WorldWideScience

Sample records for dying pinus cuttings

  1. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Andréia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the rooting of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet cuttings under the action of different levels of plant growth regulators. The cuttings consisted of 4-6 cm long shoots of P. caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet with their basal needles removed. The basal part of the cuttings were treated for 2 seconds with the following treatments: 1- NAA 2000mg L-1; 2- NAA 4000mg L-1; 3- NAA 6000mg L-1; 4- NAA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ 100mg L-1; 5- NAA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 6- NAA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; 7- IBA 2000mg L-1; 8- IBA 4000mg L-1; 9- IBA 6000mg L-1; 10-IBA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ; 11- IBA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 12- IBA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; and a control. After receiving the treatment, the cuttings were planted in tubes containing 50% carbonized rice hulls and 50% vermiculite. The evaluations, performed 60 days after planting, showed that P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings treated with IBA produced a higher percentage of rooted cuttings than those treated with NAA; the most effective treatment was IBA 4000mg L-1 plus 100mg L-1 paclobutrazol.

  2. Wachstumsmodell für die Karibische Kiefer (Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis [Sénéclauze]) in der Dominikanischen Republik

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Die nachhaltige Bewirtschaftung des Waldes stellt eine der wichtigsten Anforderungen an das forstwirtschaftliche Handeln dar. In diesem Kontext befasst sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit der modellhaften Abbildung des Einzelbaumwachstums der Baumart Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis und bildet damit die Grundlage zur Entwicklung nachhaltiger Bewirtschaftungskonzepte in der Dominikanischen Republik. Die Datenbasis für die Berechnung von Ertragskennwerten und für die sich anschließende Modellie...

  3. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Sedaghathoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1. Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55% was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA. Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively. Keywords: auxin; rooting; Pinus mugo; vegetative propagation.

  4. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF THE STRIP LAYOUT IN PROGRESSIVE CUTTING DIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk MENDİ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cutting dies have a very important position on the series manufacture of the sheet metals by the method of no-turnings reproduction system. By using classical methods, the design of the dies and the choosing of the suitable die parts are generally time consuming and money spending for designer. In this study, we development a program based on 1 MB study in QBASIC program which can design strip layout. According to the data base, in addition to strip layout design, force analysis, force capacity of the press dies, gravity force center can be found. By making the design of not standard die parts, you can also choose the standard die parts. With this computer program for die design, you can get much more sensitive, enough flexible and fast results.

  5. Orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda wood Forças de corte ortogonal na madeira juvenil e adulta de Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct characteristics of juvenile and mature woods, which are observed particularly in softwoods, have an influence on processing due to their different mechanical resistance properties in relation to cutting operations. In the past, when most of the wood used industrially came from adult trees of natural forests, little importance was given to a distinction between different zones of the tree stem. At present, however, as the supply of mature trees with large diameters from native forests is constantly decreasing, the use of short-cycle trees has become a common practice, through the adoption of species that grow relatively fast, such as pines and eucalyptus. In both softwoods and hardwoods, juvenile wood cells are generally smaller and thinner than in mature wood, and this reflects on their density and mechanical resistance, which should have an effect on the cutting forces developed during processing. The main object of this research was to evaluate orthogonal cutting forces in juvenile and mature Pinus taeda woods. Cutting force magnitude differences were observed for those two regions of the trunk, with parallel cutting forces being 33.4% higher, on average, at the mature wood region for 90-0 cutting, and 12% higher for 90-90 cutting. This result is consistent with the distinct anatomical structures of the material, since the forces developed during machining depend directly upon its properties.As características distintas dos lenhos juvenil e adulto, existentes principalmente na formação das coníferas, influenciam na usinagem devido às diferentes propriedades de resistência mecânica ao corte. No passado, quando a maior parte da madeira utilizada industrialmente era proveniente de árvores adultas de florestas naturais, pouca importância era dada à diferenciação de zonas no tronco. Atualmente, no entanto, com o decréscimo constante do suprimento de árvores adultas de grandes diâmetros, provenientes de florestas nativas

  6. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, José Ramón; García-Domínguez, Celia; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Grillo, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied. PMID:25147839

  7. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume, although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied.

  8. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo) cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghathoor, S.; Kayghobadi, S.; Tajva, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (Ia) and naphthaleneacetic acid (Naca) hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA) were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1). Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55%) was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA). Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively). (Author)

  9. Theoretical modeling of cutting temperature in high-speed end milling process for die/mold machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Tang

    2005-01-01

    A parametric model of cutting temperature generated in end milling process is developed according to the thermal mechanism of end milling as an intermittent operation, which periodically repeats the cycle of heating under cutting and cooling under noncutting. It shows that cutting speed and the tool-workpiece engagement condition are determinative for tool temperature in the operation. The suggested model was investigated by tests of AlTiN coated endmill machining hardened die steel JIS SKD61, where cutting temperature on the flank face of tool was measured with an optical fiber type radiation thermometer. Experimental results show that the tendency of cutting temperature to increase with cutting speed and engagement angle is intensified with the progressing tool wear.

  10. Elemental contents in Napoleon's hair cut before and after his death: did Napoleon die of arsenic poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xilei; Alber, D; Henkelmann, R

    2004-05-01

    Whether or not Napoleon died of arsenic poisoning is an open question on which debate has been active since 1960. This work examined several of his hairs, cut at different times and in different places: two pieces cut the day after his death on the island of St. Helena (1821) and two pieces cut seven years earlier (1814) during his first exile on the island of Elba. INAA results show that all of the samples of Napoleon's hair have an elevated arsenic concentration. These results disfavor the arsenic poisoning theory. Aside from arsenic, 18 other elements are reported, providing additional information for examining the arsenic poisoning theory.

  11. 火炬松、湿地松和马尾松采穗圃营建技术%Building Techniques of Cuttings Orchard of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massoniana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来端

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of time and retention hei ght of topping on quantity,length and basal diameter of coppice shoot of Pinus taeda,Pinus elliottii and Pinus massonian a has been studied.The results showed that because of difference of b iological properties among three tree species, suitable time and retention heigh t of topping among three tree species are different.The suitable topping time o f Pinus taeda is August 20 to August 25,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm; The suitable topping time of Pinus masson iana is July 30, the best retention height of topping is 8 cm; The su itable topping time of Pinus elliottii is August 15 to Aug ust 20,the best retention height of topping is 15 cm.%通过不同剪顶时间和剪顶高度对火炬松、湿地松和马尾 松的萌条数量、长度和径粗的影响研究.结果表明:不同树种由于其生物学特性不同,适宜 的截顶时间、截顶高度表现不一致.火炬松适宜的截顶时间为8月20日至8月25日,截顶高度 以15 cm为最宜;马尾松适宜的截顶时间为7月30日,截顶高度为8 cm;湿地松适宜的截顶时 间为8月15日至8月20日,截顶高度为15 cm.

  12. General cutting-off die for trapezoidal sheet%梯形料片通用切断模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柏鸿

    2013-01-01

      介绍了一种可快速调整刀口间隙、切口位置、角度的梯形料通用切断模,配套自动矫平送料机,实现了切断模的自动化生产,提高了生产效率,降低了生产成本,取得了较好的经济效益。%A general cutting-off die being able to quickly adjust the trapezoidal sheet was presented which was used in the automatic leveling feeder. Through implementing the auto⁃matic production using cutting-off die, the production efficiency was improved and its cost was reduced.

  13. Isotope signals and anatomical features in tree rings suggest a role for hydraulic strategies in diffuse drought-induced die-back of Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, Laura; Nardini, Andrea; von Arx, Georg; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-03-17

    The 2003 and 2012 summer seasons were among the warmest and driest of the last 200 years over southeastern Europe, and in particular in the Karst region (northeastern Italy). Starting from winter-spring 2013, several black pines (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold) suffered crown die-back. Declining trees occurred nearby individuals with no signs of die-back, raising hypotheses about the occurrence of individual-specific hydraulic strategies underlying different responses to extreme drought. We investigated possible processes driving black pine decline by dendrochronological and wood anatomical measurements, coupled with analysis of tree-ring carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic composition in healthy trees (H) and trees suffering die-back (D). Die-back trees showed higher growth rates than H trees at the beginning of the last century, but suffered important growth reduction following the dry summers in 2003 and 2012. After the 2012 drought, D trees produced tracheids with larger diameter and greater vulnerability to implosion than H ones. Healthy trees had significantly higher wood δ13C than D trees, reflecting higher water-use efficiency for the surviving trees, i.e., less water transpired per unit carbon gain, which could be related to lower stomatal conductance and a more conservative use of water. Relatively high δ18O for D trees indicates that they were strongly dependent on shallow water sources, or that they sustained higher transpiration rates than H trees. Our results suggest that H trees adopted a more conservative water-use strategy under drought stress compared with D trees. We speculate that this diversity might have a genotypic basis, but other possible explanations, like different rooting depth, cannot be ruled out.

  14. GAJA: 3D CAD methodology for developing a parametric system for the automatic (re)modeling of the cutting components of compound washer dies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David POTO(C)NIK; Bojan DOL(S)AK; Miran ULBIN

    2013-01-01

    For the designing of cutting-dies is a complex and experience-based process,it is poorly supported by conventional 3D CAD software.Thus,the majority of design activities,including the (re)modeling of those cutting die-components that are directly responsible for performing shaping operations on a sheet-metal stamping part,traditionally still need to be carried-out repetitively,separately,and manually by the designer.To eliminate some of these drawbacks and upgrade the capabilities of conventional 3D CAD software,this paper proposes a new methodology for the development of a parametric system capable of automatically performing a (re)modeling process of compound washer dies' cutting-components.The presented methodology integrates CATIA V5 built-in modules,including Part Design,Assembly Design and Knowledge Advisor,publication mechanism,and compound cutting die-design knowledge.The system developed by this methodology represents an 'intelligent' assembly template composed of two modules GAJA1 and GAJA2,respectively.GAJA1 is responsible for the direct input of the die-design problem regarding the shape,dimensions and material of the stamping part,its extraction in the form of geometric features,and the transferring of relevant design parameters and features to the module GAJA2.GAJA2 interprets the current values for the input parameters and automatically performs the modeling process of cutting die-components,using die-design knowledge and the company's internal design and manufacturing standards.Experimental results show that this system significantly shortens the modeling-time for cutting the die-components,improves the modeling-quality,and enables the training of inexperienced designers.

