoglobin) in the presence of the linear polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAA) and sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in the dissolved state and of the same polyelectrolytes bound to the surface of microspheres has been investigated. Microspheres were prepared by consecutive absorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes so that the outer layer of the shell was PAA for the acidic protein urease, and PSS for the alkaline proteins LDH and hemoglobin. It was shown that the dissolved polyelectrolyte completely inactivates all three proteins within one minute with a slight difference in the time constant. (By Hb inactivation are conventionally meant changes in the heme environment observed from the spectrum in the Soret band.) In the presence of microspheres, the proteins were adsorbed on their surface; in this case, more than 95% of the activity was retained within two hours. The proportion of the protein adsorbed on microspheres accounted for about 98% for urease, 72% for Hb, and 35% for LDH, as determined from the tryptophan fluorescence data. The interaction of hemoglobin with another type of charged colloidal particles, phospholipid vesicles, leads to the destruction of the tertiary structure of the protein, which made itself evident in the optical absorption spectra in the Soret band, as well as the spectra of tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism. In this case, according to circular dichroism, the percentage of alpha-helical structure of Hb was maintained. The differences in the physical and chemical mechanisms of interaction of proteins with these two types of charged colloidal particles that leads to differences in the degree of denaturing effects are discussed.

  20. Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Gary A., E-mail: ghuber@ucsd.edu; Miao, Yinglong [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Zhou, Shenggao [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006 Jiangsu (China); Li, Bo [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.

  1. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1 /D κ2 , where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ-1 is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L2/D , where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  2. Diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectrics are increasingly being studied as promising electrical generators in the ongoing search for alternative energy sources. In particular, recent experimental work has examined thermoelectric materials containing ionic charge carriers; however, the majority of mathematical modeling has been focused on their steady-state behavior. Here, we determine the time scales over which the diffuse charge dynamics in ionic thermoelectrochemical systems occur by analyzing the simplest model thermoelectric cell: a binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes. We consider the application of a temperature gradient across the device while the electrodes remain electrically isolated from each other. This results in a net voltage, called the thermovoltage, via the Seebeck effect. At the same time, the Soret effect results in migration of the ions toward the cold electrode. The charge dynamics are described mathematically by the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for dilute solutions, in which the ion flux is driven by electromigration, Brownian diffusion, and thermal diffusion under a temperature gradient. The temperature evolves according to the heat equation. This nonlinear set of equations is linearized in the (experimentally relevant) limit of a "weak" temperature gradient. From this, we show that the time scale on which the thermovoltage develops is the Debye time, 1/Dκ^{2}, where D is the Brownian diffusion coefficient of both ion species, and κ^{-1} is the Debye length. However, the concentration gradient due to the Soret effect develops on the bulk diffusion time, L^{2}/D, where L is the distance between the electrodes. For thin diffuse layers, which is the condition under which most real devices operate, the Debye time is orders of magnitude less than the diffusion time. Therefore, rather surprisingly, the majority of ion motion occurs after the steady thermovoltage has developed. Moreover, the dynamics are independent of the thermal diffusion

  3. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  4. System dynamics with interaction discontinuity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2015-01-01

    This book describes system dynamics with discontinuity caused by system interactions and presents the theory of flow singularity and switchability at the boundary in discontinuous dynamical systems. Based on such a theory, the authors address dynamics and motion mechanism of engineering discontinuous systems due to interaction. Stability and bifurcations of fixed points in nonlinear discrete dynamical systems are presented, and mapping dynamics are developed for analytical predictions of periodic motions in engineering discontinuous dynamical systems. Ultimately, the book provides an alternative way to discuss the periodic and chaotic behaviors in discontinuous dynamical systems.

  5. Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline–metal oxalate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polyaniline; metal oxalate composites; charge transport; mobile and fixed spins; VRH conduc- tion mechanism ... Al, Mn and Co on doping into Pani improve the poly- merization ... dopants on charge dynamics with EPR and other tech- niques.

  6. Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, Granino A

    2010-01-01

    Showing you how to use personal computers for modeling and simulation, Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation, Second Edition provides a practical tutorial on interactive dynamic-system modeling and simulation. It discusses how to effectively simulate dynamical systems, such as aerospace vehicles, power plants, chemical processes, control systems, and physiological systems. Written by a pioneer in simulation, the book introduces dynamic-system models and explains how software for solving differential equations works. After demonstrating real simulation programs with simple examples, the author

  7. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  8. Electrodynamics as a theory of interacting complex charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeyo Omolo, Joseph

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we formulate a general theory of electrodynamics which incorporates both electric and magnetic charges. The mathematical origin of a second vector potential and magnetic charge is established. Electrodynamics is then reformulated in complex form as a theory of complex charges moving in a complex force field. This provides the framework for complex charged particle interactions as a generalization of Schwinger's theory of dyon-dyon interactions. The concept of duality transformation relating electric and magnetic charge spaces is developed within the general framework of electrodynamics in complex form. (author)

  9. Constraints on effective interactions imposed by antisymmetry and charge independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringari, S [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica; Brink, D M [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    1978-07-24

    Restrictions on the form of the energy functional following antisymmetry and charge independence have been investigated for a Hartree-Fock theory based on effective interactions. These restrictions impose severe constraints on density dependent effective interactions.

  10. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM

  11. The dynamics of a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...

  12. Exploring effective interactions through transition charge density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tematics like reduced transition probabilities B(E2) and static quadrupole moments Q(2) ... approximations of solving large scale shell model problems in Monte Carlo meth- ... We present the theoretical study of transition charge densities.

  13. Dynamics of Current, Charge and Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Bob

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electricity plays a special role in our lives and life. The dynamics of electrons allow light to flow through a vacuum. The equations of electron dynamics are nearly exact and apply from nuclear particles to stars. These Maxwell equations include a special term, the displacement current (of a vacuum. The displacement current allows electrical signals to propagate through space. Displacement current guarantees that current is exactly conserved from inside atoms to between stars, as long as current is defined as the entire source of the curl of the magnetic field, as Maxwell did.We show that the Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics allows the easy definition of the total current, and its conservation, without the dificulties implicit in the orthodox quantum theory. The orthodox theory neglects the reality of magnitudes, like the currents, during times that they are not being explicitly measured.We show how conservation of current can be derived without mention of the polarization or dielectric properties of matter. We point out that displacement current is handled correctly in electrical engineering by ‘stray capacitances’, although it is rarely discussed explicitly. Matter does not behave as physicists of the 1800’s thought it did. They could only measure on a time scale of seconds and tried to explain dielectric properties and polarization with a single dielectric constant, a real positive number independent of everything. Matter and thus charge moves in enormously complicated ways that cannot be described by a single dielectric constant,when studied on time scales important today for electronic technology and molecular biology. When classical theories could not explain complex charge movements, constants in equations were allowed to vary in solutions of those equations, in a way not justified by mathematics, with predictable consequences. Life occurs in ionic solutions where charge is moved by forces not mentioned or described in the

  14. Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael C; Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Z.; Martin, Michael C; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable manifestation of the quantum character of electrons in matter is offered by graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Unlike conventional solids where electrons are described with the Schroedinger equation, electronic excitations in graphene are governed by the Dirac hamiltonian. Some of the intriguing electronic properties of graphene, such as massless Dirac quasiparticles with linear energy-momentum dispersion, have been confirmed by recent observations. Here, we report an infrared spectromicroscopy study of charge dynamics in graphene integrated in gated devices. Our measurements verify the expected characteristics of graphene and, owing to the previously unattainable accuracy of infrared experiments, also uncover significant departures of the quasiparticle dynamics from predictions made for Dirac fermions in idealized, free-standing graphene. Several observations reported here indicate the relevance of many-body interactions to the electromagnetic response of graphene

  15. Interaction of a relativistic charge with vacuum channel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarnikov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of beam acceleration and transport require accounting for the effects connected with natural fields of charged particles. Flying along the accelerating structure elements the bunch induces charges and currents on the walls which, in their turn, affect the accelerating particles creating a secondary electromagnetic field. The effect of vacuum channel walls on the charged particle energy is considered. In the approximation of an assigned current the expressions for integral changes in the energy of relativistic charge, are obtained. The difference in the nature of charge interaction with the inhomogeneities of the diaphragm type and a semiinfinite waveguide, is shown

  16. Interactions Between Charged Macroions Mediated by Molecules with Rod-like Charged Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohinc, K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A short review of recent theoretical advances in studies of the interaction between highly charged systems embedded in a solution of rod-like molecules is presented. The system is theoretically described by the functional density theory, where the correlations within the rod-like molecules are accounted for. We show that for sufficiently long molecules and large surface charge densities, an attractive force between like-charged surfaces arises due to the spatially distributed charges within the molecules. The added salt has an influence on the condition for the attractive force between like-charged surfaces. The theoretical results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Many phenomena motivate the study of the interaction between like-charged surfaces (DNA condensation, virus aggregation, yeast flocculation, cohesion of cement paste.

  17. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Goor, F.A. van; Boller, K.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM chirped pulse. Different types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In the case of small chirp, an analytical expression is found for arbitrary temporal profiles of the chirp and the pulse envelope. In the 3D case, the interaction with a chirped pulse results in a polarization-dependent scattering of charged particles

  18. Brownian dynamics with hydrodynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; McCammon, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for simulating the Brownian dynamics of N particles with the inclusion of hydrodynamic interactions is described. The particles may also be subject to the usual interparticle or external forces (e.g., electrostatic) which have been included in previous methods for simulating Brownian dynamics of particles in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. The present method is derived from the Langevin equations for the N particle assembly, and the results are shown to be consistent with the corresponding Fokker--Planck results. Sample calculations on small systems illustrate the importance of including hydrodynamic interactions in Brownian dynamics simulations. The method should be useful for simulation studies of diffusion limited reactions, polymer dynamics, protein folding, particle coagulation, and other phenomena in solution

  19. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation tool, which was used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics, was discussed. It was found that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity

  20. Technique of studying the interaction of charges of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yefremov, E.I.; Kravtsov, V.S.; Myachina, N.I.; Rodak, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is presented for studying the interaction of explosive charges which includes recording of the velocity of detonation of the studied charges, measurement of mechanical stresses developing in this case in the medium and determination of granulometric composition of the model with simultaneous and diverse initiation.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics under interactive diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Wang, Long

    2017-10-01

    As evidenced by many cases in human societies, individuals often make different behavior decisions in different interactions, and adaptively adjust their behavior in changeable interactive scenarios. However, up to now, how such diverse interactive behavior affects cooperation dynamics has still remained unknown. Here we develop a general framework of interactive diversity, which models individuals’ separated behavior against distinct opponents and their adaptive adjustment in response to opponents’ strategies, to explore the evolution of cooperation. We find that interactive diversity enables individuals to reciprocate every single opponent, and thus sustains large-scale reciprocal interactions. Our work witnesses an impressive boost of cooperation for a notably extensive range of parameters and for all pairwise games. These results are robust against well-mixed and various networked populations, and against degree-normalized and cumulative payoff patterns. From the perspective of network dynamics, distinguished from individuals competing for nodes in most previous work, in this paper, the system evolves in the form of behavior disseminating along edges. We propose a theoretical method based on evolution of edges, which predicts well both the frequency of cooperation and the compact cooperation clusters. Our thorough investigation clarifies the positive role of interactive diversity in resolving social dilemmas and highlights the significance of understanding evolutionary dynamics from the viewpoint of edge dynamics.

  2. Charged particle interaction with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Boller, Klaus J.; van Goor, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    It is found that a charged particle can get a net energy gain from the interaction with an electromagnetic chirped pulse. Theoretically, the energy gain increases with the pulse amplitude and with the relative frequency variation in the pulse.

  3. Dynamical charge fluctuation at FAIR energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment to be held at the Facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) is being designed to investigate the baryonic matter under extreme thermodynamic conditions. The hot and dense matter produced in this experiment will be rich in baryon number. It would be worthwhile to examine how the signatures proposed for identifying and characterizing a baryon free QGP like state behave in a baryon rich environment. Event-by-event fluctuation of net electrical charge and/or baryon number is one such indicator of the formation of the QGP, used and tested in RHIC and LHC heavy-ion experiments. One starts by defining the net charge Q = (N + - N - ) and the total charge N ch = (N + + N - ) where the quantities N + and N - are respectively, the multiplicities of positively and negatively charged particles

  4. Charge independence and charge symmetry breaking interactions and the Coulomb energy anomaly in isobaric analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, H.; Giai, N. van.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of CIB (charge independence breaking) and CSB (charge symmetry breaking) interactions on the Coulomb displacement energies of isobaric analog states are investigated for 48 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb. Mass number dependence of the Coulomb energy anomalies is well explained when CIB and CSB interactions are used which reproduce the differences of the scattering lengths as well as those of the effective ranges of low energy nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author) 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Space-charge dynamics of polymethylmethacrylate under electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, H; Ong, C K

    1997-01-01

    Space-charge dynamics of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) under electron beam irradiation has been investigated employing a scanning electron microscope. Assuming a Gaussian space-charge distribution, the distribution range (sigma) has been determined using a time-resolved current method in conjunction with a mirror image method. sigma is found to increase with irradiation time and eventually attain a stationary value. These observations have been discussed by taking into account radiation-induced conductivity and charge mobility. (author)

  6. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

  7. Charge interaction between particle-laden fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Kirkwood, John; Lask, Mauricio; Fuller, Gerald

    2010-03-02

    Experiments are described where two oil/water interfaces laden with charged particles move at close proximity relative to one another. The particles on one of the interfaces were observed to be attracted toward the point of closest approach, forming a denser particle monolayer, while the particles on the opposite interface were repelled away from this point, forming a particle depletion zone. Such particle attraction/repulsion was observed even if one of the interfaces was free of particles. This phenomenon can be explained by the electrostatic interaction between the two interfaces, which causes surface charges (charged particles and ions) to redistribute in order to satisfy surface electric equipotential at each interface. In a forced particle oscillation experiment, we demonstrated the control of charged particle positions on the interface by manipulating charge interaction between interfaces.

  8. Ohm's law in the fast lane: general relatiivistic charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.

    2004-01-01

    Fully relativistic and causal equations for the flow of charge in curved spacetime are derived. It is believed that this is the first set of equations to be published that correctly describes the flow of charge, as well as the evolution of the electromagnetic field, in highly dynamical relativistic environments on timescales much shorter than the collapse time (GM/c3).

  9. Thermodynamical and dynamical properties of charged BTZ black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zi-Yu; Wang, Bin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Cheng-Yong [Peking University, Center for High-Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Kord Zangeneh, Mahdi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM)-Maragha, P. O. Box: 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the spacetime properties of BTZ black holes in the presence of the Maxwell field and Born-Infeld field and find rich properties in the spacetime structures when the model parameters are varied. Employing Landau-Lifshitz theory, we examine the thermodynamical phase transition in the charged BTZ black holes. We further study the dynamical perturbation in the background of the charged BTZ black holes and find different properties in the dynamics when the thermodynamical phase transition occurs. (orig.)

  10. Improved Interaction Potentials for Charged Residues in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions dominate the structure and free energy of biomolecules. To obtain accurate free energies involving charged groups from molecular simulations, OPLS-AA parameters have been reoptimized using Monte Carlo free energy perturbation. New parameters fit a self-consistent, exper......Electrostatic interactions dominate the structure and free energy of biomolecules. To obtain accurate free energies involving charged groups from molecular simulations, OPLS-AA parameters have been reoptimized using Monte Carlo free energy perturbation. New parameters fit a self......, TIP4P or TIP3P; i.e., each water model requires specific water-charged molecule interaction potentials. New models (models 1 and 3) are thus described for both water models. Uncertainties in relative free energies of charged residues are ~2 kcal/mol with the new parameters, due to variations in system...

  11. Charge-transfer modified embedded atom method dynamic charge potential for Li-Co-O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fantai; Longo, Roberto C; Liang, Chaoping; Nie, Yifan; Zheng, Yongping; Zhang, Chenxi; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-11-29

    To overcome the limitation of conventional fixed charge potential methods for the study of Li-ion battery cathode materials, a dynamic charge potential method, charge-transfer modified embedded atom method (CT-MEAM), has been developed and applied to the Li-Co-O ternary system. The accuracy of the potential has been tested and validated by reproducing a variety of structural and electrochemical properties of LiCoO 2 . A detailed analysis on the local charge distribution confirmed the capability of this potential for dynamic charge modeling. The transferability of the potential is also demonstrated by its reliability in describing Li-rich Li 2 CoO 2 and Li-deficient LiCo 2 O 4 compounds, including their phase stability, equilibrium volume, charge states and cathode voltages. These results demonstrate that the CT-MEAM dynamic charge potential could help to overcome the challenge of modeling complex ternary transition metal oxides. This work can promote molecular dynamics studies of Li ion cathode materials and other important transition metal oxides systems that involve complex electrochemical and catalytic reactions.

  12. Charge Carrier Dynamics at Silver Nanocluster-Molecular Acceptor Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Almansaf, Abdulkhaleq

    2017-07-01

    A fundamental understanding of interfacial charge transfer at donor-acceptor interfaces is very crucial as it is considered among the most important dynamical processes for optimizing performance in many light harvesting systems, including photovoltaics and photo-catalysis. In general, the photo-generated singlet excitons in photoactive materials exhibit very short lifetimes because of their dipole-allowed spin radiative decay and short diffusion lengths. In contrast, the radiative decay of triplet excitons is dipole forbidden; therefore, their lifetimes are considerably longer. The discussion in this thesis primarily focuses on the relevant parameters that are involved in charge separation (CS), charge transfer (CT), intersystem crossing (ISC) rate, triplet state lifetime, and carrier recombination (CR) at silver nanocluster (NCs) molecular-acceptors interfaces. A combination of steady-state and femto- and nanosecond broadband transient absorption spectroscopies were used to investigate the charge carrier dynamics in various donor-acceptor systems. Additionally, this thesis was prolonged to investigate some important factors that influence the charge carrier dynamics in Ag29 silver NCs donor-acceptor systems, such as the metal doping and chemical structure of the nanocluster and molecular acceptors. Interestingly, clear correlations between the steady-state measurements and timeresolved spectroscopy results are found. In the first study, we have investigated the interfacial charge transfer dynamics in positively charged meso units of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra (1- methyl-4-pyridino)-porphyrin tetra (p-toluene sulfonate) (TMPyP) and neutral charged 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra (4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (TPyP), with negatively charged undoped and gold (Au)- doped silver Ag29 NCs. Moreover, this study showed the impact of Au doping on the charge carrier dynamics of the system. In the second study, we have investigated the interfacial charge transfer dynamics in [Pt2 Ag23 Cl7 (PPh3

  13. Electrostatic Charging and Particle Interactions in Microscopic Insulating Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor

    In this thesis, we experimentally investigate the electrostatic charging as well as the particle interactions in microscopic insulating grains. First, by tracking individual grains accelerated in an electric field, we quantitatively demonstrate that tribocharging of same-material grains depends on particle size. Large grains tend to charge positively, and small ones tend to charge negatively. Theories based on the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this tendency but have not been validated. Here we show that the number of trapped electrons, measured independently by a thermoluminescence technique, is orders of magnitude too small to be responsible for the amount of charge transferred. This result reveals that trapped electrons are not responsible for same-material tribocharging of dielectric particles. Second, same-material tribocharging in grains can result in important long-range electrostatic interactions. However, how these electrostatic interactions contribute to particle clustering remains elusive, primarily due to the lack of direct, detailed observations. Using a high-speed camera that falls with a stream charged grains, we observe for the first time how charged grains can undergo attractive as well as repulsive Kepler-like orbits. Charged particles can be captured in their mutual electrostatic potential and form clusters via multiple bounces. Dielectric polarization effects are directly observed, which lead to additional attractive forces and stabilize "molecule-like" arrangements of charged particles. Third, we have developed a new method to study the charge transfer of microscopic particles based on acoustic levitation techniques. This method allows us to narrow the complex problem of many-particle charging down to precise charge measurements of a single sub-millimeter particle colliding with a target plate. By simply attaching nonpolar groups onto glass surfaces, we show that the contact charging of a particle is highly dependent on

  14. Full quantum treatment of charge dynamics in amorphous molecular semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Xander; Friederich, Pascal; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Coehoorn, Reinder; Bobbert, Peter A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a treatment of charge dynamics in amorphous molecular semiconductors that accounts for the coupling of charges to all intramolecular phonon modes in a fully quantum mechanical way. Based on ab initio calculations, we derive charge transfer rates that improve on the widely used semiclassical Marcus rate and obtain benchmark results for the mobility and energetic relaxation of electrons and holes in three semiconductors commonly applied in organic light-emitting diodes. Surprisingly, we find very similar results when using the simple Miller-Abrahams rate. We conclude that extracting the disorder strength from temperature-dependent charge transport studies is very possible but extracting the reorganization energy is not.

  15. Dynamic space charge behaviour in polymeric DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The use of extruded insulation for DC cables involves a risk of local electric field enhancement, caused by a space charge build-up within the dielectric. In this work, the theory of charge generation and transport in polymers is applied in a numerical computer model in order to predict...... the formation and transport of space charges in a polymeric dielectric. The model incorporates the processes of field assisted electron-hole pair generation from impurity atoms, trapping and charge injection at the electrodes. Its aim has been to study the field- and temperature dependent dynamic behaviour...

  16. Charging dynamics of supercapacitors with narrow cylindrical nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A.; Kondrat, Svyatoslav; Oshanin, Gleb; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2014-08-01

    We present a coarse-grained, continuum kinetic theory for charging supercapacitors with narrow cylindrical nanopores. The theory reveals that the occupancy of a nonpolarized pore and the energy barrier for ion-ion interdiffusion are the key issues controlling the different regimes of dynamic response. For ‘ionophobic’ pores, where the pore is empty at no applied voltage, charge density advances into the pore via diffusion-like dynamics. The mechanism of charging an ‘ionophilic’ pore is starkly different: for moderate ionophilicities, co-ions are expelled from the pore in a front-like manner, with significant ‘congestion’ at the pore entrance predicted for strong ionophilicity. We thus show that pore ionophilicity is detrimental to the speed of charging/discharging cycles, whereas making pores more ionophobic can substantially accelerate charging and cyclic recharging.

  17. P-matrix description of charged particles interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V.A.; Petrov, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with formalism of the P-matrix description of two charged particles interaction. Separation in the explicit form of the background part corresponding to the purely Coulomb interaction in the P-matrix is proposed. Expressions for the purely Coulomb P-matrix, its poles, residues and purely Coulomb P-matrix approach eigenfunctions are obtained. (author). 12 refs

  18. The interaction between theory and experiment in charge density analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The field of x-ray charge density analysis has gradually morphed into an area benefiting from the strong interactions between theoreticians and experimentalists, leading to new concepts on chemical bonding and of intermolecular interactions in condensed phases. Some highlights of the developments culminating in the 2013 Aminoff Award are described in this paper. (comment)

  19. Berry phase in superconducting charge qubits interacting with a cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for analyzing Berry phase for a multi-qubit system of superconducting charge qubits interacting with a microwave field. By suitably choosing the system parameters and precisely controlling the dynamics, novel connection found between the Berry phase and entanglement creations.

  20. Conformational transformations induced by the charge-curvature interaction at finite temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Gorria, Carlos; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2008-01-01

    The role of thermal fluctuations on the conformational dynamics of a single closed filament is studied. It is shown that, due to the interaction between charges and bending degrees of freedom, initially circular aggregates may undergo transformation to polygonal shape. The transition occurs both...

  1. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Net charge of quark jets in (anti)neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.

    1981-01-01

    We analyse recent measurements of the net charges of quark jets in neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The data indicates that (i) the two quarks in the nucleon fragmentation region prefer to behave as a diquark rather than as a pair of independent quarks, and (ii) the struck quark does not appear to suffer any soft charge exchange of the kind that occurs when a valence quark inside a nucleon is slowed to x approx. O. (orig.)

  3. Conformational transformations induced by the charge-curvature interaction: Mean-field approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Zakrzewski, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    A simple phenomenological model for describing the conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules via the nonlinearity-induced instabilities is proposed. It is shown that the interaction between charges and bending degrees of freedom of closed molecular aggregates may act as drivers giving ...... impetus to conformational dynamics of biopolymers. It is demonstrated that initially circular aggregates may undergo transformation to polygonal shapes and possible application to aggregates of bacteriochlorophyl a molecules is considered....

  4. The impact of Au doping on the charge carrier dynamics at the interfaces between cationic porphyrin and silver nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Almansaf, Abdulkhaleq A.

    2017-02-04

    We explore the impact of Au doping on the charge transfer dynamics between the positively charged porphyrin (TMPyP) and negatively charged silver nanoclusters (Ag29 NCs). Our transient absorption (TA) spectroscopic results demonstrate that the interfacial charge transfer, the intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin can be tuned by the doping of Au atoms in Ag29 NCs. Additionally, we found that the electrostatic interaction between the negative charge of the cluster and the positive charge on the TMPyP is the driving force that brings them close to each other for complex formation and subsequently facilitates the transfer process.

  5. The impact of Au doping on the charge carrier dynamics at the interfaces between cationic porphyrin and silver nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Almansaf, Abdulkhaleq A.; Parida, Manas R.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Maity, Partha; Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the impact of Au doping on the charge transfer dynamics between the positively charged porphyrin (TMPyP) and negatively charged silver nanoclusters (Ag29 NCs). Our transient absorption (TA) spectroscopic results demonstrate that the interfacial charge transfer, the intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin can be tuned by the doping of Au atoms in Ag29 NCs. Additionally, we found that the electrostatic interaction between the negative charge of the cluster and the positive charge on the TMPyP is the driving force that brings them close to each other for complex formation and subsequently facilitates the transfer process.

  6. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    Emission models that form the basis of self-consistent field computations make use of the approximation that emitted electrons form a smooth space charge jelly. In reality, electrons are discrete particles that are subject to statistical Coulomb interactions. A Monte Carlo simulation tool is used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics. We find that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity distribution is Maxwellian, regardless of the current density. Interactions near the emitter effectively conserve the Maxwellian distribution. The surprising result is that the width of the distribution of transversal velocities does not change. The distribution of longitudinal velocities does broaden, as expected from existing theories

  7. Charge-dependent conformations and dynamics of pamam dendrimers revealed by neutron scattering and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin

    , at neutral condition, the exterior residues folding back into interior would necessarily lead to higher entropy and equivalently lower free energy and thereby is energetically favored. As one decreases the pH condition of PAMAM dendrimers, the constituent residues would carry positive charges. The resultant inter-residue Coulomb repulsion would naturally result in conformational evolution. We found from CVSANS analysis that when dendrimers are charged by different acids, this conformational evolution is not the same. For dendrimers charged by DCl, the mass is seen to relocate from molecular interior to periphery. Nevertheless, those acidified by D 2SO4 exhibit surprisingly minor structural change under variation of molecular charge. To explain the above observation, we performed MD simulations and calculated the excess free energy of Cl- and SO 42- counterions. The binding between sulfate ions and charged amines of PAMAM dendrimers are found to be much stronger than the case for chlorides. This more energetic binding would serve as better screening effect among charged residues. Consequently, electrostatic repulsion triggered outstretching tendency is effectively diminished. In order to make direct comparison between MD simulations and neutron scattering experiments, we proposed and implemented a rigorous method, which incorporates the contribution from those invasive water molecules, to calculate scattering functions of a single PAMAM dendrimer using equilibrium MD trajectories. The bridge between neutron scattering experiments and MD simulation is successfully established. Aside from structural comparisons between MD simulations and experiments, we utilized MD simulation to decipher the previously reported QENS experimental observation that the segmental dynamics of PAMAM dendrimer would enhance with increasing molecular charge. We pursued the mechanism from the perspective of hydrocarbon component of dendrimer and solvent (water) interaction as a form similar to

  8. A Dynamical Origin of the Mass Hierarchy among Neutrinos, Charged Leptons, and Quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Akama, Keiichi; Katsuura, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    We propose a dynamical mass-generation scenario which naturally realizes the mass hierarchy among the neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks, where the mass is dominated by the self-mass induced through the anomalous (i.e. non-minimal) gauge interactions.

  9. Dynamic Soil-Structure-Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellezi, Lindita

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop alternative methods of analyzing problems in dynamic soil-structure-interaction. The main focus is the major difficulty posed by such an analysis - the phenomenon of waves which radiate outward from the excited structures towards infinity....... In numerical calculations, only a finite region of the foundation metium is analyzed and something is done to prevent the outgoing radiating waves to reflect from the regions's boundary. The prosent work concerns itself with the study of such effects, using the finite element method, and artificial...... transmitting boundary at the edges of the computational mesh. To start with, an investigation of the main effects of the interaction phenomena is carried out employing a widely used model, considering dynamic stiffness of the unbounded soil as frequency independent. Then a complete description...

  10. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging using Dynamic Price Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Pedersen, Anders Bro; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    , however, be resolved by using intelligent EV charging strategies, commonly referred to as ”Smart Charging”. The basic approach involves modifying the default vehicle charging scheme of ”immediate charging”, to a more optimal one that is derived from insight into the current state of the grid. This work......With yearly increases in Electric Vehicle (EV) sales, the future for electric mobility continues to brighten, and with more vehicles hitting the roads every day, the energy requirements on the grid will increase, potentially causing low-voltage distribution grid congestion. This problem can...... proposed in this paper, involves a real-time control strategy for charging the EV using a dynamic price tariff, with the objective of minimizing the charging cost. Two different charging scenario are investigated, and the results are verified by experiments on a real Electric Vehicle. Finally, the costs...

  11. Charge dynamics of the antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xing-Jie; Li, Xin; Chen, Jing; Liao, Hai-Jun; Xiang, Tao; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Normand, B

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a slave-fermion formulation in which to study the charge dynamics of the half-filled Hubbard model on the square lattice. In this description, the charge degrees of freedom are represented by fermionic holons and doublons and the Mott-insulating characteristics of the ground state are the consequence of holon–doublon bound-state formation. The bosonic spin degrees of freedom are described by the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, yielding long-ranged (Néel) magnetic order at zero temperature. Within this framework and in the self-consistent Born approximation, we perform systematic calculations of the average double occupancy, the electronic density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. Qualitatively, our method reproduces the lower and upper Hubbard bands, the spectral-weight transfer into a coherent quasiparticle band at their lower edges and the renormalisation of the Mott gap, which is associated with holon–doublon binding, due to the interactions of both quasiparticle species with the magnons. The zeros of the Green function at the chemical potential give the Luttinger volume, the poles of the self-energy reflect the underlying quasiparticle dispersion with a spin-renormalised hopping parameter and the optical gap is directly related to the Mott gap. Quantitatively, the square-lattice Hubbard model is one of the best-characterised problems in correlated condensed matter and many numerical calculations, all with different strengths and weaknesses, exist with which to benchmark our approach. From the semi-quantitative accuracy of our results for all but the weakest interaction strengths, we conclude that a self-consistent treatment of the spin-fluctuation effects on the charge degrees of freedom captures all the essential physics of the antiferromagnetic Mott–Hubbard insulator. We remark in addition that an analytical approximation with these properties serves a vital function in developing a full understanding of

  12. Charge dynamics of the antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xing-Jie; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xin; Chen, Jing; Liao, Hai-Jun; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Normand, B.; Xiang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a slave-fermion formulation in which to study the charge dynamics of the half-filled Hubbard model on the square lattice. In this description, the charge degrees of freedom are represented by fermionic holons and doublons and the Mott-insulating characteristics of the ground state are the consequence of holon-doublon bound-state formation. The bosonic spin degrees of freedom are described by the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, yielding long-ranged (Néel) magnetic order at zero temperature. Within this framework and in the self-consistent Born approximation, we perform systematic calculations of the average double occupancy, the electronic density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. Qualitatively, our method reproduces the lower and upper Hubbard bands, the spectral-weight transfer into a coherent quasiparticle band at their lower edges and the renormalisation of the Mott gap, which is associated with holon-doublon binding, due to the interactions of both quasiparticle species with the magnons. The zeros of the Green function at the chemical potential give the Luttinger volume, the poles of the self-energy reflect the underlying quasiparticle dispersion with a spin-renormalised hopping parameter and the optical gap is directly related to the Mott gap. Quantitatively, the square-lattice Hubbard model is one of the best-characterised problems in correlated condensed matter and many numerical calculations, all with different strengths and weaknesses, exist with which to benchmark our approach. From the semi-quantitative accuracy of our results for all but the weakest interaction strengths, we conclude that a self-consistent treatment of the spin-fluctuation effects on the charge degrees of freedom captures all the essential physics of the antiferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulator. We remark in addition that an analytical approximation with these properties serves a vital function in developing a full understanding of the

  13. Interchain interactions in charged diacetylenic oligomers carrying bulk substituents revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottonelli, M.; Izzo, G.M.M.; Comoretto, D.; Musso, G.F.; Dellepiane, G.

    2006-01-01

    We are studying how the electronic properties of an aggregate, built with conjugated oligomers carrying bulk substituents, are affected by intermolecular interactions. In this paper we apply the CEO (Collective Electronic Oscillator) method, on the basis of the semiempirical INDO/S Hamiltonian, to compute the electronic density matrix modifications following the photon absorption in a doubly charged cluster of two units of a fully carbazolyl-substituted oligodiacetylene tetramer, taken as a model system. The picture that had emerged from our previous calculations based on the less sophisticated CIS (Configuration Interaction including Singles) approach is seen to be confirmed. Despite the large separation between the backbones, a through-space charge transfer occurs between the two oligomers due to the fact that the excess charge, contrary to what is generally believed, is not localized on the conjugated backbone, but is spread out over the carbazolyl moieties of the charged molecule. Consideration of this kind of interaction improves the theoretical results obtained for the isolated charged oligomer chain, and aids in better explaining some features of the experimental photoinduced spectra of the corresponding polymer

  14. Research of Ve current charge interactions in the NOMAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manola-Poggioli, E.

    1996-01-01

    Written during the two first years of the NOMAD experiment working, this thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, a partly equipped detector gives the 1994's results. It allows to identify and to select the NOMAD main interactions (muon neutrino charging current (CC) interactions) in the target. Thank to a events selection, the origin of the produced electrons is studied to better understand simulation's programs. In the second part, neutrino-electron CC interactions represent the main background noise to the oscillations research in the electronic mode. Electrons identification's algorithms are developed and inelastic interactions kinematic properties of electron neutrinos are discussed. (TEC). 57 refs., 72 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Discovery of the charged vector bosons (W+-) conveying weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, D.

    1983-01-01

    The unified Weinberg-Salam-Glashow theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions assumes the existence of two charged (W) and one neutral (Z) intermediate vector bosons of the unified electroweak interaction. These particles were discovered at the end of 1982 with the CERN's SPS proton-antiproton colliding beams. Technical aspects of the production and detection of W and Z bosons, the first results and their importance are described in detail. (D.Gy.)

  16. Long time diffusion in suspensions of interacting charged colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepper, I.M. de; Cohen, E.G.D.; Pusey, P.N.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new expression is given for the long time diffusion coefficient DL(k) of charged interacting colloidal spheres in suspension, as a function of the wavenumber k, near k = km, where the static structure factor has a maximum. The expression is based on a physical analogy between a mode description

  17. Dynamics of transportan in bicelles is surface charge dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barany-Wallje, Elsa; Andersson, August; Graeslund, Astrid; Maeler, Lena [Stockholm University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories (Sweden)], E-mail: lena.maler@dbb.su.se

    2006-06-15

    In this study we investigated the dynamic behavior of the chimeric cell-penetrating peptide transportan in membrane-like environments using NMR. Backbone amide {sup 15}N spin relaxation was used to investigate the dynamics in two bicelles: neutral DMPC bicelles and partly negatively charged DMPG-containing bicelles. The structure of the peptide as judged from CD and chemical shifts is similar in the two cases. Both the overall motion as well as the local dynamics is, however, different in the two types of bicelles. The overall dynamics of the peptide is significantly slower in the partly negatively charged bicelle environment, as evidenced by longer global correlation times for all measured sites. The local motion, as judged from generalized order parameters, is for all sites in the peptide more restricted when bound to negatively charged bicelles than when bound to neutral bicelles (increase in S{sup 2} is on average 0.11 {+-} 0.07). The slower dynamics of transportan in charged membrane model systems cause significant line broadening in the proton NMR spectrum, which in certain cases limits the observation of {sup 1}H signals for transportan when bound to the membrane. The effect of transportan on DMPC and DHPC motion in zwitterionic bicelles was also investigated, and the motion of both components in the bicelle was found to be affected.

  18. Dynamics of transportan in bicelles is surface charge dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barany-Wallje, Elsa; Andersson, August; Graeslund, Astrid; Maeler, Lena

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the dynamic behavior of the chimeric cell-penetrating peptide transportan in membrane-like environments using NMR. Backbone amide 15 N spin relaxation was used to investigate the dynamics in two bicelles: neutral DMPC bicelles and partly negatively charged DMPG-containing bicelles. The structure of the peptide as judged from CD and chemical shifts is similar in the two cases. Both the overall motion as well as the local dynamics is, however, different in the two types of bicelles. The overall dynamics of the peptide is significantly slower in the partly negatively charged bicelle environment, as evidenced by longer global correlation times for all measured sites. The local motion, as judged from generalized order parameters, is for all sites in the peptide more restricted when bound to negatively charged bicelles than when bound to neutral bicelles (increase in S 2 is on average 0.11 ± 0.07). The slower dynamics of transportan in charged membrane model systems cause significant line broadening in the proton NMR spectrum, which in certain cases limits the observation of 1 H signals for transportan when bound to the membrane. The effect of transportan on DMPC and DHPC motion in zwitterionic bicelles was also investigated, and the motion of both components in the bicelle was found to be affected

  19. A modified space charge routine for LINAC beam dynamics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, S.; Lapostolle, P.; Lombardi, A.M.; Tanke, E.; Warner, D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beams with three-dimensional ellipsoidal symmetry was proposed for the PARMILA code, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines: it removes the cylindrical symmetry needed for the Fast Fourier Transform method and avoids the point to point interaction computation, where the number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two (or more) ellipsoids, giving a good representation of actual, pear-shaped bunches (unlike the 3-D ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty caused by statistical effects, encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-D problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Introduced in the new, versatile beam dynamics code, DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the effects of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (authors). 11 refs

  20. Spin-coupled charge dynamics in layered manganite crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Tokura, Y; Ishikawa, T

    1998-01-01

    Anisotropic charge dynamics has been investigated for single crystals of layered manganites, La sub 2 sub - sub 2 sub x Sr sub 1 sub + sub 2 sub x Mn sub 2 O sub 7 (0.3<=X<=0.5). Remarkable variations in the magnetic structure and in the charge-transport properties are observed by changing the doping level x . A crystal with x = 0.3 behaves like a 2-dimensional ferromagnetic metal in the temperature region between approx 90 K and approx 270 K and shows an interplane tunneling magnetoresistance at lower temperatures which is sensitive to the interplane magnetic coupling between the adjacent MnO sub 2 bilayers. Optical probing of these layered manganites has also clarified the highly anisotropic and incoherent charge dynamics.

  1. Anomalous interactions in confined charge-stabilized colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, D G; Han, Y

    2004-01-01

    Charge-stabilized colloidal spheres dispersed in weak 1:1 electrolytes are supposed to repel each other. Consequently, experimental evidence for anomalous long-ranged like-charged attractions induced by geometric confinement inspired a burst of activity. This has largely subsided because of nagging doubts regarding the experiments' reliability and interpretation. We describe a new class of thermodynamically self-consistent colloidal interaction measurements that confirm the appearance of pairwise attractions among colloidal spheres confined by one or two bounding walls. In addition to supporting previous claims for this as-yet unexplained effect, these measurements also cast new light on its mechanism

  2. Charge-Transfer Complexes Studied by Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Huskens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the strength and kinetics of two charge-transfer complexes, naphthol-methylviologen and pyrene-methylviologen, are studied using dynamic force spectroscopy. The dissociation rates indicate an enhanced stability of the pyrene-methylviologen complex, which agrees with its higher thermodynamic stability compared to naphthol-methylviologen complex.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of interacting populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bazykin, Alexander D

    1998-01-01

    This book contains a systematic study of ecological communities of two or three interacting populations. Starting from the Lotka-Volterra system, various regulating factors are considered, such as rates of birth and death, predation and competition. The different factors can have a stabilizing or a destabilizing effect on the community, and their interplay leads to increasingly complicated behavior. Studying and understanding this path to greater dynamical complexity of ecological systems constitutes the backbone of this book. On the mathematical side, the tool of choice is the qualitative the

  4. Charged dust in planetary magnetospheres: Hamiltonian dynamics and numerical simulations for highly charged grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to investigate the dynamics of charged dust grains in planetary magnetospheres. Our emphasis is on obtaining results valid for particles that are not necessarily dominated either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces. A Hamiltonian formulation of the problem yields exact results, for all values of charge-to-mass ratio, when we introduce two constraints: particles remain in the equatorial plane and the magnetic field is taken as axially symmetric. In particular, we obtain locations of equilibrium points, the frequencies of stable periodic orbits, the topology of separatrices in phase space, and the rate of longitudinal drift. These results are significant for specific applications: motion in the nearly aligned dipolar field of Saturn, and the trajectories of arbitrarily charged particles in complex magnetic fields for limited periods of time after ejection from parent bodies. Since the model is restrictive, we also use numerical integrations of the full three-dimensional equations of motion and illustrate under what conditions the constrained problem yields reasonable results. We show that a large fraction of the intermediately charged and highly charged (gyrating) particles will always be lost to a planet's atmosphere within a few hundred hours, for motion through tilted-dipole magnetic fields. We find that grains must have a very high charge-to-mass ratio in order to be mirrored back to the ring plane. Thus, except perhaps at Saturn where the dipole tilt is very small, the likely inhabitants of the dusty ring systems are those particles that are either nearly Keplerian (weakly charged) grains or grains whose charges place them in the lower end of the intermediate charge zone. Fianlly, we demonstrate the effect of plasma drag on the orbits of gyrating particles to be a rapid decrease in gyroradius followed by a slow radial evolution of the guiding center.