  15. 激光模切加工新技术的实验研究%Experimental Study on New Technology of Laser Die-Cutting Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宝忠; 刘铁根; 王萌; 李梅; 张国顺

    2011-01-01

    To improve the die-cutting process of the traditional packaging carton, experiments of laser die-cutting have been done. Details of the working principle of laser die-cutting were introdued, and scanning precision of the focusing was analyzed. A laser die-cutting system with galvanometer, radio frequency CO2 laser, hurrySCAN14 scan head, RTC3 card and so on is built, and laser die-cutting has been done with this system. Compared with traditional mechanical cutting, laser die-cutting has lots of advantages, such as convenience, agility, short production cycle and higher efficiency especially in the packaging of small quantities samples.%为了改进传统包装纸盒模切工艺,进行了激光模切的实验研究.详细介绍了激光模切的工作原理,对振镜扫描方式的聚焦误差进行了分析,在采用射频CO2激光器、hurrySCAN14扫描头和RTC3通用激光控制卡等构建的数控激光模切系统上,进行了激光模切技术的研究.与传统机械模切相比,激光模切在小批量样品的生产中具有方便、灵活、生产周期短和效率高等独特的优点.

  16. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a traumatic experience, such as living through abuse , violence, or a disaster. Self-injury may feel like ... embarrassed." Sometimes self-injury affects a person's body image. Jen says, "I actually liked how the cuts ...

  17. Avaliação técnica e econômica do corte mecanizado de Pinus sp. com Harvester Technical and economical evaluation of automated cutting of Pinus sp. in with Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Neire da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliada a operação de corte mecanizado de Pinus caribaea hondurensis em sistema de toras curtas, utilizando-se o Harvester, no Município de Nova Ponte, MG, com base na produtividade e nos custos da atividade durante o estágio inicial de sua implantação (5 meses e considerando-se o uso múltiplo da madeira. Na avaliação técnica foram calculados: rendimento operacional, produtividade, disponibilidade mecânica e eficiência operacional, enquanto na avaliação econômica foram calculados os custos operacionais e os custos de produção. A maior produtividade média foi encontrada no mês 5, com 22,71 m³.he-1, mês que apresentou a segunda maior disponibilidade mecânica (95,59%. A maior eficiência operacional foi encontrada no mês 3, com 83,09%. O custo operacional total do período amostrado foi de R$115,03 por hora efetiva de trabalho. Os custos fixos corresponderam a 28,59% e os variáveis, a 62,31% dos custos totais. O custo de produção foi de R$5,99.m3-1 produzido. Concluiu-se que a produtividade aumentou quando o volume médio por árvore também aumentou, que a máquina possuía potencial de melhoria no seu funcionamento e que seu custo de produção estava dentro dos padrões esperados para este trabalho.The present study evaluated the operation of the automated cutting of Pinus caribaea hondurensis, in system cut-to-length used Harvester, in the municipal district of Nova Ponte, MG, with base in the productivity and costs of the activity during the initial apprenticeship of it's implantation (5 months, considering the multiple use of the wood. In the technical evaluation calculations were made: Operational income, productivity, mechanical readiness and operational efficiency, while in the economical evaluation it the operational cost and the production costs were calculated. The largest medium productivity was found for month 5 with 22.71m³.he-1, the month that presented the second largest mechanical

  18. 汽车覆盖件模具切削物理数据库研究%Research on Physical Database of Automobile Panel Die Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪峰; 冯高成

    2016-01-01

    近年来我国汽车制造业的迅速发展,导致汽车覆盖件模具需求很大.目前,很多发达国家学者进行了金属切削数据库的开发和研究,然而我国针对于汽车覆盖件模具切削加工的先进切削数据库系统比较少.本文以汽车覆盖件模具切削为研究对象,通过研究模具加工中的基础切削问题与基本加工工艺,以服务的角度出发,采用大数据、云计算技术建立汽车用淬硬钢模具切削基础数据库云平台,挖掘机床性能、加工工艺、刀具选择与加工质量的基本关系,提供标准模具工艺查询、工艺参数优化、刀具优选等服务,为智能机床装备的使用提供基础数据支持.%In recent years,the rapid development of Chinese automobile manufacturing industry causes great needs of automobile cover die. At present,many developed country scholars have conducted the research and development of metal cutting database,however,there are less advanced die machining cutting database sys-tem for automobile panel die cutting in our country. Aiming at automobile panel die cutting,automotive hard-ened die steel cutting cloud database platform is established through the study of basic cutting problem and the basic processing technology of die processing by big data and cloud computing technology. According to the service starting,the basic relationship between the performance of the machine tool is studied,and machining process and tool selection with processing quality,services of standard die technology query and optimization of process parameters and tool selection are provided to offer basic data support for the use of intelligent machine tool equipment.

  19. 基于正交试验的高速切削淬硬模具钢的切削力研究%Cutting Force Research in High-speed Cutting Hardened Die Steel on Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静; 董海; 张弘弢; 李嫚

    2012-01-01

    通过正交设计方案,对淬硬到60HRC的冷作模具钢Cr12MoV进行高速车削切削力试验,分析了切削用量和刀具变量对切削力的影响规律,并建立了切削力的经验公式.得到如下结论:切削用量中,切削速度对切削力影响最小,进给量和背吃刀量对切削力影响较大;三个方向力中,轴向力最小,径向力和主切削力相接近,与常规切削相比,径向力偏大;小刀尖圆弧半径的PCBN刀具是进行高速切削淬硬钢时的理想刀具;经验公式预测值与实测值之间存在约5%-20%的误差.%Orthogonal design was applied to cutting force experiment in the high speed turning of Crl2MoV (60HRC) hardened die steel. The influences of cutting parameters and tool variables on cutting forces were analyzed. Then the cutting force analytical model was established. Conclusions are as follows, the effect of cutting speed on cutting forces is small, while the effect of feed rate and cutting depth on cutting forces should be considered. For three cutting force components , Fx force is the minimum, Fr force is close to Fz force and is larger than conventional Fy force. PCBN tool with small comer radius is more suitable for cutting hardened steel at high speed. The analytical model predictions are for 5% -20% closer to the experimental measurements.

  20. Computer Decision-making System for Intermediate Cutting of Pinus massoniana Forest%马尾松林抚育间伐计算机决策系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾思齐; 欧阳君祥

    2001-01-01

    根据马尾松单木生长量模型,运用动态模拟方法,以Windows98为操作平台,以V isual C++为开发工具,研制了马尾松林抚育间伐的计算机决策系统.系统可以根据用户的 需要,分别以林分最大蓄积量、最大生物量或最大货币收益为经营目标,求解在各种间伐体 制下各龄阶的最适经营密度.模拟结果表明:适时间伐明显促进了林分的生长,且立地质量 越好,间伐所产生效益越显著.%Using the Windows 98 as the operating platform and the Visual C++ as the software development kit, we developed a computer decisio n-making system for intermediate cutting of Pinus massoniana based on the s ingle tree increment model of Pinus massoniana with a dynamic simulated meth od. This system can help you get the optical operating density of every age clas s of all kinds of intermediate cuttings by setting the maximum amount of growing sto ck or the maximum biomass or the maximum net income as the target of forest mana gement according to the demand of users. The simulated results show that stan d grows faster under proper cutting, and that the effects will be bette r under better site conditions.

  1. Induction of stilbene biosynthesis as an early indicator of ozone stress in spruce (Pinus sylvestris L.); Die Induktion der Stilben-Biosynthese als frueher Indikator einer Ozonbelastung bei der Kiefer (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemann, D.

    1990-07-03

    For an investigation on the effect of ozone on phenyl propane metabolism in conifers, spruce shoots aged six weeks were used as model systems. Time-related synthesis of the stilbenes pinosylvin and pinosylvin-3-methyl ether as a function of stress was determined. Furthermore, solubilization and test methods were developed with a view to the measurement of phenyl alanine ammonia lyase, stilbene synthase and chalcone synthase. The results were transferable to several-year-old spruces in exposure chambers and in the field. They are in good agreement with the visible symptoms of damage to be observed only later. (LU) [Deutsch] Als Modellsysteme zur Untersuchung der Ozonwirkung auf den Phenylpropanstoffwechsel bei Koniferen wurden 6 Wochen alte Kiefernkeimlinge verwendet. Die zeitliche Neubildung der Stilbene Pinosylvin und Pinosylvin-3-Methylether wurde in Abhaengigkeit von der Belastung bestimmt. Weiter wurden zur Messung von Phenylalanin-Ammoniak-Lyase, Stilbenesynthase und Chalconsynthase Aufschluss- und Testmethoden entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse konnten auf mehrjaehrige Kiefern in Expositionskammern und im Freiland uebertragen werden. Sie korrelieren gut mit den erst spaeter zu beobachtenden sichtbaren Schadsymptomen. (LU)

  2. 彰武松采穗圃的营建与管理技术%Building and management techniques of cutting orchard of Pinus densiflora var.zhangwuensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 安宇宁; 孟鹏; 尤国春

    2008-01-01

    彰武松(Pinus densiflora var.Zhangwuensis)是在辽宁省彰武县章古台区域内的一片樟子松人工林中发现的;现已推广到黑龙江、内蒙古、山西、陕西等省(自治区),1999年辽宁省固沙造林研究所为了扩大彰武松的繁育数量,建立了一个面积2 hm2的采穗圃.目的是加快彰武松的扩繁地区,让彰武松更快地适宜三北地区,它也是我国唯一的一个彰武松采穗圃.

  3. Conceptos del maquinado con altas velocidades de corte aplicado en moldes y matrices. // Concepts of the machining with high speeds cutting applied in molds and dies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Aneiro

    2007-01-01

    (new materials for thesubstrata and layers and of the technology of having schemed facilitated the application of the cut with high speeds cutting(High Speed Cutting HSC. The increase of the cutting speeds is one of the ways for increasing the efficiency of theproductive processes, through the reduction of the manufacturing times. The reduction in several times of themanufacturing times, is not achieved alone for the times of machining but also for the substitution or to minimize otherelaboration processes that are part of the productive chain that are relatively slow in occasions as they are theelectroerosión, the manual finish in the production of moulds and dies as well as the changes of operations of the piece.To hardly be a relatively new process from the years 90 it is that the introduction of the HSC is implemented and manytechnological questions are even without answer. On the other hand the characteristics already well known of this newtechnology they indicate a good application perspective in the most diverse segments in the industry.Key words: HSM, HSC, high speed cutting. high speed machining.

  4. Studies on the container cutting plant culture of Pinus massoniana%马尾松容器扦插育苗研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林武星; 郑蓉; 叶功富; 傅忠华

    2001-01-01

    The results indicate that the survival rate of cutting treatment of the fast-growing individuals and the high resin yield families are more different. But the growth is little different. From them the cutting of 3 fast-growing individuals with 5815-1,5112- 1,1204- 1 and 4 families with Z116,Z211, Z106 and Z115 are seleted. The survival rate of cuttings treated by the growth regulator is improved and decreased by the age of inother tree.%对马尾松穗条采用容器扦插育苗,比较马尾松不同速生单株、高产脂家系容器扦插成苗率、扦插苗生长量,分析不同生根剂浓度处理穗条切口及母株年龄对扦插生根成活的影响,结果表明,不同速生单株、高产脂家系扦插成苗率差异显著,生长量差别不大,筛选出扦插成苗率高的速生单株5815-1号、5112-1号及1204-1号,高产脂家系Z116、Z211、Z106及Z115;一定浓度生根剂处理穗条切口可明显提高扦插成活率,穗条扦插随母株年龄增大呈成活率下降趋势,扦插苗再次采穗扦插可明显提高扦插成活率。

  5. Missing detection and localization research of die-cutting chip based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的模切片缺失检测与定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建春; 陈贤

    2012-01-01

    针对生产过程中产生的模切片因被撕拉而缺失的现象,导致需要大量的人工进行产品检验和补片问题提出了识别方法以及补缺的定位措施.根据周围中心点的位置数据可以给定缺失模切片的中心位置.采用邻域跟踪的方法找出模切片,并计算出位置与数量,可以快速分检模切产品,并能为机器补片提供位置数据,已在labview8.6上得到了验证.%According to the phenomenon that the die-cutting chips were torn to miss during production process and in order to solve the problem that lots of labors were used to check and repair the die-cutting products, the recognition approach and the localization measure for repairing were proposed. Due to that the central positions of missed die-cutting chips were determined by the central positions around themselves, the neighborhood tracking method was applied to recognize the die-cutting chips and calculate the positions and the amount, then the die-cutting chips can be selected quickly and the position datum were provided to repair the products for machines. The method was validated in the lab-view8.6 software.

  6. 几种生长调节剂对马尾松插穗促根的效应%Effects of Root-inducing Regulators in Rooting of Cuttings from Pinus massoniana Lamb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季孔庶; 王章荣; 陈天华; 王明庥

    2001-01-01

    Root-inducing treatments was used in cuttings from five years old ortets of Pinus massoniana Lamb. from Ji′an in Jiangxi P rovince. First S3307 later IBA treatments had no effect on raising root r ate. The fittest concentration of IBA was 200 mg*L-1 and S3307 was 100 mg*L-1. Of all the treatments, regulators M1 and M2, compounded by the author, were the best. They could raise the level of endogenous IAA,lo wer the levels of iPA、 ABA、GA1+3 and root inhibitors (MI3, MI5 and M I6, they were all flavoniods), and also weaden the activity of IAA-oxidase (I AAO) .As a result, the root rate was raised from 34 percent (CK) up to 90 and 8 4 percent respectively. And the sum of adventitious root and branch root, the l ength of the longest root and the total length of the roots, were notabely rais ed.Therefore, strong stecklings of Pinus massoniana Lamb. could be raised .%用生长调节剂处理5年生江西吉安种源马尾松插穗,发 现先用S3307后用IBA无效,先用IBA后用S3307使扦插成活率成倍提高,首次 以木本植物为材料佐证了植物生长调节剂的阶段性促根作用理论.单独使用时,IBA最适浓 度为200 mg*L-1,S3307最适浓度为100 mg*L-1.最佳处理为自制的 复配调节剂M1和M2,M1和M2通过提高插穗内源IAA,降低iPA、ABA和GA1+3和 内源抑制物——黄酮类MI3、MI5、MI6,减弱IAAO活性,使插穗生根率由对照的34%提 高到90%和84%,侧根数、不定根数、最长不定根长和根总长等4个生根性状显著增强,有利 于培养无性系壮苗.

  7. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  8. Die instelling van die doop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Venter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Die eerste plek in die evangeliebeskrywings waar daar van die doop as ’n opdrag van Jesus Christus gepraat word en waar die betekenis die duidelikste uitkristalliseer, staan in Matteus 28 : 16 - 20. Heilshistories gesien, is dit die begin van kerklike inlywing van die wat gehoor het hoedat Jesus sy koninkryk proklameer, die evangelie aanvaar en tot bekering kom. Vir die doel van hierdie artikel word hierdie gedeelte ondersoek om te sien hoe die instelling geskied het, wat die plek en betekenis van die Christelike doop is.

  9. Poor prospects in Belgium: Flemish government surprisingly cuts down solar funds; Truebe Aussichten in Flandern. Belgien: Flaemische Regierung kuerzt ueberraschend die Verguetung fuer Solarstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshman, William P.

    2012-09-15

    Since the Flemish government cut down funds for solar power to less than one fourth the former rate, perspectives of photovoltaic conversion have become dire. After an increase of nearly 900 MW in 2011, the market now threatens to collaps. Further, annual charges of 50 to 60 Euros per installed kW have been decided. Fitters facing financial ruin now have decided to take legal action.

  10. Die topkwark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  11. 切削参数对P20模具钢的表面粗糙度影响%Effect of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness of P20 Die Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏毅; 黄颖; 韩正威; 林有希

    2014-01-01

    该研究利用TiN、TiAlN、TiN/Al2 O3/TiCN等三种刀具对P20预硬型模具钢进行铣削实验,探讨不同刀具在各种铣削工艺参数时以及刀具磨损对工件表面粗糙度的影响。结果表明:用涂层刀具高速切削P20模具钢,工件表面粗糙度随着切削速度的增加而显著下降;刀具的进给量存在一个临界值,当进给量f大于此临界值时,表面粗糙度会随着进给量的增加而急剧上升;在中、高速度切削P20钢时,对表面粗糙度影响最大的是进给量f,其次是进给速度ν,刀具的切削深度ap 的影响最小;涂层刀具在正常磨损范围内,工件表面的粗糙度Ra随着刀具磨损量VB值的变化幅度很小。%In this paper, TiN, TiAlN, TiN/Al2 O3/TiCN three tools were used for milling experiments for P20 die steel. The effects of various milling process parameters and tool wear of three tools on the surface roughness of the workpiece were studied in detail. The results showed that in high speed,the surface rough-ness of the workpiece decreased significantly along with the increase of cutting speed when coated tools was used to high speed cutting die steel P20. There exists a critical value for the tool feed and when feeding f was greater than the critical value, the surface roughness will rise sharply with the increase of feed. In medi-um and high speed cutting P20 steel, the biggest effect on surface roughness was feeding f, followed by feed rate ν and the influence of tool cutting depth ap was minimum. Within the range of the normal wear of coated tools, workpiece surface roughness of Ra as the change of quantity of tool wear VB value was very small.