  5. Semi-classical derivation of charge-quantization through charge-field self-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosok, M.; Madhyastha, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    A semi-classical synthesis of classical mechanics, wave mechanics, and special relativity yields a unique nonlinear energy-wave structure of relations (velocity triad uv = c 2 ) fundamental to modern physics. Through the above vehicle, using Maxwell's equations, charge quantization and the fine structure constant are derived. It is shown that the numerical value of the nonlinear charge-field self-interaction range for the electron is of the order of 10 -13 m, which is greater than the classical electron radius but less than the Compton wavelength of the electron. Finally, it is suggested that the structure of the electron-in-space is expressed by a self-extending nonlinear ''fractal geometry'' based on derived numerical values obtained from our model, thus opening this presentation of charge-field structure to experimental testing for possible verification

  6. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in vp and charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.

    1992-03-01

    Using data on vp andbar vp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ˜20000 events with incident v and ˜10000 events with incidentbar v. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ˜14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for X 2. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling.

  7. Interaction between two point-like charges in nonlinear electrostatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breev, A.I. [Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    We consider two point-like charges in electrostatic interaction within the framework of a nonlinear model, associated with QED, that provides finiteness of their field energy. We find the common field of the two charges in a dipole-like approximation, where the separation between them R is much smaller than the observation distance r: with the linear accuracy with respect to the ratio R/r, and in the opposite approximation, where R >> r, up to the term quadratic in the ratio r/R. The consideration proposes the law a + bR{sup 1/3} for the energy, when the charges are close to one another, R → 0. This leads to the singularity of the force between them to be R{sup -2/3}, which is weaker than the Coulomb law, R{sup -2}. (orig.)

  8. Interaction between two point-like charges in nonlinear electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breev, A. I.; Shabad, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    We consider two point-like charges in electrostatic interaction within the framework of a nonlinear model, associated with QED, that provides finiteness of their field energy. We find the common field of the two charges in a dipole-like approximation, where the separation between them R is much smaller than the observation distance r : with the linear accuracy with respect to the ratio R / r, and in the opposite approximation, where R≫ r, up to the term quadratic in the ratio r / R. The consideration proposes the law a+b R^{1/3} for the energy, when the charges are close to one another, R→ 0. This leads to the singularity of the force between them to be R^{-2/3}, which is weaker than the Coulomb law, R^{-2}.

  9. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  10. Accounting, Charging and Billing for Dynamic Service Composition Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumph, F. J.; Kruithof, G. H.; Huitema, G. B.

    Services delivered to an end user can be composed of numerous subservices and form chains of composed services. These service composition chains traditionally consist of a static set of business entities. However, in order to increase business agility, dynamic service composition chains can be used by leveraging techniques of service publishing and discovery, and consist of more short-lived relations between the various business entities. This chapter focuses on issues concerning accounting, charging and billing of such dynamic service composition chains. In this type of service delivery, several traditional settlement models are not applicable since existing architectures lack support of automated negotiation of settlement parameters. Examples of such parameters are what the service consumer will be charged for and how much, how and when the consumer will be billed. In this chapter, the requirements that have to be fulfilled with respect to accounting, charging and billing in dynamic service composition chains are explored. Based on these requirements, a framework architecture for accounting charging and billing is described.

  11. The density functional theory and the charged fluid molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.P.; Zerah, G.

    1993-01-01

    Car and Parrinello had the idea of combining the density functional theory (Hohenberg, Kohn and Sham) to the 'molecular dynamics' numerical modelling method, in order to simulate metallic or co-valent solids and liquids from the first principles. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified version of this method ab initio, applicable to classical and quantal charged systems. The method is illustrated with recent results on charged colloidal suspensions and highly correlated electron-proton plasmas. 1 fig., 21 refs

  12. Vehicle systems: coupled and interactive dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantsevich, Vladimir V.

    2014-11-01

    This article formulates a new direction in vehicle dynamics, described as coupled and interactive vehicle system dynamics. Formalised procedures and analysis of case studies are presented. An analytical consideration, which explains the physics of coupled system dynamics and its consequences for dynamics of a vehicle, is given for several sets of systems including: (i) driveline and suspension of a 6×6 truck, (ii) a brake mechanism and a limited slip differential of a drive axle and (iii) a 4×4 vehicle steering system and driveline system. The article introduces a formal procedure to turn coupled system dynamics into interactive dynamics of systems. A new research direction in interactive dynamics of an active steering and a hybrid-electric power transmitting unit is presented and analysed to control power distribution between the drive axles of a 4×4 vehicle. A control strategy integrates energy efficiency and lateral dynamics by decoupling dynamics of the two systems thus forming their interactive dynamics.

  13. Charge carrier dynamics in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strothkaemper, Christian

    2013-06-24

    This work investigates the charge carrier dynamics in three different technological approaches within the class of thin film solar cells: radial heterojunctions, the dye solar cell, and microcrystalline CuInSe{sub 2}, focusing on charge transport and separation at the electrode, and the relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers due to recombination and energy dissipation to the phonon system. This work relies mostly on optical-pump terahertz-probe (OPTP) spectroscopy, followed by transient absorption (TA) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The charge separation in ZnO-electrode/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-absorber core/shell nanorods, which represent a model system of a radial heterojunction, is analyzed by OPTP. It is concluded, that the dynamics in the absorber are determined by multiple trapping, which leads to a dispersive charge transport to the electrode that lasts over hundreds of picoseconds. The high trap density on the order of 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} is detrimental for the injection yield, which exhibits a decrease with increasing shell thickness. The heterogeneous electron transfer from a series of model dyes into ZnO proceeds on a time-scale of 200 fs. However, the photoconductivity builds up just on a 2-10 ps timescale, and 2PPE reveals that injected electrons are meanwhile localized spatially and energetically at the interface. It is concluded that the injection proceeds through adsorbate induced interface states. This is an important result because the back reaction from long lived interface states can be expected to be much faster than from bulk states. While the charge transport in stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} thin films is indicative of free charge carriers, CuInSe{sub 2} with a solar cell grade composition (Cu-poor) exhibits signs of carrier localization. This detrimental effect is attributed to a high density of charged defects and a high degree of compensation, which together create a spatially fluctuating potential that inhibits charge transport. On

  14. Decoherence dynamics of two charge qubits in vertically coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Chouikha, W.; Bennaceur, R.; Jaziri, S.

    2007-01-01

    The decoherence dynamics of two charge qubits in a double quantum dot is investigated theoretically. We consider the quantum dynamics of two interacting electrons in a vertically coupled quantum dot driven by an external electric field. We derive the equations of motion for the density matrix, in which the presence of an electron confined in the double dot represents one qubit. A Markovian approach to the dynamical evolution of the reduced density matrix is adopted. We evaluate the concurrence of two qubits in order to study the effect of acoustic phonons on the entanglement. We also show that the disentanglement effect depends on the double dot parameters and increases with the temperature

  15. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  16. Investigations of the Dynamics of Space Charged Dominated Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform investigations of the dynamics of space charge dominated beams. These investigations will support present activities such as the electron ring project at the University of Maryland as well as provide an improved basis for future accelerator designs. Computer simulations will provide the primary research element with improved code development being an integral part of the activities during the first period. We believe that one of the code development projects provides a unique strategy for the inclusion of longitudinal dynamics, and that this concept should provide a computationally rapid research tool

  17. Investigations of the Dynamics of Space Charged Dominated Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Richard C.

    2002-08-01

    We propose to perform investigations of the dynamics of space charge dominated beams. These investigations will support present activities such as the electron ring project at the University of Maryland as well as provide an improved basis for future accelerator designs. Computer simulations will provide the primary research element with improved code development being an integral part of the activities during the first period. We believe that one of the code development projects provides a unique strategy for the inclusion of longitudinal dynamics, and that this concept should provide a computationally rapid research tool.

  18. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, R.; Morris, O.; Ohashi, H.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T.; Koike, F.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  19. Dynamic and interacting complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark E.

    This thesis employs methods of statistical mechanics and numerical simulations to study some aspects of dynamic and interacting complex networks. The mapping of various social and physical phenomena to complex networks has been a rich field in the past few decades. Subjects as broad as petroleum engineering, scientific collaborations, and the structure of the internet have all been analyzed in a network physics context, with useful and universal results. In the first chapter we introduce basic concepts in networks, including the two types of network configurations that are studied and the statistical physics and epidemiological models that form the framework of the network research, as well as covering various previously-derived results in network theory that are used in the work in the following chapters. In the second chapter we introduce a model for dynamic networks, where the links or the strengths of the links change over time. We solve the model by mapping dynamic networks to the problem of directed percolation, where the direction corresponds to the time evolution of the network. We show that the dynamic network undergoes a percolation phase transition at a critical concentration pc, that decreases with the rate r at which the network links are changed. The behavior near criticality is universal and independent of r. We find that for dynamic random networks fundamental laws are changed: i) The size of the giant component at criticality scales with the network size N for all values of r, rather than as N2/3 in static network, ii) In the presence of a broad distribution of disorder, the optimal path length between two nodes in a dynamic network scales as N1/2, compared to N1/3 in a static network. The third chapter consists of a study of the effect of quarantine on the propagation of epidemics on an adaptive network of social contacts. For this purpose, we analyze the susceptible-infected-recovered model in the presence of quarantine, where susceptible

  20. Dynamic response functions, helical gaps, and fractional charges in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tobias; Pedder, Christopher J.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    We show how experimentally accessible dynamic response functions can discriminate between helical gaps due to magnetic field, and helical gaps driven by electron-electron interactions (''umklapp gaps''). The latter are interesting since they feature gapped quasiparticles of fractional charge e / 2 , and - when coupled to a standard superconductor - an 8 π-Josephson effect and topological zero energy states bound to interfaces. National Research Fund, Luxembourg (ATTRACT 7556175), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GRK 1621 and SFB 1143), Swiss National Science Foundation.

  1. Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1994-01-01

    that the dynamics of the interaction picture Wigner function is solved by running a swarm of trajectories in the classical interaction picture introduced previously in the literature. Solving the Wigner method dynamics of collision processes in the interaction picture ensures that the calculated transition......The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show...... probabilities are unambiguous even when the asymptotic potentials are anharmonic. An application of the interaction picture Wigner method to a Morse oscillator interacting with a laser field is presented. The calculated transition probabilities are in good agreement with results obtained by a numerical...

  2. Search for highly interacting fractionally charged particles at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodzimierz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fractionally charged, highly interacting particles produced in e + e - annihilation at 20 GeV c.m. energy have been search for. The experiment was performed at the positron electron storage ring (PEP) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The search used in the innermost part of the two-arm Free Quark Search (FQS) detector. This part was called the Thin Front End (TFE) and it covered 1/3 of the full solid angle. Each of its arms consisted of five multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC's), used for tracking and dE/dx measurement, and three hodoscopes of 0.16 cm thick Pilot F scintillator. The total thickness of the five MWPC's and the beam pipe was 0.007 hadronic collision lengths (lambda/sub c/). No candidates for fractionally charged particles were found. Upper limits on R/sub q anti q/ = sigma(e + e - →q anti q)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are between: (1) 0.7% to 7% for quark interaction lengths (lambda/sub q/) equal to lambda/sub c/ and between 3% and 33% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 1/3e quark charge and for quark masses up to 13 GeV/c 2 ; (2) 2% to 38% for lambda/sub q/ - lambda/sub c/ and from 7% to 160% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 2/3e quark charge and for masses up to 8 GeV/c 2 . In the inclusive production channel the upper limits on R/sub q/ = sigma(e + e - →qqX)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are for charge 1/3e only. R/sub q/ varies from 2% to 11% for lambda/sub q/ = lambda/sub c/ and from 3% to 16% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ and for quark masses up to 6.5 GeV/c 2 . These are the first limits on the production of fractionally charged particles with lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/

  3. Manipulating quantum coherence of charge states in interacting double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shikuan; Zhou, Jiahuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of charge-state coherence in a degenerate double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometer with finite inter-dot Coulomb interactions. The quantum coherence of the charge states is found to be sensitive to the transport setup configurations, involving both the single-electron impurity channels and the Coulomb-assisted ones. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of a complete coherence between the two charge states, with the relative phase being continuously controllable through the magnetic flux. Interestingly, a fully coherent charge qubit arises at the double-dots electron pair tunneling resonance condition, where the chemical potential of one electrode is tuned at the center between a single-electron impurity channel and the related Coulomb-assisted channel. This pure quantum state of charge qubit could be experimentally realized at the current–voltage characteristic turnover position, where differential conductance sign changes. We further elaborate the underlying mechanism for both the real-time and the stationary charge-states coherence in the double-dot systems of study.

  4. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  5. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Cemil; Heyda, Jan; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  6. Dynamics of Oxidation of Aluminum Nanoclusters using Variable Charge Molecular-Dynamics Simulations on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Ogata, Shuji; Rodgers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    Oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters is investigated with a parallel molecular-dynamics approach based on dynamic charge transfer among atoms. Structural and dynamic correlations reveal that significant charge transfer gives rise to large negative pressure in the oxide which dominates the positive pressure due to steric forces. As a result, aluminum moves outward and oxygen moves towards the interior of the cluster with the aluminum diffusivity 60% higher than that of oxygen. A stable 40 Å thick amorphous oxide is formed; this is in excellent agreement with experiments.

  7. Interaction for solitary waves in coasting charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shi-Wei; Hong, Xue-Ren; Shi, Yu-Ren; Duan, Wen-shan, E-mail: duanws@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic an Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMPCAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei, E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han, Jiu-Ning [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)

    2014-03-15

    By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method, the collision of solitary waves in a coasting charged particle beams is studied. The results show that the system admits a solution with two solitary waves, which move in opposite directions and can be described by two Korteweg-deVries equation in small-amplitude limit. The collision of two solitary waves is elastic, and after the interaction they preserve their original properties. Then the weak phase shift in traveling direction of collision between two solitary waves is derived explicitly.

  8. Theory of charged vector mesons interacting with the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.; Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that starting from the usual canonical formalism for the electromagnetic interaction of a charged vector meson with arbitrary magnetic moment one is led to a set of rules for Feynman diagrams, which appears to contain terms that are both infinite and noncovariant. These difficulties, however, can be circumvented by introducing a xi-limiting process which depends on a dimensionless positive parameter xi → 0. Furthermore, by using the mathematical artifice of a negative metric the theory becomes renormalizable (for xi > 0)

  9. Modulation and interactions of charged biomimetic membranes with bivalent ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi Badiambile, Adolphe

    biomolecules in a dynamic environment and the lack of appropriate physical and biochemical tools. In contrast, biomimetic membrane models that rely on the amphiphilic properties of phospholipids are powerful tools that enable the study of these molecules in vitro. By having control over the different experimental parameters such as temperature and pH, reliable and repeatable experimental conditions can be created. One of the key questions I investigated in this thesis is related to the clustering mechanism of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 into pools or aggregates that enable independent cellular control of this species by geometric separation. The lateral aggregation of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 and its underlying physical causes is still a matter of debate. In the first part of this thesis I introduce the general information on lipid membranes with a special focus on the PtdIns family and their associated signaling events. In addition, I explain the Langmuir-Blodgett film balance (LB) system as tool to study lipid membranes and lipid interactions. In the second chapter, I describe my work on the lateral compressibility of PtdIns(4, 5)P2, PtdIns and DOPG monolayers and its modulation by bivalent ions using Langmuir monolayers. In addition, a theoretical framework of compressibility that depends on a surface potential induced by a planar layer of charged molecules and ions in the bulk was provided. In the third part, I present my work on the excess Gibbs free energy of the lipid systems PtdIns(4, 5)P2 --POPC, PtdIns(4, 5)P2, and POPC as they are modulated by bivalent ions. In the fourth part, I report on my foray in engineering a light-based system that relies on different dye properties to simulate calcium induced calcium release (CICR) that occurs in many cell types. In the final chapter, I provide a general conclusion and present directions for future research that would build on my findings.

  10. Self-interaction and charge transfer in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerzdoerfer, Thomas

    2009-12-18

    This work concentrates on the problem of self-interaction, which is one of the most serious problems of commonly used approximative density functionals. As a major result of this work, it is demonstrated that self-interaction plays a decisive role for the performance of different approximative functionals in predicting accurate electronic properties of organic molecular semiconductors. In search for a solution to the self-interaction problem, a new concept for correcting commonly used density functionals for self-interaction is introduced and applied to a variety of systems, spanning small molecules, extended molecular chains, and organic molecular semiconductors. It is further shown that the performance of functionals that are not free from self-interaction can vary strongly for different systems and observables of interest, thus entailing the danger of misinterpretation of the results obtained from those functionals. The underlying reasons for the varying performance of commonly used density functionals are discussed thoroughly in this work. Finally, this thesis provides strategies that allow to analyze the reliability of commonly used approximations to the exchange-correlation functional for particular systems of interest. This cumulative dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I gives a short introduction into DFT and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT). Part II provides further insights into the self-interaction problem, presents a newly developed concept for the correction of self-interaction, gives an introduction into the publications, and discusses their basic results. Finally, the four publications on self-interaction and charge-transfer in extended molecular systems and organic molecular semiconductors are collected in Part III. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic Arrest in Charged Colloidal Systems Exhibiting Large-Scale Structural Heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro-Perez, C.; Callejas-Fernandez, J.; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R.; Rojas-Ochoa, L. F.; Castaneda-Priego, R.; Quesada-Perez, M.; Trappe, V.

    2009-01-01

    Suspensions of charged liposomes are found to exhibit typical features of strongly repulsive fluid systems at short length scales, while exhibiting structural heterogeneities at larger length scales that are characteristic of attractive systems. We model the static structure factor of these systems using effective pair interaction potentials composed of a long-range attraction and a shorter range repulsion. Our modeling of the static structure yields conditions for dynamically arrested states at larger volume fractions, which we find to agree with the experimentally observed dynamics

  12. Interaction of singly and multiply charged ions with a lithium-fluoride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, L.

    2001-10-01

    Charge transfer between slow ions and an ionic crystal surface still poses a considerable challenge to theory due to the intrinsic many-body character of the system. For the neutralization of multiply charged ions in front of metal surfaces, the Classical Over the Barrier (COB) model is a widely used tool. We present an extension of this model to ionic crystal surfaces where the localization of valence electrons at the anion sites and the lack of cylindrical symmetry of the ion-surface system impede a simple analytical estimate of electron transfer rates. We use a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach to calculate electron transfer rates for different charge states of the projectile ion. With these rates we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of slow Ne10+ ions in vertical incidence on an LiF surface. Capture of one or several electrons may lead to a local positive charge up of the surface. The projectile dynamics depends on the balance between the repulsion due to this charge and the attraction due to the self-image potential. In a simulation that treats electronic and nuclear dynamics simultaneously, we show that the image attraction dominates over the repulsive force. Backscattering of very slow multiply charged projectiles high above the surface without touching it ('trampoline effect') does not take place. Instead, the projectile ion penetrates into the surface or is reflected due to close binary collision with surface ions. The case of a singly charged ion in front of an LiF surface is within the reach of ab-initio calculations. We use a multi-configuration self consistent field (MCSCF) and a multi-reference configuration interaction (MR-CI) method to calculate adiabatic potential energy curves for a system consisting of the projectile ion and an embedded cluster of surface ions. With increasing cluster size, the energy levels of the embedded cluster converge towards the band structure of the infinitely extended solid. Due to

  13. Charge carrier recombination dynamics in perovskite and polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulke, Andreas; Kniepert, Juliane; Kurpiers, Jona; Wolff, Christian M.; Schön, Natalie; Brenner, Thomas J. K.; Neher, Dieter [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24–25, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Stranks, Samuel D. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    Time-delayed collection field experiments are applied to planar organometal halide perovskite (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) based solar cells to investigate charge carrier recombination in a fully working solar cell at the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. Recombination of mobile (extractable) charges is shown to follow second-order recombination dynamics for all fluences and time scales tested. Most importantly, the bimolecular recombination coefficient is found to be time-dependent, with an initial value of ca. 10{sup −9} cm{sup 3}/s and a progressive reduction within the first tens of nanoseconds. Comparison to the prototypical organic bulk heterojunction device PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM yields important differences with regard to the mechanism and time scale of free carrier recombination.

  14. A Dynamic Interactive Theory of Person Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic interactive theory of person construal is proposed. It assumes that the perception of other people is accomplished by a dynamical system involving continuous interaction between social categories, stereotypes, high-level cognitive states, and the low-level processing of facial, vocal, and bodily cues. This system permits lower-level…

  15. Spin-charge coupled dynamics driven by a time-dependent magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Sebastian; Eckern, Ulrich; Gorini, Cosimo

    2017-03-01

    The spin-charge coupled dynamics in a thin, magnetized metallic system are investigated. The effective driving force acting on the charge carriers is generated by a dynamical magnetic texture, which can be induced, e.g., by a magnetic material in contact with a normal-metal system. We consider a general inversion-asymmetric substrate/normal-metal/magnet structure, which, by specifying the precise nature of each layer, can mimic various experimentally employed setups. Inversion symmetry breaking gives rise to an effective Rashba spin-orbit interaction. We derive general spin-charge kinetic equations which show that such spin-orbit interaction, together with anisotropic Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation, yields significant corrections to the magnetization-induced dynamics. In particular, we present a consistent treatment of the spin density and spin current contributions to the equations of motion, inter alia, identifying a term in the effective force which appears due to a spin current polarized parallel to the magnetization. This "inverse-spin-filter" contribution depends markedly on the parameter which describes the anisotropy in spin relaxation. To further highlight the physical meaning of the different contributions, the spin-pumping configuration of typical experimental setups is analyzed in detail. In the two-dimensional limit the buildup of dc voltage is dominated by the spin-galvanic (inverse Edelstein) effect. A measuring scheme that could isolate this contribution is discussed.

  16. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yang; Zhou, Zhaoqi; Sun, Yajuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  17. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    the finite IC formation time affects charge transport through a molecule suspended between two electrodes. For a single-level model, an analytical treatment shows that the conductance is suppressed by a factor Z(2), where Z is the quasiparticle renormalization factor, compared to the static IC approximation...... that the dynamical corrections can reduce the conductance by more than a factor of two when compared to static GW or density functional theory where the molecular energy levels have been shifted to match the exact quasiparticle levels....

  18. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Zhaoqi [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, Yajuan, E-mail: sunyj@lsec.cc.ac.cn [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin, Hong [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2017-02-12

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  19. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  20. Supercooled liquid dynamics for the charged hard-sphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chang, S.Y.

    1994-08-01

    We study the dynamics of supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition by applying the mode coupling theory to the charged hard-sphere model. By exploiting the two independent parameters inherent in the charged hard-sphere system we examine structurally the subtle and competitive role played by the short-range hard-core correlation and the long-range Coulomb tail. It is found in this work that the long-range Coulombic charge factor effect is generally a less effective contribution to structure when the plasma parameter is less than 500 and becomes dominant when it is greater thereof. To extend our understanding of the supercooled liquid and the liquid-glass transition, an attempt is made to calculate and to give physical relevance to the mode-coupling parameters which are frequently used as mere fitting parameters in analysis of experiments on supercooled liquid systems. This latter information enables us to discuss the possible application of the model to a realistic system. (author). 22 refs, 4 figs

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of charged particles in the magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    1992-01-01

    An important region of the earth's magnetosphere is the nightside magnetotail, which is believed to play a significant role in energy storage and release associated with substorms. The magnetotail contains a current sheet which separates regions of oppositely directed magnetic field. Particle motion in the collisionless magnetotail has been a long-standing problem. Recent research from the dynamical point of view has yielded considerable new insights into the fundamental properties of orbits and of particle distribution functions. A new framework of understanding magnetospheric plasma properties is emerging. Some novel predictions based directly on nonlinear dynamics have proved to be robust and in apparent good agreement with observation. The earth's magnetotail may serve as a paradigm, one accessible by in situ observation, of a broad class of boundary regions with embedded current sheets. This article reviews the nonlinear dynamics of charged particles in the magnetotail configuration. The emphasis is on the relationships between the dynamics and physical observables. At the end of the introduction, sections containing basic material are indicated.

  2. Characterizing dark matter interacting with extra charged leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, D.; Deandrea, A.; Moretti, S.; Panizzi, L.; Prager, H.

    2018-04-01

    In the context of a simplified leptophilic dark matter (DM) scenario where the mediator is a new charged fermion carrying leptonic quantum number and the DM candidate is either scalar or vector, the complementarity of different bounds is analyzed. In this framework, the extra lepton and DM are odd under a Z2 symmetry, and hence the leptonic mediator can only interact with the DM state and Standard Model leptons of various flavors. We show that there is the possibility to characterize the DM spin (scalar or vector), as well as the nature of the mediator, through a combined analysis of cosmological, flavor and collider data. We present an explicit numerical analysis for a set of benchmarks points of the viable parameter space of our scenario.

  3. Study of charged hadron multiplicities in charged-current neutrino-lead interactions in the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Shakirianova, I. [INR - Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, A.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Tioukov, V.; Voevodina, E. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Podgrudkov, D.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, SINP MSU - Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Mizutani, F.; Ozaki, K.; Shibayama, E.; Takahashi, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Ariga, A.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Vuilleumier, J.L. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Kyushu University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Kose, U.; Longhin, A.; Pupilli, F.; Stanco, L. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bodnarchuk, I.; Chukanov, A.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Sotnikov, A.; Vasina, S. [JINR - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno (Italy); ' ' Gruppo Collegato' ' INFN, Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Laudisio, F.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); Buonaura, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Galati, G.; Hosseini, B.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Strolin, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Chernyavskiy, M.; Gorbunov, S.; Okateva, N.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Schembri, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); De Serio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Paparella, L.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Amo Sanchez, P. del; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H. [LAPP, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Tenti, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Hollnagel, A.; Wonsak, B. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Fini, R.A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fornari, F.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Pozzato, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fukuda, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ishiguro, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Miyanishi, M.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Rokujo, H.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Gentile, V. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Guler, A.M.; Kamiscioglu, M. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gustavino, C.; Loverre, P.; Monacelli, P.; Rosa, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Jakovcic, K.; Ljubicic, A.; Malenica, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kamiscioglu, C. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey); Kim, S.H.; Park, B.D.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Klicek, B.; Stipcevic, M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Matsuo, T.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Mikado, S. [Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Votano, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Polukhina, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physical Institute Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Terranova, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [IIHE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν{sub μ} → ν{sub τ} oscillations in appearance mode through the direct observation of tau neutrinos in the CNGS neutrino beam. In this paper, we report a study of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in charged-current neutrino interactions in lead. We present charged hadron average multiplicities, their dispersion and investigate the KNO scaling in different kinematical regions. The results are presented in detail in the form of tables that can be used in the validation of Monte Carlo generators of neutrino-lead interactions. (orig.)

  4. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  5. Visualizing electron dynamics in organic materials: Charge transport through molecules and angular resolved photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Stephan

    Being able to visualize the dynamics of electrons in organic materials is a fascinating perspective. Simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory allow to realize this hope, as they visualize the flow of charge through molecular structures in real-space and real-time. We here present results on two fundamental processes: Photoemission from organic semiconductor molecules and charge transport through molecular structures. In the first part we demonstrate that angular resolved photoemission intensities - from both theory and experiment - can often be interpreted as a visualization of molecular orbitals. However, counter-intuitive quantum-mechanical electron dynamics such as emission perpendicular to the direction of the electrical field can substantially alter the picture, adding surprising features to the molecular orbital interpretation. In a second study we calculate the flow of charge through conjugated molecules. The calculations show in real time how breaks in the conjugation can lead to a local buildup of charge and the formation of local electrical dipoles. These can interact with neighboring molecular chains. As a consequence, collections of ''molecular electrical wires'' can show distinctly different characteristics than ''classical electrical wires''. German Science Foundation GRK 1640.

  6. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  7. Interaction of charged 3D soliton with Coulomb center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybakov, Yu.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Einstein - de Broglie particle-soliton concept is applied to simulate stationary states of an electron in a hydrogen atom. According to this concept, the electron is described by the localized regular solutions to some nonlinear equations. In the framework of Synge model for interacting scalar and electromagnetic fields a system of integral equations has been obtained, which describes the interaction between charged 3D soliton and Coulomb center. The asymptotic expressions for physical fields, describing soliton moving around the fixed Coulomb center, have been obtained with the help of integral equations. It is shown that the electron-soliton center travels along some stationary orbit around the Coulomb center. The electromagnetic radiation is absent as the Poynting vector has non-wave asymptote O(r -3 ) after averaging over angles, i.e. the existence of spherical surface corresponding to null Poynting vector stream, has been proved. Vector lines for Poynting vector are constructed in asymptotical area. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  8. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F; Khair, Aditya S

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of V_{o}/(k_{B}T/e), where V_{o} is the amplitude of the driving voltage and k_{B}T/e is the thermal voltage with k_{B} as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D/λ_{D}L, where D is the ion diffusivity, λ_{D} is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O(V_{o}^{3}) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in V_{o}. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing V_{o}. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  9. Moderately nonlinear diffuse-charge dynamics under an ac voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Robert F.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2015-09-01

    The response of a symmetric binary electrolyte between two parallel, blocking electrodes to a moderate amplitude ac voltage is quantified. The diffuse charge dynamics are modeled via the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for a dilute solution of point-like ions. The solution to these equations is expressed as a Fourier series with a voltage perturbation expansion for arbitrary Debye layer thickness and ac frequency. Here, the perturbation expansion in voltage proceeds in powers of Vo/(kBT /e ) , where Vo is the amplitude of the driving voltage and kBT /e is the thermal voltage with kB as Boltzmann's constant, T as the temperature, and e as the fundamental charge. We show that the response of the electrolyte remains essentially linear in voltage amplitude at frequencies greater than the RC frequency of Debye layer charging, D /λDL , where D is the ion diffusivity, λD is the Debye layer thickness, and L is half the cell width. In contrast, nonlinear response is predicted at frequencies below the RC frequency. We find that the ion densities exhibit symmetric deviations from the (uniform) equilibrium density at even orders of the voltage amplitude. This leads to the voltage dependence of the current in the external circuit arising from the odd orders of voltage. For instance, the first nonlinear contribution to the current is O (Vo3) which contains the expected third harmonic but also a component oscillating at the applied frequency. We use this to compute a generalized impedance for moderate voltages, the first nonlinear contribution to which is quadratic in Vo. This contribution predicts a decrease in the imaginary part of the impedance at low frequency, which is due to the increase in Debye layer capacitance with increasing Vo. In contrast, the real part of the impedance increases at low frequency, due to adsorption of neutral salt from the bulk to the Debye layer.

  10. Charge-transfer interactions of Cr species with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Anna M; Matysiak-Brynda, Edyta; Hepel, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Interactions of Cr species with nucleic acids in living organisms depend strongly on Cr oxidation state and the environmental conditions. As the effects of these interactions range from benign to pre-mutagenic to carcinogenic, careful assessment of the hazard they pose to human health is necessary. We have investigated methods that would enable quantifying the DNA damage caused by Cr species under varying environmental conditions, including UV, O 2 , and redox potential, using simple instrumental techniques which could be in future combined into a field-deployable instrumentation. We have employed electrochemical quartz crystal nanogravimetry (EQCN), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to evaluate the extent of DNA damage expressed in terms of guanine oxidation yield (η) and changes in specific characteristics provided by these techniques. The effects of the interactions of Cr species with DNA were analyzed using a model calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) film on a gold electrode (Au@ctDNA) in different media, including: (i) Cr(VI), (ii) Cr(VI) reduced at -0.2V, (iii) Cr(III)+UV radiation+O 2 , and Cr(III), obtaining the η values: 7.4±1.4, 1.5±0.4, 1.1±0.31%, and 0%, respectively, thus quantifying the hazard posed. The EIS measurements have enabled utilizing the decrease in charge-transfer resistance (R ct ) for ferri/ferrocyanide redox probe at an Au@ctDNA electrode to assess the oxidative ctDNA damage by Cr(VI) species. In this case, circular dichroism indicates an extensive damage to the ctDNA hydrogen bonding. On the other hand, Cr(III) species have not induced any damage to ctDNA, although the EQCN measurements show an electrostatic binding to DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of charge carrier dynamics in disordered conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Dirk [Physical Chemistry, University of Cologne, Luxemburgerstr. 116, 50939 Cologne, Germany, (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We developed a new method to probe charge carrier mobility on ultrafast time scale. It is based on electric field induced second harmonic generation. The method is applied to prototypical amorphous conjugated polymers of the polyphenylene- and polyfluorene-type. Typically the carrier mobility in these organic polymers decreases with time in a power law fashion from about 1 cm{sup 2}Vs{sup -1} at 1 ps to its stationary value of about 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}Vs{sup -1} in hundreds of ns. The dynamics of the mobility is discussed. It is shown, that in nanoscale devices the macroscopic mobility is not adequate to describe charge transport. We study the influence of disorder, morphology and temperature on ultrafast transport. At early times the transport is dominated by tunneling and disorder plays already an essential role. Comparison of transient photocurrents with Monte-Carlo simulation reveals that on-chain transport has to be invoked to rationalize our results. The hopping rates for intrachain transport are much larger compared with interchain transport. The results give access to essential transport properties for the development of advanced theoretical models and may help to design improved solar cells.

  12. The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.

  13. The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: eostm@muon.kaist.ac.k, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-21

    We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.

  14. Charged beam dynamics, particle accelerators and free electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Sabia, Elio; Artioli, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Charged Beam Dynamics, Particle Accelerators and Free Electron Lasers summarises different topics in the field of accelerators and of Free Electron Laser (FEL) devices. It is intended as a reference manual for the different aspects of FEL devices, explaining how to design both a FEL device and the accelerator providing the driving beam. It covers both theoretical and experimental aspects, allowing researchers to attempt a first design of a FEL device in different operating conditions. It provides an analysis of what is already available, what is needed, and what the challenges are to determine new progress in this field. All chapters contain complements and exercises that are designed in such a way that the reader will gradually acquire self-confidence with the matter treated in the book.

  15. Charge density glass dynamics - Soft potentials and soft modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljakovic, K., E-mail: katica@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Staresinic, D., E-mail: damirs@ifs.hr [Institute of Physics, HR-10001, Zagreb, P.O. Box 304 (Croatia); Lasjaunias, J.C., E-mail: jean-claude.lasjaunias@pop3.grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Remenyi, G., E-mail: Gyorgy.Remenyi@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Melin, R., E-mail: Regis.Melin@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Monceau, P., E-mail: pierre.monceau@grenoble.cnrs.fr [Institut Neel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Sahling, S., E-mail: sven.olaf@gmail.com [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Dresden, D-01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    An universal fingerprint of glasses has been found in low-temperature thermodynamic properties of charge/spin density wave (C/SDW) systems. Deviations from the well-known Debye, elastic continuum prediction for specific heat (flat C{sub p}/T{sup 3} plot) appear as two anomalies; the upturn below 1 K and a broad bump at T{approx}10 K (named Boson peak in glasses). The first one, inherent of localized two level systems within the shalow corrugated phase space, exhibits slow relaxation with the complex dynamics. The second one, 'Boson peak-like peak' was attributed to the pinned mode and incomplete softening of CDW superstructural mode. We discuss similar C{sub p}(T) features found also in incommensurate dielectrics with well documented soft-mode anomalies.

  16. Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the Lorentz covariance of algorithms is introduced. Under Lorentz transformation, both the form and performance of a Lorentz covariant algorithm are invariant. To acquire the advantages of symplectic algorithms and Lorentz covariance, a general procedure for constructing Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms (LCCSAs) is provided, based on which an explicit LCCSA for dynamics of relativistic charged particles is built. LCCSA possesses Lorentz invariance as well as long-term numerical accuracy and stability, due to the preservation of a discrete symplectic structure and the Lorentz symmetry of the system. For situations with time-dependent electromagnetic fields, which are difficult to handle in traditional construction procedures of symplectic algorithms, LCCSA provides a perfect explicit canonical symplectic solution by implementing the discretization in 4-spacetime. We also show that LCCSA has built-in energy-based adaptive time steps, which can optimize the computation performance when the Lorentz factor varies.

  17. Dynamics of the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma while surfing the package electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Based on numerical calculations considered the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma when surfing on the spatially localized package of electromagnetic waves. The problem is reduced to the study of unsteady, nonlinear equation for the wave phase at the carrier frequency at the location of the accelerated charge, which is solved numerically. We study the temporal dynamics of the relativistic factor, the component of momentum and velocity of the particle, its trajectory is given gyro-rotation in an external magnetic field after the departure of the effective potential well. Dependence of the dynamics of a particle interacting with the wave of the sign of the velocity of the charge along the wave front. We formulate the optimal conditions of the relativistic particle acceleration wave packet, indicate the possibility of again (after a number gyro-turnover) charge trapping wave with an additional relativistic acceleration.

  18. Gas-surface dynamics and charging effects during plasma processing of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gyeong Soon

    This thesis work attempts to elucidate the fundamentals of gas-surface interactions that occur during plasma etching. Controlled experiments using hyperthermal fluorine beams have enabled us to uncover the scattering dynamics at complex surfaces similar to those encountered in etching. By analyzing energy and angular distributions of inelastically scattered F atoms, we were able to distinguish single- and multiple-bounce scattering and to develop models to describe these exit channels. Furthermore, we found that hard-sphere collision kinematics can capture well the energy transfer of the hyperthermal F atoms onto fluorinated silicon surfaces. Based on the fundamental scattering information, we have developed a kinetic model that is described by two parameters: (1) direct inelastic scattering probability and (2) sticking (reaction) probability. These parameters are formulated as a function of the incident energy and angle of F atoms. By incorporating the empirical kinetic model into Monte Carlo based profile evolution simulations, we have unraveled the origin of many etch profile peculiarities which appear during hyperthermal F-beam etching, such as microtrenching, inverse microloading, and undercutting. The kinetic model has been used to describe successfully etching in Cl2-plasmas. For the study of pattern-dependent charging, we have developed a numerical model that combines plasma, sheath, and charging dynamics. The charging simulations illustrate that the directionality difference between ions and electrons arriving at the wafer, brought about by the sheath, causes differential charging on patterned areas even when the plasma is uniform. Using the newly developed charging model, we have investigated gate oxide damage. The results show that a potential drop across the thin gate oxide caused by differential microstructure charging is primarily responsible for gate oxide degradation by driving Fowler-Nordheim stress currents. In general, increasing the flux of low

  19. Interaction of a charge with a thin plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordag, M.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the electromagnetic field with a two-dimensional plasma sheet intended to describe the pi-electrons of a carbon nanotube or a C 60 molecule is investigated. By first integrating out the displacement field of the plasma or the electromagnetic field, different representations for quantities like the Casimir energy are derived which are shown to be consistent with one another. Starting from the covariant gauge for the electromagnetic field, it is shown that the matching conditions to which the presence of the plasma sheet can be reduced are different from the commonly used ones. The difference in the treatments does not show up in the Casimir force between two parallel sheets, but it is present in the Casimir-Polder force between a charge or a neutral atom and a sheet. At once, since the plasma sheet is a regularization of the conductor boundary conditions, this sheds light on the difference in physics found earlier in the realization of conductor boundary conditions as 'thin' or 'thick' boundary conditions in Phys. Rev. D 70, 085010 (2004)

  20. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate mediated tautomerism of Eriochrome Black-T: Effect of charge transfer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2010-11-01

    Interaction between anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, (SDBS) and an anionic dye Eriochrome Black-T, (EBT) has been investigated by visible spectroscopy, conductometry, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements. Spectral changes of EBT observed on addition of SDBS indicate formation of quinone-hydrazone tautomer at pH 7.0, whereas in absence of SDBS this change appears at pH ˜ 9.45. However, at pH 7.0 this change in tautomerism is not observed in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Experimental results indicate presence of charge transfer interaction between less stable quinone-hydrazone tautomer of EBT and SDBS molecules, which is confirmed using Benesi-Hildebrand and Scott equations.

  1. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  2. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  3. Charge and energy dynamics in photo-excited poly(para-phenylenevinylene) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisslen, L.; Johansson, A.; Stafstroem, S.