  12. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  13. Bioecology of the fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea dyko & Sutton - agents of pinus species decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaeropsis sapinea is a cosmopolitan fungus, identified in more than 50 countries of the world, on all continents, but it is primarily the species of warm lands. It is also a polyphagous fungus recorded from 11 coniferous genera. The most endangered and the most frequent host plants are Pinus species - it occurs on 48 pine species, among which the most susceptible are Pinus Radiata, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, P. mugo, P. pinaster and P. elliotti. The greatest damage is caused on the introduced Pinus species and on those cultivated in artificial plantations, shelterbelts and in urban environments. In Yugoslavia S. sapinea is widely distributed both in the continental and in the Mediterranean parts. It was identified from ten pine species and six hosts from other coniferous genera. By the study in our country, the new hosts of this fungus were detected - Pinus jeffrey, P. peuce and P. heldreichii. The most endangered species in our country is Austrian pine, both in urban environments, and in plantations The symptoms of the disease are bud wilt, curling, stunting and necrosis of current year shoots and needles, dieback of top shoots, parts of crown or tree tops, branch and stem bark canker, root collar rot on the young plants in nurseries and their dying. This fungus also prevents seed germination of Pinus species and causes blue sap stain of the freshly cut wood, although sap stain was also observed on standing trees. More rarely it causes root rot and crown wilt of Pinus species. The main symptoms of infection, both of young plants and older trees, are the dieback of current year shoots S. sapinea can penetrate through buds, bark of young shoots and needles. The critical time of infection is the period from mid April to mid May. Then infection mainly penetrates through the bark of young shoots, which results in their dying. Infection through the needles occurs mainly at the time of their sudden growth or during summer

  14. Damage caused by different levels of artificial defoliation, simulating the leaf-cutting ants attack on young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis Danos causados por diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial para simulação do ataque de formigas cortadeiras em Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Reis Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The artificial defoliation allows to measure the defoliation intensity caused by insects. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the damages caused by leaf-cutting ants in young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis using different levels of artificial defoliation. A classification was established according to defoliation levels that were caused by leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda: level 1: 50%, level 2: 75%, level 3: 100% and level 4: 100%, including the cut of the apical meristem. And in E. grandis: level 1: 50% of defoliation; level 2: 75% and level 3: 100%. After one year, the P. taeda seedlings had losses in diameter and height for defoliation level above 75%. Seedlings severely defoliated (level 4, had losses of 37.0% in height and 45.4% in diameter. The E. grandis seedlings had losses since three months old and the reductions were proportional to the defoliation intensity. After one year, the losses of 13.3% in height and 20% in diameter were verified in plants with 100% of defoliation. P. taeda plants are more damaged by leaf-cutting attack.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.37

    A desfolha artificial permite mensurar a intensidade do dano devido à desfolha causada por insetos. No presente estudo, buscou-se avaliar os danos causados por formigas cortadeiras em plantios de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis com 30 dias de idade. Foi estabelecida uma classificação baseada em níveis de desfolha semelhantes aos causados por formigas cortadeiras. Para P. taeda, os níveis foram: N1: 50%, N2: 75%, N3: 100% e N4: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Para E. grandis, os níveis foram N1: 50%, N2: 75% e N3: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Após um ano, as mudas de P. taeda tiveram perdas em altura e diâmetro nos níveis de N2 a N4. Mudas de P. taeda desfolhadas no nível N4 apresentaram perdas de

  15. Die menswaardigheid van die menslike embrio : die debat tot dusver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vorster, J.M

    2011-01-01

    ...), "Stem cell research: the ethical issues". Rakende die gebruik van menslike embrio's in stamselnavorsing, behandel hierdie artikels die potensiaal van die menslike embrio, die morele status (menswaardigheid...

  16. 高速切削淬硬模具钢刀具磨损的对比实验研究%Tool wear when high-speed cutting hardened die steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静; 赵琰巍; 倪清泉; 董海

    2013-01-01

    使用PCBN和陶瓷两种材质的刀具对淬硬模具钢Cr12MoV进行高速切削试验,深入研究了高速切削时的刀具寿命、刀具磨损形态和磨损原因,得出如下结论:相同的切削条件下,PCBN刀具寿命约为陶瓷刀具的2~3倍,当切削速度由153 m/min增大到241 m/min时,两种材质刀具寿命均下降50%以上;在相对低速下切削时,PCBN刀具和陶瓷刀具磨损形态主要为月牙洼和后刀面磨损,在相对高速下切削时,两种刀具均出现破损,破损形态主要包括崩刃和片状剥落等;PCBN刀具磨损原因主要为黏结磨损、氧化磨损和扩散磨损,陶瓷刀具的主要磨损原因有磨粒磨损、黏结磨损和扩散磨损;相同切削条件下,PCBN刀具抗磨粒磨损的能力好于陶瓷刀具,而陶瓷刀具的抗氧化性能要好于PCBN刀具;切削速度对刀具磨损原因有重要影响,随着切削速度的增大,磨粒磨损程度和黏结磨损程度均减弱.%PCBN tool and ceramic tool were used to cut hardened die steel Crl2MoV at high speed. Tool life, tool wear forms and mechanisms were studied. Results showed that; under the same conditions, tool life of PCBN tool was 2 to 3 times than that of ceramic tool; when cutting speed increased from 153 m/min to 241 m/min, tool life of both tools decreased by more than 50% ; wear form of both tools was crater and flank wear under relatively low speed, but it became breakage under the relatively high speed, including tipping and exfoliated, etc; wear mechanisms of PCBN tool were mainly adhesive wear, oxidation wear and diffusion wear, while those of ceramic tool were mainly abrasive wear, adhesive wear and diffusion wear; under the same cutting conditions, the abrasive wear resistance of PCBN tool was better than that of ceramic tool, but its oxidation resistance was lower. Cutting speed had a significant effect on wear mechanism, which was that as the cutting speed increased, abrasive wear and adhesive wear became

  17. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  18. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  19. Cumulated energy consumption - fabrication of cast iron pieces. Vol. 1: Methods of evaluation and analysis of foundries. Vol. 2: Energy consumption of metal cutting processes. Vol. 3: Development of a model for material and energy consumption analysis in casting processes. Final report; Kumulierter Energieaufwand - Gussteilfertigung. Bd. 1. Teilthema: Methodik der Auswertung und Analyse von Giessereien. Bd. 2. Teilthema: Energieaufwand in der spanabhebenden Teilefertigung. Bd. 3. Teilthema: Entwicklung eines Modells zur Stoff- und Energiemengenanalyse fuer die Herstellung von Gussteilen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketscher, N.; Herfurth, K.; Kademann, R.; Wohlgemuth, H.; Huppertz, A.

    1999-07-01

    Development of materials, energy and carbon dioxide balances, acquisition and recording of data on casting and metal cutting processes, with selected examples of the 9 participating partners of the casting industry. [German] Erarbeitung von Stoff-, Energie- und CO{sub 2}-Bilanzen, Erfassung und Ermittlung von Daten fuer die Formgebung durch Giessen und die spangebende Bearbeitung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen der 9 beteiligten Firmen der Giessereiindustrie. (orig.)

  20. Die Heimkunft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Romer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En hommage amical à René Gallet.Die HeimkunftRuhig glänzen indes die silberen Höhen darüber,Voll mit Rosen ist schon droben der leuchtende Schnee.- HölderlinAnd then one day the young master returnsfrom a dark placeand birdsong leads the wanderer inand the cat yawns and curls againin the headiness of this instantthe house is fragrantwith woodsmoke and honeysucklewhich is a kind of accomplishment.Returning from dogmahome to the humanehe lays asideknapsack, alpenstock and hat,goes straight to t...

  1. Calvyn en die Skrifgesag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Schulze

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Die probleem van die Skrifgesag het die (teologiese geeste nog altyd in beroering — vandag (ná die Aufklarung! nog meer as gedurende die sestiende eeu. Gedurende die laaste paar jaar is ons in Suid-Afrika hardhandig uit ons isolement geruk en skielik lewensgroot gekonfronteer met die probleem van die Skrifgesag.

  2. Aspekte van die siekepastoraat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. C. Pieterse

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Die siekepastoraat vra ons aandag in hierdie tyd omdat die versorging van siekes ’n kenmerk is van die koms van die koninkryk van God. God se barmhartigheid het in sy volheid tot gelding gekom in die optrede van Jesus Christus. Die volle seën van die heil van die Ryk van God hou ook die versorging van die siekes in. Deur die heilswerk van Christus sien die blindes weer, loop die kreupeles, word melaatses gereinig, hoor die dowes, word dooies opgewek (Luk. 7:22.

  3. Die prediking oor die historiese stof van die Ou Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Lion-Cachet

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Uit ’n steekproef wat gedoen is uit die preke wat in Die Kerkblad (1986- 1987 verskyn het, blyk dit dat 40% van hierdie preke historiese stof uit die Ou Testament as teks gebruik het.

  4. Die gesag van die Heilige Skrif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.W. Duvenage

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit geld nie maar t.o.v. ’n ongeloofsbeskouing soos dié van Karl Jaspers nie wat beweer: „Die Bibel ist das Depositum eines Jahrtausends menschlicher Grenzerfahrung” of van die Rooms-Katolieke skrifbeskouing nie wat die kerklike leertradisie, soos dogmaties op die konsilie van Trente vasgelê is, beskou as die enigste gesaghebbende kriterium vir die kanonisering en interpretasie van die Skrif.

  5. Die ontwrigting van die Afrikanervolk en volkseenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. du Plessis

    1946-03-01

    Full Text Available Die gevare wat ons Afrikanerdom voor die deur staan, is baie en ernstig. Daar is die gevaar van immigrasie van buitelanders, daar is die al driester geroep om gelykstelling tussen blank en gekleurd, daar is die dreigende oorheersing van ’n oppervlakkige Amerikaanse „jazz”-gees.

  6. Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Genis

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD ressorteer onder die Hoofdirektoraat Kultuur en Vakkundige Hulp- dienste van die Departement van Nasionale Opvoeding. Die hoofdoelwit van die NVD is die skepping van ’n fijnksionele vakwoordeskat in veral Afrikaans, parallel met die inter- nasionaal gebruikte terminologieë.

  7. Die kritiese taak van die literator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Combrink

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Die beoefening van die literêre kritiek was aanvanklik slegs ’n deeltydse aktiwiteit. Die vroegste literêre kritici was nie as sodanig kritici nie maar het as deel van hulle totale intellektuele aktiwiteit hulle ook uitgelaat oor die letterkunde. Die motivering wat hulle hiertoe gehad het sou in ons dag heeltemal verdag voorkom: ’n uitgesproke didaktiese of moraliserende houding was die reel.

  8. Cutting unemployment by a factor of 2 through energy efficiency and renewable energy use? Sustainable economic development for Switzerland in the 21st century; Halbierung der Arbeitslosigkeit durch Energieeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien? Nachhaltige Wirtschaftsentwicklung fuer die Schweiz im 21. Jahrhundert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizsaecker, E. von; Lehmann, H.; Meliss, M. [and others

    1999-07-01

    This is a study of cost and benefits of the implementation of energy efficiency and renewable energy use in Switzerland, especially what regards job creation. The current status of renewable energy technologies is described, further studies dealing with similar issues are presented, and the potentials of renewable energy technologies are shown. The study exclusively considers the effect of the introduction of the so-called 'solar cent', a tax of 0.005 CHF/kWh suggested for all non-renewable energy sources. The tax should yield yearly about 880 millions Swiss francs to be re-invested in favour of energy conservation and renewables. The study is stimulating the discussion on the issue in whole Central Europe. For Switzerland, it is concluded that the proposed energy tax will induce an investment volume of 5.5 to 9.4 times the tax yield. This will create yearly 60,000 to 210,000 new jobs, a small fraction of them in countries exporting goods and services to Switzerland. On the other hand, this will suppress jobs in the oil-, gas-, and electric-power-related economic sectors. In the end, the net job creation would amount to 63,000 (average value from several different calculations). Principally, there is no technical nor financial obstacles to such a policy. However, considerable changes are required what regards the economy, the laws and the institutions related to the energy sources involved. The study was conducted in close co-operation by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, an independent European scientific institute, several universities, representatives of innovative industry sectors, and non-governmental organisations. [German] Die vorliegende Studie befasst sich mit der Frage nach den Kosten und Nutzen sowie nach den Arbeitsplatzeffekten einer Einfuehrung effizienter und erneuerbarer Energietechnologien in der Schweiz. Um dieses in einen Rahmen zu stellen, werden in der Studie auch der aktuelle Stand der erneuerbaren Energietechnologien dargestellt

  9. Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5% and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3% as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1% and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%. The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL. The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL. Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.

  10. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  11. Die Via Dolorosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van der Merwe

    1957-03-01

    Full Text Available In die hartjie van Jerusalem, die heilige stad vir Jood, Mohammedaan en Christen staan daar ’n boog, die ,,Ecce Homoboog” genaamd, en 'n klein endjie daarvandaan, die Heilige Grafkerk.

  12. Luther die prediker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. van der Walt

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available ’n Prediker moet ’n getroue herder wees wat magtig is in die Heilige Skrif, want die Woord bring die kerk voort. Daarom moet die prediker in sy bediening aan mense ’n woord van sekerheid hê deur seker te wees hy het die Woord van God. Met hierdie gedagtegang het Luther se pastorale besorgdheid vaste bodem vir die prediking in die gesag van die Woord van God.

  13. Good times end for the solar industry after the cut on reimbursement: A problem of constitutional law?; Das Ende der sonnigen Zeiten fuer die Solarindustrie nach der Kuerzung der Verguetungsansprueche. Ein (verfassungsrechtlicher) Vertrauensbruch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kment, Martin [EBS Univ. fuer Wirtschaft und Recht Wiesbaden (Germany). HEUSSEN-Stiftungslehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht und Europarecht, Recht der erneuerbaren Energien sowie Umwelt- und Planungsrecht

    2012-04-15

    As long as solar energy was funded by the state, the solar industry experienced a period of booming growth. The German government considered the cost too high and decided on drastic cuts. According to the contribution, the investor's faith in solar funding should be considered, and transition periods in the legal regulations should be decided. (orig.)

  14. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  15. Bone cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  16. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. I. Pistorius

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  17. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki; Ewa Bajus; Halina Ratyńska

    2014-01-01

    Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the result...

  18. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Oosthuizen

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the Black worker can not be studied in isolation since the White worker still holds many executive positions and therefore has an influence on the Black workers' motivation. The role of the White worker in motivating the Black worker in a specific organisation and the attitude and leadership approach of the White worker on the existence/nonexistence and relative satisfaction of the needs of Black workers are discussed.Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  19. Die verbondeling in verband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A.L. Taljaard

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Daar is dikwels en deur groot outoriteite al geskryf oor die mens in die samelewing. Hier wil ons egter die saak probeer aanraak uit ’n nuwe hoek, veral om die Skrifbeligting van die siening te benader. Vanselfsprekend verg hierdie benaming ’n skrifmatige mensbeskouing, maar ook ’n skrifmatige verbandsbeskouing. Die mens staan egter nie slegs in verhouding tot sy medemens nie maar ook in verhou­ ding tot stof, plant en dier. Boweal staan die mens in verhouding tot God, en hierdie verhouding is deurslaggewend vir al die ander verhoudinge waarin die mens hom bevind. Tog staan die mens ook in verhouding tot homself; wie kan die diepere roersele van die menslike siel peil, wie weet van die wroeginge, vreugde, leed en genot van die mens beter as hyself? Ook hierdie aspek verdien ons aandag. Op volledigheid kan nie aanspraak gemaak word nie, dit is ook nie my bedoeling nie. Die bedoeling is maar om die omvang van die tema aan te dui, die gedagtes te prikkel en veral om aan te spoor tot nuwe denkoriëntering waarin ook terminologies gebreek behoort te word met die neo-skolastiek binne reformatoriese lyn.

  20. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    The foundation for this book is an ethnographic study of masculinity in a Bugkalot village in northern Philippines. While offering new research on the Bugkalot, widely known as the Ilongot, more than 30 years after the last important works were written on this famous hill-people, Cutting Cosmos...... into egalitarian relations. Cutting Cosmos shows how these seemingly opposed characteristics of male life - the egalitarianism and the assertive ideals - are interwoven. Acts of dominance are presented as acts of transgression that are persistently ritualized, contained and isolated as spectacular events within...

  1. Wege in die Zukunft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  2. Die Gewalt der Frauen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Ebrecht

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand historischer Beispiele aus der Zeit der letzten Jahrhundertwende in Europa stellt die Autorin den Zusammenhang von Transgression, Aggression und Inversion dar. Gegen die gängige Auffassung, Gewalt sei männlich, setzt sie Selbst- und Fremdentwürfe von Frauen, die als Duellantinnen, Soldatinnen und Mörderinnen die gesellschaftlich festgelegten Grenzen der Gewalt verletzten. Sie interpretiert dies als Versuch, die Geschlechtergrenzen zu überschreiten und sich eine Subjektposition anzueignen.

  3. Materials on dies for pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the stress of die materials of thermal fatigue is defi ned and material life is derived theoretically and compared with the measured values. The important properties of the die materials as thermal conductivity, coeffi cient of thermal expansivity, modulus of elasticity and mechanical properties are described. Binding to it single die materials as carbon steels and chrome-tungsten steels are analyzed. As the perspective die material for pressure die casting of ferrous metals appears molybdenum with regard to advantageous properties.

  4. Antiglobalisierung die Andere Globalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Croce

    2006-01-01

    Das Ziel der Arbeit ist, ein je größeres Interesse an diesem Thema zu erwecken und auf die Gefahren hinzuweisen, denen wir alle verlaufen, wie die Armen, sowie auch die Reichen und die kleine Gruppe der zum mittleren Stand gehörenden, die immer mehr in die offene Armut versinken. Es wäre zu viel, in einer Welt solcher Globalisierung, die soziale Empfi ndlichkeit der Menschen zueinander zu erwarten. In Wirklichkeit geht sie immer mehr verloren. Der Mensch als Einzelperson, sowie auch die Völke...

  5. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale...

  6. Die voorspellingswaarde van die takseersentrum: 'n Oorsig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Pietersen

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment centre: a brief review of predictive value. Factors such as the rise of the professional manager, industrialization and worker expectations have, over the last few decades, increasingly placed managers in the limelight as a key occupational group. In this regard the assessment centre has become prominent as a method for the identification of managerial potential. However, a brief review of the relevant research literature indicates low predictive variances for the managerial assessment centre. This fact, together with the limited scope of the assessment centre, therefore necessitates, amongst other things, a wider research perspective which will include other work and non-work related factors as well. Opsomming Verskynsels soos die opkoms van die professionele bestuurder, industrialisering en stygende werkerverwagtinge het meegebring dat die kollig die afgelope paar dekades al hoe meer op bestuurders as sleutelberoepskategone geplaas is. In hierdie verband het veral die takseersentrum aandag gekry as 'n metode vir die identifisering van bestuurs- potensiaal 'n Kort oorsig van die betrokke navorsingsliteratuur toon egter lae voorspellingsvariansiesyfers vir die takseersentrum aan. Hierdie feit, tesame met die beperkte fokus van die takseersentrum, noodsaak, onder andere, 'n wyer navorsingsperspektief wat ook ander relevante werk- en nie-werkverwante faktore msluit.

  7. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  8. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  9. Laser Cutting of Leather: Tool for Industry or Designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Manninen, Matti; Pärnänen, Inni; Hirvimäki, Marika; Salminen, Antti

    Currently technologies which are applied for leather cutting include slitting knifes, die press techniques and manual cutting. Use of laser technology has grown significantly during recent years due to number of advantages over conventional cutting methods; flexibility, high production speed, possibility to cut complex geometries, easier cutting of customized parts, and less leftovers of leather makes laser cutting more and more economically attractive to apply for leather cutting. Laser technology provides advantages in cutting complex geometries, stable cutting quality and possibility to utilize leather material in economically best way. Constant quality is important in industrial processes and laser technology fulfills this requirement: properly chosen laser cutting parameters provides identical cuts. Additionally, laser technology is very flexible in terms of geometries: complex geometries, individual designs, prototypes and small scale products can be manufactured by laser cutting. Variety of products, which needed to be cut in small volumes, is also the application where laser cutting can be more beneficial due to possibility to change production from one product to another only by changing geometry without a need to change cutting tool. Disadvantages of laser processing include high initial investment costs and some running costs due to maintenance and required gas supply for the laser. Higher level of operator's expertise is required due to more complicated machinery in case of laser cutting. This study investigates advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting in different areas of application and provides comparison between laser cutting and mechanical cutting of leather.