    2004-01-01

    We report results from simulations of charge and energy dynamics in poly(para-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and PPV interacting with C 60 . The simulations were performed by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and the lattice equation of motion simultaneously and nonadiabatically. The electronic system and the coupling of the electrons to the lattice were described by an extended three-dimensional version of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, which also included an external electric field. Electron and lattice dynamics following electronic excitations at different energies have been simulated. The effect of additional lattice energy was also included in the simulations. Our results show that both exciton diffusion and transitions from high to lower lying excitations are stimulated by increasing the lattice energy. Also field induced charge separation occurs faster if the lattice energy is increased. This separation process is highly nonadiabatic and involves a significant rearrangement of the electron distribution. In the case of PPV coupled to C 60 , we observe a spontaneous charge separation. The separation time is in this case limited by the local concentration of C 60 molecules close to the PPV chain

  4. Estimation of Nanodiamond Surface Charge Density from Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to study their interactions with various biological macromolecules. Such simulations generally require detailed knowledge of the surface composition of the NP under investigation. Even for some well-characterized nanoparticles, however, this knowledge is not always available. An example is nanodiamond, a nanoscale diamond particle with surface dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups. In this work, we explore using the harmonic restraint method developed by Venable et al., to estimate the surface charge density (σ) of nanodiamonds. Based on the Gouy-Chapman theory, we convert the experimentally determined zeta potential of a nanodiamond to an effective charge density (σ eff ), and then use the latter to estimate σ via molecular dynamics simulations. Through scanning a series of nanodiamond models, we show that the above method provides a straightforward protocol to determine the surface charge density of relatively large (> ∼100 nm) NPs. Overall, our results suggest that despite certain limitation, the above protocol can be readily employed to guide the model construction for MD simulations, which is particularly useful when only limited experimental information on the NP surface composition is available to a modeler.

  5. Charge Dynamics and Spin Blockade in a Hybrid Double Quantum Dot in Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Urdampilleta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin qubits in silicon, whether in quantum dots or in donor atoms, have long been considered attractive qubits for the implementation of a quantum computer because of silicon’s “semiconductor vacuum” character and its compatibility with the microelectronics industry. While donor electron spins in silicon provide extremely long coherence times and access to the nuclear spin via the hyperfine interaction, quantum dots have the complementary advantages of fast electrical operations, tunability, and scalability. Here, we present an approach to a novel hybrid double quantum dot by coupling a donor to a lithographically patterned artificial atom. Using gate-based rf reflectometry, we probe the charge stability of this double quantum-dot system and the variation of quantum capacitance at the interdot charge transition. Using microwave spectroscopy, we find a tunnel coupling of 2.7 GHz and characterize the charge dynamics, which reveals a charge T_{2}^{*} of 200 ps and a relaxation time T_{1} of 100 ns. Additionally, we demonstrate a spin blockade at the inderdot transition, opening up the possibility to operate this coupled system as a singlet-triplet qubit or to transfer a coherent spin state between the quantum dot and the donor electron and nucleus.

  6. Fixed-Charge Atomistic Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Condensed Phase: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniker, Sereina

    2018-03-26

    In molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations, the interactions between the particles (atoms) in the system are described by a so-called force field. The empirical functional form of classical fixed-charge force fields dates back to 1969 and remains essentially unchanged. In a fixed-charge force field, the polarization is not modeled explicitly, i.e. the effective partial charges do not change depending on conformation and environment. This simplification allows, however, a dramatic reduction in computational cost compared to polarizable force fields and in particular quantum-chemical modeling. The past decades have shown that simulations employing carefully parametrized fixed-charge force fields can provide useful insights into biological and chemical questions. This overview focuses on the four major force-field families, i.e. AMBER, CHARMM, GROMOS, and OPLS, which are based on the same classical functional form and are continuously improved to the present day. The overview is aimed at readers entering the field of (bio)molecular simulations. More experienced users may find the comparison and historical development of the force-field families interesting.

  7. Dynamics of interacting dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Maartens, Roy; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Dark energy and dark matter are only indirectly measured via their gravitational effects. It is possible that there is an exchange of energy within the dark sector, and this offers an interesting alternative approach to the coincidence problem. We consider two broad classes of interacting models where the energy exchange is a linear combination of the dark sector densities. The first class has been previously investigated, but we define new variables and find a new exact solution, which allows for a more direct, transparent, and comprehensive analysis. The second class has not been investigated in general form before. We give general conditions on the parameters in both classes to avoid unphysical behavior (such as negative energy densities).

  8. Static states and dynamic behaviour of charges: observation and control by scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews charges that locally functionalize materials. Microscopic analyses and operation of charges using various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have revealed static, quasi-static/quasi-dynamic and dynamic charge behaviours. Charge-sensitive SPM has allowed for the visualization of the distribution of functionalized charges in electronic devices. When used as bit data in a memory system, the charges can be operated by SPM. The behaviour of quasi-static/quasi-dynamic charges is discussed here. In the data-writing process, spatially dispersive charges rather than a fast injection rate are introduced, but the technical problems can be solved by using nanostructures. Careful charge operations using SPM should realize a memory with a larger density than Tbit/inch 2 . Dynamic charges have been introduced in physical analyses and chemical processes. Although the observable timescale is limited by the SPM system response time of the order of several seconds, dynamics such as photon-induced charge redistributions and probe-assisted chemical reactions are observed. (topical review)

  9. Static states and dynamic behaviour of charges: observation and control by scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Masashi, E-mail: ISHII.Masashi@nims.go.j [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2010-05-05

    This paper reviews charges that locally functionalize materials. Microscopic analyses and operation of charges using various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have revealed static, quasi-static/quasi-dynamic and dynamic charge behaviours. Charge-sensitive SPM has allowed for the visualization of the distribution of functionalized charges in electronic devices. When used as bit data in a memory system, the charges can be operated by SPM. The behaviour of quasi-static/quasi-dynamic charges is discussed here. In the data-writing process, spatially dispersive charges rather than a fast injection rate are introduced, but the technical problems can be solved by using nanostructures. Careful charge operations using SPM should realize a memory with a larger density than Tbit/inch{sup 2}. Dynamic charges have been introduced in physical analyses and chemical processes. Although the observable timescale is limited by the SPM system response time of the order of several seconds, dynamics such as photon-induced charge redistributions and probe-assisted chemical reactions are observed. (topical review)

  10. Structural Arrangement of Water Molecules around Highly Charged Nanoparticles: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunae; Yeom, Min Sun

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to understand the structural arrangement of water molecules around highly charged nanoparticles under aqueous conditions. The effect of two highly charged nanoparticles on the solvation charge asymmetry has been examined. We calculated the radial distribution functions of the components of water molecules around nanoparticles which have four charge types at two different salt concentrations. Even though the distributions of water molecules surrounding a sodium ion and a chloride ion are hardly affected by the charges of nanoparticles and the salt concentrations, those around highly charged nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the charges of nanoparticles, but hardly by the charges of nanoparticles and salt concentrations. We find that the distributions of hydrogen atoms in water molecules around one highly charged nanoparticle are dependent on the magnitude of the nanoparticle charge

  11. Dynamics of Charged Particles and their Radiation Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, E

    2006-01-01

    The motion of a charged particle interacting with its own electromagnetic field is an area of research that has a long history. On the one hand the theory ought to be straightforward to formulate: one has Maxwell's equations that tell the field how to behave and one has the Lorentz-force law that tells the particle how to move (given the field). On the other hand the theory is fundamentally ambiguous because of the field singularities that necessarily come with a point particle. While each separate sub-problem can easily be solved, to couple the field to the particle in a self-consistent treatment turns out to be tricky. I believe it is this dilemma that has been the main source of the endless fascination. For them it is also rooted in the fact that the electromagnetic self-force problem is deeply analogous to the gravitational self-force problem, which is of direct relevance to future gravitational wave observations. The motion of point particles in curved spacetime has been the topic of a recent Topical Review, and it was the focus of a recent Special Issue. Exceptions are Rohrlich's excellent text, which makes a very useful introduction to radiation reaction, and the Landau and Lifshitz classic, which contains what is probably the most perfect summary of the foundational ideas. It is therefore with some trepidation that I received Herbert Spohn's book, which covers both the classical and quantum theories of a charged particle coupled to its own field (the presentation is limited to flat spacetime). Is this the text that graduate students and researchers should turn to in order to get a complete and accessible education in radiation reaction? My answer is that while the book does indeed contain a lot of useful material, it is not a very accessible source of information, and it is certainly not a student-friendly textbook. Instead, the book presents a technical account of the author's personal take on the theory, and represents a culminating summary of the author

  12. Observation of coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Cooper, A. M.; Chwastowski, J.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Kochowski, C.; Leighton-Davies, S.; Middleton, R. P.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Talebzadeh, M.; Vallee, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wells, J.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Zevgolatakos, E.; WA59 Collaboration

    1984-05-01

    First observation is reported of semi-inclusive coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei. A sharp peaking towards zero is observed in the | t| distribution of interactions for which the final state charge is 0 and from which only one negative hadron is emitted, unaccompanied by any evidence of nuclear fragmentation or reinteraction. This peak is correlated with high momentum of the outgoing charged hadron and with small values of Q2 and x.

  13. Observation of coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrino on neon nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Bertrand, D.; Aderholz, M.; Wernhard, K.L.; Wittek, W.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J.H.; Bullock, F.W.; Fitch, P.J.; Leighton-Davies, S.; Sansum, R.A.; Baton, J.P.; Gerbier, G.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Chwastowski, J.; Coghen, T.; Guy, J.; Kasper, P.; Venus, W.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.

    1984-01-01

    First observation is reported of semi-inclusive coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei. A sharp peaking towards zero is observed in the vertical stroketvertical stroke distribution of interactions for which the final state charge is 0 and from which only one negative hadron is emitted, unaccompanied by any evidence of nuclear fragmentation or reinteraction. This peak is correlated with high momentum of the outgoing charged hadron and with small values of Q 2 and chi. (orig.)

  14. Effect of frequency variation on electromagnetic pulse interaction with charges and plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of frequency variation (chirp) in an electromagnetic (EM) pulse on the pulse interaction with a charged particle and plasma is studied. Various types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In vacuum, a charged particle receives a kick in the polarization direction after interaction

  15. Electrostatic interactions between immunoglobulin (IgG) molecules and a charged sorbent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Duval, J.; Norde, Willem; Lyklema, J.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of electrostatic interactions on the adsorption of IgG is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The long-range interaction between IgG and the charged sorbent surface is treated in terms of the DLVO theory taking into account the possibility of charge- and potential

  16. Signatures of dynamics in charge transport through organic molecules; Dynamisches Verhalten beim Ladungstransport durch organische Molekuele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secker, Daniel

    2008-06-03

    The aim of the thesis at hand was to investigate dynamical behaviour in charge transport through organic molecules experimentally with the help of the mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ) technique. the thesis concentrates on the complex interaction between the molecular contact configuration and the electronic structure. it is shown that by variation of the electrode distance and so by a manipulation of the molecule and contact configuration the electronic structure as well as the coupling between the molecule and the electrodes is affected. The latter statement is an additional hint how closely I-V-characteristics depend on the molecular contact configuration. Depending on the applied voltage and so the electric field there are two different configurations preferred by the molecular contact. A potential barrier between these two states is the origin of the hysteresis. A central part of the thesis is dealing with measurements of the current noise. Finally it can be concluded that the detailed discussion reveals the strong effect of dynamical interactions between the atomic configuration of the molecular contact and the electronic structure on the charge transport in single molecule junctions. (orig.)

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Coupler Designs of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Dynamic Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitong Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of coupler designs for wireless power transfer (WPT, meant for electric vehicle (EV dynamic charging. The design comparison of three common types of couplers is first based on the raw material cost, output power, transfer efficiency, tolerance of horizontal offset, and flux density. Then, the optimal cost-effectiveness combination is selected for EV dynamic charging. The corresponding performances of the proposed charging system are compared and analyzed by both simulation and experimentation. The results verify the validity of the proposed dynamic charging system for EVs.

  18. Quantum dynamics modeled by interacting trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rodríguez, L.; Uranga-Piña, L.; Martínez-Mesa, A.; Meier, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present quantum dynamical simulations based on the propagation of interacting trajectories where the effect of the quantum potential is mimicked by effective pseudo-particle interactions. The method is applied to several quantum systems, both for bound and scattering problems. For the bound systems, the quantum ground state density and zero point energy are shown to be perfectly obtained by the interacting trajectories. In the case of time-dependent quantum scattering, the Eckart barrier and uphill ramp are considered, with transmission coefficients in very good agreement with standard quantum calculations. Finally, we show that via wave function synthesis along the trajectories, correlation functions and energy spectra can be obtained based on the dynamics of interacting trajectories.

  19. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  20. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-14

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Collisional Cooling and Ordering of Multiply Charged Ions in a Penning Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.P.; Church, D.A.; Gruber, L.; DeWitt, H.E.; Beck, B.R.; Schneider, D.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to help design new experiments by modeling the cooling of small numbers of trapped multiply charged ions by Coulomb interactions with laser-cooled Be + ions. A Verlet algorithm is used to integrate the equations of motion of two species of point ions interacting in an ideal Penning trap. We use a time step short enough to follow the cyclotron motion of the ions. Axial and radial temperatures for each species are saved periodically. Direct heating and cooling of each species in the simulation can be performed by periodically rescaling velocities. Of interest are Fe 11+ due to a EUV-optical double resonance for imaging and manipulating the ions, and Ca 14+ since a ground state fine structure transition has a convenient wavelength in the tunable laser range

  2. Quantitative Measures of Chaotic Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, D. L.; Martin, R. F., Jr.; Burris, C.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been noted that the motion of charged particles in magnetotail-like magnetic fields is chaotic, however, efforts to quantify the degree of chaos have had conflicting conclusions. In this paper we re-examine the question by focusing on quantitative measures of chaos. We first examine the percentage of orbits that enter the chaotic region of phase space and the average trapping time of those particles. We then examine the average exponential divergence rate (AEDR) of the chaotic particles between their first and last crossing of the mid-plane. We show that at resonant energies where the underlying phase space has a high degree of symmetry, only a small number of particle enter the chaotic region, but they are trapped for long periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is very close to the average value of the AEDR. At the off-resonant energies where the phase space is highly asymmetric, the majority of the particle enter the chaotic region for fairly short periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is much smaller than the average value. The root cause is that in the resonant case, the longest-lived orbits tend interact with the current many times and sample the entire chaotic region, whereas in the non-resonant case the longest-lived orbits only interact with the current sheet a small number of times but have very long mirrorings where the motion is nearly regular. Additionally we use an ad-hoc model where we model the current sheet as a Lorentz scattering system with each interaction with the current sheet being considered as a "collision". We find that the average kick per collision is greatest at off-resonant energies. Finally, we propose a chaos parameter as the product of the AEDR times the average chaotic particle trapping time times the percentage of orbits that are chaotic. We find that this takes on peak values at the resonant energies.

  3. Interactions Dominate the Dynamics of Visual Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many cognitive theories have described behavior as the summation of independent contributions from separate components. Contrasting views have emphasized the importance of multiplicative interactions and emergent structure. We describe a statistical approach to distinguishing additive and multiplicative processes and apply it to the dynamics of eye movements during classic visual cognitive tasks. The results reveal interaction-dominant dynamics in eye movements in each of the three tasks, and that fine-grained eye movements are modulated by task constraints. These findings reveal the interactive nature of cognitive processing and are consistent with theories that view cognition as an emergent property of processes that are broadly distributed over many scales of space and time rather than a componential assembly line. PMID:20070957

  4. Study of transverse momenta of charged hadrons produced in ν p andbar vp charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; Middleton, R. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; Cooper, A. M.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Parker, A.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Hamisi, F.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M.

    1984-06-01

    Data from a neutrino and antineutrino hydrogen experiment with BEBC are used to investigate transverse properties of the produced charged hadrons. Measurements are presented on average transverse momenta of charged pions as functions of Feynman- x and the hadronic mass, on the transverse momentum flow within an event and on jet-related quantities. The main features of the data are well described by the LUND model. The data favour a version of the model in which soft gluon effects are included and the primordial transverse momentum of the quarks in the proton is small. Effects from 1st order QCD (hard gluon emission) are negligible.

  5. Dynamics of electrically charged extended bodies: classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberge, T.

    1987-01-01

    The author present generalizations of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics that make it possible to describe N charged extended bodies.In particular, we are able to write down a set of coupled equations for the system of N bodies plus field. The theory is based on a theory for the description of N charged chemical fluid components

  6. Interactive macroeconomics stochastic aggregate dynamics with heterogeneous and interacting agents

    CERN Document Server

    Di Guilmi, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    One of the major problems of macroeconomic theory is the way in which the people exchange goods in decentralized market economies. There are major disagreements among macroeconomists regarding tools to influence required outcomes. Since the mainstream efficient market theory fails to provide an internal coherent framework, there is a need for an alternative theory. The book provides an innovative approach for the analysis of agent based models, populated by the heterogeneous and interacting agents in the field of financial fragility. The text is divided in two parts; the first presents analytical developments of stochastic aggregation and macro-dynamics inference methods. The second part introduces macroeconomic models of financial fragility for complex systems populated by heterogeneous and interacting agents. The concepts of financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics are explained in detail in separate chapters. The statistical physics approach is applied to explain theories of macroeconomic modelling a...

  7. Structure and dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied with the electron beam ion trap in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Hu, Zhimin; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J.; Tong Xiaomin; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the structure and the dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied through dielectronic recombination (DR) observations performed with the Tokyo electron beam ion trap. By measuring the energy dependence of the ion abundance ratio in the trap at equilibrium, we have observed DR processes for open shell systems very clearly. Remarkable relativistic effects due to the generalized Breit interaction have been clearly shown in DR for highly charged heavy ions. We also present the first result for the coincidence measurement of two photons emitted from a single DR event.

  8. Influence of the shell thickness and charge distribution on the effective interaction between two like-charged hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelescu, Daniel G; Caragheorgheopol, Dan

    2015-10-14

    The mean-force and the potential of the mean force between two like-charged spherical shells were investigated in the salt-free limit using the primitive model and Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from an angular homogeneous distribution, a discrete charge distribution where point charges localized on the shell outer surface followed an icosahedral arrangement was considered. The electrostatic coupling of the model system was altered by the presence of mono-, trivalent counterions or small dendrimers, each one bearing a net charge of 9 e. We analyzed in detail how the shell thickness and the radial and angular distribution of the shell charges influenced the effective interaction between the shells. We found a sequence of the potential of the mean force similar to the like-charged filled spheres, ranging from long-range purely repulsive to short-range purely attractive as the electrostatic coupling increased. Both types of potentials were attenuated and an attractive-to-repulsive transition occurred in the presence of trivalent counterions as a result of (i) thinning the shell or (ii) shifting the shell charge from the outer towards the inner surface. The potential of the mean force became more attractive with the icosahedrally symmetric charge model, and additionally, at least one shell tended to line up with 5-fold symmetry axis along the longest axis of the simulation box at the maximum attraction. The results provided a basic framework of understanding the non-specific electrostatic origin of the agglomeration and long-range assembly of the viral nanoparticles.

  9. Effect of Stochastic Charge Fluctuations on Dust Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell

    2017-10-01

    The charging of particles in a plasma environment occurs through the collection of electrons and ions on the particle surface. Depending on the particle size and the plasma density, the standard deviation of the number of collected elementary charges, which fluctuates due to the randomness in times of collisions with electrons or ions, may be a significant fraction of the equilibrium charge. We use a discrete stochastic charging model to simulate the variations in charge across the dust surface as well as in time. The resultant asymmetric particle potentials, even for spherical grains, has a significant impact on the particle coagulation rate as well as the structure of the resulting aggregates. We compare the effects on particle collisions and growth in typical laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1414523.

  10. Electric Double-Layer Interaction between Dissimilar Charge-Conserved Conducting Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C

    2015-09-15

    Small metallic particles used in forming nanostructured to impart novel optical, catalytic, or tribo-rheological can be modeled as conducting particles with equipotential surfaces that carry a net surface charge. The value of the surface potential will vary with the separation between interacting particles, and in the absence of charge-transfer or electrochemical reactions across the particle surface, the total charge of each particle must also remain constant. These two physical conditions require the electrostatic boundary condition for metallic nanoparticles to satisfy an equipotential whole-of-particle charge conservation constraint that has not been studied previously. This constraint gives rise to a global charge conserved constant potential boundary condition that results in multibody effects in the electric double-layer interaction that are either absent or are very small in the familiar constant potential or constant charge or surface electrochemical equilibrium condition.

  11. Dynamics and stability of charged clusters and droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manil, B.; Lebius, H.; Chandezon, F.; Huber, B.A.; Duft, D.; Leisner, T.; Guet, C.

    2002-01-01

    Lord Raleigh predicted (Phil. Mag. 14, 184(1982) ) that a charged, incompressible liquid droplet becomes unstable as soon as the cohesive forces, which create the surface tension and which try to keep the droplet in its spherical form, are equal to the Coulomb forces, which try to destabilise it. This means that that the Coulomb energy E c corresponds to twice the surface energy E s . The ratio X = E c / 2 E s (feasibility), thus characterising the Raleigh limit by X = 1. In order to test its validity, metal clusters were ionized in collisions with highly charged ions, allowing for the first time to prepare charged systems with a feasibility greater than 1. Multiply charged sodium clusters were produced through collisions of Ar 11+ or Xe 28+ with neutral sodium clusters. It was observed, with increasing cluster charge and consequently cluster size the detected system indeed approach the Raleigh limit (for q = 10 X = 0.85). However, it was not reached due to the initial cluster temperature and the energy transfer in the collision. Subsequent, the stability and the explosion of highly charge microdroplets which were injected into a Paul trap levitator were studied, specifically, glycol was irradiated with a HeNe laser. It was observed that a resonance phenomena appeared just before each explosion. As the resonance is linked to X ∼ 1, this is the first proof that the Coulomb instability of charge glycol microdroplets occurs at X ∼ 1, as predicted by Lord Raleigh. (nevyjel)

  12. Coupled quantum-classical method for long range charge transfer: relevance of the nuclear motion to the quantum electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A; Rego, Luis G C

    2015-01-01

    Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron–nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron–hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures. (paper)

  13. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.

    1991-10-01

    Using data on νp and anti νp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ∝ 20 000 events with incident ν and ∝ 10 000 events with incident anti ν. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ∝ 14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for χ 2 /NDF. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling. (orig.)

  14. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.

    1992-01-01

    Using data on νp and anti νp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ∝20 000 events with incident ν and ∝10 000 events with incident anti ν. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ∝14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for χ 2 /NDF. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling. (orig.)

  15. Dynamics of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, T.; Kim, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    two log-normal functions, each corresponding to the fluorescence from the LE state and ICT state. Relative populations and the average frequency of the ICT state are shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3, which represents the ICT dynamics and the subsequent solvation process, respectively. The TRF spectra illustrate unambiguously how the ICT and the solvation processes take place for laurdan dissolved in ethanol. First of all, the ICT and the solvation occur in serial. Second, the ICT proceeds in several time scales exhibiting heterogeneity of the molecular conformation in liquid. About one third of the laurdan molecules undergoes ICT immediately in much less than <50 fs time scale. Rest of them undergoes ICT by two time constants, 6.4 ps and 28 ps. The ICT state then undergoes solvation process by 47 ps time constants. Because the molecule is large and flexible, fast inertial component was not observed. In conclusion, TRF spectra in femtosecond resolution reveal detailed intramolecular charge transfer process of laurdan. The ICT process shows a series of time scales due to the conformational heterogeneity in solution. (authors)

  16. Interesting correlations among various parameters of charged secondaries in nucleus - nucleus interactions at 4.5 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Saleem; Shukla, Praveen Prakash; Khushnood, H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the characteristic of charged secondaries was the aim of most of the experiments on high energy nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Investigation are carried out on the produced secondary charged particles with a common belief that these particles are more informative about the collisional dynamics and thus, could be effective in revealing the underlying physics of high energy relativistic interactions. So for understanding the mechanism of multiparticle production in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions, the correlations amongst the secondary charged particles are studied. Several workers have attempted to study the multiplicity correlations over widely different incident energies with different projectiles. The AALMT collaboration have also studied the multiplicity correlations in 200 GeV proton-nucleus collisions

  17. Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Faqir

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.

  18. Microscopic dynamics of charge separation at the aqueous electrochemical interface

    OpenAIRE

    Kattirtzi, John A.; Limmer, David T.; Willard, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used molecular simulation and methods of importance sampling to study the thermodynamics and kinetics of ionic charge separation at a liquid water-metal interface. We have considered this process using canonical examples of two different classes of ions: a simple alkali-halide pair, Na$^+$I$^-$, or classical ions, and the products of water autoionization, H$_3$O$^+$OH$^-$, or water ions. We find that for both ion classes, the microscopic mechanism of charge separation, including water...

  19. Trajectory effects in multiply charged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebius, H.; Huang, W.; Schuch, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ar ions of 4.3 keV q in were scattered at large angles (θ=75 degree sign ) from a clean oriented surface. By selecting Ar projectiles having a large ionization potential and by using a large scattering angle only ions scattered at the first atomic layer of the surface were detected. Scattered ion energy spectra show peaks of single scattering and double scattering of the Ar projectile ions from one or two surface Au atoms, and the distribution attributed to double collisions splits into two peaks when the scattering plane coincides with a crystallographic plane. Simulations with a MARLOWE code allowed for interpretation of the structure in the double collision peak by in-plane and zig-zag double collisions. Differences in the relative peak heights between the experiment and a MARLOWE simulation were partly explained by different neutralization probabilities with varying trajectories. Yield changes with increasing charge states show interesting possibilities for future experiments with highly charged ions

  20. Summary report on first research coordination meeting on heavy charged-particle interaction data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, H.; Noy, R.C.

    2008-04-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. A programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was proposed. Detailed coordinated research proposals were also agreed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Project are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. (author)

  1. Charge Generation Dynamics in Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells: Influence of Polymer Packing and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Bhoj R; Lee, Changyeon; Younts, Robert; Lee, Wonho; Danilov, Evgeny; Kim, Bumjoon J; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-12-23

    All-polymer solar cells exhibit rapid progress in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 2 to 7.7% over the past few years. While this improvement is primarily attributed to efficient charge transport and balanced mobility between the carriers, not much is known about the charge generation dynamics in these systems. Here we measured exciton relaxation and charge separation dynamics using ultrafast spectroscopy in polymer/polymer blends with different molecular packing and morphology. These measurements indicate that preferential face-on configuration with intermixed nanomorphology increases the charge generation efficiency. In fact, there is a direct quantitative correlation between the free charge population in the ultrafast time scales and the external quantum efficiency, suggesting not only the transport but also charge generation is key for the design of high performance all polymer solar cells.

  2. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  3. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  4. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in (anti)neutrino-deuterium charged- and neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.G.; Apeldoorn, G.W. van

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in νn, νp, antiνn and antiνp charged-current interactions for the hadronic energy range 2GeV ≤ W ≤ 14GeV (corresponding approximately to the neutrino energy range 5GeV ≤ E ≤ 150GeV). The experimental distributions are analysed in terms of binomial distributions. With increasing hadronic energy it is found a smooth transition from an ordinary binomial via Poissonian to the negative binomial function. KNO scaling holds approximately for the multiplicity distribution for the whole phase space. Data on the multiplicity distributions for neutral-current interactions are also presented

  5. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  6. Interaction dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Krasovsky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of nonlinear electrostatic pulses associated with electron phase density holes moving in a collisionless plasma is studied. An elementary event of the interaction is analyzed on the basis of the energy balance in the system consisting of two electrostatic solitary waves. It is established that an intrinsic property of the system is a specific irreversibility caused by a nonadiabatic modification of the internal structure of the holes and their effective heating in the process of the interaction. This dynamical irreversibility is closely connected with phase mixing of the trapped electrons comprising the holes and oscillating in the varying self-consistent potential wells. As a consequence of the irreversibility, the "collisions" of the solitary waves should be treated as "inelastic" ones. This explains the general tendency to the merging of the phase density holes frequently observed in numerical simulation and to corresponding coupling of the solitary waves.

  7. Simulation of the dynamics of laser-cluster interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ranging in size from a few atoms to several million atoms, clusters form a link between gases and solids. When irradiating clusters with intense femtosecond laser pulses, the production of energetic and highly charged ions, hot electrons, and extreme UV and X-ray photons, gives evidence of a very efficient energy conversion. The size of the system and the multitude of mechanisms at play provide a considerable challenge for the theoretical treatment of the interaction. In this thesis, we have developed a Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo simulation that gives insight into the particle dynamics during the interaction of laser pulses with large argon clusters (with more than 10000 atoms per cluster). Elastic electron-ion scattering, electron-electron scattering, electron-impact ionization and excitation, as well as three-body recombination and Auger decay are included via stochastic events. In a strongly simplified picture, the dynamics of the laser-cluster interaction can be summarized as follows: the intense laser field ionizes the cluster atoms and drives the population of quasi-free electrons. In collision events, further free electrons and high ionic charge states are created. As some electrons leave the cluster, the ions feel a net positive charge, and the cluster ultimately disintegrates in a Coulomb explosion. Even at moderate laser intensities (approx. 10 15 W/cm 2 ), impact ionization produces inner-shell vacancies in the cluster ions that decay by emitting characteristic X-ray radiation. The small population of fast electrons responsible for these ionization events is produced near the cluster poles, where the combination of polarization and charging of the cluster leads to strongly enhanced field strengths. We achieve a good agreement over large parameter ranges between the simulation and X-ray spectroscopy experiments. We also investigate the dependence of X-ray emission on laser intensity, pulse duration and cluster size. We find that in order to

  8. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  9. Dynamics of complexation of a charged dendrimer by linear polyelectrolyte: Computer modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulin, S.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Lyulin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Brownian-dynamics simulations have been performed for complexes formed by a charged dendrimer and a long oppositely charged linear polyelectrolyte when overcharging phenomenon is always observed. After a complex formation the orientational mobility of the individual dendrimer bonds, the fluctuations

  10. Numerical simulation of heavy ion charge generation and collection dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussault, H.; Howard, J.W. Jr.; Block, R.C.; Stapor, W.J.; Knudson, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a complete simulation approach to investigating the physics of heavy-ion charge generation and collection during a single event transient in a PN diode. The simulations explore the effects of different ion track models, applied biases, background dopings, and LET on the transient responses of a PN diode. The simulation results show that ion track structure and charge collection via diffusion-dominated processes play important roles in determining device transient responses. The simulations show no evidence of rapid charge collection in excess of that deposited in the device depletion region in typical funneling time frames (i.e., by time to peak current or in less than 500 ps). Further, the simulations clearly show that the device transient responses are not simple functions of the ion's incident LET. The simulation results imply that future studies and experiments should consider the effects of ion track structure in addition to LET and extend transient charge collection times to insure that reported charge collection efficiencies include diffusion-dominated collection processes

  11. The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim

    In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...... in Coulomb gauge and we show that the one-body Maxwell-Schrödinger system as well as the related one-body Maxwell-Pauli system both admit travelling wave solutions....

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with coherent Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Miwa; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant particles interacting with coherent waves in space plasmas. Magnetospheric plasma waves such as whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and hiss emissions contain coherent wave structures with various discrete frequencies. Although these waves are electromagnetic, their interaction with resonant particles can be approximated by equations of motion for a charged particle in a one-dimensional electrostatic wave. The equations are expressed in the form of nonlinear pendulum equations. We perform test particle simulations of electrons in an electrostatic model with Langmuir waves and a non-oscillatory electric field. We solve equations of motion and study the dynamics of particles with different values of inhomogeneity factor S defined as a ratio of the non-oscillatory electric field intensity to the wave amplitude. The simulation results demonstrate deceleration/acceleration, thermalization, and trapping of particles through resonance with a single wave, two waves, and multiple waves. For two-wave and multiple-wave cases, we describe the wave-particle interaction as either coherent or incoherent based on the probability of nonlinear trapping.

  13. Constraints on Non-Standard Contributions to the Charged-Current Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, K; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    The success of the quantum level predictions of the Standard Model on the $Z$ boson properties, on $\\mw$ and on $\\mt$, which makes use of the muon lifetime as an input, implies a stringent constraint on new physics contributions to the $V-A$ charged-current interactions among leptons. Observed unitarity of the CKM matrix elements then implies constraints on non-standard contributions to the lepton-quark charged-current interactions. By using the recent electroweak data as inputs, we find the 95% CL limits for the corresponding contact interactions: $\\Lambda_{CC,+}^{\\ell\\ell}>7.5$ TeV and the lepton-quark contact interactions.

  14. Mobile charge generation dynamics in P3HT: PCBM observed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale.......Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale....

  15. Influence of grain charge gradients on the dynamics of macroparticles in an electrostatic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S., E-mail: olga.vaulina@bk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    An analytical model of anomalous heating of charged dust grains (macroparticles) caused by their stochastic motion in a bounded plasma volume is proposed. Analytical expressions allowing one to describe the pumping (heating) of interacting grains with additional stochastic energy due to grain charge gradients are derived. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulation of the problem. It is shown that spatial variations in the charges of dust grains can lead to their anomalous heating in laboratory plasma.

  16. Dynamic force spectroscopy of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, E.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    Ion pairing is the main driving force in the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes, which find widespread use in micellar assemblies, drug carriers, and coatings. In this paper we examine the actual ion pairing forces in a polyelectrolyte complex between two oppositely charged polyelectrolyte

  17. Microscopic dynamics of charge separation at the aqueous electrochemical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattirtzi, John A; Limmer, David T; Willard, Adam P

    2017-12-19

    We have used molecular simulation and methods of importance sampling to study the thermodynamics and kinetics of ionic charge separation at a liquid water-metal interface. We have considered this process using canonical examples of two different classes of ions: a simple alkali-halide pair, Na + I - , or classical ions, and the products of water autoionization, H 3 O + OH - , or water ions. We find that for both ion classes, the microscopic mechanism of charge separation, including water's collective role in the process, is conserved between the bulk liquid and the electrode interface. However, the thermodynamic and kinetic details of the process differ between these two environments in a way that depends on ion type. In the case of the classical ion pairs, a higher free-energy barrier to charge separation and a smaller flux over that barrier at the interface result in a rate of dissociation that is 40 times slower relative to the bulk. For water ions, a slightly higher free-energy barrier is offset by a higher flux over the barrier from longer lived hydrogen-bonding patterns at the interface, resulting in a rate of association that is similar both at and away from the interface. We find that these differences in rates and stabilities of charge separation are due to the altered ability of water to solvate and reorganize in the vicinity of the metal interface.

  18. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar{sup +} beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ∼5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  19. Mass Charge Interactions for Visualizing the Quantum Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Wolfgang

    Our goal is to integrate the objective and subjective aspects of our personal experience into a single complete theory of reality. To further this endeavor we replace elementary particles with elementary events as the building blocks of an event oriented description of that reality. The simplest event in such a conception is an adaptation of A. Wheeler's primitive explanatory--measurement cycle between internal observations experienced by an observer and their assumed physical causes. We will show how internal forces between charge and mass are required to complete the cyclic sequence of activity. This new formulation of internal material is easier to visualize and map to cognitive experiences than current formulations of sub-atomic physics. In our formulation, called Cognitive Action Theory, such internal forces balance the external forces of gravity-inertia and electricity-magnetism. They thereby accommodate outside influences by adjusting the internal structure of material from which all things are composed. Such accommodation is interpreted as the physical implementation of a model of the external physical world in the brain of a cognitive being or alternatively the response mechanism to external influences in the material of inanimate objects. We adopt the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation of QT to show that the nature of space in our model is mathematically equivalent to a field of clocks. Within this field small oscillations form deBroglie waves. This interpretation allows us to visualize the underlying structure of empty space with a charge-mass separation field in equilibrium, and objects appearing in space with quantum wave disturbances to that equilibrium occurring inside material. Space is thereby associated with the internal structure of material and quantum mechanics is shown to be, paraphrasing Heisenberg, the physics of the material that knows the world.

  20. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 3 Thermal Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present third volume methods for describing of the thermal interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. In addition a large number of valuable experiments is collected and predicted using the methods introduced in this monograph. In this way the accuracy of the methods is reve...

  1. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 2 Mechanical Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present second volume the methods for describing the mechanical interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. This fourth edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections.   "The literature in the field of multiphase flows is numerous. Therefore, it i...

  2. Electrostatic double-layer interaction between stacked charged bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Nomura, Yoko; Akiyama, Ryo; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2017-10-01

    The inapplicability of the DLVO theory to multilayered anionic bilayers is found in terms of the co-ion-valence dependence of the lamellar repeat distance. Most of the added salt is expelled from the interlamellar space to the bulk due to the Gibbs-Donnan effect on multiple bilayers with the bulk. The electrostatic double-layer interaction is well expressed by the formula recently proposed by Trefalt. The osmotic pressure due to the expelled ions, rather than the van der Waals interaction, is the main origin of the attractive force between the bilayers.

  3. Structural dynamics of a noncovalent charge transfer complex from femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Creelman, Mark; Mathies, Richard A

    2012-09-06

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy is used to examine the structural dynamics of photoinduced charge transfer within a noncovalent electron acceptor/donor complex of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA, electron acceptor) and hexamethylbenzene (HMB, electron donor) in ethylacetate and acetonitrile. The evolution of the vibrational spectrum reveals the ultrafast structural changes that occur during the charge separation (Franck-Condon excited state complex → contact ion pair) and the subsequent charge recombination (contact ion pair → ground state complex). The Franck-Condon excited state is shown to have significant charge-separated character because its vibrational spectrum is similar to that of the ion pair. The charge separation rate (2.5 ps in ethylacetate and ∼0.5 ps in acetonitrile) is comparable to solvation dynamics and is unaffected by the perdeuteration of HMB, supporting the dominant role of solvent rearrangement in charge separation. On the other hand, the charge recombination slows by a factor of ∼1.4 when using perdeuterated HMB, indicating that methyl hydrogen motions of HMB mediate the charge recombination process. Resonance Raman enhancement of the HMB vibrations in the complex reveals that the ring stretches of HMB, and especially the C-CH(3) deformations are the primary acceptor modes promoting charge recombination.

  4. Ligand-modulated interactions between charged monolayer-protected Au144 (SR)60 gold nanoparticles in physiological saline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Oscar; Chen, Liao; Whetten, Robert; Yacaman, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    We studied the interactions of functionalized Au144 nanoparticles (NPs) in a near-physiological environment through all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The AuNPs were coated with a homogeneous selection of 60 thiolates: 11-mercapto-1-undecanesulfonate, 5-mercapto-1-pentanesulfonate, 5-mercapto-1-pentane-amine, 4-mercapto-benzoate or 4-mercapto-benzamide. These ligands were selected to elucidate how the aggregation behavior depends on the ligands' sign of charge, length, and flexibility. Simulating the dynamics of a pair of identical AuNPs in a cell of saline of 150 mM NaCl in addition to 120 Na+/Cl- counter-ions, we computed the aggregation affinities from the potential of mean force as a function of the pair separation. We found that NPs coated with negatively charged, short ligands have the strongest affinities mediated by multiple Na+ counter-ions residing on a plane in-between the pair and forming ``salt bridges'' to both NPs. Positively charged NPs have weaker affinities, as Cl counter-ions form fewer and weaker salt bridges. The longer ligands' large fluctuations disfavor the forming of salt bridges, enable hydrophobic contact between the exposed hydrocarbon chains and interact at greater separations due to the fact that the screening effect is rather incomplete. Supported by the CONACYT, NIH, NSF and TACC.

  5. X-ray Pump–Probe Investigation of Charge and Dissociation Dynamics in Methyl Iodine Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics is of fundamental interest in natural science research. The capability of investigating molecular dynamics is one of the various motivations for ultrafast optics. We present our investigation of photoionization and nuclear dynamics in methyl iodine (CH3I molecule with an X-ray pump X-ray probe scheme. The pump–probe experiment was realized with a two-mirror X-ray split and delay apparatus. Time-of-flight mass spectra at various pump–probe delay times were recorded to obtain the time profile for the creation of high charge states via sequential ionization and for molecular dissociation. We observed high charge states of atomic iodine up to 29+, and visualized the evolution of creating these high atomic ion charge states, including their population suppression and enhancement as the arrival time of the second X-ray pulse was varied. We also show the evolution of the kinetics of the high charge states upon the timing of their creation during the ionization-dissociation coupled dynamics. We demonstrate the implementation of X-ray pump–probe methodology for investigating X-ray induced molecular dynamics with femtosecond temporal resolution. The results indicate the footprints of ionization that lead to high charge states, probing the long-range potential curves of the high charge states.

  6. Effective Electrostatic Interactions Between Two Overall Neutral Surfaces with Quenched Charge Heterogeneity Over Atomic Length Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.

    2017-12-01

    the salt ion; whereas if the 1:1 type electrolyte and the symmetrical patterns are considered, then the opposite may be the case. All of these findings can be explained self-consistently from several perspectives: an excess adsorption of the salt ions (induced by the surface charge separation) serving to raise the osmotic pressure between the plates, configuration fine-tuning in the thinner ion adsorption layer driven by the energy decrease principle, direct Coulombic interactions operating between charged objects on the two face-to-face plates involved, and net charge strength in the ion adsorption layer responsible for the net electrostatic repulsion.

  7. Attosecond Electron Processes in Materials: Excitons, Plasmons, and Charge Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    focused using a f=1.5 m lens into a 250 micron hollow core fiber (HCF) filled with neon gas at atmospheric pressure to stretch the pulse spectrum from... insulator to metal transition. Introduction: The goal of this work was to understand the generation, transport, and manipulation of electronic charge...chemically sensitive probe pulse utilizing specific core level transitions in atoms that are part of a material under study. The measurements follow

  8. Charging dynamics and strong localization of a two-dimensional electron cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianoux, R; Smilde, H J H; Marchi, F; Buffet, N; Mur, P; Comin, F; Chevrier, J

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of charge injection in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon dioxide matrix is studied using electrostatic force microscopy. We show that the presence of silicon nanocrystals with a density of 10 11 cm -2 is essential for strong localization of charges, and results in exceptional charge retention properties compared to nanocrystal-free SiO 2 samples. In both systems, a logarithmic dependence of the diameter of the charged area on the injection time is experimentally observed on a timescale between 0.1 and 10 s (voltage≤10 V). A field-emission injection, limited by Coulomb blockade and a lateral charge spreading due to a repulsive radial electric field are used to model the sample charging. Once the tip is retracted, the electron cloud is strongly confined in the nanocrystals and remains static

  9. Polarization of Λ hyperons produced inclusively in v p andbar v p charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Böckmann, K.; Gebel, W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Clayton, E. F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Settles, R.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1985-03-01

    Lambda hyperons from v p andbar v p charged current interactions have been analysed for polarization. A significant polarization is observed for Λ particles in the quasi-elastic region for both types of interactions. Part of this polarization is due to the decay of highly polarized Σ(1385) resonances. The results are compared with simple predictions of the quark parton model.

  10. Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Mehresh, Parag [Peoria, IL; Schuh, David [Peoria, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-06-03

    A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to a new combination of engine speed and load.

  11. Quasiclassical methods for spin-charge coupled dynamics in low-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corini, Cosimo

    2009-06-12

    Spintronics is a new field of study whose broad aim is the manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom in solid state systems. One of its main goals is the realization of devices capable of exploiting, besides the charge, the carriers' - and possibly the nuclei's - spin. The presence of spin-orbit coupling in a system enables the spin and charge degrees of freedom to ''communicate'', a favorable situation if one is to realize such devices. More importantly, it offers the opportunity of doing so by relying solely on electric fields, whereas magnetic fields are otherwise required. Eminent examples of versatile systems with built-in and variously tunable spin-orbit interaction are two-dimensional electron - or hole - gases. The study of spin-charge coupled dynamics in such a context faces a large number of open questions, both of the fundamental and of the more practical type. To tackle the problem we rely on the quasiclassical formalism. This is an approximate quantum-field theoretical formulation with a solid microscopic foundation, perfectly suited for describing phenomena at the mesoscopic scale, and bearing a resemblance to standard Boltzmann theory which makes for physical transparency. Originally born to deal with transport in electron-phonon systems, we first generalize it to the case in which spin-orbit coupling is present, and then move on to apply it to specific situations and phenomena. Among these, to the description of the spin Hall effect and of voltage induced spin polarizations in two-dimensional electron gases under a variety of conditions - stationary or time-dependent, in the presence of magnetic and non-magnetic disorder, in the bulk or in confined geometries -, and to the problem of spin relaxation in narrow wires. (orig.)

  12. Quasiclassical methods for spin-charge coupled dynamics in low-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corini, Cosimo

    2009-01-01

    Spintronics is a new field of study whose broad aim is the manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom in solid state systems. One of its main goals is the realization of devices capable of exploiting, besides the charge, the carriers' - and possibly the nuclei's - spin. The presence of spin-orbit coupling in a system enables the spin and charge degrees of freedom to ''communicate'', a favorable situation if one is to realize such devices. More importantly, it offers the opportunity of doing so by relying solely on electric fields, whereas magnetic fields are otherwise required. Eminent examples of versatile systems with built-in and variously tunable spin-orbit interaction are two-dimensional electron - or hole - gases. The study of spin-charge coupled dynamics in such a context faces a large number of open questions, both of the fundamental and of the more practical type. To tackle the problem we rely on the quasiclassical formalism. This is an approximate quantum-field theoretical formulation with a solid microscopic foundation, perfectly suited for describing phenomena at the mesoscopic scale, and bearing a resemblance to standard Boltzmann theory which makes for physical transparency. Originally born to deal with transport in electron-phonon systems, we first generalize it to the case in which spin-orbit coupling is present, and then move on to apply it to specific situations and phenomena. Among these, to the description of the spin Hall effect and of voltage induced spin polarizations in two-dimensional electron gases under a variety of conditions - stationary or time-dependent, in the presence of magnetic and non-magnetic disorder, in the bulk or in confined geometries -, and to the problem of spin relaxation in narrow wires. (orig.)

  13. Effect of the total charge on the magnitudes of the topological cross sections in hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitaev, D.N.; Smirnova, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    The reconstructed distributions in the total particle multiplicity in pp interactions are used to obtain the magnitudes of the topological cross sections in pp-bar interactions with baryons in the final state. The mean particle multiplicities are found for the differences of the topological cross sections (K - p-K + p) and (π - p-π + p) taking into account the difference in the total charge of these reactions. The mean numbers of neutral particles are given for events with different numbers of charged particles in pp interactions

  14. Interaction of charged reaction products with opalescent fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Pegoraro, F.

    1981-01-01

    In a D-T plasma close to ignition, if the contribution of the 3.5 MeV fusion-produced α-particles to the total plasma pressure is neglected, the interaction of these particles with the magnetic fluctuations which are supported by the bulk of the plasma can be described by retaining the contribution arising from the wave-particle resonant interaction only. Then, following a perturbation approach, we can start by examining the time evolution, in the absence of α-particles, of magnetic fluctuations of the shear-Alfven type in a sheared magnetic configuration where the presence of magnetic curvature causes a mixing between these waves and interchange instabilities. In the description of these fluctuations, we shall adopt an equation, derived from the theory of ballooning modes that can be proved to be valid in the neighborhood of the magnetic axis

  15. Diffuse-charge dynamics of ionic liquids in electrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui

    2011-11-01

    We employ a continuum theory of solvent-free ionic liquids accounting for both short-range electrostatic correlations and steric effects (finite ion size) [Bazant et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046102 (2011)] to study the response of a model microelectrochemical cell to a step voltage. The model problem consists of a 1-1 symmetric ionic liquid between two parallel blocking electrodes, neglecting any transverse transport phenomena. Matched asymptotic expansions in the limit of thin double layers are applied to analyze the resulting one-dimensional equations and study the overall charge-time relation in the weakly nonlinear regime. One important conclusion is that our simple scaling analysis suggests that the length scale √(λ*(D)l*(c)) accurately characterizes the double-layer structure of ionic liquids with strong electrostatic correlations where l*(c) is the electrostatic correlation length (in contrast, the Debye screening length λ*(D) is the primary double-layer length for electrolytes) and the response time of λ(D)(*3/2)L*/(D*l(c)(1/2)) (not λ*(D)L*/D* that is the primary charging time of electrolytes) is the correct charging time scale of ionic liquids with strong electrostatic correlations where D* is the diffusivity and L* is the separation length of the cell. With these two new scales, data of both electric potential versus distance from the electrode and the total diffuse charge versus time collapse onto each individual master curve in the presence of strong electrostatic correlations. In addition, the dependance of the total diffuse charge on steric effects, short-range correlations, and driving voltages is thoroughly examined. The results from the asymptotic analysis are compared favorably with those from full numerical simulations. Finally, the absorption of excess salt by the double layer creates a depletion region outside the double layer. Such salt depletion may bring a correction to the leading order terms and break down the weakly nonlinear

  16. Charged and Neutral Particle Interactions on Aerospace Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Wilkins, Richard; Huff, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Various candidate aircraft and spacecraft materials were analyzed and compared in a neutron environment using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) and Trapped environments using the HZETRN code. These candidate materials are being used in aerospace vehicles, have been tested in particle beams, or seemed reasonable to analyze in this manner before deciding to manufacture and test them. This analysis shows that hydrogen bearing materials are better than the metal alloys for reducing the number of reflected and transmitted particles. It also shows that neutrons above 1 MeV are reflected out of the face of the slab better when larger quantities of carbon are present in the material. If a neutron absorber is added to the material, fewer neutrons are transmitted through and reflected from the material. This analysis focused on combinations of scatterers and absorbers to optimize these reaction channels on the higher energy neutron component. The absorber addition did not substantially change the charged particle transmission from the value obtained for polyethylene. The ultimate goal of this type of analysis is the selection of a layered material or material type that will optimize dose, dose equivalent, and electronic error rates inside the vehicle (and outside the vehicle if necessary for the mission). This analysis focuses on how the different material types and additives behave in the atmospheric and space related particle fields. As a secondary issue, as the amount of hydrogen bearing materials increase, larger fluxes of thermal neutrons are expected. It has been observed experimentally that large thicknesses of hydrogen bearing materials increase the error rates per neutron that occurs in SRAM memory chips. This effect is still being investigated, but it has been narrowed down to the larger mean neutron energy produced by the hydrogen bearing material. (authors)

  17. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-28

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  18. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  19. Charging and Transport Dynamics of a Flow-Through Electrode Capacitive Deionization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yatian; Campbell, Patrick G; Hemmatifar, Ali; Knipe, Jennifer M; Loeb, Colin K; Reidy, John J; Hubert, Mckenzie A; Stadermann, Michael; Santiago, Juan G

    2018-01-11

    We present a study of the interplay among electric charging rate, capacitance, salt removal, and mass transport in "flow-through electrode" capacitive deionization (CDI) systems. We develop two models describing coupled transport and electro-adsorption/desorption which capture salt removal dynamics. The first model is a simplified, unsteady zero-dimensional volume-averaged model which identifies dimensionless parameters and figures of merits associated with cell performance. The second model is a higher fidelity area-averaged model which captures both spatial and temporal responses of charging. We further conducted an experimental study of these dynamics and considered two salt transport regimes: (1) advection-limited regime and (2) dispersion-limited regime. We use these data to validate models. The study shows that, in the advection-limited regime, differential charge efficiency determines the salt adsorption at the early stage of the deionization process. Subsequently, charging transitions to a quasi-steady state where salt removal rate is proportional to applied current scaled by the inlet flow rate. In the dispersion-dominated regime, differential charge efficiency, cell volume, and diffusion rates govern adsorption dynamics and flow rate has little effect. In both regimes, the interplay among mass transport rate, differential charge efficiency, cell capacitance, and (electric) charging current governs salt removal in flow-through electrode CDI.

  20. Energy dependence of negatively charged pion production in proton-proton interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)663936; Dominik, Wojciech; Gaździck, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents inclusive spectra of the negatively charged pions produced in inelastic proton-proton interactions measured at five beam momenta: 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c. The measurements were conducted in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN using a system of five Time Projection Chambers. The negatively charged pion spectra were calculated based on the negatively charged hadron spectra. Contribution of hadrons other than the primary pions was removed using EPOS simulations. The results were corrected for effects related to detection, acceptance, reconstruction efficiency and the analysis technique. Two-dimensional spectra were derived as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum or transverse mass. The spectra were parametrised by widths of the rapidity distributions, inverse slope parameters of the transverse mass distributions, mean transverse masses and the total pion multiplicities. The negatively charged pion spectra in proton-proton interactions belong to a broad NA61/SHINE programme of se...

  1. Measurements of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: nakajima@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    The SciBooNE experiment (FNAL-E954) is designed to measure neutrino-nucleous cross sections in the one GeV region. Additionally, SciBooNE serves as a near detector for MiniBooNE by measuring the neutrino flux. In this paper, we describe two analyses using neutrino charged current interactions at SciBooNE: a neutrino spectrum measurement and a search for charged current coherent pion production.

  2. Transverse Space-Charge Field-Induced Plasma Dynamics for Ultraintense Electron-Beam Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tarkeshian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to laser or x-ray beams, the interaction of sufficiently intense particle beams with neutral gases will result in the creation of plasma. In contrast to photon-based ionization, the strong unipolar field of a particle beam can generate a plasma where the electron population receives a large initial momentum kick and escapes, leaving behind unshielded ions. Measuring the properties of the ensuing Coulomb exploding ions—such as their kinetic energy distribution, yield, and spatial distribution—can provide information about the peak electric fields that are achieved in the electron beams. Particle-in-cell simulations and analytical models are presented for high-brightness electron beams of a few femtoseconds or even hundreds of attoseconds, and transverse beam sizes on the micron scale, as generated by today’s free electron lasers. Different density regimes for the utilization as a potential diagnostics are explored, and the fundamental differences in plasma dynamical behavior for e-beam or photon-based ionization are highlighted. By measuring the dynamics of field-induced ions for different gas and beam densities, a lower bound on the beam charge density can be obtained in a single shot and in a noninvasive way. The exponential dependency of the ionization yield on the beam properties can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, at the submicrometer and subfemtosecond scales, respectively, offering a practical and powerful approach to characterizing beams from accelerators at the frontiers of performance.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2010-03-01

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization, and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a salinity difference. Here, we present a unified mean-field theory for capacitive charging and desalination by ideally polarizable porous electrodes (without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions) valid in the limit of thin double layers (compared to typical pore dimensions). We illustrate the theory for the case of a dilute, symmetric, binary electrolyte using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model of the double layer, for which simple formulae are available for salt adsorption and capacitive charging of the diffuse part of the double layer. We solve the full GCS mean-field theory numerically for realistic parameters in capacitive deionization, and we derive reduced models for two limiting regimes with different time scales: (i) in the “supercapacitor regime” of small voltages and/or early times, the porous electrode acts like a transmission line, governed by a linear diffusion equation for the electrostatic potential, scaled to the RC time of a single pore, and (ii) in the “desalination regime” of large voltages and long times, the porous electrode slowly absorbs counterions, governed by coupled, nonlinear diffusion equations for the pore-averaged potential and salt concentration.

  4. Interactions of circular Rydberg atoms with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in experimental cross-field techniques has made it possible to produce oriented Rydberg atoms of any angular momentum l within a given n manifold. The largest angular momentum state l max = n - 1 of a given n manifold is of particular interest because of its semiclassical properties for n much-gt 1. The corresponding classical Kepler orbit is circular with highly localized phase space distribution. The circular Rydberg atoms afford the opportunity to study various interactions in the semiclassical regime. The authors report electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms by protons and positrons at speeds comparable to the electron orbital speed. They find orientation dependent, novel peak structures for both protons and positrons in the angular scattering of the particles. The structures may be understood in terms of quasi Thomas double scattering mechanism for capture. Other related aspects including final state population and orientation indulged scattering asymmetry will also be discussed

  5. Precise Analysis on Mutual Inductance Variation in Dynamic Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Rakhymbay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer provides an opportunity to charge electric vehicles (EVs without electrical cables. Two categories of this technique are distinguished: Stationary Wireless Charging (SWC and Dynamic Wireless Charging (DWC systems. Implementation of DWC is more desirable than SWC as it can potentially eliminate challenges associated with heavy weight batteries and time-consuming charging processes. However, power transfer efficiency and range, lateral misalignment of coils as well as implementation cost are issues affecting DWC. These issues need to be addressed through developing coil architectures and topologies as well as operating novel semiconductor switches at higher frequencies. This study presents a small-scale dynamic wireless power transfer system for EV. It specifically concentrates on analyzing the dynamic mutual inductance between the coils due to the misalignment as it has significant influence on the EV charging process, particularly, over the output power and overall efficiency. A simulation study is carried out to explore dynamic mutual inductance profile between the transmitter and receiver coils. Mutual inductance simulation results are then verified through practical measurements on fabricated coils. Integrating the practical results into the model, an EV DWC power transfer simulation is conducted and the relation between dynamic mutual inductance and output power are discussed technically.

  6. Non-Markovian reduced dynamics of ultrafast charge transfer at an oligothiophene–fullerene heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Keith H., E-mail: keith.hughes@bangor.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Cahier, Benjamin [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Martinazzo, Rocco [Dipartimento di Chimica Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Tamura, Hiroyuki [WPI-Advanced Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • Quantum dynamical study of exciton dissociation at a heterojunction interface. • The non-Markovian quantum dynamics involves a highly structured spectral density. • Spectral density is reconstructed from an effective mode transformation of the Hamiltonian. • The dynamics is studied using the hierarchical equations of motion approach. • It was found that the temperature has little effect on the charge transfer. - Abstract: We extend our recent quantum dynamical study of the exciton dissociation and charge transfer at an oligothiophene–fullerene heterojunction interface (Tamura et al., 2012) [6] by investigating the process using the non-perturbative hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach. Based upon an effective mode reconstruction of the spectral density the effect of temperature on the charge transfer is studied using reduced density matrices. It was found that the temperature had little effect on the charge transfer and a coherent dynamics persists over the first few tens of femtoseconds, indicating that the primary charge transfer step proceeds by an activationless pathway.

  7. Investigations of ultrafast charge dynamics in laser-irradiated targets by a self probing technique employing laser driven protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, H. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Cantono, G. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Department of Physics “E. Fermi”, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Research Unit Adriano Gozzini, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa 56124 (Italy); Nersisyan, G. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Brauckmann, S. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany); Doria, D.; Gwynne, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Macchi, A. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi”, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Research Unit Adriano Gozzini, via G. Moruzzi 1, Pisa 56124 (Italy); Naughton, K. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Willi, O. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany); Lewis, C.L.S.; Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    The divergent and broadband proton beams produced by the target normal sheath acceleration mechanism provide the unique opportunity to probe, in a point-projection imaging scheme, the dynamics of the transient electric and magnetic fields produced during laser-plasma interactions. Commonly such experimental setup entails two intense laser beams, where the interaction produced by one beam is probed with the protons produced by the second. We present here experimental studies of the ultra-fast charge dynamics along a wire connected to laser irradiated target carried out by employing a ‘self’ proton probing arrangement – i.e. by connecting the wire to the target generating the probe protons. The experimental data shows that an electromagnetic pulse carrying a significant amount of charge is launched along the wire, which travels as a unified pulse of 10s of ps duration with a velocity close to speed of light. The experimental capabilities and the analysis procedure of this specific type of proton probing technique are discussed. - Highlights: • Prompt charging of laser irradiated target generates ultra-short EM pulses. • Its ultrafast propagation along a wire was studied by self-proton probing technique. • Self-proton probing technique is the proton probing with one laser pulse. • Pulse temporal profile and speed along the wire were measured with high resolution.

  8. Anomalous transport of charged dust grains in a magnetized collisional plasma: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi

    2018-05-01

    Anomalous diffusion of charged dust grains immersed in a plasma in the presence of strong ion-neutral collision, flowing ions, and a magnetic field has been observed. Molecular Dynamics simulation confirms the deviation from normal diffusion in an ensemble of dust grains probed in laboratory plasma chambers. Collisional effects are significant in governing the nature of diffusion. In order to have a clear idea on the transport of particles in a real experimental situation, the contribution of streaming ions and the magnetic field along with collision is considered through the relevant interaction potential. The nonlinear evolution of Mean Square Displacement is an indication of the modification in particle trajectories due to several effects as mentioned above. It is found that strong collision and ion flow significantly affect the interparticle interaction potential in the presence of the magnetic field and lead to the appearance of the asymmetric type of Debye Hückel (D H) potential. Due to the combined effect of the magnetic field, ion flow, and collision, dusty plasma exhibits a completely novel behavior. The coupling parameter Γ enhances the asymmetric D H type potential arising due to ion flow, and this may drive the system to a disordered state.

  9. Effect of the size of charged spherical macroparticles on their electrostatic interaction in an equilibrium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru; Derbenev, I. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The effect of the size of two charged spherical macroparticles on their electrostatic interaction in an equilibrium plasma is analyzed within the linearized Poisson–Botzmann model. It is established that, under the interaction of two charged dielectric macroparticles in an equilibrium plasma, the forces acting on each particle turn out to be generally unequal. The forces become equal only in the case of conducting macroparticles or in the case of dielectric macroparticles of the same size and charge. They also turn out to be equal when the surface potentials of the macroparticles remain constant under the variation of interparticle distances. Formulas are proposed that allow one to calculate the interaction force with a high degree of accuracy under the condition that the radii of macroparticles are much less than the screening length, which is usually satisfied in experiments with dusty plasmas.

  10. Peculiarity of the charged particles dynamics at the cyclotron resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Tolstoluzhsky, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the analysis was provided of the discrepancy between thresholds for appearance of the chaotic regime in the conditions of cyclotron resonances, obtained by analytical consideration of the particle dynamics, on the one hand, and by numerical investigation, on the other hand. The explanation is given for these threshold discrepancies.

  11. Accounting, charging and billing for dynamic service composition chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumph, F.J.; Kruithof, G.H.; Huitema, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    Services delivered to an end user can be composed of numerous subservices and form chains of composed services. These service composition chains traditionally consist of a static set of business entities. However, in order to increase business agility, dynamic service composition chains can be used

  12. Interaction between Dynamic Financing and Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Mæland, Jøril; Miltersen, Kristian R.

    Debt priority rules, i.e., the rules determining how different classes of debt split the firm's assets after bankruptcy, influence the firm's investment decisions. Existing debt benefits from an investment either because the investment is equity financed or because new debt issued to (partly......) finance the investment has lower priority in the event of bankruptcy as is the case for the commonly used absolute priority rule (APR). This incentivizes equity holders to under invest. If debt priority rules are specified in such a way that existing debt can be exploited by issuing new debt, do equity...... holders have the incentive to over invest. We formulate a dynamic structural model to study the interaction of initial capital structure choice, investment policy, subsequent debt issues, and debt priority rules. We find that priority rules have a substantial impact on investment timing as well...

  13. Electrokinetics of nanochannels and porous membranes with dynamic surface charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo

    . Notably, we find that the conductance minimum is mainly caused by hydronium ions, and in our case almost exclusively due to carbonic acid generated from the dissolution of CO2 from the atmosphere. We carry out delicate experiments and measure the conductance of silica nanochannels as a function...... and consider strong out-of-equilibrium transport across the membrane. Our model predicts large pH variations in the electrodialysis system that in turn lowers the ion-selectivity of the membrane by protonation reactions. This opens up for significant over-limiting current. We use our model to investigate...... procedure that requires much attention to the comparability between the conditions in the model and in the experiment. Finally, we make a small digression and study induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) and the validity of common EO slip formulae as a function of a finite Debye screening length...

  14. A charge-dependent mechanism is responsible for the dynamic accumulation of proteins inside nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinova, Yana R; Kananykhina, Eugenia Y; Potashnikova, Daria M; Lisitsyna, Olga M; Sheval, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The majority of known nucleolar proteins are freely exchanged between the nucleolus and the surrounding nucleoplasm. One way proteins are retained in the nucleoli is by the presence of specific amino acid sequences, namely nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs). The mechanism by which NoLSs retain proteins inside the nucleoli is still unclear. Here, we present data showing that the charge-dependent (electrostatic) interactions of NoLSs with nucleolar components lead to nucleolar accumulation as follows: (i) known NoLSs are enriched in positively charged amino acids, but the NoLS structure is highly heterogeneous, and it is not possible to identify a consensus sequence for this type of signal; (ii) in two analyzed proteins (NF-κB-inducing kinase and HIV-1 Tat), the NoLS corresponds to a region that is enriched for positively charged amino acid residues; substituting charged amino acids with non-charged ones reduced the nucleolar accumulation in proportion to the charge reduction, and nucleolar accumulation efficiency was strongly correlated with the predicted charge of the tested sequences; and (iii) sequences containing only lysine or arginine residues (which were referred to as imitative NoLSs, or iNoLSs) are accumulated in the nucleoli in a charge-dependent manner. The results of experiments with iNoLSs suggested that charge-dependent accumulation inside the nucleoli was dependent on interactions with nucleolar RNAs. The results of this work are consistent with the hypothesis that nucleolar protein accumulation by NoLSs can be determined by the electrostatic interaction of positively charged regions with nucleolar RNAs rather than by any sequence-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Charge solitons and their dynamical mass in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homfeld, Jens; Protopopov, Ivan; Rachel, Stephan; Shnirman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We investigate charge transport in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions. In the interesting regime of ''small charge solitons'' (polarons), ΛE J >E C >E J , where Λ is the (electrostatic) screening length, the charge dynamics are strongly influenced by the polaronic effects (i.e., by dressing of a Cooper pair by charge dipoles). In particular, the soliton's mass in this regime scales approximately as E J -2 . We employ two theoretical techniques: the many-body tight-binding approach and the mean-field approach, and the results of the two approaches agree in the regime of ''small charge solitons.'' Renormalization of the soliton's mass could be observed; for example, as enhancement of the persistent current in a ring-shaped array.

  16. Direct Observation of Individual Charges and Their Dynamics on Graphene by Low-Energy Electron Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Wicki, Flavio; Longchamp, Jean-Nicolas; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2016-09-14

    Visualizing individual charges confined to molecules and observing their dynamics with high spatial resolution is a challenge for advancing various fields in science, ranging from mesoscopic physics to electron transfer events in biological molecules. We show here that the high sensitivity of low-energy electrons to local electric fields can be employed to directly visualize individual charged adsorbates and to study their behavior in a quantitative way. This makes electron holography a unique probing tool for directly visualizing charge distributions with a sensitivity of a fraction of an elementary charge. Moreover, spatial resolution in the nanometer range and fast data acquisition inherent to lens-less low-energy electron holography allows for direct visual inspection of charge transfer processes.

  17. Long-Ranged Oppositely Charged Interactions for Designing New Types of Colloidal Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Faik Demirörs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Getting control over the valency of colloids is not trivial and has been a long-desired goal for the colloidal domain. Typically, tuning the preferred number of neighbors for colloidal particles requires directional bonding, as in the case of patchy particles, which is difficult to realize experimentally. Here, we demonstrate a general method for creating the colloidal analogs of molecules and other new regular colloidal clusters without using patchiness or complex bonding schemes (e.g., DNA coating by using a combination of long-ranged attractive and repulsive interactions between oppositely charged particles that also enable regular clusters of particles not all in close contact. We show that, due to the interplay between their attractions and repulsions, oppositely charged particles dispersed in an intermediate dielectric constant (4<ϵ<10 provide a viable approach for the formation of binary colloidal clusters. Tuning the size ratio and interactions of the particles enables control of the type and shape of the resulting regular colloidal clusters. Finally, we present an example of clusters made up of negatively charged large and positively charged small satellite particles, for which the electrostatic properties and interactions can be changed with an electric field. It appears that for sufficiently strong fields the satellite particles can move over the surface of the host particles and polarize the clusters. For even stronger fields, the satellite particles can be completely pulled off, reversing the net charge on the cluster. With computer simulations, we investigate how charged particles distribute on an oppositely charged sphere to minimize their energy and compare the results with the solutions to the well-known Thomson problem. We also use the simulations to explore the dependence of such clusters on Debye screening length κ^{−1} and the ratio of charges on the particles, showing good agreement with experimental observations.

  18. The interactions of high-energy, highly charged Xe ions with buckyballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.

    1994-01-01

    Ionization and fragmentation have been measured for C 60 molecules bombarded by highly charged (up to 35+) xenon ions with energies ranging up to 625 MeV. The observed mass distribution of positively charged fragments is explained in terms of a theoretical model indicating that the total interaction cross section contains roughly equal contributions from (a) excitation of the giant plasmon resonance, and (b) large-energy-transfer processes that lead to multiple fragmentation of the molecule. Preliminary results of measurements on VUV photons emitted in these interactions are also presented

  19. Ultrafast dynamics of solvation and charge transfer in a DNA-based biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Susobhan; Batabyal, Subrata; Mondol, Tanumoy; Sao, Dilip; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Charge migration along DNA molecules is a key factor for DNA-based devices in optoelectronics and biotechnology. The association of a significant amount of water molecules in DNA-based materials for the intactness of the DNA structure and their dynamic role in the charge-transfer (CT) dynamics is less documented in contemporary literature. In the present study, we have used a genomic DNA-cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTMA) complex, a technological important biomaterial, and Hoechest 33258 (H258), a well-known DNA minor groove binder, as fluorogenic probe for the dynamic solvation studies. The CT dynamics of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs; 5.2 nm) embedded in the as-prepared and swollen biomaterial have also been studied and correlated with that of the timescale of solvation. We have extended our studies on the temperature-dependent CT dynamics of QDs in a nanoenvironment of an anionic, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelle (AOT RMs), whereby the number of water molecules and their dynamics can be tuned in a controlled manner. A direct correlation of the dynamics of solvation and that of the CT in the nanoenvironments clearly suggests that the hydration barrier within the Arrhenius framework essentially dictates the charge-transfer dynamics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. On the classical dynamics of charges in non-commutative QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatollahi, A.H.; Mohammadzadeh, H.

    2004-01-01

    Following Wong's approach to formulating the classical dynamics of charged particles in non-Abelian gauge theories, we derive the classical equations of motion of a charged particle in U(1) gauge theory on non-commutative space, the so-called non-commutative QED. In the present use of the procedure, it is observed that the definition of the mechanical momenta should be modified. The derived equations of motion manifest the previous statement about the dipole behavior of the charges in non-commutative space. (orig.)

  1. Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Model for Heterogeneous Charged Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, L. G.; Glosli, J. N.; Murillo, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Modeling matter across large length scales and timescales using molecular dynamics simulations poses significant challenges. These challenges are typically addressed through the use of precomputed pair potentials that depend on thermodynamic properties like temperature and density; however, many scenarios of interest involve spatiotemporal variations in these properties, and such variations can violate assumptions made in constructing these potentials, thus precluding their use. In particular, when a system is strongly heterogeneous, most of the usual simplifying assumptions (e.g., spherical potentials) do not apply. Here, we present a multiscale approach to orbital-free density functional theory molecular dynamics (OFDFT-MD) simulations that bridges atomic, interionic, and continuum length scales to allow for variations in hydrodynamic quantities in a consistent way. Our multiscale approach enables simulations on the order of micron length scales and 10's of picosecond timescales, which exceeds current OFDFT-MD simulations by many orders of magnitude. This new capability is then used to study the heterogeneous, nonequilibrium dynamics of a heated interface characteristic of an inertial-confinement-fusion capsule containing a plastic ablator near a fuel layer composed of deuterium-tritium ice. At these scales, fundamental assumptions of continuum models are explored; features such as the separation of the momentum fields among the species and strong hydrogen jetting from the plastic into the fuel region are observed, which had previously not been seen in hydrodynamic simulations.

  2. Flocking dynamics with voter-like interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto, Gabriel; Vazquez, Federico

    2018-03-01

    We study the collective motion of a large set of self-propelled particles subject to voter-like interactions. Each particle moves on a 2D space at a constant speed in a direction that is randomly assigned initially. Then, at every step of the dynamics, each particle adopts the direction of motion of a randomly chosen neighboring particle. We investigate the time evolution of the global alignment of particles measured by the order parameter φ, until complete order \\varphi=1.0 is reached (polar consensus). We find that φ increases as t 1/2 for short times and approaches 1.0 exponentially fast for longer times. Also, the mean time to consensus τ varies non-monotonically with the density of particles ρ, reaching a minimum at some intermediate density ρmin . At ρmin , the mean consensus time scales with the system size N as τmin ∼ N0.765 , and thus the consensus is faster than in the case of all-to-all interactions (large ρ) where τ=2N . We show that the fast consensus, also observed at intermediate and high densities, is a consequence of the segregation of the system into clusters of equally-oriented particles which breaks the balance of transitions between directional states in well mixed systems.

  3. Electric bus migration in Bengaluru with dynamic charging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Begwani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid but unplanned urban development coupled with economic growth has resulted in congestion and pollution concerns in Indian cities. This forced India consider taking concrete steps towards design policies that would help stir the nation towards a more sustainable future. India, along with other bigger Asian economies like China, needs to address the growing global concerns over climate change and design their framework and policies to help cut down the greenhouse gas emissions. Transportation is a major source of pollution. A shift towards a pro-public transport policy would solve the traffic congestion problems and address the emission concerns. India has a significantly higher modal share of public transportation in its major cities. Public bus transport system acts as a lifeline to the India’s poor and middle class citizens. The following study focuses on the need for a replacement of conventional fossil fuel dependent buses with Electric buses in the existing public transport bus fleet in the city of Bengaluru. A design has been developed to utilize wireless charging technologies to realize electric bus migration in Bengaluru.

  4. Interference effects in the nonlinear charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelcic, D.; Batistic, I.; Bjelis, A.

    1987-12-01

    The main features of the nonlinear charge density wave transport in the external dc-ac field are shown to be the natural consequences of resonant phase slip diffusion. This process is treated numerically within the time dependent Landau-Ginzburg model, developed by Gor'kov. The resonances in the ac field are manifested as Shapiro steps in I-V characteristics, present at all rational ratios of internal frequency of current oscillations and external ac frequency. The origin of Shapiro steps, as well as their forms and heights, are cosidered in detail. In particular, it is shown that close to resonances the phase slip voltage acquires a highly nonsinusoidal modulation which leads to the appearance of low frequency and satellite peaks in the Fourier spectrum. Taking into account the interference of adjacent phase slips and the segment or domain structure of physical samples, we interpret the finite width of steps, side wings, synchronization, incomplete and complete mode locking and some other effects observed in numerous experiments on NbSe 3 and other CDW materials. (author). 36 refs, 12 figs

  5. Three-dimensional nonstationary dynamics of a charged bunches-ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, Yu.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work is aimed at studying the changes in the beam dynamics at the beginning of acceleration, when the zero longitudinal emittance is transformed into the final longitudinal phase volume. This process is studied on the bunch-ellipsoid self-consistent model with the charge uniform distribution. The results obtained present the evaluation of the parameters, whereby the longitudinal dynamics in the bunch significantly changes, namely, the particles bunch with increase in the spatial charge transfers into a new state with doubled frequency of the longitudinal oscillations [ru

  6. Instantons: Dynamical mass generation, chiral ward identities and the topological charge correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1983-01-10

    When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta')/sup 2/fsub(eta')/sup 2/ is proportional to the vacuum energy density.

  7. Instantons: Dynamical mass generation, chiral ward identities and the topological charge correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta') 2 fsub(eta') 2 is proportional to the vacuum energy density. (orig.)

  8. Painleve singularity analysis applied to charged particle dynamics during reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    For a plasma in the collisionless regime, test-particle modelling can lend some insight into the macroscopic behavior of the plasma, e.g. conductivity and heating. A common example for which this technique is used is a system with electric and magnetic fields given by B = δyx + zy + yz and E = εz, where δ, γ, and ε are constant parameters. This model can be used to model plasma behavior near neutral lines, (γ = 0), as well as current sheets (γ = 0, δ = 0). The integrability properties of the particle motion in such fields might affect the plasma's macroscopic behavior, and the author has asked the question open-quotes For what values of δ, γ, and ε is the system integrable?close quotes To answer this question, the author has employed Painleve singularity analysis, which is an examination of the singularity properties of a test particle's equations of motion in the complex time plane. This analysis has identified two field geometries for which the system's particle dynamics are integrable in terms of the second Painleve transcendent: the circular O-line case and the case of the neutral sheet configuration. These geometries yield particle dynamics that are integrable in the Liouville sense (i.e., there exist the proper number of integrals in involution) in an extended phase space which includes the time as a canonical coordinate, and this property is also true for nonzero γ. The singularity property tests also identified a large, dense set of X-line and O-line field geometries that yield dynamics that may possess the weak Painleve property. In the case of the X-line geometries, this result shows little relevance to the physical nature of the system, but the existence of a dense set of elliptical O-line geometries with this property may be related to the fact that for ε positive, one can construct asymptotic solutions in the limit t → ∞

  9. Non-Markovian dynamics of charge carriers in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, E; Kyriakidis, J

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of bound particles in multilevel current-carrying quantum dots. We look specifically in the regime of resonant tunnelling transport, where several channels are available for transport. Through a non-Markovian formalism under the Born approximation, we investigate the real-time evolution of the confined particles including transport-induced decoherence and relaxation. In the case of a coherent superposition between states with different particle number, we find that a Fock-space coherence may be preserved even in the presence of tunneling into and out of the dot. Real-time results are presented for various asymmetries of tunneling rates into different orbitals

  10. Multiplicities of secondary hadrons produced in vp and overlinevp charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grässler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Jones, G. T.; Middleton, R. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; Böckmann, K.; Gebel, W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Chima, J. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Settles, R.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicić, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Aachen-Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-Imperial College-München (MPI)-Oxford Collaboration

    1983-08-01

    In an experiment with the hydrogen bubble chamber BEBC at CERN multiplicities of hadrons produced in νp and overlinevp interactions have been investigated. Results are presented on the multiplicities of charged hadrons and neutral pions, forward and backward multiplicities of charged hadrons and correlations between forward and backward multiplicities. Comparisons are made with hadronic reactions and e +e - annihilation. In the framework of the quark-parton model the data imply similar charged multiplicities for the fragments of a u- and a d-quark, and a larger multiplicities for the fragments of a uu- than for a ud-diquark. The correlation data suggest independent fragmentation of the quark and diquark for hadronic masses above ˜ 7 GeV and local charge compensation within an event.

  11. Multiplicities of secondary hadrons produced in vp and anti vp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Chima, J.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1983-01-01

    In an experiment with the hydrogen bubble chamber BEBC at CERN multiplicities of hadrons produced in vp and anti vp interactions have been investigated. Results are presented on the multiplicities of charged hadrons and neutral pions, forward and backward multiplicities of charged hadrons and correlations between forward and backward multiplicities. Comparisons are made with hadronic reactions and e + e - annihilation. In the framework of the quark-parton model the data imply similar charged multiplicities for the fragments of a u- and a d-quark, and larger multiplicities for the fragments of a uu- than for a ud-diquark. The correlation data suggest independent fragmentation of the quark and diquark for hadronic masses above approx.= 7 GeV and local charge compensation within an event. (orig.)

  12. Biochemistry students' ideas about shape and charge in enzyme-substrate interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry is a visual discipline that requires students to develop an understanding of numerous representations. However, there is very little known about what students actually understand about the representations that are used to communicate ideas in biochemistry. This study investigated biochemistry students' understanding of multiple representations of enzyme-substrate interactions through both student interviews (N = 25) and responses by a national sample (N = 707) to the Enzyme-Substrate Interactions Concept Inventory. This manuscript reports the findings regarding one category of misconceptions measured by the concept inventory, namely, students' understandings of shape and charge in the context of enzyme-substrate interactions. Students interpret molecular representations depicting such interactions by determining the complementarity between enzyme and substrate by focusing upon charge and hydrogen bonding, but with a disregard for stereochemistry. Copyright © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Charge separation at nanoscale interfaces: energy-level alignment including two-quasiparticle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark T; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-10-21

    The universal and fundamental criteria for charge separation at interfaces involving nanoscale materials are investigated. In addition to the single-quasiparticle excitation, all the two-quasiparticle effects including exciton binding, Coulomb stabilization, and exciton transfer are considered, which play critical roles on nanoscale interfaces for optoelectronic applications. We propose a scheme allowing adding these two-quasiparticle interactions on top of the single-quasiparticle energy level alignment for determining and illuminating charge separation at nanoscale interfaces. Employing the many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions, we quantitatively demonstrate that neglecting or simplifying these crucial two-quasiparticle interactions using less accurate methods is likely to predict qualitatively incorrect charge separation behaviors at nanoscale interfaces where quantum confinement dominates.

  14. Evaporation and discharge dynamics of highly charged multicomponent droplets generated by electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Ronald L; Beauchamp, J L

    2010-01-28

    We investigate the Rayleigh discharge and evaporation dynamics of highly charged two-component droplets consisting principally of methanol with 2-methoxyethanol, tert-butanol, or m-nitrobenzyl alcohol. A phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) characterizes droplets generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) according to size, velocity, and charge as they move through a uniform electric field within an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Repeated field reversals result in droplet "ping-pong" through the PDA. This generates individual droplet histories of solvent evaporation behavior and the dynamics of charge loss to progeny droplets during Rayleigh discharge events. On average, methanol droplets discharge at 127% their Rayleigh limit of charge, q(R), and release 25% of the net charge. Charge loss from methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets behaves similarly to pure 2-methoxyethanol droplets which release approximately 28% of their net charge. Binary methanol droplets containing up to 50% tert-butanol discharge at a lower percent q(R) than pure methanol and release a greater fraction of their net charge. Mixed 99% methanol/1% m-nitrobenzyl alcohol droplets possess discharge characteristics similar to those of methanol. However, droplets of methanol containing 2% m-nitrobenzyl evaporate down to a fixed size and charge that remains constant with no observable discharges. Quasi-steady-state evaporation models accurately describe observed evaporation phenomena in which methanol/tert-butanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of pure methanol and methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of 2-methoxyethanol. We compare these results to previous Rayleigh discharge experiments and discuss the implications for binary solvents in electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS).

  15. Fundamental quark, lepton correspondence and dynamics with weak decay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Spuy, E.