  10. DIE HEDENDAAGSE SIENING VAN DIE NORMERING VAN DUITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    norm aan die een kant en deur die S^^eeksnorm aan die ander." (ibid. 384). ...... grondslag, hoewel die groot aantal voorbeelde uit die werke van Thomas Mann ...... Mentrup, W., & P. Kuhn, (1980) "Deutsche Sprache in Osterreich und in der.

  11. A Knowledge base model for complex forging die machining

    CERN Document Server

    Mawussi, Kwamiwi; 10.1016/j.cie.2011.02.016

    2011-01-01

    Recent evolutions on forging process induce more complex shape on forging die. These evolutions, combined with High Speed Machining (HSM) process of forging die lead to important increase in time for machining preparation. In this context, an original approach for generating machining process based on machining knowledge is proposed in this paper. The core of this approach is to decompose a CAD model of complex forging die in geometric features. Technological data and topological relations are aggregated to a geometric feature in order to create machining features. Technological data, such as material, surface roughness and form tolerance are defined during forging process and dies design. These data are used to choose cutting tools and machining strategies. Topological relations define relative positions between the surfaces of the die CAD model. After machining features identification cutting tools and machining strategies currently used in HSM of forging die, are associated to them in order to generate mac...

  12. Die etiek van Luther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Dink ons aan die etiek van Luther dan spring onmiddellik ’n paar boeiende uitsprake van hom na vore soos o.a. dat Christene vanuit die gemeenskap met Christus nuwe dekaloë moet maak wat helderder as die van Moses kan wees, of dat ons in bepaalde sin vir ons naaste ’n Christus moet word. Die bydrae van Luther 'tot die Christelike etiek is sonder twyfel van groot betekenis en die bestudering daarvan die moeite werd. Luther is geprys as rewolusionêr en verguis as konserwatis, hy is geëer as iemand wat weer die ware be­tekenis van godsdiens ontdek het toe die lewe vervloei het in etiek. Of dit egter korrek is om sy etiek as konserwatief te tipeer, soos White doen, moet betwyfel word.

  13. Ambrosius en die virginitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Malan

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosius het met reg die benaming “Leraar van Maagdelikheid” ontvang (Dooley, 1948:119. Die opmerking van Thamin: “C’est une vertu proprement chrétienne que la vertu de virginité, proclame tout d’abord saint Ambroise” (1895:344, gee dadelik aanleiding tot die vraag of Ambrosius dan geen waardering vir die huwelik gehad het nie. Hierdie vraag word nog meer dringend as sy beskrywing van die kruis van die getroude lewe nagegaan word.

  14. Wind pollination in Pinus roxburghii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Prasad KHANDURI; Chandra Mohan SHARMA

    2007-01-01

    Stigmatic pollen load and pollen concentration in the air were studied in the natural population of Pinus roxburghii at Ashtavakra (900 m asl), in the Pauri forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The results reflect diurnal pollen occurrence in P. roxburghii, with the strong significant correlations between pollen concentrations in the air and wind speed, air temperature and relative air humidity. A significant correlation was also observed between microsporangium dehiscence and pollen occurrence in the air. The maximum concentration of pollen grains in the air and higher rates of pollen deposition onto the megasporophylls were between 12 pm and 16 pm of the day, which conforms the best time for pollination in a day in P. roxburghii. The receptivity of Ovulate strobili varied from 3 to 5days, however, the bagged strobili remained receptive up to 6 days.

  15. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  16. Navorsing op die gebied van die sosiale wetenskappe*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Robbertse

    1958-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hollands is die woord scientia vertaal met wetenskap, wat sowel die natuur- as die geesteswetenskappe insluit, waardeur die woordsy oorspronklike betekenis behou. Die neiging bestaan om die Engels science met wetenskap in Afrikaans te vertaal, waarmee dan eintlik die natuurwetenskap bedoel word.

  17. Foute in die meting van die aarde se magneetveld met die protonmagnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Hancke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Die tipiese foute wat voorkom wanneer die metode van periode-meting gebruik word vir die bepaling van die presessiefrekwensie van die magnetiese moment van protone, word bespreek, en metodes om dit teen te werk word voorgestel. Belangrike gevolgtrekkings wat sal lei tot die optimale funksionering van die periodemeter, word gemaak — veral ten opsigte van die meettyd, polarisasietyd en die eienskappe van die sensorvloeistof.

  18. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  19. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  20. Die verhouding doop en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available By die aanvalle wat op die kinderdoop geloods word, kom telkens die verhouding doop en geloof ter sprake. Die geloof is so wesentlik met die doop verbonde, sodat daar nie gedoop mag word waar die geloof nie aanwesig is nie. 0ns lees inderdaad dwarsdeur die Nuwe Testament van ’n innige samehang wat daar tussen geloof en doop beslaan.

  1. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  2. Die invloed van die neo-marxistiese kultuuranalise op die Wêreldraad van Kerke en die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Toe die studente dwarsoor die VSA en Europa in die laat sestigerjare ’n plotselinge en radikale verset openbaar het teen die bestaande orde, het hulle die deur geopen vir ’n nuwe mededinger om die hart van die Westerse kultuur. Dit is die nou reeds bekende neo-Marxisme. Sedertdien het hierdie jongeling sy voetspore op vele vlakke van die Westerse kultuur gelaat.

  3. Die lebensvision des semonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoj Sironić

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Autor analysiert die Weibersatire des Semonides und andere seiner kurzen Fragmente. Dabei kommt er zu der Schlussfolgerung, dass sich die Verse der Satire durch eine gute Technik auszeich­ nen, dass aber auch eine unnötige Weitschweifigkeit nicht zu Ubersehen ist. Trotzdem kann man jedoch dem Dichter nicht die künstlerische Überzeugungskraft absprechen, wie auch die Ten­ denz nach Detailschilderungen und die Feinheit geistreicher Charakterisierungen. Die Aussage beinhaltet manchmal eine be­ stimmte innere Ironie in der Einfachheit der Wörter.In kurzen Fragmenten wird die Fähigkeit des Semonides sichtbar, sich sehr präzise auszudrücken. Seine ironisch-epische Sprache ist sehr reich  und verdient vom linguistischen Standpunkt aus Auf­ merksamkeit wegen ihres reichhaltigen lexischen und termino­ logischen Materials, insbesondere was die Bereiche der Tier­ welt und des Essens anbelangt.Die Weltanschauung des Dichters ist in dem ersten Fragment recht deutlich erkennbar. Da sieht man, dass er düster und pessimistisch auf das Leben blickt. Das Fehlen jeglicher positiven Einstellung hat dann den Sar­ kasmus zur Folge, mit dem der Dichter die Darstellung der Weiber einkleidet, ihn aber auch auf die Menschen schlechthin ausweitet.

  4. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  5. Die karst-ekologie van die Bakwenagrot (Gauteng

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    François Durand

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Bakwenagrot huisves ’n verskeidenheid organismes wat ’n ingewikkelde en verweefde voedselweb vorm. ’n Kolonie Natalse langvingervlermuise gebruik hierdie grot regdeur die jaar as blyplek. Die vlermuisguano en dooie plantmateriaal wat van buite in die grot inval, vorm die basis van die ekologie in die grot wat ook as ’n tipiese detritus-gedrewe ekostelsel beskryf kan word. Afbrekers soos bakterieë en swamme wat vir die afbraak van die guano en plantreste verantwoordelik is, word deur ’n verskeidenheid organismes, insluitend nematode en myte, as voedselbron benut. Hierdie organismes wat die volgende trofiese vlak vorm, word deur predatoriese artropode as voedselbron benut. Die Bakwenagrot is een van die weinige dolomietiese grotte in Suid-Afrika wat dit vir ‘n mens moontlik maak om tot by die grondwatervlak te kom. Die grondwater huisves verskeie tipes organismes waaronder bakterieë, swamme en diere – hoofsaaklik nematode en krustaseë. Die Bakwenagrot is ook die hoofvindplek waar varswater-amfipode in Suider-Afrika gevind is. Hierdie besondere en sensitiewe ekostelsel is hoofsaaklik van guano van die vlermuiskolonie afhanklik. Die grasveld in die gebied rondom die grot, wat as voedingsarea vir die vlermuiskolonie dien, word tans deur voorstedelike ontwikkeling en die gevolglike habitatfragmentasie en -vernietiging bedreig. Indien die vlermuise die grot sou verlaat, sal dit ’n hele domino-effek van uitsterwing van die grotbewonende organismes tot gevolg hê.

  6. Die voorgeskiedenis van kwantumberekening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Potgieter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Die hoofidees wat tans gestalte vind in die teorie en tegnologie van kwantumberekening is in die laat 1970’s en vroeg 1980’s deur fisici in die Weste en ’n wiskundige in die voormalige Sowjetunie neergelˆ e. Dat di´ e teorie ook wortels in die Russiestalige vakliteratuur het, is nie algemeen bekend in die Weste nie. Daar word kortliks gekyk na die idee soos deur Benioff en (veral Feynman in die Weste versprei, asook die voorstel van di´ e rekengrondslag deur Manin in die Russiese literatuur. Die outeur hoop om hiermee so ’n onpartydig moontlike sintese van die vroe ¨ e gedagtegeskiedenis rondom kwantumberekening aan te bied. Die rol van omkeerbare en onomkeerbare berekeningsprosesse word vlugtig bekyk soos dit verband hou met die ontstaan van kwantumberekening, asook die sogenaamde Inligtingsparadoks in die fisika. Die inligtingsteorie en die fisika het heelwat met mekaar te kommunikeer, soos hierdie paradoks uitwys.