    1977-10-01

    A nonlinear fermion-field equation of motion and its (in principle) exact solutions, making use of the previously developed technique of infinite component free spinor fields, are discussed. It is shown to be essential for the existence of the solutions to introduce the isosymmetry breaking mechanism by coupling the isospin polarization of the domain of the universe of such particle fields to the field isospin. The essential trigger for the isosymmetry breaking mechanism is the existence of the electromagnetic interaction and the photon fields, carrying an infinite range isospin polarization change in the domain. A quartet of proton, neutron, lambda and charmed quark field solutions, with their respective characteristic Regge trajectories and primary isospin quantum numbers, and a quartet of lepton fields electron neutrino, electron, muon, muon nutrino, are shown to emerge naturally. The equations of motion of the quark and lepton propagators are deduced. The complicated charge nature of the quarks and the need for quark confinement is discussed and a correspondence principle is established between the quark and lepton field solutions. The correspondence is such that the dynamics of the leptons on their own appears to be compatible with quantum electrodynamics on the one hand, and on the other hand permits a natural GIM-Cabibbo weak decay interaction with a Cibibbo angle equal to the domain isospin polarization-change phase angle

  16. Charging and Heating Dynamics of Nanoparticles in Nonthermal Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2014-08-15

    The focus of this award was to understand the interactions of nanometer-sized particles with ionized gases, also called plasmas. Plasmas are widely used in the fabrication of electronic circuits such as microprocessors and memory devices, in plasma display panels, as well as in medical applications. Recently, these ionized gases are finding applications in the synthesis of advanced nanomaterials with novel properties, which are based on nanometer-sized particulate (nanoparticles) building blocks. As these nanoparticles grow in the plasma environment, they interact with the plasmas species such as electrons and ions which critically determines the nanoparticle properties. The University of Minnesota researchers conducting this project performed numerical simulations and developed analytical models that described the interaction of plasma-bound nanoparticles with the plasma ions. The plasma ions bombard the nanoparticle surface with substantial energy, which can result in the rearrangement of the nanoparticles’ atoms, giving them often desirable structures at the atomic scale. Being able to tune the ion energies allows to control the properties of nanoparticles produced in order to tailor their attributes for certain applications. For instance, when used in high efficiency light emitting devices, nanoparticles produced under high fluxes of highly energetic ions may show superior light emission to particles produced under low fluxes of less energetic ions. The analytical models developed by the University of Minnesota researchers enable the research community to easily determine the energy of ions bombarding the nanoparticles. The researchers extensively tested the validity of the analytical models by comparing them to sophisticated computer simulations based on stochastic particle modeling, also called Monte Carlo modeling, which simulated the motion of hundreds of thousands of ions and their interaction with the nanoparticle surfaces. Beyond the scientific

  17. Prediction of coking dynamics for wet coal charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardaś Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predictions of temperature change in the centre plane of the coke oven were compared with industrialscale measurements. Both, the experimental data and obtained numerical results show that moisture content determines the coking process dynamics, lagging the temperature increase above the water steam evaporation temperature and in consequence the total coking time. The phenomenon of internal pressure generation in the context of overlapping effects of simultaneously occurring coal transitions - devolatilisation and coal permeability decrease under plastic stage - was also discussed.

  18. Contribution of charge symmetry breaking interactions in binding energy difference of mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghari, M.

    2006-01-01

    Nolen-Schiffer Anomaly in mirror nuclei due to the NN interactions with isospin mixing between T=0 and T=1 mesons of the same spin and parity are investigated. With the computation of coulomb energy along with the charge symmetry breaking effects provide a reasonably accurate description of binding energy differences between 39 Ca- 39 K , 41 Sc- 41 Ca mirror nuclei

  19. Lie symmetries for the electric charge-magnetic monopole interaction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, I.C.; Ritter, O.M.; Santos, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The symmetries of the equation of motion for an electric charge interacting with a magnetic monopole are analyzed. Two methods, starting from the knowledge of the Lie symmetries, are discussed and employed in this case. This procedure is also compared with the hamiltonians methods. (ltonians methods. (Author) [pt

  20. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Goutam, E-mail: ghoshg@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre (India); Panicker, Lata [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Solid State Physics Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  1. The K 0/π- ratio and strangeness supression in v p andbar vp charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Böckmann, K.; Gebel, W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Chima, J. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Towers, S.; Shotton, P.

    1985-03-01

    Neutral kaon to negative pion production ratios from vp andbar vp charged current interactions in BEBC are presented and compared with LUND fragmentation model predictions. Good agreement is obtained with a strangeness suppression factor λ=0.203±0.014(stat)±0.010(sys). No evidence is seen for an energy dependence of λ in our kinematic region.

  2. Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Stano, Peter; Noiri, Akito; Ito, Takumi; Loss, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

  3. Dynamics of charged bulk viscous collapsing cylindrical source with heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.M.; Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we have explored the effects of dissipation on the dynamics of charged bulk viscous collapsing cylindrical source which allows the out-flow of heat flux in the form of radiations. The Misner-Sharp formalism has been implemented to drive the dynamical equation in terms of proper time and radial derivatives. We have investigated the effects of charge and bulk viscosity on the dynamics of collapsing cylinder. To determine the effects of radial heat flux, we have formulated the heat transport equations in the context of Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory by assuming that thermodynamics viscous/heat coupling coefficients can be neglected within some approximations. In our discussion, we have introduced the viscosity by the standard (non-causal) thermodynamics approach. The dynamical equations have been coupled with the heat transport equation; the consequences of the resulting coupled heat equation have been analyzed in detail. (orig.)

  4. Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate......Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons(1-4). But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited...... states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics(5) and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources(6,7). Such a situation exists for archetypal poly-pyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2...

  5. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Mozuelos, P. [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav del I. P. N., Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C. P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2016-02-07

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  6. Affective Dynamics in Triadic Peer Interactions in Early Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavictoire, L.A.; Snyder, J.; Stoolmiller, M.; Hollenstein, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    In interpersonal interaction research, moving beyond dyadic to triadic dynamics can be analytically daunting. We explored the affective states expressed during triadic peer interactions to understand how patterns were associated with childhood psychopathology and sociometric status. High-risk

  7. Analysis of the dynamic interaction between SVOCs and airborne particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cong; Shi, Shanshan; Weschler, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    A proper quantitative understanding of the dynamic interaction between gas-phase semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and airborne particles is important for human exposure assessment and risk evaluation. Questions regarding how to properly address gas/particle interactions have introduced...

  8. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-07

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  9. Charge-Neutral Constant pH Molecular Dynamics Simulations Using a Parsimonious Proton Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Serena; Ullmann, R Thomas; Groenhof, Gerrit; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-03-08

    In constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, the protonation states of titratable sites can respond to changes of the pH and of their electrostatic environment. Consequently, the number of protons bound to the biomolecule, and therefore the overall charge of the system, fluctuates during the simulation. To avoid artifacts associated with a non-neutral simulation system, we introduce an approach to maintain neutrality of the simulation box in constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, while maintaining an accurate description of all protonation fluctuations. Specifically, we introduce a proton buffer that, like a buffer in experiment, can exchange protons with the biomolecule enabling its charge to fluctuate. To keep the total charge of the system constant, the uptake and release of protons by the buffer are coupled to the titration of the biomolecule with a constraint. We find that, because the fluctuation of the total charge (number of protons) of a typical biomolecule is much smaller than the number of titratable sites of the biomolecule, the number of buffer sites required to maintain overall charge neutrality without compromising the charge fluctuations of the biomolecule, is typically much smaller than the number of titratable sites, implying markedly enhanced simulation and sampling efficiency.

  10. Self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam in plasma wake field excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhter, T.; Fedele, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Nicola, S. De [CNR-SPIN and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Tanjia, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Jovanović, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Mannan, A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-09-01

    The self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam is provided within the context of the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The self-consistent description of the beam dynamics is provided by coupling the Vlasov equation with a Poisson-type equation relating the plasma wake potential to the beam density. An analysis of the beam envelope self-modulation is then carried out and the criteria for the occurrence of the instability are discussed thereby.

  11. Combined centroid-envelope dynamics of intense, magnetically focused charged beams surrounded by conducting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, K.; Rizzato, F.B.; Pakter, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the combined envelope-centroid dynamics of magnetically focused high-intensity charged beams surrounded by conducting walls. Similar to the case where conducting walls are absent, it is shown that the envelope and centroid dynamics decouple from each other. Mismatched envelopes still decay into equilibrium with simultaneous emittance growth, but the centroid keeps oscillating with no appreciable energy loss. Some estimates are performed to analytically obtain characteristics of halo formation seen in the full simulations

  12. Physico-chemical studies on the interaction of dendrimers with lipid bilayers. 1. Effect of dendrimer generation and liposome surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Biplab; Panda, Amiya Kumar; Parimi, Srinivas; Ametov, Igor; Barnes, Timothy; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the interaction of different generation poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (2G, 4G and 6G) and liposomes of different compositions were carried out by a combined turbidity, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopic measurements. Liposomes comprising soy lecithin (SLC, negative surface charge), 1, 2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, mildly positive surface charge), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol (DPPG, negatively charged) and a biologically simulated mixture of DPPC + DPPG (7:3, M/M, negatively charged) were used as model bilayers. 30 wt% cholesterol was used in each combination as it is known to control the fluidity of membrane bilayers. Silica was used as a negatively charged hard sphere model with an aim to compare the results. Both the turbidity and hydrodynamic diameter values of all the liposomes, except DPPC, passed through maxima upon the progressive addition of PAMAM; the effect was insignificant in case of DPPC. Formation of dendriosome, a complex formed between dendrimer and liposome, resulted in the charge reversal of the negatively charged liposomes. Interaction between PAMAM and liposome was found to be governed by electrostatic as well as hydrogen bonding. Generation dependent PAMAM activity followed the order: 6G >4G>2G in terms of overall dendrimer concentration. However, interestingly, the order was reverse when PAMAM activity was considered in terms of total end group concentrations. AFM studies reveal the rupture of bilayer structure upon addition of dendrimer.

  13. Renormalizable N=2 supersymmetric and gauge invariant interactions from the N=2 harmonic superspace with central charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, E.H.

    1986-04-01

    The N=2 harmonic-superspace in the presence of central charges is developed. Renormalizable interactions unusual in N=2 supersymmetric theories, are derived in a consistent way. Symmetries generated by the central charges are discussed. A certain equivalence between N=2 harmonic superspace with and without central charges is established. A non-abelian generalization of the model is given. (author)

  14. Multi-charge-state molecular dynamics and self-diffusion coefficient in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Hou, Yong; Kang, Dongdong; Gao, Cheng; Jin, Fengtao; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    We present a multi-ion molecular dynamics (MIMD) simulation and apply it to calculating the self-diffusion coefficients of ions with different charge-states in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime. First, the method is used for the self-consistent calculation of electron structures of different charge-state ions in the ion sphere, with the ion-sphere radii being determined by the plasma density and the ion charges. The ionic fraction is then obtained by solving the Saha equation, taking account of interactions among different charge-state ions in the system, and ion-ion pair potentials are computed using the modified Gordon-Kim method in the framework of temperature-dependent density functional theory on the basis of the electron structures. Finally, MIMD is used to calculate ionic self-diffusion coefficients from the velocity correlation function according to the Green-Kubo relation. A comparison with the results of the average-atom model shows that different statistical processes will influence the ionic diffusion coefficient in the WDM regime.

  15. Dynamics of charged viscous dissipative cylindrical collapse with full causal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.M.; Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamical aspects of a charged viscous cylindrical source by using the Misner approach. To this end, we have considered the more general charged dissipative fluid enclosed by the cylindrical symmetric spacetime. The dissipative nature of the source is due to the presence of dissipative variables in the stress-energy tensor. The dynamical equations resulting from such charged cylindrical dissipative source have been coupled with the causal transport equations for heat flux, shear and bulk viscosity, in the context of the Israel-Steward theory. In this case, we have the considered Israel-Steward transportation equations without excluding the thermodynamics viscous/heat coupling coefficients. The results are compared with the previous works in which such coefficients were excluded and viscosity variables do not satisfy the casual transportation equations. (orig.)

  16. A dynamic method for charging-up calculations: the case of GEM

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, P M M; Azevedo, C D R; Silva, A L M; Veenhof, R; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Veloso, J F C A

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) signal response is an important and powerful tool for the design and optimization of such detectors. However, several attempts to simulate exactly the effective charge gain have not been completely successful. Namely, the gain stability over time has not been fully understood. Charging-up of the insulator surfaces have been pointed as one of the responsible for the difference between experimental and Monte Carlo results. This work describes two iterative methods to simulate the charging-up in one MPGD device, the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). The first method uses a constant step for avalanches time evolution, very detailed, but slower to compute. The second method uses a dynamic step that improves the computing time. Good agreement between both methods was reached. Despite of comparison with experimental results shows that charging-up plays an important role in detectors operation, should not be the only responsible for the difference between simulat...

  17. Modeling of capacitor charging dynamics in an energy harvesting system considering accurate electromechanical coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Shahriar; Wu, Nan; Filizadeh, Shaahin

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an iterative numerical method that accurately models an energy harvesting system charging a capacitor with piezoelectric patches. The constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials connected with an external charging circuit with a diode bridge and capacitors lead to the electromechanical coupling effect and the difficulty of deriving accurate transient mechanical response, as well as the charging progress. The proposed model is built upon the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and takes into account the electromechanical coupling effects as well as the dynamic process of charging an external storage capacitor. The model is validated through experimental tests on a cantilever beam coated with piezoelectric patches. Several parametric studies are performed and the functionality of the model is verified. The efficiency of power harvesting system can be predicted and tuned considering variations in different design parameters. Such a model can be utilized to design robust and optimal energy harvesting system.

  18. Interaction of slow highly-charged ions with metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction of slow highly charged ions with insulator as well as metallic surfaces is discussed. In addition to the usual flat surface targets, studies with thin foils having a multitude of straight holes of ∼100 nm in diameter (micro-capillary foil) are introduced, which provide various unique information on the above surface interaction. In the case of an insulator micro-capillary foil, a so-called guiding effect was observed, where slow highly charged ions can transmit through the capillary tunnel keeping their initial charge state even when the capillary axis is tilted against the incident beam. A similar guiding effect has recently been found for slow highly-charged ions transmitted through a single tapered glass capillary. In both cases, the guiding effects are expected to be governed by a self-organized charging and discharging of the inner-wall of the insulator capillary. One of the prominent features of this guiding effect with the tapered capillary is the formation of a nano-size beam, which can be applied in various fields of science including surface nano-modification/analysis, nano-surgery of living cells, etc

  19. The Challenge of Incorporating Charged Dust in the Physics of Flowing Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Ma, Y.; Lai, H.; Jian, L.; Toth, G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of two oppositely charged species with very different mass ratios leads to interesting physical processes and difficult numerical simulations. The reconnection problem is a classic example of this principle with a proton-electron mass ratio of 1836, but it is not the only example. Increasingly we are discovering situations in which heavy, electrically charged dust particles are major players in a plasma interaction. The mass of a 1mm dust particle is about 2000 proton masses and of a 10 mm dust particle about 2 million proton masses. One example comes from planetary magnetospheres. Charged dust pervades Enceladus' southern plume. The saturnian magnetospheric plasma flows through this dusty plume interacting with the charged dust and ionized plume gas. Multiple wakes are seen downstream. The flow is diverted in one direction. The field aligned-current systems are elsewhere. How can these two wake features be understood? Next we have an example from the solar wind. When asteroids collide in a disruptive collision, the solar wind strips the nano-scale charged dust from the debris forming a dusty plasma cloud that may be over 106km in extent and containing over 100 million kg of dust accelerated to the solar wind speed. How does this occur, especially as rapidly as it appears to happen? In this paper we illustrate a start on understanding these phenomena using multifluid MHD simulations but these simulations are only part of the answer to this complex problem that needs attention from a broader range of the community.

  20. Dynamics of chemical reactions of multiply-charged cations: Information from beam scattering experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 378, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 113-126 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Multiply-charged ions * Dynamics of chemical reactions * Beam scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  1. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for charged particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruili; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa; Liu, Jian; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics of a charged particle in the canonical coordinates is a Hamiltonian system, and the well-known symplectic algorithm has been regarded as the de facto method for numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems due to its long-term accuracy and fidelity. For long-term simulations with high efficiency, explicit symplectic algorithms are desirable. However, it is generally believed that explicit symplectic algorithms are only available for sum-separable Hamiltonians, and this restriction limits the application of explicit symplectic algorithms to charged particle dynamics. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the familiar sum-split method and a generating function method to construct second- and third-order explicit symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particle. The generating function method is designed to generate explicit symplectic algorithms for product-separable Hamiltonian with form of H (x ,p ) =pif (x ) or H (x ,p ) =xig (p ) . Applied to the simulations of charged particle dynamics, the explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions demonstrate superiorities in conservation and efficiency.

  2. Interactions between similar and dissimilar charged interfaces in the presence of multivalent anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami-Gudarzi, Mohsen; Adam, Pavel; Smith, Alexander M; Trefalt, Gregor; Szilágyi, István; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal

    2018-04-04

    Direct force measurements involving amidine latex (AL) and sulfate latex (SL) particles in aqueous solutions containing multivalent ferrocyanide anions are presented. These measurements feature three different pairs of particles, namely SL-SL, AL-SL, and AL-AL. The force profiles are quantitatively interpreted in terms of the theory by Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) that is combined with a short-ranged exponential attraction. In monovalent salt solutions, the AL particles are positively charged, while the SL particles are negatively charged. In solutions containing ferrocyanide, the charge of the AL particles is reversed as the concentration is increased. The longer-ranged component of all force profiles is fully compatible with DLVO theory, provided effects of charge regulation are included. At shorter distances, an additional exponential attraction must be introduced, whereby the respective decay length is about 2 nm for the AL-AL pair, and below 1 nm for the SL-SL pair. This non-DLVO force is intermediate for the asymmetric AL-SL pair. These additional forces are probably related to charge fluctuations, patch-charged interactions, or hydrophobic forces.

  3. A study of charge-pickup interactions by (158A GeV) Pb nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, G.; Shahzad, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Study of the relativistic heavy-ion collision is important to focus on probing phase transitions between hadrons and quark-gluon phases in the extreme conditions of temperature and density of nuclear matter formed in the collisions. These states of nuclear matter are expected to be created in relativistic nuclear collisions with large overlap of interacting nuclei, the Lorentz-boosted Coulomb potential Vc proportional to alpha gamma Z/b of a partner with charge Z is very strong, where b is impact parameter and is the fine structure constant. Either one or both nuclei may be disintegrated by the electromagnetic forces in ultra-peripheral collisions at b = R1 + R2, where R1 and R2 are the nuclear radii. This distinct feature of electromagnetic dissociation makes it possible to study the behavior of nuclear matter under electromagnetic fields. The nuclear charge-pickup ( delta Z = +1) by Pb projectiles at energy 158A GeV interacting with targets Bi, Pb, Cu and Al was investigated using CR39 nuclear track detectors. The target-detector stacks were exposed at CERN SPS beam facility. The projectile and fragments charge states have been identified using the etch-cone lengths for charge-pickup at Z = 83 of residual nuclei. Our measured charge-pickup cross sections (delta Z = +1) are shown. It was observed that for the heavy targets the increase in the cross section is anticipated by substantial contribution of electromagnetic dissociation process of production by virtual photons which is almost negligible at 10.6A GeV. In the light target region, our measured cross sections and charge-pickup cross sections reported at energy 10.6A GeV show dominant nuclear contribution and very small contribution of electromagnetic dissociation term. A strong dependence of charge-pickup cross sections on the target mass number was observed particularly in the heavy targets. (orig./A.B.)

  4. The dynamics of target ionization by fast higly charged projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, R.; Ullrich, J.; Unverzagt, M.; Olsen, R.E.; Doerner, R.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1995-12-01

    We report on the first kinematically complete investigation of single target ionization by fast heavy ions, on the measurement of all low energy electrons down to zero emission velocities and on the determination of the projectile energy loss on the level of ΔE p /E p ∼10 -7 . This has been achieved by combining a high-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectrometer with a novel 4π electron analyzer. The complete momentum balance between electron, recoil-ion and projectile for single ionization of helium by 3.6 MeV/u Ni 24+ was explored. Low energy electrons are found to be ejected mainly into the forward direction with a most likely longitudinal energy of only 2 eV. The electron momentum is not balanced, as might be expected, by the projectile momentum but is nearly completely compensated by the recoil ion. Surprisingly, the momenta of the helium-atom ''fragments'', the electron and the He 1+ recoil ion, are considerably larger than the total momentum loss of the projectile: the target atom seems to dissociate in the strong, longranging projectile potential. The collision has to be considered as a real three body interaction. (orig.)

  5. Time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques for the study of interfacial charge dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neppl, Stefan, E-mail: sneppl@lbl.gov; Gessner, Oliver

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafast interfacial charge transfer is probed with atomic site specificity. • Femtosecond X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using a free electron laser. • Efficient and flexible picosecond X-ray photoelectron pump–probe scheme using synchrotron radiation. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the most powerful techniques to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition and electronic structure of surfaces and interfaces in a non-destructive fashion. Extending this technique into the time domain has the exciting potential to shed new light on electronic and chemical dynamics at surfaces by revealing transient charge configurations with element- and site-specificity. Here, we describe prospects and challenges that are associated with the implementation of picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at third-generation synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers, respectively. In particular, we discuss a series of laser-pump/X-ray-probe photoemission experiments performed on semiconductor surfaces, molecule-semiconductor interfaces, and films of semiconductor nanoparticles that demonstrate the high sensitivity of time-resolved XPS to light-induced charge carrier generation, diffusion and recombination within the space charge layers of these materials. Employing the showcase example of photo-induced electronic dynamics in a dye-sensitized semiconductor system, we highlight the unique possibility to probe heterogeneous charge transfer dynamics from both sides of an interface, i.e., from the perspective of the molecular electron donor and the semiconductor acceptor, simultaneously. Such capabilities will be crucial to improve our microscopic understanding of interfacial charge redistribution and associated chemical dynamics, which are at the heart of emerging energy conversion, solar fuel generation, and energy storage technologies.

  6. Charge Carrier Dynamics and pH Effect on Optical Properties of Anionic and Cationic Porphyrin-Graphene Oxide Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajjou, O.; Bakour, A.; Khenfouch, M.; Baitoul, M.; Mothudi, B.; Maaza, M.; Faulques, E.

    2018-02-01

    Composites of graphene oxide (GO) functionalized with Sn(V) tetrakis (4-pyridyl)porphyrin (SnTPyP2+) and meso-tetrakis(4-phenylsulfonic acid)porphyrin (H4TPPS4 2- ) were prepared at different pH values.Successful synthesis of water-soluble stable suspension of GO-SnTPyP2+ and GO-H4TPPS4 2-was confirmed using various spectroscopic techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption. Variation of the pH was found to strongly influence the optical properties of the GO-SnTPyP2+ and GO-H4TPPS4 2-composites, as demonstrated by the UV-Vis absorption results. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL (TRPL) results for both composites showed PL quenching and decrease in the exciton mean lifetime, suggesting strong excited-state interactions between the different components. Moreover, charge carrier dynamics study revealed that insertion of GO into both porphyrin derivatives led to faster mean lifetime for excitons with a slight advantage in the case of the cationic porphyrin-GO composite, making it a better choice for charge separation applications thanks to the higher efficiency of charge/energy transfer interactions.

  7. DYNECHARM++: a toolkit to simulate coherent interactions of high-energy charged particles in complex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagli, Enrico; Guidi, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    A toolkit for the simulation of coherent interactions between high-energy charged particles and complex crystal structures, called DYNECHARM++ has been developed. The code has been written in C++ language taking advantage of this object-oriented programing method. The code is capable to evaluating the electrical characteristics of complex atomic structures and to simulate and track the particle trajectory within them. Calculation method of electrical characteristics based on their expansion in Fourier series has been adopted. Two different approaches to simulate the interaction have been adopted, relying on the full integration of particle trajectories under the continuum potential approximation and on the definition of cross-sections of coherent processes. Finally, the code has proved to reproduce experimental results and to simulate interaction of charged particles with complex structures.

  8. Dijet Production in Charged and Neutral Current $e^{+}p$ Interactions at High $Q^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Krucker, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Kutuev, R.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    Jet production in charged and neutral current events in the kinematic range of Q^2 from 640 to 35000 GeV^2 is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The measured rate of multi-jet events and distributions of jet polar angle, transverse energy, dijet mass, and other dijet variables are presented. Using parton densities derived from inclusive DIS cross sections, perturbative QCD calculations in NLO are found to give a consistent description of both the neutral and charged current dijet production. A direct, model independent comparison of the jet distributions in charged and neutral current events confirms that the QCD dynamics of the hadronic final state is independent of the underlying electroweak scattering process.

  9. Charged multiplicity distributions in anti np interactions at 6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyunya, B.V.; Boguslavskij, I.B.; Gramenitskij, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inelastic topological anti np cross sections at 6 GeV/c have been determined based on a study of the charged multiplicity distribution in antideuteron-proton collisions at 12 GeV/c. The data were obtained in an exposure of the ''Ludmila'' JINR 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber at the Serpukhov accelerator. In anti np interactions average charged multiplicity and its ratio to dispersion, /D, were found to be 3.32+-0.13 and 1.86+-0.16, respectively. Comparison with anti pn, anti pp and pp data was made

  10. Relative Nonlinear Electrodynamics Interaction of Charged Particles with Strong and Super Strong Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet

    2006-01-01

    This book covers a large class of fundamental investigations into Relativistic Nonlinear Electrodynamics. It explores the interaction between charged particles and strong laser fields, mainly concentrating on contemporary problems of x-ray lasers, new type small set-up high-energy accelerators of charged particles, as well as electron-positron pair production from super powerful laser fields of relativistic intensities. It will also discuss nonlinear phenomena of threshold nature that eliminate the concurrent inverse processes in the problems of Laser Accelerator and Free Electron Laser, thus creating new opportunities for solving these problems.

  11. The electrostatic interaction of two point charges in equilibrium plasmas within the Debye approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A V

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a careful study of two charge interaction in an equilibrium plasma within the Debye approximation. The effect of external boundary conditions for the electric field strength and potential on the electrostatic force is studied. The problem is solved by the method of potential decomposition into Legendre polynomials up to the fifth multipole term included. It is shown that the effect of attraction of identically charged macroparticles is explained by the influence of the external boundary. When the size of a calculation cell is increased the attraction effect disappears and the electrostatic force is well described by the screened Debye-Hückel potential. (paper)

  12. Charge transport and recombination dynamics in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Andreas

    2011-08-02

    The charge transport in disordered organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is a crucial process affecting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cell. With the need of synthesizing new materials for improving the power conversion efficiency of those cells it is important to study not only the photophysical but also the electrical properties of the new material classes. Thereby, the experimental techniques need to be applicable to operating solar cells. In this work, the conventional methods of transient photoconductivity (also known as ''Time-of-Flight'' (TOF)), as well as the transient charge extraction technique of ''Charge Carrier Extraction by Linearly Increasing Voltage'' (CELIV) are performed on different organic blend compositions. Especially with the latter it is feasible to study the dynamics - i.e. charge transport and charge carrier recombination - in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with active layer thicknesses of 100-200 nm. For a well performing organic BHJ solar cells the morphology is the most crucial parameter finding a trade-off between an efficient photogeneration of charge carriers and the transport of the latter to the electrodes. Besides the morphology, the nature of energetic disorder of the active material blend and its influence on the dynamics are discussed extensively in this work. Thereby, the material system of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 61}BM) serves mainly as a reference material system. New promising donor or acceptor materials and their potential for application in organic photovoltaics are studied in view of charge dynamics and compared with the reference system. With the need for commercialization of organic solar cells the question of the impact of environmental conditions on the PCE of the solar cells raises. In this work, organic BHJ solar cells exposed to synthetic air for finite duration are

  13. Dynamics simulations for engineering macromolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Shinar, Tamar; Silver, Pamela A.; Way, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The predictable engineering of well-behaved transcriptional circuits is a central goal of synthetic biology. The artificial attachment of promoters to transcription factor genes usually results in noisy or chaotic behaviors, and such systems are unlikely to be useful in practical applications. Natural transcriptional regulation relies extensively on protein-protein interactions to insure tightly controlled behavior, but such tight control has been elusive in engineered systems. To help engineer protein-protein interactions, we have developed a molecular dynamics simulation framework that simplifies features of proteins moving by constrained Brownian motion, with the goal of performing long simulations. The behavior of a simulated protein system is determined by summation of forces that include a Brownian force, a drag force, excluded volume constraints, relative position constraints, and binding constraints that relate to experimentally determined on-rates and off-rates for chosen protein elements in a system. Proteins are abstracted as spheres. Binding surfaces are defined radially within a protein. Peptide linkers are abstracted as small protein-like spheres with rigid connections. To address whether our framework could generate useful predictions, we simulated the behavior of an engineered fusion protein consisting of two 20 000 Da proteins attached by flexible glycine/serine-type linkers. The two protein elements remained closely associated, as if constrained by a random walk in three dimensions of the peptide linker, as opposed to showing a distribution of distances expected if movement were dominated by Brownian motion of the protein domains only. We also simulated the behavior of fluorescent proteins tethered by a linker of varying length, compared the predicted Förster resonance energy transfer with previous experimental observations, and obtained a good correspondence. Finally, we simulated the binding behavior of a fusion of two ligands that could

  14. Dynamics of interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Yu; Wang Wei; Zhang Jie

    2001-01-01

    Using Saha equation, a simple model is proposed for the dynamics of interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and solid targets. An adiabatic expansion model is adopted to study the expansion phase after the heating phase. Temporal evolvement of the dynamics of the interaction is obtained, from which the electron temperature, density, ionization balances can be determined

  15. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  16. Magnetic stochasticity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas chaos of field lines and charged particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaev, Sadrilla

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas.  The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and  magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and  statisti...

  17. Prospect for Charge Current Neutrino Interactions Measurements at the CERN-PS

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, P; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Cecchetti, A; Cecchini, S; Collazuol, G; Corso, F Dal; De Mitri, I; De Serio, M; Di Ferdinando, D; Dore, U; Dusini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Fanin, C; Fini, R A; Garfagnini, A; Grella, G; Kose, U; Laveder, M; Loverre, P; Longhin, A; Marsella, G; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mauri, N; Medinaceli, E; Mezzetto, M; Muciaccia, M T; Orecchini, D; Paoloni, A; Pastore, A; Patrizii, L; Pozzato, M; Rescigno, R; Rosa, G; Simone, S; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Stanco, L; Stellacci, S; Surdo, A; Tenti, M; Togo, V

    2011-01-01

    Tensions in several phenomenological models grew with experimental results on neutrino/antineutrino oscillations at Short-Baseline (SBL) and with the recent, carefully recomputed, antineutrino fluxes from nuclear reactors. At a refurbished SBL CERN-PS facility an experiment aimed to address the open issues has been proposed [1], based on the technology of imaging in ultra-pure cryogenic Liquid Argon (LAr). Motivated by this scenario a detailed study of the physics case was performed. We tackled specific physics models and we optimized the neutrino beam through a full simulation. Experimental aspects not fully covered by the LAr detection, i.e. the measurements of the lepton charge on event-by-event basis and their energy over a wide range, were also investigated. Indeed the muon leptons from Charged Current (CC) (anti-)neutrino interactions play an important role in disentangling different phenomenological scenarios provided their charge state is determined. Also, the study of muon appearance/disappearance ca...

  18. A family of solutions with radiation reaction and retarded interactions for two charges in classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R.; Villarroel, D.

    2002-01-01

    A family of solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac equation is constructed. It consists in the motion of two charges e 1 and e 2 of masses m 1 and m 2 in two coplanar and concentric circles of radii a and b. The charges rotate with constant angular velocity, and have an angular separation ψ. The radiation reaction forces and the retarded interactions between the charges are taken into account. The external electromagnetic field that allows the motion consists of a tangential time-independent electric field that takes a fixed value on each orbit, and a homogeneous time-independent magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the motion. For all the solutions energy conservation is rigorously demonstrated by evaluating the energy radiated, with independence of the equation of motion, through the calculation of the instantaneous energy flux across a sphere of an infinitely large radius

  19. Coulombic interactions and multicomponent ionic dispersion during transport of charged species in heterogeneous porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    Electrochemical cross-coupling plays a significant role for transport of charged species in porous media [1, 2]. In this study we performed flow-through experiments in a quasi two-dimensional setup using dilute solutions of strong electrolytes to study the influence of charge interactions on mass...... occurred. To quantitatively interpret the outcomes of our laboratory experiments in the spatially variable flow fields we developed a two dimensional numerical model based on a multicomponent formulation, on charge conservation and on the accurate description of transverse dispersion. The results...... of the multicomponent transport simulations were compared with the high-resolution (5 mm spacing) concentration measurements of the ionic species at the outlet of the flow-through domain. The excellent agreement between the measured concentrations and the results of purely forward numerical simulations demonstrates...

  20. Kondo lattice model: Unitary transformations, spin dynamics, strongly correlated charged modes, and vacuum instability

    OpenAIRE

    Prats, J. M.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Using unitary transformations, we express the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian in terms of fermionic operators that annihilate the ground state of the interacting system and that represent the best possible approximations to the actual charged excitations. In this way, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian which, for small couplings, consists in a kinetic term for conduction electrons and holes, an RKKY-like term, and a renormalized Kondo interaction. The physical picture of the system implied by this ...

  1. Measurement of Reconstructed Charged Particle Multiplicities of Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Aleena [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Here, we compare the observed charged particle multiplicity distributions in the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber from neutrino interactions in a restricted final state phase space to predictions of this distribution from several GENIE models. The measurement uses a data sample consisting of neutrino interactions with a final state muon candidate fully contained within the MicroBooNE detector. These data were collected in 2015-2016 with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), which has an average neutrino energy of 800 MeV, using an exposure corresponding to 5e19 protons-on-target. The analysis employs fully automatic event selection and charged particle track reconstruction and uses a data-driven technique to determine the contribution to each multiplicity bin from neutrino interactions and cosmic-induced backgrounds. The restricted phase space employed makes the measurement most sensitive to the higher-energy charged particles expected from primary neutrino-argon collisions and less sensitive to lower energy protons expected to be produced in final state interactions of collision products with the target argon nucleus.

  2. UMER: An analog computer for dynamics of swarms interacting via long-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishek, R.A.; Bai, G.; Bernal, S.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T.F.; Haber, I.; O'Shea, P.G.; Quinn, B.; Papadopoulos, C.; Reiser, M.; Stratakis, D.; Tian, K.; Tobin, C.J.; Walter, M.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the most challenging and interesting problems in nature involve large numbers of objects or particles mutually interacting through long-range forces. Examples range from galaxies and plasmas to flocks of birds and traffic flow on a highway. Even in cases where the form of the interacting force is precisely known, such as the 1/r 2 -dependent Coulomb and gravitational forces, such problems present a formidable theoretical and modeling challenge for large numbers of interacting bodies. This paper reports on a newly constructed, scaled particle accelerator that will serve as an experimental testbed for the dynamics of swarms interacting through long-range forces. Primarily designed for intense beam dynamics studies for advanced accelerators, the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) design is described in detail and an update on commissioning is provided. An example application to a system other than a charged particle beam is discussed

  3. Proton transfer to charged platinum electrodes. A molecular dynamics trajectory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Florian; Schmickler, Wolfgang; Spohr, Eckhard

    2010-05-05

    A recently developed empirical valence bond (EVB) model for proton transfer on Pt(111) electrodes (Wilhelm et al 2008 J. Phys. Chem. C 112 10814) has been applied in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a water film in contact with a charged Pt surface. A total of seven negative surface charge densities σ between -7.5 and -18.9 µC cm(-2) were investigated. For each value of σ, between 30 and 84 initial conditions of a solvated proton within a water slab were sampled, and the trajectories were integrated until discharge of a proton occurred on the charged surfaces. We have calculated the mean rates for discharge and for adsorption of solvated protons within the adsorbed water layer in contact with the metal electrode as a function of surface charge density. For the less negative values of σ we observe a Tafel-like exponential increase of discharge rate with decreasing σ. At the more negative values this exponential increase levels off and the discharge process is apparently transport limited. Mechanistically, the Tafel regime corresponds to a stepwise proton transfer: first, a proton is transferred from the bulk into the contact water layer, which is followed by transfer of a proton to the charged surface and concomitant discharge. At the more negative surface charge densities the proton transfer into the contact water layer and the transfer of another proton to the surface and its discharge occur almost simultaneously.

  4. Space charge dynamic of irradiated cyanate ester/epoxy at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohe; Tu, Youping; Fan, Linzhen; Yi, Chengqian; Wu, Zhixiong; Li, Laifeng

    2018-03-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRPs) have been widely used as one of the main electrical insulating structures for superconducting magnets. A new type of GFRP insulation material using cyanate ester/epoxy resin as a matrix was developed in this study, and the samples were irradiated by Co-60 for 1 MGy and 5 MGy dose. Space charge distributed within the sample were tested using the pulsed electroacoustic method, and charge concentration was found at the interfaces between glass fibre and epoxy resin. Thermally stimulated current (TSC) and dc conduction current were also tested to evaluate the irradiation effect. It was supposed that charge mobility and density were suppressed at the beginning due to the crosslinking reaction, and for a higher irradiation dose, molecular chain degradation dominated and led to more sever space charge accumulation at interfaces which enhance the internal electric field higher than the external field, and transition field for conduction current was also decreased by irradiation. Space charge dynamic at cryogenic temperature was revealed by conduction current and TSC, and space charge injection was observed for the irradiated samples at 225 K, which was more obvious for the irradiated samples.

  5. Dissociation mechanisms and dynamics of doubly charged CD3CN observed by PEPIPICO spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, C.; Tada, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Senba, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Hiraya, A.; Wada, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tabayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Dissociation of free acetonitrile-d 3 molecule, CD 3 CN induced by core level excitation was studied near the nitrogen K-edge by time-of-flight fragment mass spectroscopy. A variety of atomic and molecular fragment cations such as D + , CD n + , C 2 D n + , and CD n CN + were detected using the effusive CD 3 CN beam. Photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique was applied to analyse the dissociation mechanisms and dynamics of doubly charged CD 3 CN 2+ following the N(1s-π * ) excitation. The charge separation mechanisms of core-excited CD 3 CN were discussed in connection with Auger final state distributions

  6. Measurement of K+ production in charged-current νμ interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C. M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Filkins, A.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Griswold, S.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Majoros, I.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Shadler, L. A.; Simon, C.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wang, Z.; Watkins, P.; Wiley, K.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zhang, D.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Production of K+ mesons in charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is measured using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI beam at Fermilab. Timing information is used to isolate a sample of 885 charged-current events containing a stopping K+ which decays at rest. The differential cross section in K+ kinetic energy, d σ /d TK, is observed to be relatively flat between 0 and 500 MeV. Its shape is in good agreement with the prediction by the genie neutrino event generator when final-state interactions are included, however the data rate is lower than the prediction by 15%.

  7. Discriminating leptonic Yukawa interactions with doubly charged scalar at the ILC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi; Yokoya, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    We explore discrimination of two types of leptonic Yukawa interactions associated with Higgs triplet, LbarLc ΔLL, and with SU (2) singlet doubly charged scalar, ebarRc k++eR. These interactions can be distinguished by measuring the effects of doubly charged scalar boson exchange in the e+e- →ℓ+ℓ- processes at polarized electron-positron colliders. We study a forward-backward asymmetry of scattering angular distribution to estimate the sensitivity for these effects at the ILC. In addition, we investigate prospects of upper bounds on the Yukawa couplings by combining the constraints of lepton flavor violation processes and the e+e- →ℓ+ℓ- processes at the LEP and the ILC.

  8. A dynamic parking charge optimal control model under perspective of commuters' evolutionary game behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, XuXun; Yuan, PengCheng

    2018-01-01

    In this research we consider commuters' dynamic learning effect by modeling the trip mode choice behavior from a new perspective of dynamic evolutionary game theory. We explore the behavior pattern of different types of commuters and study the evolution path and equilibrium properties under different traffic conditions. We further establish a dynamic parking charge optimal control (referred to as DPCOC) model to alter commuters' trip mode choice while minimizing the total social cost. Numerical tests show. (1) Under fixed parking fee policy, the evolutionary results are completely decided by the travel time and the only method for public transit induction is to increase the parking charge price. (2) Compared with fixed parking fee policy, DPCOC policy proposed in this research has several advantages. Firstly, it can effectively turn the evolutionary path and evolutionary stable strategy to a better situation while minimizing the total social cost. Secondly, it can reduce the sensitivity of trip mode choice behavior to traffic congestion and improve the ability to resist interferences and emergencies. Thirdly, it is able to control the private car proportion to a stable state and make the trip behavior more predictable for the transportation management department. The research results can provide theoretical basis and decision-making references for commuters' mode choice prediction, dynamic setting of urban parking charge prices and public transit induction.

  9. Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyderman, L J; Stamps, R L

    2013-01-01

    Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 μm elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss

  10. Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyderman, L J; Stamps, R L

    2013-09-11

    Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 μm elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss

  11. Spin flip due to the spin–orbit interaction of colliding slow charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasorov, P. V.; Fomin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The scattering amplitudes of point charged particles is calculated analytically taking into account the spin–orbit interaction. We have considered two cases typical of a hydrogen-like plasma: scattering of an electron by a heavy ion and scattering of an electron by a free electron. The results have been obtained taking into account the ranges of low collision energies smaller than α"2m_ec"2, where α is the fine structure constant.

  12. Charge exchange signatures in x-ray line emission accompanying plasma-wall interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Renner, Oldřich; Dalimier, E.; Liska, R.; Oks, E.; Šmíd, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-6 ISSN 1742-6588 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0814; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * particle jets generation * plasma-wall interaction * x-ray spectroscopy * charge exchange Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged current antineutrino-neon interactions in BEBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Guy, J.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Katz, U. F.; Klein, H.; Matsinos, E.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1987-09-01

    Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the BEBC bubble chamber exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The cross section is measured to be (95±25)·10-40 cm2 per neon nucleus, averaged over the beam energy spectrum. The distributions of kinematical variables and the absolute value of the cross section are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the CVC hypothesis and the vector meson dominance model.

  14. Coherent production of ρ- mesons in charged current antineutrino-neon interactions in BEBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Bertrand, D.; Sacton, J.; Aderholz, M.; Katz, U.F.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.; Baton, J.P.; Kasper, P.; Neveu, M.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the BEBC bubbler chamber exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The cross section is measured to be (95±25).10 -40 cm 2 per neon nucleus, averaged over the beam energy spectrum. The distributions of kinematical variables and the absolute value of the cross section are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the CVC hypothesis and the vector meson dominance model. (orig.)

  15. Ultrafast dynamics of ligand and substrate interaction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase under Soret excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Chang; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Chen, Pei-Feng; Liang, Keng S

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy of endothelial NOS oxygenase domain (eNOS-oxy) was performed to study dynamics of ligand or substrate interaction under Soret band excitation. Photo-excitation dissociates imidazole ligand in 4ps. The eNOS-oxy without additive is partially bound with water molecule, thus its photoexcited dynamics also shows ligand dissociation in <800fs. Then it followed by vibrational cooling coupled with charge transfer in 4.8ps, and recombination of ligand to distal side of heme in 12ps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of charged particle multiplicity distributions in p tilde p and pp interactions and verification of the dual unitarization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyunya, B.V.; Boguslavsky, I.V.; Gramenitsky, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The difference between antiproton annihilation and pp interactions has been discussed. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in anti pp-interactions at 22.4 GeV/c were used to obtain antiproton annihilation characteristics. The comparison of the topological cross section of antipp interactions with those of non-diffractive pp interactions confirms the validity of dual unitarization

  17. Simulation of the interaction of positively charged beams and electron clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovik, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    The incoherent (head-tail) effect on the bunch due to the interaction with electron clouds (e-clouds) leads to a blow up of the transverse beam size in storage rings operating with positively charged beams. Even more the e-cloud effects are considered to be the main limiting factor for high current, high-brightness or high-luminosity operation of future machines. Therefore the simulation of e-cloud phenomena is a highly active field of research. The main focus in this work was set to a development of a tool for simulation of the interaction of relativistic bunches with non-relativistic parasitic charged particles. The result is the Particle-In-Cell Program MOEVE PIC Tracking which can track a 3D bunch under the influence of its own and external electromagnetic fields but first and foremost it simulates the interaction of relativistic positively charged bunches and initially static electrons. In MOEVE PIC Tracking the conducting beam pipe can be modeled with an arbitrary elliptical cross-section to achieve more accurate space charge field computations for both the bunch and the e-cloud. The simulation of the interaction between positron bunches and electron clouds in this work gave a detailed insight of the behavior of both particle species during and after the interaction. Further and ultimate goal of this work was a fast estimation of the beam stability under the influence of e-clouds in the storage ring. The standard approach to simulate the stability of a single bunch is to track the bunch particles through the linear optics of the machine by multiplying the 6D vector of each particle with the transformation matrices describing the lattice. Thereby the action of the e-cloud on the bunch is approximated by a pre-computed wake kick which is applied on one or more points in the lattice. Following the idea of K.Ohmi the wake kick was pre-computed as a two variable function of the bunch part exiting the e-cloud and the subsequent parts of a bunch which receive a

  18. Electronic charge rearrangement at metal/organic interfaces induced by weak van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Nicola; Ambrosetti, Alberto; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Electronic charge rearrangements at interfaces between organic molecules and solid surfaces play a key role in a wide range of applications in catalysis, light-emitting diodes, single-molecule junctions, molecular sensors and switches, and photovoltaics. It is common to utilize electrostatics and Pauli pushback to control the interface electronic properties, while the ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions are often considered to have a negligible direct contribution (beyond the obvious structural relaxation). Here, we apply a fully self-consistent Tkatchenko-Scheffler vdW density functional to demonstrate that the weak vdW interactions can induce sizable charge rearrangements at hybrid metal/organic systems (HMOS). The complex vdW correlation potential smears out the interfacial electronic density, thereby reducing the charge transfer in HMOS, changes the interface work functions by up to 0.2 eV, and increases the interface dipole moment by up to 0.3 Debye. Our results suggest that vdW interactions should be considered as an additional control parameter in the design of hybrid interfaces with the desired electronic properties.

  19. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauff Lind Christensen, Tue; Klose, Andreas; Andersen, Kim Allan

    important aspects of supplier selection, an important application of the SSFCTP, this does not reflect the real life situation. First, transportation costs faced by many companies are in fact piecewise linear. Secondly, when suppliers offer discounts, either incremental or all-unit discounts, such savings......The Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem (SSFCMCTP) is a problem with versatile applications. This problem is a generalization of the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge Transportation Problem (SSFCTP), which has a fixed-charge, linear cost structure. However, in at least two...... are neglected in the SSFCTP. The SSFCMCTP overcome this problem by incorporating a staircase cost structure in the cost function instead of the usual one used in SSFCTP. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for the resulting problem. To enhance the performance of the generic algorithm a number...

  20. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S., Jr.; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G.

    2016-02-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research.

  1. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponseca, Carlito S Jr; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2016-01-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research. (topical review)

  2. Effective interactions between concentration fluctuations and charge transfer in chemically ordering liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Tosi, M.P.

    1992-08-01

    The correlations between long-wavelength fluctuations of concentration in a liquid binary alloy are determined by a balance between an elastic strain free energy and an Ornstein-Zernike effective interaction. The latter is extracted from thermodynamic data in the case of the Li-Pb system, which is well known to chemically order with stoichiometric composition corresponding to Li 4 Pb. Strong attractive interactions between concentration fluctuations near the composition of chemical ordering originate from electronic charge transfer, which is estimated from the electron-ion partial structure factors as functions of composition in the liquid alloy. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs

  3. Electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of metals with different Fermi surface shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, A. M.; Il'chenko, L. G.; Pashitskii, E. A.; Romanov, Yu. A.

    1980-04-01

    Using the Poisson equation Green function for a self-consistent field in a spatially inhomogeneous system, expressions for the electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of a semi-infinite metal and a thin quantizing film are derived. It is shown that the decrease law and Friedel oscillation amplitude of adsorbed atom indirect interaction are determined by the electron spectrum character and the Fermi surface shape. The results obtained enable us to explain, in particular, the submonolayer adsorbed film structure on the W and Mo surfaces.

  4. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, W.; Guy, J.; Adeholz, M.; Allport, P.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Marage, P.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallee, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.

    1987-03-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2 (2ϱ00 - ϱ11 - ϱ-1-1) is measured for ϱ0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrono interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be ηv=0.48+/-0.27 (stat.)+/-0.15 (syst.) for vNe and ηv=0.12+/-0.20 (stat.)+/-0.10 (syst.) for vNe interactions Present address: University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

  5. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittek, W.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M.T.; Jones, G.T.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Varvell, K.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2(2ρ 00 -ρ 11 -ρ -1-1 ) is measured for ρ 0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrino interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be η ν =0.48±0.27(stat.)±0.15(syst.) for anti νNe and η ν =0.12±0.20(stat.)±0.10(syst.) for νNe interactions. (orig.)

  6. Inclusive charged hadron and K0 production in two-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cords, D.; Boyer, J.; Butler, F.; Gidal, G.; Abrams, G.S.; Amidei, D.; Baden, A.R.; Barklow, T.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Dorfan, J.M.; Feldman, G.J.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.S.; Goldhaber, G.; Golding, L.J.; Haggerty, J.; Hanson, G.; Hayes, K.; Herrup, D.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Innes, W.R.; Jaros, J.A.; Juricic, Il; Kadyk, J.A.; Karlen, D.; Lankford, A.J.; Larsen, R.R.; LeClaire, B.W.; Levi, M.E.; Lockyer, N.S.; Luth, V.; Matteuzzi, C.; Nelson, M.E.; Ong, R.A.; Perl, M.L.; Richter, B.; Riles, K.; Ross, M.C.; Rowson, P.C.; Schaad, T.; Schellman, H.; Schlatter, D.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sheldon, P.D.; Trilling, G.H.; de la Vaissiere, C.; Wood, D.R.; Yelton, J.M.; Zaiser, C.

    1988-03-01

    The analogous process to quark pair production in e + e - annihilation is the hard-scattering quark exchange process in γγ interactions. This hard-scattering process is expected to dominate the cross section at high transverse momenta of the produced quarks. Experimentally, one has looked for this process in two-jet as well as inclusive particle production and has found a relatively low PT onset of hard scattering in γγ interactions. This report examines the issue in more detail (high statistics) for charged particle inclusive production and checks if the heavier flavors display a similar behavior in inclusive K 0 production

  7. The dynamic multisite interactions between two intrinsically disordered proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaowen

    2017-05-11

    Protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) comprise a variety of binding modes, from the well characterized folding upon binding to dynamic fuzzy complex. To date, most studies concern the binding of an IDP to a structured protein, while the Interaction between two IDPs is poorly understood. In this study, we combined NMR, smFRET, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to characterize the interaction between two IDPs, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of protein 4.1G and the nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. It is revealed that CTD and NuMA form a fuzzy complex with remaining structural disorder. Multiple binding sites on both proteins were identified by MD and mutagenesis studies. Our study provides an atomic scenario in which two IDPs bearing multiple binding sites interact with each other in dynamic equilibrium. The combined approach employed here could be widely applicable for investigating IDPs and their dynamic interactions.

  8. Robust singlet fission in pentacene thin films with tuned charge transfer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, K; Dieterle, J; Branchi, F; Hestand, N J; Olivier, Y; Tamura, H; Cruz, C; Nichols, V M; Hinderhofer, A; Beljonne, D; Spano, F C; Cerullo, G; Bardeen, C J; Schreiber, F

    2018-03-05

    Singlet fission, the spin-allowed photophysical process converting an excited singlet state into two triplet states, has attracted significant attention for device applications. Research so far has focused mainly on the understanding of singlet fission in pure materials, yet blends offer the promise of a controlled tuning of intermolecular interactions, impacting singlet fission efficiencies. Here we report a study of singlet fission in mixtures of pentacene with weakly interacting spacer molecules. Comparison of experimentally determined stationary optical properties and theoretical calculations indicates a reduction of charge-transfer interactions between pentacene molecules with increasing spacer molecule fraction. Theory predicts that the reduced interactions slow down singlet fission in these blends, but surprisingly we find that singlet fission occurs on a timescale comparable to that in pure crystalline pentacene. We explain the observed robustness of singlet fission in such mixed films by a mechanism of exciton diffusion to hot spots with closer intermolecular spacings.

  9. Sensitivity of the CSR self-interaction to the local longitudinal charge concentration of an electron bunch

    CERN Document Server

    Li, R

    2001-01-01

    Recent measurements of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects indicated that the observed emittance growth and energy modulation due to the orbit-curvature-induced bunch self-interaction are sometimes bigger than predictions based on Gaussian longitudinal charge distributions. In this paper, by performing a model study, we show both analytically and numerically that when the longitudinal bunch charge distribution involves concentration of charges in a small fraction of the bunch length, enhancement of the CSR self-interaction beyond the Gaussian prediction may occur. The level of this enhancement is sensitive to the level of the local charge concentration.

  10. Some dynamical aspects of interacting quintessence model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binayak S Choudhury

    2018-03-16

    Mar 16, 2018 ... Accelerated expansion of the Universe; quintessence; dynamical system; Friedmann–Lemaitre–. Robertson–Walker ... accepted theoretical model. One of the .... Thus, quintessence loses its self-strength and gives dark matter.

  11. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  12. Dynamic of charged planar geometry in tilted and non-tilted frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti, M., E-mail: mzaeem.math@pu.edu.pk [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the dynamics of charged planar symmetry with an anisotropic matter field subject to a radially moving observer called a tilted observer. The Einstein-Maxwell field equations are used to obtain a relation between non-tilted and tilted frames and between kinematical and dynamical quantities. Using the Taub mass formalism and conservation laws, two evolution equations are developed to analyze the inhomogeneities in the tilted congruence. It is found that the radial velocity (due to the tilted observer) and the electric charge have a crucial effect on the inhomogeneity factor. Finally, we discuss the stability in the non-tilted frame in the pure diffusion case and examine the effects of the electromagnetic field.

  13. Attosecond Charge Migration with TDDFT: Accurate Dynamics from a Well-Defined Initial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Adam; Hernandez, Samuel; Mauger, François; Abanador, Paul M; LaMaster, Daniel J; Gaarde, Mette B; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2017-09-07

    We investigate the ability of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to capture attosecond valence electron dynamics resulting from sudden X-ray ionization of a core electron. In this special case the initial state can be constructed unambiguously, allowing for a simple test of the accuracy of the dynamics. The response following nitrogen K-edge ionization in nitrosobenzene shows excellent agreement with fourth-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(4)) results, suggesting that a properly chosen initial state allows TDDFT to adequately capture attosecond charge migration. Visualizing hole motion using an electron localization picture (ELF), we provide an intuitive chemical interpretation of the charge migration as a superposition of Lewis dot resonance structures.

  14. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents

  15. Exciton-dopant and exciton-charge interactions in electronically doped OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christopher; Lee, Sergey; Ferraris, John; Zakhidov, A. Anvar

    2004-01-01

    The electronic dopants, like tetrafluorocyanoquinodimethane (F 4 -TCNQ) molecules, used for p-doping of hole transport layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are found to quench the electroluminescence (EL) if they diffuse into the emissive layer. We observed EL quenching in OLED with F 4 -TCNQ doped N,N'-diphenyl-N'N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine hole transport layer at large dopant concentrations, >5%. To separate the effects of exciton-dopant quenching, from exciton-polaron quenching we have intentionally doped the emissive layer of (8-tris-hydroxyquinoline) with three acceptors (A) of different electron affinities: F 4 -TCNQ, TCNQ, and C 60 , and found that C 60 is the strongest EL-quencher, while F 4 -TCNQ is the weakest, contrary to intuitive expectations. The new effects of charge transfer and usually considered energy transfer from exciton to neutral (A) and charged acceptors (A - ) are compared as channels for non-radiative Ex-A decay. At high current loads the EL quenching is observed, which is due to decay of Ex on free charge carriers, hole polarons P + . We consider contributions to Ex-P + interaction by short-range charge transfer and describe the structure of microscopic charge transfer (CT)-processes responsible for it. The formation of metastable states of 'charged excitons' (predicted and studied by Agranovich et al. Chem. Phys. 272 (2001) 159) by electron transfer from a P to an Ex is pointed out, and ways to suppress non-radiative Ex-P decay are suggested

  16. Relativistic motion of charged particles in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez R, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the chapter 1 we show the foundations of the special relativity in the frame of the classical mechanics and we develop the necessary theory for the theoretical description of the relativistic dynamics of charged particles in the interaction with electromagnetic fields. It will see that starting from the energy conservation principle is derived the Einstein's law that establishes the relationship among this and the mass. Later on, it will take the action of a charged particle in a given radiation field and in the one which only we will take two parts, the action of the free particle and the one that defines the interaction of this with the field. The equations of motion of a charge in an electromagnetic field come given by the Lagrange equations, being obtained an expression for the force, well-known as Lorentz force, which consists of two terms, the first of them is the force that the electric field E exercises on the particle; which doesn't depend on the charge speed and is oriented in the direction of the field, the second term represents the force that exercises the magnetic field B and that it is proportional to the charge speed, being perpendicular to the direction of it. In the chapter 2 an integration method of the Hamilton-Jacobi for the case of a pulse is that allows to found analytical forms for the moment, the energy and the charge position is developed with detail. We will present, also, a discussion of the classical theory of the relativistic dynamic of free electrons. They are also obtained, invariant quantities like the phase, before the frame of the reference inertial changes, well-known as Lorentz invariants of the system. In this part it is considered to the electron in the laboratory frame (frame in which the particle is initially in repose regarding the observer), of which the speed and the acceleration quadrivectors can be calculated. We demonstrate that the η phase is a Lorentz invariant. It is shown, also that the proper time interval d

  17. Charge Carrier Dynamics of Methylammonium Lead-Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neukom, Martin Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Transient opto-electrical measurements of methylammonium lead iodide (MALI) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are performed and analyzed in order to elucidate the operating mechanisms. The current response to a light pulse or voltage pulse shows an extraordinarily broad dynamic range covering 9 orders of magnitude in time - from microseconds to minutes - until steady-state is reached. Evidence of a slowly changing charge density at the perovskite layer boundaries is found, which is most probably ...

  18. Beam-energy and system-size dependence of dynamical net charge fluctuations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2009), 024906/1-024906/14 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : NET CHARGE * DYNAMICAL FLUCTUATIONS * HEAVY-ION COLLISIONS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  19. A heterogeneous CPU+GPU Poisson solver for space charge calculations in beam dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dawei; Rienen, Ursula van [University of Rostock, Institute of General Electrical Engineering (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In beam dynamics studies in accelerator physics, space charge plays a central role in the low energy regime of an accelerator. Numerical space charge calculations are required, both, in the design phase and in the operation of the machines as well. Due to its efficiency, mostly the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is chosen for the space charge calculation. Then, the solution of Poisson's equation for the charge distribution in the rest frame is the most prominent part within the solution process. The Poisson solver directly affects the accuracy of the self-field applied on the charged particles when the equation of motion is solved in the laboratory frame. As the Poisson solver consumes the major part of the computing time in most simulations it has to be as fast as possible since it has to be carried out once per time step. In this work, we demonstrate a novel heterogeneous CPU+GPU routine for the Poisson solver. The novel solver also benefits from our new research results on the utilization of a discrete cosine transform within the classical Hockney and Eastwood's convolution routine.

  20. Non-Markovian dynamics of dust charge fluctuations in dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Ghalee, Amir; Ghalee

    2014-06-01

    Dust charge fluctuates even in steady-state uniform plasma due to the discrete nature of the charge carriers and can be described using standard Langevin equation. In this work, two possible approaches in order to introduce the memory effect in dust charging dynamics are proposed. The first part of the paper provides the generalization form of the fluctuation-dissipation relation for non-Markovian systems based on generalized Langevin equations to determine the amplitudes of the dust charge fluctuations for two different kinds of colored noises under the assumption that the fluctuation-dissipation relation is valid. In the second part of the paper, aiming for dusty plasma system out of equilibrium, the fractionalized Langevin equation is used to derive the temporal two-point correlation function of grain charge fluctuations which is shown to be non-stationary due to the dependence on both times and not the time difference. The correlation function is used to derive the amplitude of fluctuations for early transient time.

  1. The measurement and modeling of alpha-particle-induced charge collection in dynamic memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldiges, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of α-particle-induced charge collection in high-density dynamic random access memories. A novel technique for the measurement of charge collection in high-density memory cells and bit lines due to α-particle strikes was developed. The technique involves D.C. tests on simple test structures with an α-particle source on the device package as a lid. The advantages of this new measurement technique are: the method allows for in-situ measurements of charge collection on both MOS capacitors and bit lines found in present-day memories; the on-chip measurement technique minimizes errors due to external probes loading the device under test; the measurements can be controlled by a personal computer, with the data being able to be reduced on the same machine. Results obtained using this new measurement technique show that the charge collection is found to depend upon test-structure size and the configuration of its neighbors. Results of two-dimensional simulations of charge flow along the surface of an MOS capacitor from current injection due to an α-particle strike indicate that a spatial potential variation of 0.5V may occur between the point of current injection and capacitor edge for a 1M dRAM capacitor

  2. Effect of Cation Rotation on Charge Dynamics in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Cao, Duyen H.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Schatz, George C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Savenije, Tom J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2016-08-04

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for photovoltaic application with reported power efficiencies over similar to 22%. However, not much is known about the influence of the organic dipole rotation and phase transitions on charge carrier dynamics. Here, we report substantial changes in mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in CH3NH3PbI3 after the low-temperature tetragonal (beta) to orthorhombic (gamma) phase transition. By using microwave conductivity measurements, we observed that the mobility and lifetime of ionized charge carriers increase as the temperature decreases and a sudden increment is seen after the beta-gamma phase transition. For CH3NH3PbI3, the mobility and the half-lifetime increase by a factor of 36 compared with the values before the beta-gamma phase transition. We attribute the considerable change in the dynamics at low temperature to the decrease of the inherent dynamic disorder of the organic cation (CH3NH3+) inside the perovskite crystal structure.

  3. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter; Wechselwirkung niederenergetischer hochgeladener Ionen mit Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-06-09

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  4. Dynamics of hadron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in diffraction theory shows that proton-nucleus scattering at nonforward angles is dominated by the interference of waves from two or more bright spots. Analytic formulas based on asymptotic theories of diffraction yield valuable new insights into the scattering and these formulas can be readily extended to illuminate the role of dynamical ingredients, i.e., the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes. The governing parameters of the diffraction and some direct connections between the observed cross sections and the input dynamics are reviewed. New information regarding the nucleon-nucleon parameters based on recent phase shift analyses show some systematic differences from the effective NN amplitudes which produce fits to proton-nucleus diffraction data. Recent progress in understanding the role of Δ-isobars in proton-nucleus dynamics is reviewed. 126 references

  5. A Measurement of the Charged-Current Interaction Cross Section of the Tau Neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Emily O' Connor [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The Fermilab experiment E872 (DONUT) was designed to make the first observation of the tau neutrino charged-current interaction. Using a hybrid emulsion-spectrometer detector, the tau lepton was identified by its single-prong or trident decay. Six interactions were observed, of which five were in the deep inelastic scattering region. These five interaction were used to measure the charged-current cross section of the tau neutrino. To minimize uncertainties, the tau neutrino cross section was measured relative to the electron neutrino cross section. The result σντNconstνeNconst = 0.77 ± 0.39 is consistent with 1.0, which is predicted by lepton universality. The tau neutrino cross section was also measured for 115 GeV neutrinos, which was the average energy of the interacted tau neutrinos. The result σντNexp = 45 ± 21 x 10-38 cm2 is consistent with the standard model prediction calculated in this thesis, σντNSM = 48 ± 5 x 10-38 cm2.

  6. Dynamical Engineering of Interactions in Qudit Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwon; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2017-11-01

    We propose and analyze a method to engineer effective interactions in an ensemble of d -level systems (qudits) driven by global control fields. In particular, we present (i) a necessary and sufficient condition under which a given interaction can be decoupled, (ii) the existence of a universal sequence that decouples any (cancelable) interaction, and (iii) an efficient algorithm to engineer a target Hamiltonian from an initial Hamiltonian (if possible). We illustrate the potential of this method with two examples. Specifically, we present a 6-pulse sequence that decouples effective spin-1 dipolar interactions and demonstrate that a spin-1 Ising chain can be engineered to study transitions among three distinct symmetry protected topological phases. Our work enables new approaches for the realization of both many-body quantum memories and programmable analog quantum simulators using existing experimental platforms.

  7. Dynamics of Interacting Tachyonic Teleparallel Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banijamali, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We consider a tachyon scalar field which is nonminimally coupled to gravity in the framework of teleparallel gravity. We analyze the phase-space of the model, known as tachyonic teleparallel dark energy, in the presence of an interaction between dark energy and background matter. We find that although there exist some late-time accelerated attractor solutions, there is no scaling attractor. So, unfortunately interacting tachyonic teleparallel dark energy cannot alleviate the coincidence problem.

  8. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.bhattacharjee@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands); Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size {approx}45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size {approx}50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  9. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; van Opstal, Edward J.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-06-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size 45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size 50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  10. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size ∼45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size ∼50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  11. The dynamic multisite interactions between two intrinsically disordered proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shaowen; Wang, Dongdong; Liu, Jin; Feng, Yitao; Weng, Jingwei; Li, Yu; Gao, Xin; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Wenning

    2017-01-01

    Protein interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) comprise a variety of binding modes, from the well characterized folding upon binding to dynamic fuzzy complex. To date, most studies concern the binding of an IDP to a

  12. Dynamic representations on the interactive whiteboard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan; de Vries, Erica; Scheiter, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we assessed whether presenting dynamic representations on an IWB would lead to better learning gains compared to presenting static representations. Participants were 7-8 year old primary school children learning about views (N = 151) and the water cycle (N = 182). The results showed

  13. Study on Human-structure Dynamic Interaction in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Cao, Li Lin; Li, Xing Hua

    2018-06-01

    The research of human-structure dynamic interaction are reviewed. Firstly, the influence of the crowd load on structural dynamic characteristics is introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of different crowd load models are analyzed. Then, discussing the influence of structural vibration on the human-induced load, especially the influence of different stiffness structures on the crowd load. Finally, questions about human-structure interaction that require further study are presented.

  14. Interaction of current filaments in dielectric barrier discharges with relation to surface charge distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollenwerk, L

    2009-01-01

    In a planar, laterally extended dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system operated in glow mode, a filamentary discharge is observed. The filaments tend to move laterally and hence tend to cause collisions. Thereby, usually one collision partner becomes destroyed. In this paper, the collision process and especially the preceding time period is investigated. Beside the luminescence density of the filaments, the surface charge density accumulated between the single breakdowns of the DBD is observed via an optical measurement technique based on the linear electro-optical effect (pockels effect). A ring-like substructure of the surface charge distribution of a single filament is found, which correlates to the filament interaction behaviour. Furthermore, a preferred filament distance is found, suggesting the formation of a filamentary quasi-molecule.

  15. Solar wind/local interstellar medium interaction including charge exchange with neural hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, H. Louis; Zank, Gary P.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a hydrodynamic model of the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium (LISM), self-consistently taking into account the effects of charge exchange between the plasma component and the interstellar neutrals. The simulation is fully time dependent, and is carried out in two or three dimensions, depending on whether the helio-latitudinal dependence of the solar wind speed and number density (both giving rise to three dimensional effects) are included. As a first approximation it is assumed that the neutral component of the flow can be described by a single, isotropic fluid. Clearly, this is not the actual situation, since charge exchange with the supersonic solar wind plasma in the region of the nose results in a 'second' neutral fluid propagating in the opposite direction as that of the LISM neutrals.

  16. The interactions of high-energy, highly-charged ions with fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley discovered a new form of carbon, the fullerene, C 60 , which consists of 60 carbon atoms in a closed cage resembling a soccer ball. In 1990, Kritschmer et al. were able to make macroscopic quantities of fullerenes. This has generated intense activity to study the properties of fullerenes. One area of research involves collisions between fullerenes and atoms, ions or electrons. In this paper we describe experiments involving interactions between fullerenes and highly charged ions in which the center-of-mass energies exceed those used in other work by several orders of magnitude. The high values of projectile velocity and charge state result in excitation and decay processes differing significantly from those seen in studies 3 at lower energies. Our results are discussed in terms of theoretical models analogous to those used in nuclear physics and this provides an interesting demonstration of the unity of physics

  17. Coherent single pion production by antineutrino charged current interactions and test of PCAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1986-06-01

    The cross section for coherent production of a single π- meson in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei has been measured in BEBC to be (175±25) 10-40 cm2/neon nucleus, averaged over the energy spectrum of the antineutrino wide band beam at the CERN SPS; this corresponds to (0.9±0.1) % of the total charged currentbar v_μ cross section. The distributions of kinematical variables are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the PCAC hypothesis and the meson dominance model; in particular, the Q 2 dependence is well described by a propagator containing a mass m=(1.35±0.18) GeV. The absolute value of the cross section is also in agreement with the model. This analysis thus provides a test of the PCAC hypothesis in the antineutrino energy range 5 150 GeV.

  18. Coherent single pion production by antineutrino charged current interactions and test of PCAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Bertrand, D.; Sacton, J.; Aderholz, M.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Wells, J.; Baton, J.P.; Gerbier, G.; Neveu, M.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Kasper, P.; Venus, W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The cross section for coherent production of a single π - meson in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei has been measured in BEBC to be (175+-25) 10 -40 cm 2 /neon nucleus, averaged over the energy spectrum of the antineutrino wide band beam at the CERN SPS; this corresponds to (0.9+-0.1)% of the total charged current anti νsub(μ) cross section. The distributions of kinematical variables are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the PCAC hypothesis and the meson dominance model; in particular, the Q 2 dependence is well described by a propagator containing a mass m=(1.35+-0.18)GeV. The absolute value of the cross section is also in agreement with the model. This analysis thus provides a test of the PCAC hypothesis in the antineutrino energy range 5-150 GeV. (orig.)

  19. Direct Measurement of Nuclear Dependence of Charged Current Quasielasticlike Neutrino Interactions Using MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, M.; Ghosh, A.; Walton, T.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Cai, T.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Minerva Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    Charged-current νμ interactions on carbon, iron, and lead with a final state hadronic system of one or more protons with zero mesons are used to investigate the influence of the nuclear environment on quasielasticlike interactions. The transferred four-momentum squared to the target nucleus, Q2, is reconstructed based on the kinematics of the leading proton, and differential cross sections versus Q2 and the cross-section ratios of iron, lead, and carbon to scintillator are measured for the first time in a single experiment. The measurements show a dependence on the atomic number. While the quasielasticlike scattering on carbon is compatible with predictions, the trends exhibited by scattering on iron and lead favor a prediction with intranuclear rescattering of hadrons accounted for by a conventional particle cascade treatment. These measurements help discriminate between different models of both initial state nucleons and final state interactions used in the neutrino oscillation experiments.

  20. On the law of interaction between charged defects in ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varaksin, A.N.; Kolmogorov, Yu.N.

    1990-01-01

    Values of E int PC (R 12 ) interaction energy between dominant defects in NaCl- and CaF 2 -type crystals are calculated using Mott-Littleton method in harmonic approximation. It is shown, that interaction between cationic and anionic vacancies in NaCl type crystals is described using Coulomb law for charge interaction in dielectric up till R 12 smallest distances between vacancies. Good conformity of E int PC R 12 values with calculation made using Coulomb formula should be expected for Frenkel anionic pair in CaF 2 type crystals. Deviations from Coulomb law are possible for other defects at R 12 small distances; deviation degree depends on lattice type, defect type and on relative polarizability of crystal cationic and anionic sublattices. Calculations of E int PC (R 12 ) values using Mott-Littleton method are compared with calculations conducted by MOLSTAT program using molecular static method

  1. A molecular dynamics study on the transport of a charged biomolecule in a polymeric adsorbent medium and its adsorption onto a charged ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, E; Wang, J-C; Liapis, A I

    2010-08-28

    The transport of a charged adsorbate biomolecule in a porous polymeric adsorbent medium and its adsorption onto the covalently immobilized ligands have been modeled and investigated using molecular dynamics modeling and simulations as the third part of a novel fundamental methodology developed for studying ion-exchange chromatography based bioseparations. To overcome computational challenges, a novel simulation approach is devised where appropriate atomistic and coarse grain models are employed simultaneously and the transport of the adsorbate is characterized through a number of locations representative of the progress of the transport process. The adsorbate biomolecule for the system studied in this work changes shape, orientation, and lateral position in order to proceed toward the site where adsorption occurs and exhibits decreased mass transport coefficients as it approaches closer to the immobilized ligand. Furthermore, because the ligands are surrounded by counterions carrying the same type of charge as the adsorbate biomolecule, it takes the biomolecule repeated attempts to approach toward a ligand in order to displace the counterions in the proximity of the ligand and to finally become adsorbed. The formed adsorbate-ligand complex interacts with the counterions and polymeric molecules and is found to evolve slowly and continuously from one-site (monovalent) interaction to multisite (multivalent) interactions. Such a transition of the nature of adsorption reduces the overall adsorption capacity of the ligands in the adsorbent medium and results in a type of surface exclusion effect. Also, the adsorption of the biomolecule also presents certain volume exclusion effects by not only directly reducing the pore volume and the availability of the ligands in the adjacent regions, but also causing the polymeric molecules to change to more compact structures that could further shield certain ligands from being accessible to subsequent adsorbate molecules. These

  2. Pressure dependence of excited-state charge-carrier dynamics in organolead tribromide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. C.; Han, J. H.; Zhao, H. F.; Yan, H. C.; Shi, Y.; Jin, M. X.; Liu, C. L.; Ding, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Excited-state charge-carrier dynamics governs the performance of organometal trihalide perovskites (OTPs) and is strongly influenced by the crystal structure. Characterizing the excited-state charge-carrier dynamics in OTPs under high pressure is imperative for providing crucial insights into structure-property relations. Here, we conduct in situ high-pressure femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy experiments to study the excited-state carrier dynamics of CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) under hydrostatic pressure. The results indicate that compression is an effective approach to modulate the carrier dynamics of MAPbBr3. Across each pressure-induced phase, carrier relaxation, phonon scattering, and Auger recombination present different pressure-dependent properties under compression. Responsiveness is attributed to the pressure-induced variation in the lattice structure, which also changes the electronic band structure. Specifically, simultaneous prolongation of carrier relaxation and Auger recombination is achieved in the ambient phase, which is very valuable for excess energy harvesting. Our discussion provides clues for optimizing the photovoltaic performance of OTPs.

  3. Revealing the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite solar cell materials using time resolved THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, C. S., Jr.; Sundström, V.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in organo metal halide perovskite has been probed using time resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS). Current literature on its early time characteristics is unanimous: sub-ps charge carrier generation, highly mobile charges and very slow recombination rationalizing the exceptionally high power conversion efficiency for a solution processed solar cell material. Electron injection from MAPbI3 to nanoparticles (NP) of TiO2 is found to be sub-ps while Al2O3 NPs do not alter charge dynamics. Charge transfer to organic electrodes, Spiro-OMeTAD and PCBM, is sub-ps and few hundreds of ps respectively, which is influenced by the alignment of energy bands. It is surmised that minimizing defects/trap states is key in optimizing charge carrier extraction from these materials.

  4. High Performance Interactive System Dynamics Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duckworth, Jonathan C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This brochure describes a system dynamics simulation (SD) framework that supports an end-to-end analysis workflow that is optimized for deployment on ESIF facilities(Peregrine and the Insight Center). It includes (I) parallel and distributed simulation of SD models, (ii) real-time 3D visualization of running simulations, and (iii) comprehensive database-oriented persistence of simulation metadata, inputs, and outputs.

  5. High Performance Interactive System Dynamics Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duckworth, Jonathan C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This presentation describes a system dynamics simulation (SD) framework that supports an end-to-end analysis workflow that is optimized for deployment on ESIF facilities(Peregrine and the Insight Center). It includes (I) parallel and distributed simulation of SD models, (ii) real-time 3D visualization of running simulations, and (iii) comprehensive database-oriented persistence of simulation metadata, inputs, and outputs.

  6. Dynamic interaction effects in cooling tower groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental determination of the dynamic response of reinforced concrete cooling towers, taking into consideration group effects, are described. The results for an individual tower are thoroughly examined. A complete analysis is then performed for the critical wind orientations, for each tower in a six towers group. It's shown that ignoring group effects in the analysis may lead to a significant underestimation of the structural response. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Uncovering the Dynamic in Static Assessment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard; Perkins, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approaches to standardized assessment are underpinned by the assumption that between-assessor variation in delivery can effectively be eliminated. However, fine-grained analyses of the administration of such assessments (e.g. Maynard and Marlaire, 1992) have established that significant subtle interactional variations occur even in…

  8. Interaction between opposite river bank dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilla Porras, J.A.; Crosato, A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies regarding bank erosion  and accretion can be found in the literature, it is  not common to find works studying the interaction  between opposite banks. Some existing  morphodynamic models describe bank erosion as  an event that depends on

  9. Dynamic Interactions for Network Visualization and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    projects.htm, Site accessed January 5, 2009. 12. John S. Weir, Major, USAF, Mediated User-Simulator Interactive Command with Visualization ( MUSIC -V). Master’s...Computing Sciences in Colleges, December 2005). 14. Enrique Campos -Nanez, “nscript user manual,” Department of System Engineer- ing University of

  10. A closed form for the electrostatic interaction between two rod-like charged objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, M; Abouie, J

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the electrostatic interaction between two rod-like charged objects with arbitrary orientations in three dimensions. We obtained a closed-form formula expressing the interaction energy in terms of the separation distance between the centers of the two rod-like objects, r, their lengths (denoted by 2l 1 and 2l 2 ) and their relative orientations (indicated by θ and φ). When the objects have the same length (2l 1 = 2l 2 = l), for particular values of separations, i.e. for r ≤ 0.8l, two types of minimum appear in the interaction energy with respect to θ. By employing the closed-form formula and introducing a scaled temperature t, we have also studied the thermodynamic properties of a 1D system of rod-like charged objects. For different separation distances, the dependence of the specific heat of the system to the scaled temperature has been studied. It is found that, for r < 0.8l, the specific heat has a maximum.

  11. Interactive Visual Analysis within Dynamic Ocean Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkiewicz, T.

    2012-12-01

    The many observation and simulation based ocean models available today can provide crucial insights for all fields of marine research and can serve as valuable references when planning data collection missions. However, the increasing size and complexity of these models makes leveraging their contents difficult for end users. Through a combination of data visualization techniques, interactive analysis tools, and new hardware technologies, the data within these models can be made more accessible to domain scientists. We present an interactive system that supports exploratory visual analysis within large-scale ocean flow models. The currents and eddies within the models are illustrated using effective, particle-based flow visualization techniques. Stereoscopic displays and rendering methods are employed to ensure that the user can correctly perceive the complex 3D structures of depth-dependent flow patterns. Interactive analysis tools are provided which allow the user to experiment through the introduction of their customizable virtual dye particles into the models to explore regions of interest. A multi-touch interface provides natural, efficient interaction, with custom multi-touch gestures simplifying the otherwise challenging tasks of navigating and positioning tools within a 3D environment. We demonstrate the potential applications of our visual analysis environment with two examples of real-world significance: Firstly, an example of using customized particles with physics-based behaviors to simulate pollutant release scenarios, including predicting the oil plume path for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. Secondly, an interactive tool for plotting and revising proposed autonomous underwater vehicle mission pathlines with respect to the surrounding flow patterns predicted by the model; as these survey vessels have extremely limited energy budgets, designing more efficient paths allows for greater survey areas.

  12. Topological defect and quasi-particle dynamics in charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of topological defects (dislocations) in charge density waves (CDW's) is largely affected by the quasi-particle dynamics in the cores of the dislocations. The dislocations mediate the conversion of the electron number between condensate and quasi-particle sub-systems. This is especially important in the sliding conduction of CDW. In this work we propose a simple model, which is obtained by extending the Ginzburg-Landau theory partially taking into account the quasi-particle dynamics in the sense of two-fluid model. We perform the numerical simulation of sliding conduction of CDW based on our model. Using this model we may clarify the detailed process of dislocation nucleation and annihilation near the contacts.

  13. Local and dynamic properties of light interacting with subwavelength holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, Jord

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the extraordinary transmission phenomena has initiated an intense study of the interaction of light with subwavelength holes. In this thesis the dynamic and local properties of light interacting with subwavelength holes are investigated. First of all the role of hole shape on the

  14. Dynamics of Strong Interactions and the S-Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omnes, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris, Orsay (France)

    1969-08-15

    The physical principles underlying the S-matrix theory of strong interactions are reviewed. In particular, the problem of whether these principles are sufficient to completely determine the S-matrix, i.e. to yield a dynamical theory of strong interactions, is discussed. (author)

  15. Approximate Solutions of Interactive Dynamic Influence Diagrams Using Model Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Doshi, Prashant; Qiongyu, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Interactive dynamic influence diagrams (I-DIDs) offer a transparent and semantically clear representation for the sequential decision-making problem over multiple time steps in the presence of other interacting agents. Solving I-DIDs exactly involves knowing the solutions of possible models...

  16. Modelling dynamic human-device interaction in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Niezen, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Errors are typically blamed on human factors, forgetting that the system should have been designed to take them into account and minimise these problems. In our research we are developing tools to design interactive medical devices using human-in-the-loop modelling. Manual control theory is used to describe and analyse the dynamic aspects of human-device interaction.

  17. Modelling the Effects of Parking Charge and Supply Policy Using System Dynamics Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable parking charge and supply policy are essential for the regular operation of the traffic in city center. This paper develops an evaluation model for parking policies using system dynamics. A quantitative study is conducted to examine the effects of parking charge and supply policy on traffic speed. The model, which is composed of three interrelated subsystems, first summarizes the travel cost of each travel mode and then calibrates the travel choice model through the travel mode subsystem. Finally, the subsystem that evaluates the state of traffic forecasts future car speed based on bureau of public roads (BPR function and generates new travel cost until the entire model reaches a steady state. The accuracy of the model is verified in Hangzhou Wulin business district. The related error of predicted speed is only 2.2%. The results indicate that the regular pattern of traffic speed and parking charge can be illustrated using the proposed model based on system dynamics, and the model infers that reducing the parking supply in core area will increase its congestion level and, under certain parking supply conditions, there exists an interval of possible pricing at which the service reaches a level that is fairly stable.