    Abstract

    The pre-history of quantum computation

    The main ideas behind developments in the theory and technology of quantum computation were formulated in the late 1970s and early 1980s by two physicists in the West and a mathematician in the former Soviet Union. It is not generally known in the West that the subject has roots in the Russian technical literature. The idea, as propagated by Benioff and (especially Feynman, is reviewed along with the proposition of a foundation for this kind of computation by Manin in the Russian literature. The author hopes to present as impartial a synthesis as possible of the early history of thought on this subject. The role of reversible and irreversible computational processes will be examined briefly as it relates to the origins of quantum computing and the so-called Information Paradox in physics. Information theory and physics, as this paradox shows, have much to communicate to each other.

  7. Die benutting van water in die landbou: strategie vir die toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. van der Merwe

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available ’n Uiteensetting word gegee van die faktore wat die hoofrol in die toekomstige waterbenutting in die landbou gaan speel. Hierdie faktore is die hoeveelheid water beskikbaar vir landboudoeleindes; die toenemende mineraiisasie van besproeiingswater; en die invloed wat energiebehoeftes op besproeiing sal hê. Navorsing is nodig om die situasie na wense te hanteer, en die aanbevelings van besproeiingsnavorsingswerksessies in hierdie verband word kortliks aangedui en bespreek.

  8. Taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann as related to other taxa of Pinus mugo complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Prus-Głowacki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on taxonomic position of Pinus uliginosa Neumann, P. uncinata Ram. and P. mugo Turra, indicate a significant specificity of P. uliginosa population from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog. Pinus uncinata in respect of genetic similarity is close to Pinus mugo Turra populations from the Tatra Mts. The time of divergence of P. uliginosa from the common ancestor, taking into account Nei's genetic distances, is twice as long as in the case of Pinus uncinata. In the view of the results the supposition that Pinus uliginosa from Wielkie Torfowisko Batorowskie Peat Bog is a marginal population of P. uncinata can be excluded, because of their significant difference in genetic structure. The presumable reasons of specificity of P. uliginosa population are disscused.

  9. Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.

  10. Openbaring, teologie en die regswetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Postma

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste tyd is telkens en weer gewaarsku teen die gevare van oorspesialisasie en die hipertrofie van professionalisme. Die gemis aan ’n totaliteitsvisie wat hiermee gepaard gaan, word dan ook tereg teengegaan en wel deur aan die Wysbegeerte as die Wetenskap van die totaliteit van die kosmos in toenemende mate sy regmatige plek as wetenskapsintegreerder te gun. Hierdie grootmoedige gun van ’n plek in die son van geleerdheid kan egter ook uit bedenklike motiewe plaasvind. Die vakwetenskaplike kan nie of wil nie die plek en betekenis van sy spesifieke vak bepaal en bepeins nie en vind dit in elk geval moeilik om die verband tussen Gods Woord en sy besondere vak in duidelike perspektief te sien; vandaar dan ’n grootmoedige toelaat dat die wysbegeerte die „veritas” dien terwyl die eie ek tevrede is om die „utilitas” onderdanig te wees.

  11. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  12. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visser

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  13. Die sterwende kindjie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. De Jongh van Arkel

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The thought of a child dying appears as an antithesis and thus the feelings evoked by the dying child are stronger than when older persons are dying. Around the child’s death bed there is no place for detached spectators and all become involved in caring for and supporting him. Caregivers also have a supporting responsibility towards the members of the child’s family.

  14. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  15. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  16. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

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    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  17. Pinus taeda AND Pinus oocarpa PLYWOOD MANUFACTURING WITH FENOL-FORMALDHEYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the plywood, manufactured from Pinus taeda and Pinus oocarpa, with 20 and 24 years old respectively, using three differentformulations of the fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of the glue line shearing tests not showed statistical differences between the species and three resin formulations. In the hot water test, all of the boards were classified as “BR” and, the boards of the Pinus oocarpa produced with formulations (1and (3, were classified as “WBP”. The different resin formulations not influenced on the modulus ofelasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR The boards of Pinus taeda with formulations (1 and(2 showed higher values of MOE in comparison of the Pinus oocarpa. The MOR of the Pinus oocarpa withformulation (2 was higher than Pinus taeda. The mechanical properties of the plywood wereprobably influenced by wood variability related to sapwood and hartwood, thickness of growth ringsand, springwood and summerwood.

  18. Prediking oor die poëtiese stof van die Ou Testament - Die Psalms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Smit

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available ’n Belangrike rede waarom die prediking uit die Psalms ’n aparte bespreking regverdig, is die feit dat die Psalms die omvangrykste verteenwoordiging van poetiese stof in die Ou Testament be vat. Dit is nie vir almal ewe maklik om poesie te lees en te verklaar nie.

  19. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  20. Natural loblolly and shortleaf pine productivity through 53 years of management under four reproduction cutting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2001-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1943 to evaluate the long-term productivity of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pines (P. echinata Mill.) when managed under four reproduction cutting methods—clearcut, heavy seedtree, diameter-limit, and selection—on the Upper Coastal Plain of southeastern Arkansas. Early volume production...

  1. Die hebsugtige seekoei en Rooikappie: Die groteske in sprokies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineke van der Walt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n vergelykende lees van twee volksverhale wat ook as kinderverhale getipeer kan word (een vanuit Venda-folklore en die ander ’n populêre Europese narratief met die oog daarop om spesifieke ooreenkomste uit te lig – soos die eet van mensvleis, goedgelowige mense wat deur ‘n maskerspel om die bos gelei word en ander ‘onetiese’ en ‘immorele’ aktiwiteite. In Die hebsugtige seekoei boots die monster byvoorbeeld die stem van die jong seun na om sy suster te flous en toegang tot hulle hut te verkry, terwyl die wolf in Rooikappie op sy beurt die ouma flous om die huis te kan betree sodat hy later ook vir Rooikappie kan mislei. In albei stories word die jong meisies (asook Rooikappie se ouma deur ’n seekoei óf ’n wolf opgeëet. Soos gewoonlik in sprokies, word die slagoffers gered of ontsnap en die verhale het ’n gelukkige einde. Alhoewel dit absurd mag voorkom dat kinderverhale elemente van die groteske bevat, argumenteer ek dat dit inderdaad ’n bruikbare doel dien. Hierdie verhale betrek kinders nie net op ’n emosionele vlak nie (as gevolg van die skokwaarde van die groteske; die groteske dien ook as objek van fassinasie. Sodoende word die waarskuwingsboodskap in die verhale beter oorgedra en onthou deur die kinders.

  2. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  3. Die Gattung Oerstedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny-Wijnhoff, G.

    1930-01-01

    Die vorliegenden Individuen von Oerstedia dorsalis (Abildg.) wurden in den Helder an der holländischen Küste gesammelt; die Art war in frühern Jahren im Hafen sehr allgemein. Sie lebte zwischen Tubularien und Muschelbrut, welche in der Gezeitenzone den Schiffsrümpfen angewachsen sind und enthielt im

  4. Die Mollusken der Njalindungschichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1909-01-01

    Die Versteinerungen, welche im folgenden behandelt sind, sammelten meine Frau und ich im Jahre 1910 in den Preanger-Regentschappen von Java, in der Gegend von Njalindung ¹). Sie stammen aus Sedimenten, für welche ich den Namen Njalindungschichten einführte, und für die Gastropoden wurde bereits eine

  5. Die oorsake vir die ontstaan en besondere aard van die Zion Christian Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kruger

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Aanvanklik het die Z.C.C. geen opsienbarende groei getoon nie, maar veral sedert die veertigerjare het hulle getalle skerp toegeneem en versprei oor die hele land. In 1963 is Edward Lekganyane toegelaat tot die Stofberg Teologiese Skool van die N.G. Kerk. Sedert die stigting van die Z.C.C. het die groep al verder van die Woord af weg beweeg, maar met hierdie toetrede tot die skool het daar by Edward self ’n mate van verandering gekom.

  6. Tweedetaalteorie vir die eerstetaalonderwyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludolph Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die eerstetaalonderwyser se aandag op tweedetaalteorie gevestig. Krashen se tweedetaalteorie word uitgesonder en die implikasies van sy werk vir eerstetaalonderwysersword ondersoek. Die oordrewe beklemtoning van vormen struktuur in moedertaalklasse ( oor die taal praatl lees/ skryf word vanuit die gesigspunt van Krashen se taalverwerwingsteorie beskou en die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat daar veel meer klem op gebruiksvaardigheid behoort te val (in die taal praat!lees!skryf. In this article the first language teacher is made aware of second language teaching theory. Particularly Krashen' s second language theory is referred to and implications of his work for mother tongue teachers are discussed. The over-emphasis on form and structure in first language classes (talking/reading/writing about the language is looked at in terms of Krashen' s theory and it is concluded that the emphasis in first language classes should be far more on the functional use of the language (talking/reading/writing in the language.

  7. Die kairos van die New Age: 'n Kultuurhistoriese skets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the whole universe, manifesting the two aspects of spirit and matter, .... vestiging van die Christendom het hierdie leer uit die Westerse kultuur verdwyn tot- ... Hegel (1770-1831) het die Simboliste aangespreek (Mathews 1986:30-31, 33). Sy.