  18. The electro-mechanical effect from charge dynamics on polymeric insulation lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, H.; Chen, G.; Vaughan, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    For polymeric material used as electrical insulation, the presence of space charges could be the consequence of material degradations that are thermally activated but increased by the application of an electric field. The dynamics of space charge, therefore, can be potentially used to characterize the material. In this direction, a new aging model in which parameters have clear physical meanings has been developed and applied to the material to extrapolate the lifetime. The kinetic equation has been established based on charge trapping and detrapping of the injected charge from the electrodes. The local electromechanical energy stored in the region surrounding the trap is able to reduce the trap-depth with a value related to the electric field. At a level where the internal electric field exceeds the detrapping field in the material, an electron can be efficiently detrapped and the released energy from detrapping process can cause a weak bond or chain scission i.e. material degradation. The model has been applied to the electro-thermally aged low density polyethylene film samples, showing well fitted result, as well as interesting relationships between parameter estimates and insulation morphology.

  19. Investigating Recombination and Charge Carrier Dynamics in a One-Dimensional Nanopillared Perovskite Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Chan; Yang, Wooseok; Lee, Daehee; Ahn, Jihoon; Lee, Eunsong; Ma, Sunihl; Kim, Kyungmi; Yun, Seong-Cheol; Moon, Jooho

    2018-05-22

    Organometal halide perovskite materials have become an exciting research topic as manifested by intense development of thin film solar cells. Although high-performance solar-cell-based planar and mesoscopic configurations have been reported, one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructured perovskite solar cells are rarely investigated despite their expected promising optoelectrical properties, such as enhanced charge transport/extraction. Herein, we have analyzed the 1-D nanostructure effects of organometal halide perovskite (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3- x Cl x ) on recombination and charge carrier dynamics by utilizing a nanoporous anodized alumina oxide scaffold to fabricate a vertically aligned 1-D nanopillared array with controllable diameters. It was observed that the 1-D perovskite exhibits faster charge transport/extraction characteristics, lower defect density, and lower bulk resistance than the planar counterpart. As the aspect ratio increases in the 1-D structures, in addition, the charge transport/extraction rate is enhanced and the resistance further decreases. However, when the aspect ratio reaches 6.67 (diameter ∼30 nm), the recombination rate is aggravated due to high interface-to-volume ratio-induced defect generation. To obtain the full benefits of 1-D perovskite nanostructuring, our study provides a design rule to choose the appropriate aspect ratio of 1-D perovskite structures for improved photovoltaic and other optoelectrical applications.

  20. Neutral strange particle production in high energy charged current neutrino deuterium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, D.

    1982-01-01

    In an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot deuterium filled bubble chamber to a single horn focused wide band neutrino beam with energies between 10 and 250 GeV, 311 K/sub s/, 219 lambda and 7 Anti lambda are observed. These correspond to K 0 anti(K 0 ), lambda(Σ 0 ) and anti lambda production rates per charged current interaction of 0.170 +/- 0.010, 0.060 +/- 0.004, and 0.002 +/- 0.001, respectively, in 18.9 +/- 0.09% V 0 events of total charged current events. The inclusive lambda rate in nun interactions is significantly higher than that in nup interactions. The multiplicity of K 0 increases (or decreases) with increasing E/sub nu/, W, and Q 2 (or x/sub BETA), while that of lambda shows no significant variations. From a detailed study of lambda, lambda K 0 ], lambda K/sup */ +0 systems, the production rate of lambda from the charm quark decay is found to be (2.1 +/- 1.0)% of the total charged current, which leads to a small cross section for charmed baryon quasielastic production -40 cm 2 (90% CL) and a small semileptonic branching ratio of lambda/sub c/ + decay, B(lambda/sub c/ + → e + lambda x + , K 0 p, lambda π + π + π - , and antiK 0 pπ + π - decay modes of lambda/sub c/ + are studied and found consistent with our previous results. The gross probability that an (ss) pair is produced in lambda S = 0 neutrino reactions is estimated to be 0.19 +/- 0.06, which agrees well with that in hadronic experiments. The inclusive x/sub F/ and p/sub T 2 / distributions and their average values are very similar to those in hadronic experiments, which suggest that the majority of neutral strange particles are produced in neutrino reactions via the associated production mechanism

  1. Dynamics of charge carrier trapping in NO 2 sensors based on ZnO field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, A.-M.; Vlietstra, N.; Smits, E.C.P.; Spijkman, M.-J.; Gomes, H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) detection with ZnO field-effect transistors is based on charge carrier trapping. Here we investigate the dynamics of charge trapping and recovery as a function of temperature by monitoring the threshold voltage shift. The threshold voltage shifts follow a

  2. Measurement of Charged Particle Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Cary J.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Miller, Jack; Wilson, John W.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate models of health risks to astronauts on long-duration missions outside the geomagnetosphere will require a full understanding of the radiation environment inside a spacecraft or planetary habitat. This in turn requires detailed knowledge of the flux of incident particles and their propagation through matter, including the nuclear interactions of heavy ions that are a part of the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR). The most important ions are likely to be iron, silicon, oxygen, and carbon. Transport of heavy ions through complex shielding materials including self-shielding of tissue modifies the radiation field at points of interest (e.g., at the blood-forming organs). The incident flux is changed by two types of interactions: (1) ionization energy loss, which results in reduced particle velocity and higher LET (Linear Energy Transfer); and (2) nuclear interactions that fragment the incident nuclei into less massive ions. Ionization energy loss is well understood, nuclear interactions less so. Thus studies of nuclear fragmentation at GCR-like energies are needed to fill the large gaps that currently exist in the database. These can be done at only a few accelerator facilities where appropriate beams are available. Here we report results from experiments performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory s Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan (HIMAC). Recent efforts have focused on extracting charge-changing and fragment production cross sections from silicon beams at 400, 600, and 1200 MeV/nucleon. Some energy dependence is observed in the fragment production cross sections, and as in other data sets the production of fragments with even charge numbers is enhanced relative to those with odd charge numbers. These data are compared to the NASA-LaRC model NUCFRG2. The charge-changing cross section data are compared to recent calculations using an improved model due to Tripathi, which accurately predicts the

  3. Neutral strange particle production in antineutrino-neon charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocq, S.; Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Varvell, K.; Venus, W.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1992-06-01

    Neutral strange particle production inbar v Ne charged current interactions is studied using the bubble chamber BEBC, exposed to the CERN SPS antineutrino wide band beam. From a sample of 1191 neutral strange particles, the inclusive production rates are determined to be (15.7±0.8)% for K 0 mesons, (8.2±0.5)% for Λ, (0.4±0.2)% forbar Λ and (0.6±0.3)% for Σ0 hyperons. The inclusive production properties of K 0 mesons and Λ hyperons are investigated. The Λ hyperons are found to be polarized in the production plane.

  4. Interaction of slow and highly charged ions with surfaces: formation of hollow atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N; Grether, M; Spieler, A; Niemann, D [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Arnau, A

    1997-03-01

    The method of Auger spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of highly charged ions with Al and C surfaces. The formation of hollow Ne atoms in the first surface layers was evaluated by means of a Density Functional theory including non-linear screening effects. The time-dependent filling of the hollow atom was determined from a cascade model yielding information about the structure of the K-Auger spectra. Variation of total intensities of the L- and K-Auger peaks were interpreted by the cascade model in terms of attenuation effects on the electrons in the solid. (author)

  5. One-Dimensional Brownian Motion of Charged Nanoparticles along Microtubules: A Model System for Weak Binding Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko

    2010-01-01

    Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs ...

  6. Detecting Friendship Within Dynamic Online Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, Sears; Jacobs, Abigail Z.; Mason, Winter; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In many complex social systems, the timing and frequency of interactions between individuals are observable but friendship ties are hidden. Recovering these hidden ties, particularly for casual users who are relatively less active, would enable a wide variety of friendship-aware applications in domains where labeled data are often unavailable, including online advertising and national security. Here, we investigate the accuracy of multiple statistical features, based either purely on temporal...

  7. Shape Displays: Spatial Interaction with Dynamic Physical Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithinger, Daniel; Follmer, Sean; Olwal, Alex; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Shape displays are an emerging class of devices that emphasize actuation to enable rich physical interaction, complementing concepts in virtual and augmented reality. The ability to render form introduces new opportunities to touch, grasp, and manipulate dynamic physical content and tangible objects, in both nearby and remote environments. This article presents novel hardware, interaction techniques, and applications, which point to the potential for extending the ways that we traditionally interact with the physical world, empowered by digital computation.

  8. Dynamical stability in fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchard, J.; Thomas, B.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the dynamical stability of a group of elastic tubes placed in a cross-flow which obeys to the Navier-Stokes equations. The stability of this coupled system is deduced from the study of a quadratic eigenvalue problem arising in the linearized equations. The instability occurs when the real part of one of the eigenvalues becomes positive; the steady state is then replaced by a time-periodic state which is stable (Hopf bifurcation phenomenon). Some numerical methods for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem are described [fr

  9. Dynamic Measurements of Plastic Deformation in a Water-Filled Aluminum Tube in Response to Detonation of a Small Explosives Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Sandusky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to benchmark computer code calculations for the dynamic interaction of explosions in water with structures. Aluminum cylinders with a length slightly more than twice their diameter were oriented vertically, sealed on the bottom by a thin plastic sheet, and filled with distilled water. An explosive charge suspended in the center of the tube plastically deformed but did not rupture the wall. Tube wall velocity, displacement, and strain were directly measured. The agreement among the three sets of dynamic data and the agreement of the terminal displacement measurements with the residual deformation were excellent.

  10. Molecular orbital evaluation of charge flow dynamics in natural pigments based photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heera, Thekinneydath Rajan; Cindrella, Louis

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between structure and photo electrochemical property of ten natural pigments from plants, insects and microbes has been analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The essential parameters for their photoelectrochemical behaviour such as ground state geometries, electronic transition energies and oxidation potentials are computed. The attachment tendency of the anchoring groups, expressed as the deprotonation order, is determined by calculating the proton affinities at different sites of the molecules. A thorough analysis of the charge flow dynamics in the molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) of these molecules has been carried out and presented to emphasize the role of these orbitals in effective charge separation, the important feature of photosensitizers for DSSC. This study highlights that the flexible spatial orientation provided by the bridging aliphatic unsaturation favours the oscillator strength and the hydroxyl anchor group attached to the ring of delocalized pi electron cloud acts as the effective anchor.

  11. Decay dynamics of neutral and charged excitonic complexes in single InAs/GaAs QDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucker, Max; Seguin, Robert; Rodt, Sven; Poetschke, Konstantin; Bimberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Across the inhomogeneously broadened lineshape of a quantum dot (QD) ensemble the decay times are expected to vary since the wavefunctions and the oscillator strengths are sensitive to the actual geometry of the QD. We performed time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of 26 different single InAs/GaAs QDs to investigate the decay dynamics of neutral and charged excitonic complexes. The largest decay rate was found for the XX + , followed by XX, X + and finally the X. We will show that the ratios of lifetimes of the different excitonic complexes are mainly governed by the number of involved recombination channels. There is excellent agreement between the measured and predicted values for the lifetime ratios of the neutral (X/XX) and the positively charged (X + /XX + ) complexes. Surprisingly the lifetime of the exciton (X) shows a much larger yet unexplained scatter than that of all the other complexes

  12. Matrix-operator method for calculation of dynamics of intense beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapchinskij, M.I.; Korenev, I.L.; Rinskij, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Calculation algorithm for particle dynamics in high-current cyclic and linear accelerators is suggested. Particle movement in six-dimensional phase space is divided into coherent and incoherent components. Incoherent movement is described by envelope method; particle cluster is considered to be even-charged by tri-axial ellipsoid. Coherent movement is described in para-axial approximation; each structure element of the accelerator transport channel is characterized by six-dimensional matrix of phase coordinate transformation of cluster centre and by shift vector resulting from deviation of focusing element parameters from calculated values. Effect of space charge reflected forces is taken into account in the element matrix. Algorithm software is realized using well-known TRANSPORT program

  13. Oxidation and Metal-Insertion in Molybdenite Surfaces: Evaluation of Charge-Transfer Mechanisms and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle V.; Becker, U.; Shutthanandan, V.; Julien, C. M.

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2), an important representative member of the layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and industrial science and technology. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. On the other hand understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is quite important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, such a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and intercalation process will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions on to geomedia. Therefore, the present work was performed to understand the oxidation and intercalation processes of molybdenite surfaces. The results obtained, using a wide variety of analytical techniques, are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Mobile Charge Generation Dynamics in P3HT:PCBM Observed by Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale.......Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale....

  15. Specific interactions within micelle microenvironment in different charged dye/surfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Roxana Petcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of two ionic dyes, Crystal Violet and Methyl Orange, with different charged surfactants and also with a nonionic surfactant were investigated using surface tension measurements and visible spectroscopy in pre-micellar and post-micellar regions. It was found that for the water dominant phase systems the dye was localized between the polar heads, at the exterior of the direct micelle shells for all the systems. For the oil dominant phase systems, in case of the same charged dye/surfactant couples, the dye was localized in the micelle shell between the hydrocarbon chain of the surfactant nearby the hydrophilic head groups while for nonionic surfactant and oppositely charged dye/surfactant, localization of dye was between the oxyethylenic head groups towards the interior of the micelle core. Mixed aggregates of the dye and surfactant (below the critical micellar concentration of cationic surfactant, dye-surfactant ion pair and surfactant-micelles were present. The values of equilibrium constants (for TX-114/MO and TX-114/CV systems were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, partition coefficients between the micellar and bulk water phases and standard free energy (for the nonionic systems were −12.59 kJ/mol for MO and −10.97 kJ/mol for CV were calculated for all the studied systems. The partition processes were exothermic and occurred spontaneously.

  16. Charge and transition densities of samarium isotopes in the interacting Boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinester, M.A.; Alster, J.; Dieperink, A.E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The interacting boson approximation (IBA) model has been used to interpret the ground-state charge distributions and lowest 2 + transition charge densities of the even samarium isotopes for A = 144-154. Phenomenological boson transition densities associated with the nucleons comprising the s-and d-bosons of the IBA were determined via a least squares fit analysis of charge and transition densities in the Sm isotopes. The application of these boson trasition densities to higher excited 0 + and 2 + states of Sm, and to 0 + and 2 + transitions in neighboring nuclei, such as Nd and Gd, is described. IBA predictions for the transition densities of the three lowest 2 + levels of 154 Gd are given and compared to theoretical transition densities based on Hartree-Fock calculations. The deduced quadrupole boson transition densities are in fair agreement with densities derived previously from 150 Nd data. It is also shown how certain moments of the best fit boson transition densities can simply and sucessfully describe rms radii, isomer shifts, B(E2) strengths, and transition radii for the Sm isotopes. (orig.)

  17. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprospo, D.; Kalelkar, M.; Aderholz, M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andryakov, A.; Asratyan, A.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Baton, J.-P.; Barth, M.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Devanand; de Wolf, E.; Ermolov, P.; Erofeeva, I.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gapienko, G.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Ivanilov, A.; Jabiol, M.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kaftanov, V.; Kasper, P.; Kobrin, V.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Korablev, V.; Kubantsev, M.; Lauko, M.; Lukina, O.; Lys, J. E.; Lyutov, S.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Moskalev, V.; Murzin, V.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Ryasakov, S.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Singh, S.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smart, W.; Smirnova, L.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1994-12-01

    A study has been made of neutral strange particle production in νμNe and ν¯μNe charged-current interactions at a higher energy than any previous study. The experiment was done at the Fermilab Tevatron using the 15-ft. bubble chamber, and the data sample consists of 814(154) observed neutral strange particles from 6263(1115) ν(ν¯) charged-current events. For the ν beam (average event energy =150 GeV), the average multiplicities per charged-current event have been measured to be 0.408+/-0.048 for K0, 0.127+/-0.014 for Λ, and 0.015+/-0.005 for Λ¯, which are significantly greater than for lower-energy experiments. The dependence of rates on kinematical variables has been measured, and shows that both K0 and Λ production increase strongly with Eν, W2, Q2, and yB. Compared to lower-energy experiments, single-particle distributions indicate that there is much more K0 production for xF>-0.2, and the enhanced Λ production spans most of the kinematic region. Λ¯ production is mostly in the region ||xF||-0.2 there is a significant excess of Λ production over the model's prediction. The Λ hyperons are found to be polarized in the production plane.

  18. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and ChargeTransfer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development andimplementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probeapparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation ofinvestigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specificattention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highlysymmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes thedevelopment and construction of the experimental apparatus usedthroughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss theinvestigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resultingfrom a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of itsmethyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we areable to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provideevidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT)type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of thecarotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidencefor the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systemsand found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigationof the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsiblefor the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allowsfor a more detailed understanding of the importance of structuraldynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting.

  19. Extended Lagrangian formulation of charge-constrained tight-binding molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Coe, J D; Yadav, S K; Liu, X-Y; Niklasson, A M N

    2015-06-09

    The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism [Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, 100, 123004] has been applied to a tight-binding model under the constraint of local charge neutrality to yield microcanonical trajectories with both precise, long-term energy conservation and a reduced number of self-consistent field optimizations at each time step. The extended Lagrangian molecular dynamics formalism restores time reversal symmetry in the propagation of the electronic degrees of freedom, and it enables the efficient and accurate self-consistent optimization of the chemical potential and atomwise potential energy shifts in the on-site elements of the tight-binding Hamiltonian that are required when enforcing local charge neutrality. These capabilities are illustrated with microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations of a small metallic cluster using an sd-valent tight-binding model for titanium. The effects of weak dissipation on the propagation of the auxiliary degrees of freedom for the chemical potential and on-site Hamiltonian matrix elements that is used to counteract the accumulation of numerical noise during trajectories was also investigated.

  20. Interactions between charged residues in the transmembrane segments of the voltage-sensing domain in the hERG channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Liu, J; Jiang, M; Wu, D-M; Sonawane, K; Guy, H R; Tseng, G-N

    2005-10-01

    Studies on voltage-gated K channels such as Shaker have shown that positive charges in the voltage-sensor (S4) can form salt bridges with negative charges in the surrounding transmembrane segments in a state-dependent manner, and different charge pairings can stabilize the channels in closed or open states. The goal of this study is to identify such charge interactions in the hERG channel. This knowledge can provide constraints on the spatial relationship among transmembrane segments in the channel's voltage-sensing domain, which are necessary for modeling its structure. We first study the effects of reversing S4's positive charges on channel activation. Reversing positive charges at the outer (K525D) and inner (K538D) ends of S4 markedly accelerates hERG activation, whereas reversing the 4 positive charges in between either has no effect or slows activation. We then use the 'mutant cycle analysis' to test whether D456 (outer end of S2) and D411 (inner end of S1) can pair with K525 and K538, respectively. Other positive charges predicted to be able, or unable, to interact with D456 or D411 are also included in the analysis. The results are consistent with predictions based on the distribution of these charged residues, and confirm that there is functional coupling between D456 and K525 and between D411 and K538.

  1. Some dynamical aspects of interacting quintessence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Binayak S.; Mondal, Himadri Shekhar; Chatterjee, Devosmita

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a particular form of coupling, namely B=σ (\\dot{ρ _m}-\\dot{ρ _φ }) in spatially flat (k=0) Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) space-time. We perform phase-space analysis for this interacting quintessence (dark energy) and dark matter model for different numerical values of parameters. We also show the phase-space analysis for the `best-fit Universe' or concordance model. In our analysis, we observe the existence of late-time scaling attractors.

  2. Charge-transfer interaction mediated organogels from 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid appended pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein the two-component charge-transfer (CT interaction induced organogel formation with 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid appended pyrene (GA-pyrene, 3 as the donor, and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF, 4 as the acceptor. The use of TNF (4 as a versatile electron acceptor in the formation of CT gels is demonstrated through the formation of gels in a variety of solvents. Thermal stability, stoichiometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, optical micrographs, and circular dichroism (CD are performed on these CT gels to investigate their thermal and assembly properties. UV–vis, fluorescence, mass spectrometric as well as variable-temperature 1H NMR experiments on these gels suggest that the CT interaction is one of the major driving forces for the formation of these organogels.

  3. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  4. Inclusive ϱ0 production in overlineνμp charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grässler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; Middleton, R. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; Böckmann, K.; Gebel, W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Hoffmann, E.; Nellen, B.; Saarikko, H.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Clayton, E. F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Aachen-Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-Imperial College-München (MPI)-Oxford Collaboration

    1986-07-01

    Inclusive ϱ0 production has been studied in antineutrino-proton charged current interactions, using a sample of 3340 events obtained in BEBC filled with hydrogen and exposed to the CERN wideband antineutrino beam. An average multiplicity of 0.11 ± 0.02 ϱ0 per event at a mean hadronic mass W of 4.2 GeV is observed. The ϱ0 production characteristics are determined as functions of pT, xF, and z. The ratio ϱ 0/"π 0" is found to be low at small z values consistent with centrally produced pions coming mainly from resonances. At large z values this ratio approaches 0.45 ± 0.15 which is compatible with a vector/pseudoscalar meson direct production ratio of one. The results are compared with those obtained from neutrino-proton interactions in the same experimental set-up.

  5. Inclusive rho0 production in anti νsub(μ)p charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusive rho 0 production has been studied in antineutrino-proton charged current interactions, using a sample of 3340 events obtained in BEBC filled with hydrogen and exposed to the CERN wideband antineutrino beam. An average multiplicity of 0.11+-0.02 rho 0 per event at a mean hadronic mass W of 4.2 GeV is observed. The rho 0 production characteristics are determined as functions of psub(T), chisub(F), and z. The ratio rho 0 /'π 0 ' is found to be low at small z values consistent with centrally produced pions coming mainly from resonances. At large z values this ratio approaches 0.45+-0.15 which is compatible with a vector/pseudoscalar meson direct production ratio of one. The results are compared with those obtained from neutrino-proton interactions in the same experimental set-up. (orig.)

  6. Charge dependence and charge asymmetry in the nucleon-nucleon interaction due to processes involving Δ's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    The charge dependence and charge asymmetry of the nucleon-nucleon force arising from the exchange of a pion and a photon with the excitation of a nucleon resonance [Δ(1236)] is calculated. This charge dependence and asymmetry is studied through its effects on the 1 S nucleon-nucleon scattering lengths. The complexity of the calculation forces the use of approximations. The calculation is performed first with a pole approximation for the resonance and a second time with a Chew-Low description of the resonance. Both calculations neglect nuclear recoil. Estimates of this effect are made. The changes in the scattering lengths are small ( +- / 2 = 1.0225 G/sub π 0 / 2 will explain the proton-neutron scattering length

  7. Dynamical system analysis of interacting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, S.; Borges, H. A.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a dynamical system analysis of a cosmological model with linear dependence between the vacuum density and the Hubble parameter, with constant-rate creation of dark matter. We show that the de Sitter spacetime is an asymptotically stable critical point, future limit of any expanding solution. Our analysis also shows that the Minkowski spacetime is an unstable critical point, which eventually collapses to a singularity. In this way, such a prescription for the vacuum decay not only predicts the correct future de Sitter limit, but also forbids the existence of a stable Minkowski universe. We also study the effect of matter creation on the growth of structures and their peculiar velocities, showing that it is inside the current errors of redshift space distortions observations.

  8. Five challenges in modelling interacting strain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Wikramaratna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Population epidemiological models where hosts can be infected sequentially by different strains have the potential to help us understand many important diseases. Researchers have in recent years started to develop and use such models, but the extra layer of complexity from multiple strains brings with it many technical challenges. It is therefore hard to build models which have realistic assumptions yet are tractable. Here we outline some of the main challenges in this area. First we begin with the fundamental question of how to translate from complex small-scale dynamics within a host to useful population models. Next we consider the nature of so-called “strain space”. We describe two key types of host heterogeneities, and explain how models could help generate a better understanding of their effects. Finally, for diseases with many strains, we consider the challenge of modelling how immunity accumulates over multiple exposures.

  9. Influence of the Location of Attractive Polymer-Pore Interactions on Translocation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bappa; Chaudhury, Srabanti

    2018-01-11

    We probe the influence of polymer-pore interactions on the translocation dynamics using Langevin dynamics simulations. We investigate the effect of the strength and location of the polymer-pore interaction using nanopores that are partially charged either at the entry or the exit or on both sides of the pore. We study the change in the translocation time as a function of the strength of the polymer-pore interaction for a given chain length and under the effect of an externally applied field. Under a moderate driving force and a chain length longer than the length of the pore, the translocation time shows a nonmonotonic increase with an increase in the attractive interaction. Also, an interaction on the cis side of the pore can increase the translocation probability. In the presence of an external field and a strong attractive force, the translocation time for shorter chains is independent of the polymer-pore interaction at the entry side of the pore, whereas an interaction on the trans side dominates the translocation process. Our simulation results are rationalized by a qualitative analysis of the free energy landscape for polymer translocation.

  10. Study of transverse momenta of charged hadrons produced in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Kennedy, B.W.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Cooper, A.M.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, A.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Hamisi, F.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radiojicic, D.; Retter, M.

    1984-01-01

    Data from a neutrino and antineutrino hydrogen experiment with BEBC are used to investigate transverse properties of the produced charged hadrons. Measurements are presented on average transverse momenta of charged pions as functions of Feynman-x and the hadronic mass, on the transverse momentum flow within an event and on jet-related quantities. The main features of the data are well described by the LUND model. The data favour a version of the model in which soft gluon effects are included and the primordial transverse momentum of the quarks in the proton is small. Effects from 1st order QCD (hard gluon emission) are negligible. (orig.)

  11. Study of transverse momenta of charged hadrons produced in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Kennedy, B.W.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Cooper, A.M.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, A.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Hamisi, F.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M.

    1984-05-01

    Data from neutrino and antineutrino hydrogen experiment with BEBC are used to investigate transverse properties of the produced charged hadrons. Measurements are presented on average transverse momenta of charged pions as functions of Feynman-x and the hadronic mass, on the transverse momentum flow within an event and on jet-related quantities. The main features of the data are well described by the LUND model. The data favour a version of the model in which soft gluon effects are included and the primordial transverse momentum of the quarks in the proton is small. Effects from 1st order QCD (hard gluon emission) are negligible. (orig.)

  12. Role of plasma membrane surface charges in dictating the feasibility of membrane-nanoparticle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Receptor-ligand (R-L) binding mediated interactions between the plasma membrane (PM) and a nanoparticle (NP) require the ligand-functionalized NPs to come to a distance of separation (DOS) of at least dRL (length of the R-L complex) from the receptor-bearing membranes. In this letter, we establish that the membrane surface charges and the surrounding ionic environment dictate whether or not the attainment of such a critical DOS is possible. The negatively charged membrane invariably induces a negative electrostatic potential at the NP surface, repelling the NP from the membrane. This is countered by the attractive influences of the thermal fluctuations and van der Waals (vdw) interactions that drive the NP close to the membrane. For a NP approaching the membrane from a distance, the ratio of the repulsive (electrostatic) and attractive (thermal and vdW) effects balances at a critical NP-membrane DOS of dg,c. For a given set of parameters, there can be two possible values of dg,c, namely, dg,c,1 and dg,c,2 with dg,c,1 ≫ dg,c,2. We establish that any R-L mediated NP-membrane interaction is possible only if dRL > dg,c,1. Therefore, our study proposes a design criterion for engineering ligands for a NP that will ensure the appropriate length of the R-L complex in order to ensure the successful membrane-NP interaction in the presence of a given electrostatic environment. Finally, we discuss the manner in which our theory can help designing ligand-grafted NPs for targeted drug delivery, design biomimetics NPs, and also explain various experimental results.

  13. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for relativistic charged particle dynamics in time-dependent electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Yulei; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa

    2018-02-01

    Relativistic dynamics of a charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields has theoretical significance and a wide range of applications. The numerical simulation of relativistic dynamics is often multi-scale and requires accurate long-term numerical simulations. Therefore, explicit symplectic algorithms are much more preferable than non-symplectic methods and implicit symplectic algorithms. In this paper, we employ the proper time and express the Hamiltonian as the sum of exactly solvable terms and product-separable terms in space-time coordinates. Then, we give the explicit symplectic algorithms based on the generating functions of orders 2 and 3 for relativistic dynamics of a charged particle. The methodology is not new, which has been applied to non-relativistic dynamics of charged particles, but the algorithm for relativistic dynamics has much significance in practical simulations, such as the secular simulation of runaway electrons in tokamaks.

  14. The lattice dynamical studies of rare earth compounds: electron-phonon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Prafulla K.; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Singh, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    During the last two decades chalcogenides and pnictides of rare earth (RE) atoms have drawn considerable attention of the solid state physicists because of their peculiar electronic, magnetic, optical and phonon properties. Some of these compounds e.g. sulphides and selenides of cerium (Ce), samarium (Sm), yttrium (Y), ytterbium (Yb), europium (Eu) and thulium (Tm) and their alloys show nonintegral valence (between 2 and 3), arising due to f-d electron hybridization at ambient temperature and pressure. The rare earth mixed valence compounds (MVC) reviewed in this article crystallize in simple cubic structure. Most of these compounds show the existence of strong electron-phonon coupling at half way to the zone boundary. This fact manifests itself through softening of the longitudinal acoustic mode, negative value of elastic constant C 12 etc. The purpose of this contribution is to review some of the recent activities in the fields of lattice dynamics and allied properties of rare earth compounds. The present article is primarily devoted to review the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamical properties of rare earth compounds by using the lattice dynamical model theories based on charged density deformations and long-range many body forces. While the long range charge transfer effect arises due to f-d hybridization of nearly degenerate 4f-5d bands of rare earth ions, the density deformation comes into the picture of breathing motion of electron shells. These effects of charge transfer and charge density deformation when considered in the lattice dynamical models namely the three body force rigid ion model (TRM) and breathing shell model (BSM) are quite successful in explaining the phonon anomalies in these compounds and undoubtedly unraveled many important physical process governing the phonon anomalies in rare earth compounds

  15. Nonuniversal critical behaviour in a model for charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritala, R.K.; Hertz, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    We have studied short range fluctuations around the infinite-range model of charge density wave (CDW) dynamics. We find that the inhomogeneity of the local field, which is neglected in the infinite-range approximation has a dramatic effect on the transition. In the Bethe approximation the critical behaviour is nonuniversal. In particular, the current exponent is ζ = 3/2 log(z-1)/[log(z)]+log(1+f/J)], where z is the number of neighbors, f the pinning strength, and J the elastic coupling. (orig.)

  16. Nano-electron beam induced current and hole charge dynamics through uncapped Ge nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, A.; El Hdiy, A.; Troyon, M. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Nanosciences, Bat. 6, case no 15, UFR Sciences, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Amiard, G.; Ronda, A.; Berbezier, I. [IM2NP, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Campus de Saint Jerome - Case 142, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2012-04-16

    Dynamics of hole storage in spherical Ge nanocrystals (NCs) formed by a two step dewetting/nucleation process on an oxide layer grown on an n-doped <001> silicon substrate is studied using a nano-electron beam induced current technique. Carrier generation is produced by an electron beam irradiation. The generated current is collected by an atomic force microscope--tip in contact mode at a fixed position away from the beam spot of about 0.5 {mu}m. This distance represents the effective diffusion length of holes. The time constants of holes charging are determined and the effect of the NC size is underlined.

  17. Phase slip process and charge density wave dynamics in a one dimensional conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, N.; Zouadi, M.; Arbaoui, A.; Qjani, M.; Dumas, J.

    In this paper, we study the phase slip effect on the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics in a one-dimensional conductor in the weak pinning limit. A considerable enhancement of JCDW is observed in the presence of phase slips. In addition, a spatial dependence of the CDW current density JCDW is also studied showing that a decrease of JCDW with distance from the current contact occurs. The results are discussed in terms the relationship between additional phase slips and the mobility of phase dislocations nucleated at electrical contacts.

  18. Observation of the Dynamical Inversion of the Topological Charge of an Optical Vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Recolons, Jaume; Torres, Juan P.; Torner, Lluis; Wright, Ewan M.

    2001-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first detailed experimental observation of the dynamic inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex under free-space propagation. The vortex self-transformation occurs through continuous deformation of the noncanonical strength of the corresponding screw wave front dislocation, and is mediated by the occurrence of an extremely sharp turn in a Berry vortex trajectory, which observed at a Freund critical foliation appears as an edge-line dislocation orthogonal to the propagation direction, at a crucial point of the light evolution

  19. Charge dynamics in aluminum oxide thin film studied by ultrafast scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Maurizio; Sala, Vittorio; Irde, Gabriele; Pietralunga, Silvia Maria; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Tagliaferri, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    The excitation dynamics of defects in insulators plays a central role in a variety of fields from Electronics and Photonics to Quantum computing. We report here a time-resolved measurement of electron dynamics in 100 nm film of aluminum oxide on silicon by Ultrafast Scanning Electron Microscopy (USEM). In our pump-probe setup, an UV femtosecond laser excitation pulse and a delayed picosecond electron probe pulse are spatially overlapped on the sample, triggering Secondary Electrons (SE) emission to the detector. The zero of the pump-probe delay and the time resolution were determined by measuring the dynamics of laser-induced SE contrast on silicon. We observed fast dynamics with components ranging from tens of picoseconds to few nanoseconds, that fits within the timescales typical of the UV color center evolution. The surface sensitivity of SE detection gives to the USEM the potential of applying pump-probe investigations to charge dynamics at surfaces and interfaces of current nano-devices. The present work demonstrates this approach on large gap insulator surfaces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    values. In addition, the experimental results are compared with computer simulations based on the extended dynamical over-the-barrier model. From these calculations, the ratio of deposited potential energy that is transformed into kinetic energy before deposition due to the image charge acceleration can be maintained. (orig.)

  1. Molecular interaction of selected phytochemicals under the charged environment of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumya K; Khedkar, Vijay M; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A; George, Linz-Buoy; Highland, Hyacinth N; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and Tylophora indica have been known for their inhibition of malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), a widely used antimalarial drug, is due to the CQ resistance transporter (CRT) system. The present study deals with computational modeling of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein and development of charged environment to mimic a condition of resistance. The model of PfCRT was developed using Protein homology/analogy engine (PHYRE ver 0.2) and was validated based on the results obtained using PSI-PRED. Subsequently, molecular interactions of selected phytochemicals extracted from C. roseus Linn. and T. indica were studied using multiple-iterated genetic algorithm-based docking protocol in order to investigate the translocation of these legends across the PfCRT protein. Further, molecular dynamics studies exhibiting interaction energy estimates of these compounds within the active site of the protein showed that compounds are more selective toward PfCRT. Clusters of conformations with the free energy of binding were estimated which clearly demonstrated the potential channel and by this means the translocation across the PfCRT is anticipated.

  2. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Kim Allan; Klose, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a minimum-cost network flow problem in a bipartite graph with a single sink. The transportation costs exhibit a staircase cost structure because such types of transportation cost functions are often found in practice. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for solving...... this so-called single-sink, fixed-charge, multiple-choice transportation problem exactly. The method exploits heuristics and lower bounds to peg binary variables, improve bounds on flow variables, and reduce the state-space variable. In this way, the dynamic programming method is able to solve large...... instances with up to 10,000 nodes and 10 different transportation modes in a few seconds, much less time than required by a widely used mixed-integer programming solver and other methods proposed in the literature for this problem....

  3. Charged domain-wall dynamics in doped antiferromagnets and spin fluctuations in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaanen, J.; Horbach, M.L.; van Saarloos, W.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the electron liquid in the cuprate superconductors is characterized by many-hole correlations of the charged magnetic domain-wall type. Here we focus on the strong-coupling limit where all holes are bound to domain walls. We assert that at high temperatures a classical domain-wall fluid is realized and show that the dynamics of such a fluid is characterized by spatial and temporal crossover scales set by temperature itself. The fundamental parameters of this fluid are such that the domain-wall motions dominate the low-frequency spin fluctuations and we derive predictions for the behavior of the dynamical magnetic susceptibility. We argue that a crossover occurs from a high-temperature classical to a low-temperature quantum regime, in direct analogy with helium. We discuss some general characteristics of the domain-wall quantum liquid, realized at low temperatures. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Shape-Tunable Charge Carrier Dynamics at the Interfaces between Perovskite Nanocrystals and Molecular Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.

    2016-09-19

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites have recently emerged as an important class of materials and have exhibited remarkable performance in photovoltaics. To further improve their device efficiency, an insightful understanding of the interfacial charge transfer (CT) process is required. Here, we report the first direct experimental observation of the tremendous effect that the shape of perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) has on interfacial CT in the presence of a molecular acceptor. A dramatic change in CT dynamics at the interfaces of three different NC shapes, spheres, platelets, and cubes, is recorded. Our results clearly demonstrate that the mechanism of CT is significantly affected by the NC shape. More importantly, the results demonstrate that complexation on the NC surface acts as an additional driving force not only to tune the CT dynamics but also to control the reaction mechanism at the interface. This observation opens a new venue for further developing perovskite NCs-based applications.

  5. Shape-Tunable Charge Carrier Dynamics at the Interfaces between Perovskite Nanocrystals and Molecular Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.; Liu, Jiakai; Parida, Manas R.; Banavoth, Murali; Bose, Riya; AlYami, Noktan; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Peng, Wei; Pan, Jun; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites have recently emerged as an important class of materials and have exhibited remarkable performance in photovoltaics. To further improve their device efficiency, an insightful understanding of the interfacial charge transfer (CT) process is required. Here, we report the first direct experimental observation of the tremendous effect that the shape of perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) has on interfacial CT in the presence of a molecular acceptor. A dramatic change in CT dynamics at the interfaces of three different NC shapes, spheres, platelets, and cubes, is recorded. Our results clearly demonstrate that the mechanism of CT is significantly affected by the NC shape. More importantly, the results demonstrate that complexation on the NC surface acts as an additional driving force not only to tune the CT dynamics but also to control the reaction mechanism at the interface. This observation opens a new venue for further developing perovskite NCs-based applications.

  6. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jason A; Shen, Jana K

    2012-11-14

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pK(a) values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future.

  7. A dynamic method for charging-up calculations: the case of GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, P M M; Oliveira, C A B; Azevedo, C D R; Silva, A L M; Veloso, J F C A; Veenhof, R; Nemallapudi, M Varun

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) signal response is an important and powerful tool for the design and optimization of such detectors. However, several attempts to exactly simulate the effective gas gain have not been completely successful. Namely, the gain stability over time has not been fully understood. Charging-up of the insulator surfaces have been pointed as one of the responsible for the difference between experimental and Monte Carlo results. This work describes two iterative methods to simulate the charging-up in one MPGD device, the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). The first method, which uses a constant step size for avalanches time evolution, is very detailed but slow to compute. The second method instead uses a dynamic step-size that improves the computing time. Good agreement between both methods was achieved. Comparison with experimental results shows that charging-up plays an important role in detectors operation, explaining the time evolution of the gain. However it doesn't seem to be the only responsible for the difference between measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

  8. Doping effect on photoabsorption and charge-separation dynamics in light-harvesting organic molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohmura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using ab-initio theoretical methods, we demonstrate possible enhancement of photo-conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell via intentional doping in molecular graphene-fullerene heterojunction [the hexabenzocoronene (HBC-triethylene glycol (TEG–C60 molecule]. Photoabsorption analysis indicates oxygen substitution into HBC leads to an extension of the spectra up to an infrared regime. A quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics simulation incorporating nonadiabatic electronic transitions reveals that a dissociated charge state (D+ and A- in the O-doped system is more stable than the pristine case due to the presence of an effective barrier by the TEG HOMO/LUMO level. We also find that oxygen doping in HBC enhances the intermolecular carrier mobility after charge separation. On the other hand, the pristine molecule undergoes rapid recombination between donor and acceptor charges at the interface. These analyses suggest that the graphene oxidation opens a new window in the application of organic super-molecules to solar cells.

  9. Location Planning for Dynamic Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Airport Passenger Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Helber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the ground vehicles operating on the airside parts of commercial airports are currently powered by diesel engines. These include vehicles such as apron buses, fuel trucks, and aircraft tractors. Hence, these vehicles contribute to the overall CO 2 emissions of the aviation transport system and thus negatively influence its environmental footprint. To reduce this damaging environmental impact, these vehicles could potentially be electrified with on-board batteries as their energy sources. However, the conductive charging of such vehicles via stationary cable connections is rather time-consuming. A dynamic wireless charging system to supply public transportation passenger buses with electric energy while in motion has recently been installed on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST campus and in the Korean city of Gumi. In this paper, we study configuration problems related to the use of this technology to make airport operations more environmentally sustainable. We concentrate on the power supply for apron buses and analyze the location planning problems related to the distribution of the required power supply and the wireless charging units in the apron road system. To this end, we develop a formal optimization model and discuss the first numerical results.

  10. The programme library for numerical simulation of charged particle dynamics in transportation lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.S.; Shevtsov, V.F.; Shirkov, G.D.; Batygin, Yu.K.

    1998-01-01

    The description of a PC codes library to simulate the beam transportation of charged particles is presented. The codes are realized on IBM PC in Visual Basic common interface. It is destined for the simulation and optimization of beam dynamics and based on the successive and consistent use of two methods: the momentum method of distribution functions (RMS technique) and the particle-particle method (PP-Method). The library allows to calculate the RMS parameters of electron and ion beams, passing through a set of quadrupoles, solenoids, bends, accelerating sections. The RMS code is a fast code very suitable for the first test, design and optimization of the beam line parameters. The PP code requires more time for execution but provides a high accuracy of simulation taking into account the space charge effects, aberrations and beam losses. One of the main advantages of PP code presented here is an ability to simulate a real multicomponent beam of different masses and charged states of ions from ion sources

  11. Ultrafast dynamics of photoexcited charge and spin currents in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Torsten; Pasenow, Bernhard; Duc, Huynh Thanh; Vu, Quang Tuyen; Haug, Hartmut; Koch, Stephan W.

    2007-02-01

    Employing the quantum interference among one- and two-photon excitations induced by ultrashort two-color laser pulses it is possible to generate charge and spin currents in semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures on femtosecond time scales. Here, it is reviewed how the excitation process and the dynamics of such photocurrents can be described on the basis of a microscopic many-body theory. Numerical solutions of the semiconductor Bloch equations (SBE) provide a detailed description of the time-dependent material excitations. Applied to the case of photocurrents, numerical solutions of the SBE for a two-band model including many-body correlations on the second-Born Markov level predict an enhanced damping of the spin current relative to that of the charge current. Interesting effects are obtained when the scattering processes are computed beyond the Markovian limit. Whereas the overall decay of the currents is basically correctly described already within the Markov approximation, quantum-kinetic calculations show that memory effects may lead to additional oscillatory signatures in the current transients. When transitions to coupled heavy- and light-hole valence bands are incorporated into the SBE, additional charge and spin currents, which are not described by the two-band model, appear.

  12. Doping effect on photoabsorption and charge-separation dynamics in light-harvesting organic molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmura, Satoshi, E-mail: s.ohmura.m4@cc.it-hiroshima.ac.jp [Research Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Design, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan); Tsuruta, Kenji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Shimojo, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 Japan (Japan); Nakano, Aiichiro [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Computer Science, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, CA90089-024 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Using ab-initio theoretical methods, we demonstrate possible enhancement of photo-conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell via intentional doping in molecular graphene-fullerene heterojunction [the hexabenzocoronene (HBC)-triethylene glycol (TEG)–C{sub 60} molecule]. Photoabsorption analysis indicates oxygen substitution into HBC leads to an extension of the spectra up to an infrared regime. A quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics simulation incorporating nonadiabatic electronic transitions reveals that a dissociated charge state (D{sup +} and A{sup -}) in the O-doped system is more stable than the pristine case due to the presence of an effective barrier by the TEG HOMO/LUMO level. We also find that oxygen doping in HBC enhances the intermolecular carrier mobility after charge separation. On the other hand, the pristine molecule undergoes rapid recombination between donor and acceptor charges at the interface. These analyses suggest that the graphene oxidation opens a new window in the application of organic super-molecules to solar cells.

  13. Charge dynamics of 57Fe probe atoms in La2Li0.5Cu0.5O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presniakov, I. A.; Sobolev, A. V.; Rusakov, V. S.; Moskvin, A. S.; Baranov, A. V.

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the electronic state and local surrounding of 57Fe Mössbauer probe atoms within iron-doped layered perovskite La2Li0.5Cu0.5O4 containing transition metal in unusual formal oxidation states "+3". An approach based on the qualitative energy diagrams analysis and the calculations within the cluster configuration interaction method have been developed. It was shown that a large amount of charge is transferred via Cu-O bonds from the O: 2p bands to the Cu: 3d orbitals and the ground state is dominated by the d9L configuration ("Cu2+-O-" state). The dominant d9L ground state for the (CuO6) sublattice induces in the environment of the 57Fe probe cations a charge transfer Fe3+ + O-(L) → Fe4+ + O2-, which transforms "Fe3+" into "Fe4+" state. The experimental spectra in the entire temperature range 77-300 K were described with the use of the stochastic two-level model based on the assumption of dynamic equilibrium between two Fe3+↔Fe4+ valence states related to the iron atom in the [Fe(1)O4]4- center. The relaxation frequencies and activation energies of the corresponding charge fluctuations were estimated based on Mössbauer data. The results are discussed assuming a temperature-induced change in the electronic state of the [CuO4]5- clusters in the layered perovskite.

  14. Dynamic interactions of neutrophils and biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Hirschfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of microbial infections in humans are biofilm-associated and difficult to treat, as biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and protect themselves from external threats in various ways. Biofilms are tenaciously attached to surfaces and impede the ability of host defense molecules and cells to penetrate them. On the other hand, some biofilms are beneficial for the host and contain protective microorganisms. Microbes in biofilms express pathogen-associated molecular patterns and epitopes that can be recognized by innate immune cells and opsonins, leading to activation of neutrophils and other leukocytes. Neutrophils are part of the first line of defense and have multiple antimicrobial strategies allowing them to attack pathogenic biofilms. Objective/design: In this paper, interaction modes of neutrophils with biofilms are reviewed. Antimicrobial strategies of neutrophils and the counteractions of the biofilm communities, with special attention to oral biofilms, are presented. Moreover, possible adverse effects of neutrophil activity and their biofilm-promoting side effects are discussed. Results/conclusion: Biofilms are partially, but not entirely, protected against neutrophil assault, which include the processes of phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. However, virulence factors of microorganisms, microbial composition, and properties of the extracellular matrix determine whether a biofilm and subsequent microbial spread can be controlled by neutrophils and other host defense factors. Besides, neutrophils may inadvertently contribute to the physical and ecological stability of biofilms by promoting selection of more resistant strains. Moreover, neutrophil enzymes can degrade collagen and other proteins and, as a result, cause harm to the host tissues. These parameters could be crucial factors in the onset of periodontal inflammation and the subsequent tissue breakdown.

  15. Nonlinear interaction of charged particles with strong laser pulses in a gaseous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Avetissian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The charged particles nonlinear dynamics in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave pulse of finite duration and certain form of the envelope, in the refractive medium with a constant and variable refraction indexes, is investigated by means of numerical integration of the classical relativistic equations of motion. The particle energy dependence on the pulse intensity manifests the nonlinear threshold phenomenon of a particle reflection and capture by actual laser pulses in dielectric-gaseous media that takes place for a plane electromagnetic wave in the induced Cherenkov process. Laser acceleration of the particles in the result of the reflection from the pulse envelope and in the capture regime with the variable refraction index along the pulse propagation direction is investigated.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamics and Bifurcation Analysis of a Boost Converter for Battery Charging in Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindawi, Mohammed M.; Abusorrah, Abdullah; Al-Turki, Yusuf; Giaouris, Damian; Mandal, Kuntal; Banerjee, Soumitro

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems with a battery back-up form an integral part of distributed generation systems and therefore have recently attracted a lot of interest. In this paper, we consider a system of charging a battery from a PV panel through a current mode controlled boost dc-dc converter. We analyze its complete nonlinear/nonsmooth dynamics, using a piecewise model of the converter and realistic nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel. Through this study, it is revealed that system design without taking into account the nonsmooth dynamics of the converter combined with the nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel can lead to unpredictable responses of the overall system with high current ripple and other undesirable phenomena. This analysis can lead to better designed converters that can operate under a wide variation of the solar irradiation and the battery's state of charge. We show that the v-i characteristics of the PV panel combined with the battery's output voltage variation can increase or decrease the converter's robustness, both under peak current mode control and average current mode control. We justify the observation in terms of the change in the discrete-time map caused by the nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel. The theoretical results are validated experimentally.

  17. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of an intense charged particle beam using the semigroup approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Dynamic models of a charged particle beam subject to external electromagnetic fields are cast into the abstract Cauchy problem form. Various applications of intense charged particle beams, i.e., beams whose self electromagnetic fields are significant, might require, or be enhanced by, the use of dynamic control constructed from suitably processed measurements of the state of the beam. This research provides a mathematical foundation for future engineering development of estimation and control designs for such beams. Beginning with the Vlasov equation, successively simpler models of intense beams are presented, along with their corresponding assumptions. Expression of a model in abstract Cauchy problem form is useful in determining whether the model is well posed. Solutions of well-posed problems can be expressed in terms of a one-parameter semigroup of linear operators. The semigroup point of view allows the application of the rapidly maturing modern control theory of infinite dimensional system. An appropriate underlying Banach space is identified for a simple, but nontrivial, single degree of freedom model (the electrostatic approximation model), and the associated one-parameter semigroup of linear operators is characterized

  18. Polarization of Λ hyperons produced inclusively in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Settles, R.; Wernhard, K.L.; Wittek, W.

    1985-01-01

    Lambda hyperons from νp and anti np charged current interactions have been analysed for polarization. A significant polarization is observed for Λ particles in the quasi-elastic region for both types of interactions. Part of this polarization is due to the decay of highly polarized Σ(1385) resonances. The results are compared with simple predictions of the quark parton model. (orig.)

  19. Polarization of Λ hyperons produced inclusively in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1985-01-01

    Lambda hyperons from νp charged current interactions have been analysed for polarization. A significant polarization is observed for Λ particles in the quasi-elastic region for both types of interactions. Part of this polarization is due to the decay of highly polarized phi(1,385) resonances. The results are compared with simple predictions of the quark parton model. (orig.)

  20. Charge transfer and rapidity gap analysis in p(π+)n interactions at 195 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Y.; Haber, B.; Hochmann, D.; Karshon, U.; Ronat, E.E.; Shapira, A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1980-01-01

    We present charge transfer probabilities between CM hemispheres in pn and π + n interactions at 195 GeV/c. The relative probabilities for charge exchanges ΔQ > 1 as a function of rapidity gap length, r, are given. Both results are compared with those of π - p interactions at 200 GeV/c. The average of r, viz. , is given as a function of the gap number and of ΔQ for various multiplicities, and the reduced average gap lengths /ysub(max) for pn interactions are compared with data at a lower energy. (orig.)

  1. Spectroscopic and Dynamic Applications of Laser - Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Mark Alejandro

    1987-05-01

    Five different studies of laser-molecule interactions are conducted in this thesis. In part one, the first observation of Autler-Townes splitting of molecules is discussed and used to measure vibronic transition moments between excited electronic states. The effect was observed in the two-color, four -photon ionization of hydrogen via the resonant levels E,F(v = 6, J = 1) and D(v = 2, J = 2). Calculations gave good fits to the observed spectra yielding a vibronic transition moment of 2.0 +/- 0.5 a.u. between the above excited states. In part two, a method for extracting the alignment parameters of a molecular angular momentum distribution using laser-induced fluorescence is presented. The treatment is applicable to the common case of cylindrically symmetric orientation distributions in the high J-limit. Four different combinations of rotational branches in the LIF absorption emission process are examined. Computer algebra programs are used to generate simple analytical expressions which account for the influence of saturation on determining alignment parameters. In part three, the application of MPI-optogalvanic spectroscopy to the molecule 1,4-diazabicyclo (2.2.2) octane (DABCO) at various levels in a methane/air flame environment is described. The method employs a burner design that permits access to preheated and primary reaction zones of the flame for laser probing. Hot bands arising from two-photon resonant (X_1 ' to A_1') transitions are measured and the intramolecular vibrational potentials for the ground and first excited state are determined. In part four, DABCO's nu_ {13} torsional mode relaxation in a helium -DABCO and argon-DABCO supersonic jet, under low expansion conditions, is discussed. Modeling of the relaxation using the linear Landau-Teller relaxation equation is undertaken with various attempts to incorporate the effects of velocity slip. The relaxation rate is found to be independent of slip and the cross section dependent on the inverse of

  2. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutthanandan V

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  3. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, C V; Becker, U; Shutthanandan, V; Julien, C M

    2008-06-05

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia.The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA).Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400 degrees C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and significant

  4. One-dimensional Brownian motion of charged nanoparticles along microtubules: a model system for weak binding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko

    2010-04-21

    Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs and displayed one-dimensional Brownian motion in a charge-dependent manner, which indicates that nonspecific electrostatic interaction is sufficient for one-dimensional Brownian motion. The diffusion coefficient decreased exponentially with an increasing particle charge (with the exponent being 0.10 kBT per charge), whereas the duration of the interaction increased exponentially (exponent of 0.22 kBT per charge). These results can be explained semiquantitatively if one assumes that a particle repeats a cycle of binding to and movement along an MT until it finally dissociates from the MT. During the movement, a particle is still electrostatically constrained in the potential valley surrounding the MT. This entire process can be described by a three-state model analogous to the Michaelis-Menten scheme, in which the two parameters of the equilibrium constant between binding and movement, and the rate of dissociation from the MT, are derived as a function of the particle charge density. This study highlights the possibility that the weak binding interactions between proteins and rodlike polymers, e.g., MTs, are mediated by a similar, nonspecific charge-dependent mechanism. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction dynamics of multiple mobile robots with simple navigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1989-01-01

    The global dynamic behavior of multiple interacting autonomous mobile robots with simple navigation strategies is studied. Here, the effective spatial domain of each robot is taken to be a closed ball about its mass center. It is assumed that each robot has a specified cone of visibility such that interaction with other robots takes place only when they enter its visibility cone. Based on a particle model for the robots, various simple homing and collision-avoidance navigation strategies are derived. Then, an analysis of the dynamical behavior of the interacting robots in unbounded spatial domains is made. The article concludes with the results of computer simulations studies of two or more interacting robots.

  6. X-ray spectroscopy: An experimental technique to measure charge state distribution during ion–solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-01-08

    Charge state distributions of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.65–2.69 MeV/u using a novel method involving the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk shows Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the X-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state during the ion–solid interaction or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower mean charge states of the projectile ions compared to X-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for the present energy regime. - Highlights: • New method is proposed to determine charge state distribution using X-ray technique. • Charge state distribution parameters are calculated and compared with various theoretical predictions. • X-ray technique is found to be appropriate to segregate the charge state distribution in the bulk from the target surface. • ETACHA predictions are found satisfactory in the energy range of ≥1.65 MeV/u.

  7. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Dynamics of interacting neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, W.; Metzler, R.; Kanter, I.

    2000-04-01

    The dynamics of interacting perceptrons is solved analytically. For a directed flow of information the system runs into a state which has a higher symmetry than the topology of the model. A symmetry-breaking phase transition is found with increasing learning rate. In addition, it is shown that a system of interacting perceptrons which is trained on the history of its minority decisions develops a good strategy for the problem of adaptive competition known as the bar problem or minority game.

  8. Critical dynamics of an interacting magnetic nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Jonsson, P.E.; Nordblad, P.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of dipole-dipole interactions on the magnetic relaxation have been investigated for three Fe-C nanoparticle samples with volume concentrations of 0.06, 5 and 17 vol%. While both the 5 and 17 vol% samples exhibit collective behaviour due to dipolar interactions, only the 17 vol% sample dis...... displays critical behaviour close to its transition temperature. The behaviour of the 5 vol% sample can be attributed to a mixture of collective and single-particle dynamics....

  9. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-09-02

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof.

  10. Entanglement Growth in Quench Dynamics with Variable Range Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schachenmayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying entanglement growth in quantum dynamics provides both insight into the underlying microscopic processes and information about the complexity of the quantum states, which is related to the efficiency of simulations on classical computers. Recently, experiments with trapped ions, polar molecules, and Rydberg excitations have provided new opportunities to observe dynamics with long-range interactions. We explore nonequilibrium coherent dynamics after a quantum quench in such systems, identifying qualitatively different behavior as the exponent of algebraically decaying spin-spin interactions in a transverse Ising chain is varied. Computing the buildup of bipartite entanglement as well as mutual information between distant spins, we identify linear growth of entanglement entropy corresponding to propagation of quasiparticles for shorter-range interactions, with the maximum rate of growth occurring when the Hamiltonian parameters match those for the quantum phase transition. Counterintuitively, the growth of bipartite entanglement for long-range interactions is only logarithmic for most regimes, i.e., substantially slower than for shorter-range interactions. Experiments with trapped ions allow for the realization of this system with a tunable interaction range, and we show that the different phenomena are robust for finite system sizes and in the presence of noise. These results can act as a direct guide for the generation of large-scale entanglement in such experiments, towards a regime where the entanglement growth can render existing classical simulations inefficient.

  11. Role of Dispersive Fluorous Interaction in the Solvation Dynamics of the Perfluoro Group Containing Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Saptarsi; Chaterjee, Soumit; Halder, Ritaban; Jana, Biman; Singh, Prashant Chandra

    2017-08-17

    Perfluoro group containing molecules possess an important self-aggregation property through the fluorous (F···F) interaction which makes them useful for diverse applications such as medicinal chemistry, separation techniques, polymer technology, and biology. In this article, we have investigated the solvation dynamics of coumarin-153 (C153) and coumarin-6H (C6H) in ethanol (ETH), 2-fluoroethanol (MFE), and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) using the femtosecond upconversion technique and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to understand the role of fluorous interaction between the solute and solvent molecules in the solvation dynamics of perfluoro group containing molecules. The femtosecond upconversion data show that the time scales of solvation dynamics of C6H in ETH, MFE, and TFE are approximately the same whereas the solvation dynamics of C153 in TFE is slow as compared to that of ETH and MFE. It has also been observed that the time scale of solvation dynamics of C6H in ETH and MFE is higher than that of C153 in the same solvents. MD simulation results show a qualitative agreement with the experimental data in terms of the time scale of the slow components of the solvation for all the systems. The experimental and simulation studies combined lead to the conclusion that the solvation dynamics of C6H in all solvents as well as C153 in ETH and MFE is mostly governed by the charge distribution of ester moieties (C═O and O) of dye molecules whereas the solvation of C153 in TFE is predominantly due to the dispersive fluorous interaction (F···F) between the perfluoro groups of the C153 and solvent molecules.

  12. Interaction of a laser breakdown plasma with a charged metallic target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, B I; Grasyuk, A Z; Dyad' kin, A P; Sukhanov, A N [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1981-11-01

    An effect has been studied of the laser plasma on potential of an insulated conducting target made of aluminium. Targets of 2.4 and 6 cm diameter were used. Spot sizes on the target changed by means of a diaphragm. A change has been found in the charged target potential upon exposure to the high-power TEA CO/sub 2/ laser radiation. Dependences are presented of the jump in the target potential ..delta..U on the initial target potential, laser radiation energy density, geometrical size of the exposed region. It has been established that there is an optimal pressure of the ambient air under which ..delta..U reaches maximum. A dependence is presented of ..delta..U on the pressure upon target exposure in the air and in nitrogen. Temporal characteristics of the ..delta..U variation correlate with those of plasma glow in the visible and ultraviolet bands. A mechanism is suggested which explains the potential jump under the interaction between the laser plasma and the charged metallic target.

  13. Multiply charged ions of the oxygen - produced at interaction of laser radiation with two-element solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, M.R.; Bedilov, R.M.; Kamalova, J.O.; Davletov, I.Yu.; Matnazarov, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The interest to study of the oxygen multiply charged ions spectra produced at interaction laser radiation with one and two-element solids, is associate with possibility of creating laser and inertial thermonuclear syntheses, effective sources of multiply charged ions and nuclei atoms elements, plasma lasers, lasers on multiply charged transition, design of radiation-resistant materials and others. The present time many works is devoted to multiply charged ions, obtained from one element targets. Experimental results of study charge and energy spectra multiply charged ions of the oxygen, formed at interaction laser radiation with one and two-element solids are given in this work. Our experiments, we used installation, which is described in [1]. Neodymium laser had following parameters: wavelength 1.06 μm; intensity q = (0.1 h 1000) GW/sm 2 ; angle of incidence = 180. Were study one element Al, and two-element Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 targets by a diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 3 mm. Analysis obtained charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions one (Al) and two-element (Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 ) targets depending on intensity of laser radiation and targets components reveal the following: - maximal charge number one element target (Al) at q 500 GW/sm 2 is equal Z max = 6 and all peaks corresponding to charge numbers Z = 1 - 6 well resolved, but two-element targets (Al 2 O 3 ) Z max ions Al decrease before 3. Also it is necessary to note that, Z max ions of the oxygen depend on target components. In case Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 maximal charge number of oxygen ions are equal Z max = 6 and 3, accordingly; - obtained charge and energy spectra of oxygen ions being included in two-element targets, are indicative of that, general regularities of the change Z max , E max and structures charge and energy spectra depending on q laser are saved. However they hang by target components; - common features and some differences of energy spectra multiply charged oxygen ions

  14. Monitoring peptide-surface interaction by means of molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonella, Marco, E-mail: mnonella@pci.uzh.ch [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Seeger, Stefan, E-mail: sseeger@pci.uzh.ch [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-12-09

    Graphical abstract: Protein-surface interactions play a crucial role in a wide field of research areas like biology, biotechnology, or pharmacology. Only recently, it has been shown that not only peptide adsorption represents an important process but also spreading and clustering of adsorbed proteins. By means of classical molecular dynamics, peptide adsorption as well as the dynamics of adsorbed peptides have been investigated in order to gain deeper insight into such processes. The picture shows a snapshot of an adsorbed peptide on a silica surface showing strong direct hydrogen bonding. Research highlights: {yields} Simulation of peptide surface interaction. {yields} Dynamics of hydrogen bond formation and destruction. {yields} Internal flexibility of adsorbed peptides. - Abstract: Protein adsorption and protein surface interactions have become an important research topic in recent years. Very recently, for example, it has been shown that protein clusters can undergo a surface-induced spreading after adsorption. Such phenomena emphasize the need of a more detailed insight into protein-silica interaction at an atomic level. Therefore, we have studied a model system consisting of a short peptide, a silica slab, and water molecules by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations. The study reveals that, besides of electrostatic interactions caused by the chosen charge distribution, the peptide interacts with the silica surface through formation of direct peptide-surface hydrogen bonds as well as indirect peptide-water-surface hydrogen bonds. The number of created hydrogen bonds varies considerably among the simulated structures. The strength of hydrogen bonding determines the mobility of the peptide on the surface and the internal flexibility of the adsorbed peptide.

  15. Supramolecular fullerene/porphyrin charge transfer interaction studied by absorption spectrophotometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Partha; Bhattacharya (Banerjee), Shrabanti; Nayak, Sandip K.; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2009-06-01

    A detailed UV-Vis spectrometric and thermodynamic studies were done to look insight into the nature of molecular interactions of the electron donor-acceptor complexes of C60 and C70 with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(octadecyloxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphyrin (1) in chloroform and toluene. Charge transfer (CT) absorption bands were located in the visible region and vertical ionization potential of 1 was determined utilizing CT transition energy. Low values of oscillator and transition dipole strengths suggested that the complexes were almost of neutral character in ground states. The high binding constant value for the C70-1 complex indicated high selectivity of 1 molecule towards C70. Experimental as well as theoretically determined of enthalpies of formation value substantiated the trend in K values for fullerene-1 complexes.

  16. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1993-06-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0, Λ andbar Λ in vp andbar vp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables E v, W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables x F, z and p {T/2}. K *± (892) and ∑ *± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for ∑ *- (1385) production in vp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K *± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ,bar Λ and ∑ *± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicities are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up.

  17. Interaction of a laser-breakdown plasma with a charged metallic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, B.I.; Grasyuk, A.Z.; Dyad'kin, A.P.; Sukhanov, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of a laser plasma on the potential of an insulated conducting target. It was discovered that the target potential changed stepwise on illumination with a high-power TEA CO 2 laser. A step, ΔU, in the target potential was observed and the dependences of ΔU on the initial potential, laser radiation energy density, and geometrical dimensions of the illuminated region were determined. There was an optimal pressure of the surrounding air for which ΔU had the maximum value. The dependence of ΔU on the pressure was determined, when illuminating a target in air and in nitrogen. The temporal characteristics of the variation in ΔU were correlated with the time variation of the visible and ultraviolet luminescence from the plasma. A mechanism was proposed to explain the potential step accompanying the interaction of a laser-produced plasma with a charged metallic target

  18. Vacuum polarization and topological self-interaction of a charge in multiconic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Grats, Y.V.; Lavrent'ev, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of classical and quantized massless scalar fields in n-dimensional multiconic space-time is considered. An expression for the Euclidean Green's function is obtained using the methods of perturbation theory. It is shown that a nontrivial topology of the space distorts the electrostatic field of a pointlike charge; as a result, the self-energy of the particle assumes a nonzero value, and a force of topological self-interaction arises. Similarly, a change in the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations of a quantized scalar field leads to nonzero vacuum expectation values left-angle φ 2 right-angle vac and left-angle T μv right-angle va and gives rise to vacuum attraction between parallel cosmic strings. 28 refs

  19. Classical and macroquantum dynamics of charged particles in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The investigations relating to the dynamics of charged particles in a magnetic field carried out over more than 40 years have been reviewed with special reference to the problem of nonadiabaticity due to field inhomogeneity, and time dependence. A detailed overview is presented of the standard approaches to one of the main problems namely the determination of the residence times of charged particles in an adiabatic magnetic trap which involves nonadiabaticity in a crucial way. In a major departure from the standard approach, a new paradigm described here as 'macroquantum dynamics' was advanced by the author to address the problem of residence times. The evolution and development of this new paradigm is next presented as the main focus of the review. This consists of a probability amplitude Schroedinger-like formalism for the classical macrodomain, which has been shown to be a description of the system in the correspondence limit of large Landau quantum numbers. It is demonstrated that this represents a remarkable persistence of matter wave behaviour well into the classical macrodomain, leading to unexpected experimental consequences. Experimental results confirming some of the spectacular predictions of this formalism are presented. These refer to the existence of macroscopic matter wave interference phenomena and the observation of the curl-free vector potential a la Aharonov-Bohm in the macrodomain. The problem of the nonadiabatic leakage of particles from an adiabatic trap takes the appearance here of the quantum-like tunneling of the adiabatic potential. The multiplicity of residence times predicted by the set of Schroedinger-like equations have been well confirmed by experiments. A critical comparison is finally presented of the classical vs. macroquantum description of the system in the macrodomain. The new paradigm thus represents an entirely new and unexpected manifestation of quantum dynamics in the classical macrodomain

  20. Modification of the RTMTRACE program for numerical simulation of particle dynamics at racetrack microtrons with account of space charge forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, I.V.; Shvedunov, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents modification results of the program for simulation of particle dynamics in cyclic accelerators with RTMTRACE linear gap. The program was modified with regard for the effect of space charge effect on particle dynamics. Calculation results of particle dynamics in 1 MeV energy continuous-duty accelerator with 10 kw beam were used to develop continuous powerful commercial accelerator. 3 refs., 2 figs

  1. Summaries of reports of XLIII International Tulinov conference on physics of interactions of charged particles with crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    The collection contains summaries of reports of the XLIII International Tulinov conference on physics of interactions of charged particles with crystals. The problems of physics of orientation effects are considered. The recent results of investigations of electrons and positrons radiation in solids are presented. The problems of scattering, sputtering and emission of secondary particles are discussed. The particular attention is given to modification of materials surfaces by means of charged particles [ru

  2. Theses of reports of the 30. International conference on physics of interaction of charged particles with crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulinov, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The collection contains theses of reports selected for presentation on the 30. Conference on Physics of Interaction of Charged Particles with Crystals. These Conference took place in Moscow, May 29-31, 2000. The problems of physics of orientation effects in crystals are discussed. The results of recent investigations of emission of electrons and positrons in solids are presented. The particular attention is given to processes of surface coating and nanostructure shaping by means of charged particles beams [ru

  3. Interaction of slow, highly charged ions with the surface of ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the creation of permanent nanostructures induced by the impact of very slow (v≤5 x 10 5 m/s) highly charged (q≤40) ions on the ionic crystal surfaces of CaF 2 and KBr is investigated. The systematic analysis of the samples surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy supplies information on the influence of the potential as well as the kinetic projectile energy on the process of structure creation. The individual impact of highly charged ions on the KBr(001) surface can initiate the creation of mono-atomic deep pit-like structures -nanopits- with a lateral size of a few 10 nm. The volume of these pits and the corresponding number of sputtered secondary particles show a linear dependence on the projectiles potential energy. For the onset of pit formation a kinetic energy dependent threshold in the potential energy E grenz pot (E kin ) could be identified. Based on the defect-mediated desorption by electrons and by including effects of defect agglomeration a consistent model for the process of pit formation was drawn. In this work the recently discovered creation of hillock-like structures by impact of highly charged ions on CaF 2 (111) surfaces could be verified for lowest kinetic energies (E kin ≤150 eV x q). For the first time the potential energy of impinging projectiles could be identified to be exclusively responsible for the creation of nanostructures. Furthermore, a shift of potential energy threshold for hillock formation was observed for very small projectile velocities. Within the framework of cooperation with the Vienna University of Technology simulations based on the inelastic thermal spike model were performed, which allowed to interlink the individual hillock formation with a local melting of the ionic lattice. The essential influence of electron emission during the interaction of the highly charged ions with the surface on the process of nanostructuring was taken into consideration by complementary investigations of the secondary

  4. Interactions of heavy ions with biomolecules: a dynamical microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengshou; Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou

    2006-01-01

    The status of studying biology system therapy with X-rays, γ-rays, neutron, proton, and heavy ions is reviewed. The depth dose profile, called Bragg profile, makes heavy ion an ideal tool for radiotherapy. The physical process of therapy with heavy ions is analyzed and a 3-step interaction processes of heavy ions with biomolecules is proposed, that is, nuclear fragmentation in nuclear interaction, electron excitation in Coulomb interaction, and the biomolecules relaxation in surroundings, finally leads to a new structure of biomolecule. Since this physical process is the base of the following chemical process and biological process, a dynamical microscopic approach is strongly demanded to be built. (authors)

  5. Interactive Dynamic Volume Illumination with Refraction and Caustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jens G; Bruckner, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in developing high-quality interactive methods for realistic volume illumination. However, refraction - despite being an important aspect of light propagation in participating media - has so far only received little attention. In this paper, we present a novel approach for refractive volume illumination including caustics capable of interactive frame rates. By interleaving light and viewing ray propagation, our technique avoids memory-intensive storage of illumination information and does not require any precomputation. It is fully dynamic and all parameters such as light position and transfer function can be modified interactively without a performance penalty.

  6. Theoretical models of the spin-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in metals and semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with spin-dependent carrier dynamics in semiconductors and metals. We are especially interested in the dynamics on ultrashort timescales, which can be driven by ultrashort optical excitation, and use of a theoretical description in terms of the dynamical spin-density matrix. The first part of this thesis is concerned with spin-dependent carrier dynamics in bulk GaAs. For conduction electrons in GaAs, the most important mechanisms, by which an electron spin polarization can be destroyed, are the Dyakonov-Perel and Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanisms. For the Dyakonov-Perel effect, our treatment is the first calculation of the dynamics of the spindensity matrix for bulk GaAs. From our microsopic calculation, we extract spin-dephasing times. In particular, we can describe the dependence of the spin-dephasing time for a wide range of n-doping concentrations and explain the spin-dephasing dynamics in and out of the motional-narrowing regime. For the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism, i.e., the exchange interaction of electronics with holes, approximate relaxation times for limiting cases were derived about 30 years ago. We show that these approaches provide an incomplete picture of spin relaxation, and are only valid for high or low densities, whereas the microscopic calculation is capable of explaining the electronic dynamics also for intermediate doping densities, which are most interesting for typical experiments. The spin-dependent hole dynamics in GaAs is much faster than that of electrons, because the p-like hole bands experience the spin-orbit interaction directly, rather than through the interaction with other bands. The resulting spin relaxation is sometimes referred to as an Elliott-Yafet mechanism. For the first time, we present results for the microscopic dynamics of this mechanism for holes in bulk GaAs, and we discuss the different results that may be obtained with different measurement techniques. We also analyze the importance of ''spin hot

  7. Neutron fragmentation and inclusive charge exchange in pd and π+d interactions at 195 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Y.; Haber, B.; Hochman, D.; Koller, E.; Ronat, E.E.; Shapira, A.; Yaari, R.; Yekutieli, G.; Braun, H.; Etienne, F.; Fridman, A.; Gerber, J.P.; Jegham, E.; Juillot, P.; Maurer, G.; Voltolini, C.

    1977-01-01

    An excess of negative particles and depletion of positive particles in the backward hemisphere (c.m. system) is observed in π + and p interactions on neutron target. dsigma - /dy is compared with pp interactions and the difference is related to the slow-proton spectrum produced in the pn interactions. A neutron fragmentation component is observed, and the inclusive charge-exchange probability at the nucleon vertex is found to be about 0.4

  8. Neutron fragmentation and inclusive charge exchange in pd and π+d interactions at 195 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Y.; Haber, B.; Hochman, D.; Koller, E.; Ronat, E.E.; Shapira, A.; Yaari, R.; Yekutieli, G.; Braun, H.; Etienne, F.; Fridman, A.; Gerber, J.P.; Jegham, E.; Juillot, P.; Maurer, G.; Voltolini, C.

    1976-01-01

    An excess of negative particles and depletion of positives in the cms backward hemisphere is observed in π + and p interactions on neutron target. dΣ - /dy is compared with pp interactions and the difference is related to the slow proton spectrum produced in the pn interactions. A neutron fragmentation component is observed and the inclusive charge exchange probability at the nucleon vertex is found to be about 0.4. (author)

  9. Vegetation dynamics induced by phreatophyte--aquifer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Luca; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco

    2007-09-21

    The dynamics of phreatophyte vegetation are strongly coupled to those of the shallow phreatic aquifers from which phreatophytes extract water. Vegetation is able to influence the depth of the water table, which, in turn, can induce stress in vegetation. These interactions are likely to affect the composition and structure of phreatophyte plant communities, as well as their successional dynamics. Despite the environmental and economical value of many wetland plant ecosystems around the world, the impact of vegetation-water table interactions on ecosystem succession and interspecies competition in phreatophyte plant communities remains poorly understood. This study develops a minimalistic modelling framework to investigate the dynamics of two phreatophyte species, and their interactions with the water table. In spite of its simplicity, the model exhibits a remarkable variety of dynamical behaviors, especially when the water table depth is forced by external drivers. It is shown that, even when one of the two species is dominant with respect to the other, these two species can coexist showing periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic dynamics. Moreover, in the presence of a random environmental forcing, noise-induced coexistence may emerge.

  10. Unitarity, Feedback, Interactions - Dynamics Emergent from Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Ugalde, Paulina; Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert; Zych, Magdalena

    Modern measurement theory dispenses with the description of a measurement as a projection. Rather, the measurement is understood as an operation, whereby the system's final state is determined by an action of a completely positive trace non-increasing map and the outcomes are described by linear operators on the system, distributed according to a positive-operator valued measure (POVM). The POVM approach unifies the theory of measurements with a general description of dynamics, the theory of open quantum systems. Engineering a particular measurement and engineering a particular dynamics for the system are thus two complementary aspects of the same conceptual framework. This correspondence is directly applied in quantum simulations and quantum control theory . With this motivation, we study what types of dynamics can emerge from a model of repeated short interactions of a system with a set of ancillae. We show that contingent on the model parameters the resulting dynamics ranges from exact unitarity to arbitrary fast decoherence. For a series of measurements the effective dynamics includes feedback-control, which for a composite system yields effective interactions between the subsystems. We quantify the amount of decoherence accompanying such induced interactions. The simple framework used in the present study can find applications in devising novel quantum control protocols, or quantum simulations.

  11. Water-Protein Interactions: The Secret of Protein Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-protein interactions help to maintain flexible conformation conditions which are required for multifunctional protein recognition processes. The intimate relationship between the protein surface and hydration water can be analyzed by studying experimental water properties measured in protein systems in solution. In particular, proteins in solution modify the structure and the dynamics of the bulk water at the solute-solvent interface. The ordering effects of proteins on hydration water are extended for several angstroms. In this paper we propose a method for analyzing the dynamical properties of the water molecules present in the hydration shells of proteins. The approach is based on the analysis of the effects of protein-solvent interactions on water protons NMR relaxation parameters. NMR relaxation parameters, especially the nonselective (R1NS and selective (R1SE spin-lattice relaxation rates of water protons, are useful for investigating the solvent dynamics at the macromolecule-solvent interfaces as well as the perturbation effects caused by the water-macromolecule interactions on the solvent dynamical properties. In this paper we demonstrate that Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy can be used to determine the dynamical contributions of proteins to the water molecules belonging to their hydration shells.

  12. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shanlin [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an

  13. Emergence of junction dynamics in a strongly interacting Bose mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Foerster, Angela; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    We study the dynamics of a one-dimensional system composed of a bosonic background and one impurity in single- and double-well trapping geometries. In the limit of strong interactions, this system can be modeled by a spin chain where the exchange coefficients are determined by the geometry of the...

  14. Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Nordblad, P.

    2000-01-01

    Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle sample, exhibiting a low-temperature spin-glass-like phase, has been studied by low-frequency ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation experiments. The nonequilibrium behavior shows characteristic spin-glass features, but some qualitative...

  15. Molecular dynamics study of the silica-water-SDA interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szyja, B.M.; Jansen, A.P.J.; Verstraelen, T.; Santen, van R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have applied the molecular dynamics simulations in order to analyse the role of the structure directing tetrapropylammonium ions in the aggregation process that leads to silicalite formation. We address the specific question of how the interactions between silica precursor species

  16. Component Based System Framework for Dynamic B2B Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu jinmin, Jinmin; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    Business-to-Business (B2B) collaboration is becoming a pivotal way to bring today's enterprises to success in the dynamically changing e-business environment. Though many business-to-business protocols are developed to support B2B interaction, none are generally accepted. A B2B system should support

  17. Characterization of Charge-Carrier Transport in Semicrystalline Polymers: Electronic Couplings, Site Energies, and Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Poly(bithiophene- alt -thienothiophene) [PBTTT

    KAUST Repository

    Poelking, Carl

    2013-01-31

    We establish a link between the microscopic ordering and the charge-transport parameters for a highly crystalline polymeric organic semiconductor, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT). We find that the nematic and dynamic order parameters of the conjugated backbones, as well as their separation, evolve linearly with temperature, while the side-chain dynamic order parameter and backbone paracrystallinity change abruptly upon the (also experimentally observed) melting of the side chains around 400 K. The distribution of site energies follows the behavior of the backbone paracrystallinity and can be treated as static on the time scale of a single-charge transfer reaction. On the contrary, the electronic couplings between adjacent backbones are insensitive to side-chain melting and vary on a much faster time scale. The hole mobility, calculated after time-averaging of the electronic couplings, reproduces well the value measured in a short-channel thin-film transistor. The results underline that to secure efficient charge transport in lamellar arrangements of conjugated polymers: (i) the electronic couplings should present high average values and fast dynamics, and (ii) the energetic disorder (paracrystallinity) should be small. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Characterization of Charge-Carrier Transport in Semicrystalline Polymers: Electronic Couplings, Site Energies, and Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Poly(bithiophene- alt -thienothiophene) [PBTTT

    KAUST Repository

    Poelking, Carl; Cho, Eunkyung; Malafeev, Alexander; Ivanov, Viktor; Kremer, Kurt; Risko, Chad; Bré das, Jean-Luc; Andrienko, Denis

    2013-01-01

    We establish a link between the microscopic ordering and the charge-transport parameters for a highly crystalline polymeric organic semiconductor, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT). We find that the nematic and dynamic order parameters of the conjugated backbones, as well as their separation, evolve linearly with temperature, while the side-chain dynamic order parameter and backbone paracrystallinity change abruptly upon the (also experimentally observed) melting of the side chains around 400 K. The distribution of site energies follows the behavior of the backbone paracrystallinity and can be treated as static on the time scale of a single-charge transfer reaction. On the contrary, the electronic couplings between adjacent backbones are insensitive to side-chain melting and vary on a much faster time scale. The hole mobility, calculated after time-averaging of the electronic couplings, reproduces well the value measured in a short-channel thin-film transistor. The results underline that to secure efficient charge transport in lamellar arrangements of conjugated polymers: (i) the electronic couplings should present high average values and fast dynamics, and (ii) the energetic disorder (paracrystallinity) should be small. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I., E-mail: alichten@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: m.katsnelson@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole–dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms. - Highlights: • We give formulas for the exchange interaction tensor in strongly correlated systems. • Interactions are written in terms of electronic Green's functions and self-energies. • The method is suitable for a Dynamical Mean Field Theory implementation. • No quenching of the orbital magnetic moments is assumed. • Spin and orbital contributions to magnetism can be computed separately.

  20. Dynamical equilibration in strongly-interacting parton-hadron matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorenstein M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton-hadron matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons matched to reproduce lattice-QCD results – including the partonic equation of state – in thermodynamic equilibrium. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different baryon density (or chemical potential and energy density. The transition from initially pure partonic matter to hadronic degrees of freedom (or vice versa occurs dynamically by interactions. Different thermody-namical distributions of the strongly-interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP are addressed and discussed.