  8. Oor die einders van die bladsy as konseptuele kuns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M.C. Swanepoel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n filosofies-besinnende oorsig oor konseptuele kuns. Ek argumenteer dat, soos wat die projek Oor die einders van die bladsy die grense van boekwees oorskry en konseptueel uitbrei, dit in geheel ’n konseptuele en taalgebaseerde kunsinstallasie is wat uit verskeie komponente, naamlik kunstenaarsboeke,bestaan. Hierdie saamgestelde konseptuele kunsinstallasie daag vanweë die interdissiplinêre aard daarvan, die grense van konseptuele kuns uit. Hierdie projek en uitstallings bevestig dat kunstenaarsboeke ’n ideale medium is om kunstenaars uit verskillende dissiplines by die spel met en ontdekking van die moontlikhede van die boek te betrek. Die projek kan in die geheel as konseptuele kuns getipeer word omdat die konsep boek herdink, herskep en oor gefilosofeer word.

  9. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  10. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  11. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  12. Pinus chiapensis: un enfoque ecológico de su anatomía foliar

    OpenAIRE

    E. Vilela; Salvador Acosta Castellanos

    2000-01-01

    Se registraron datos ecológicos y caracteres anatómicos de acículas de Pinus chiapensis, una especie amenazada, en el estado de Oaxaca, México. Evidencias fitogeográficas sugieren que la distribución actual de esta especie es relictual. Aunque habita áreas de alta humedad y precipitación, las hojas aciculares son xeromórficas (presencia de estomas hundidos, cutícula gruesa y esclerénquima subepidérmico). Estos resultados apoyan la hipótesis de una adaptación paleoclimática de la especie....

  13. A comparison of estimation methods for fitting Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta functions to Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris stands in northwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgoseo, J. J.; Rojo, A.; Camara-Obregon, A.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the Weibull, Johnson's SB and beta distributions, fitted with some of the most usual methods and with different fixed values for the location parameters, for describing diameter distributions in even-aged stands of Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Pinus sylvestris in northwest Spain. A total of 155 permanent plots in Pinus sylvestris stands throughout Galicia, 183 plots in Pinus pinaster stands throughout Galicia and Asturias and 325 plots in Pinus radiata stands in both regions were measured to describe the diameter distributions. Parameters of the Weibull function were estimated by Moments and Maximum Likelihood approaches, those of Johnson's SB function by Conditional Maximum Likelihood and by Knoebel and Burkhart's method, and those of the beta function with the method based on the moments of the distribution. The beta and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to Weibull function for Pinus pinaster stands; the Johnson's SB and beta functions were more accurate in the best fits for Pinus radiata stands, and the best results of the Weibull and the Johnson's SB functions were slightly superior to beta function for Pinus sylvestris stands. However, the three functions are suitable for this stands with an appropriate value of the location parameter and estimation of parameters method. (Author) 44 refs.

  14. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  15. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  16. Die Design for Running System of Waste Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Pérez Acosta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Product deterioration possessing waste containers and their involvement in the collection of solid waste in Cuban cities, the present research is developed in order to make the design of the dies necessary for obtaining system components running of the containers themselves. These systems allow shooting baskets countless repair and revitalization of manufacturing a basket 100 % Cuban. For the design of these dies are taken in account the availability of technology. In this paper, specifically, describes the production of the piece called saucer, emphasizing the design of the die cutting thereof. These are also given the materials used in each of the components.

  17. Die Anima in Eschenbachs Parzival

    OpenAIRE

    Kitunen, S. (Sakari)

    2014-01-01

    In meiner Pro-Gradu -Arbeit untersuche ich die Darstellung und Entwicklung des Jungschen Animabegriffes im Parzival von Wolfram von Eschenbach. Ich werde die in Parzival vorkommenden Charaktere als Anima- und Animus-Figuren analysieren und untersuchen, wie die Interaktion zwischen ihnen die Entwicklung des Helden beeinflusst. Viele Werke, die das Thema Frauen bzw. Weiblichkeit im Mittelalter behandeln, gehen oft davon aus, dass die Frauen in der mittelalterlichen Literatur als Objekte behande...

  18. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  19. Cutting state identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  20. Die liefde wat die son beweeg en die ander sterre: Digterlike transendering – tot die vermenigvuldigde lewe ontroer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. (Rensia Robinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available T.T. Cloete se oeuvre word onder andere gekenmerk deur fyn waarneming van ’n mistieke vervlegtheid in die skepping. Dit word op vele maniere ontgin en geïnterpreteer. Die poëtiese potensiaal van die vrou, in uiteenlopende gestaltes, is een van die sentrale temas waardeur die digter hieraan vorm gee. In die kunstige, bibliofiele uitgawe Uit die wit lig van my land gesny val die lig op die vrou se kreatiewe rol in die groter skepping wat haar onder andere identifiseer as haarveer vir digterlike insig en vormgewing. Vrou (alternatief Anna Perenna, universele moeder, is nie slegs draer van die lewenskiem wat tot gees transendeer nie, maar sy funksioneer as ligbron (’sonvrou’ wat selfs kosmiese insig verwesenlik. Dit raak meervoudige vorms en patrone waarin die mens ingeweef is in die universele hologram van lewe. Vir die digter is hierdie patroonvorming vergelykbaar met die maak van Persiese tapyte waarvan die patrone vasgelê is in die geheue van voorouers, en oorgedra word na opeenvolgende geslagte. In dié verkenning word digterlike transendering ontgin as ’n proses waarin die kleurvolheid van lewe en dood in en deur individuele sowel as universele vroulikheid geïnspireer word.

  1. Die liefde wat die son beweeg en die ander sterre: Digterlike transendering – tot die vermenigvuldigde lewe ontroer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. (Rensia Robinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available T.T. Cloete se oeuvre word onder andere gekenmerk deur fyn waarneming van ’n mistieke vervlegtheid in die skepping. Dit word op vele maniere ontgin en geïnterpreteer. Die poëtiese potensiaal van die vrou, in uiteenlopende gestaltes, is een van die sentrale temas waardeur die digter hieraan vorm gee. In die kunstige, bibliofiele uitgawe Uit die wit lig van my land gesny val die lig op die vrou se kreatiewe rol in die groter skepping wat haar onder andere identifiseer as haarveer vir digterlike insig en vormgewing. Vrou (alternatief Anna Perenna, universele moeder, is nie slegs draer van die lewenskiem wat tot gees transendeer nie, maar sy funksioneer as ligbron (’sonvrou’ wat selfs kosmiese insig verwesenlik. Dit raak meervoudige vorms en patrone waarin die mens ingeweef is in die universele hologram van lewe. Vir die digter is hierdie patroonvorming vergelykbaar met die maak van Persiese tapyte waarvan die patrone vasgelê is in die geheue van voorouers, en oorgedra word na opeenvolgende geslagte. In dié verkenning word digterlike transendering ontgin as ’n proses waarin die kleurvolheid van lewe en dood in en deur individuele sowel as universele vroulikheid geïnspireer word.

  2. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  3. Simulation of Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Wolfgang; Nießen, Markus; Eppelt, Urs; Kowalick, Kerstin

    Laser cutting is a thermal separation process widely used in shaping and contour cutting applications. There are, however, gaps in understanding the dynamics of the process, especially issues related to cut quality. This work describes the advances in fundamental physical modelling and process monitoring of laser cutting, as well as time varying processes such as contour cutting. Diagnosis of ripple and dross formation is advanced to observe the melt flow and its separation simultaneously as well as the spatial shape of the cut kerf.

  4. To Chew, or Not to Chew? Patient Dies After Chewing Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OR NOT TO CHEW? PATIENT DIES AFTER CHEWING MEDICATION Some medications should never be chewed, cut, crushed, or diluted. ... instructions or do not question how to take medication. An 83-year-old patient was given Cardizem ...

  5. Diskussie oor die millenium en die herstel van Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Engelbrecht van Waverley

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit verheug my dat daar eindelik gereageer word op my boekie. Behalwe telefoonoproepe en briewe van medechiliaste was daar tot dusver geen kommentaar van anti-chiliastiese kant. Ek het die boekie aan ongeveer 1800 predikante en professore gestuur en vriendelik uitgenooi tot nuwe besinning. Net soos oor die soteriologie, is die Bybel nêrens in teëspraak met homself oor die eskatologie nie. God gee in sy Woord nie vir ons drie verskillende toekomsbeelde om uit te kies nie. God is een en sy profetiese Woord is deurgaans eenstemmig m.b.t. die raad van God oor Israel, die nasies en die kerk.

  6. Die kerk en die kommunisme, uitgangspunt en perspektief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Murray

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Waar ons onmiddellike opdrag is om die konkrete taak van die kerk in die bestryding van Kommunisme en Marxisme te beskrywe, is ons gedwing om terug te dink aan die eerste grondslae van die vyandelike aanslag — die grondslae waarop sy leer en sy beleid van gewelddadige optrede berus. Want ons het nie te doen met ’n opportunistiese onderneming of ’n imperialistiese waagstuk as dit oor die Kommunisme gaan nie, en ook nie met die blinde opbruising van laere en agterlike volksklasse nie, maar wel met ’n deurdagte en afgeronde heelal-filosofie wat oor die aardbol versprei is en wat op sistematiese wyse en met wetenskaplike strategie ’n aanval op die bestaande Christelike orde maak.

  7. Die Psychosen bei Epilepsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauninger G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In einer Übersicht werden die verschiedenen Formen psychotischer Zustandsbilder bei Epilepsiepatienten, deren Ätiopathogenese und Möglichkeiten der Behandlung dieser Störungen beschrieben. Risikofaktoren finden sich durch neurobiologische Gegebenheiten - besonders bei Mitbeteiligung des Temporallappens, durch psychosoziale Einflüsse und manchmal auch durch medikamentöse Behandlung. Anhand von Fallbeispielen sollen dem Leser typische Krankheitsverläufe von psychotischen Episoden bei Epilepsiepatienten, die zumeist erst bei einer schon länger dauernden Epilepsie auftreten, nähergebracht werden. Es wird deutlich, daß sich die Beschwerden von Patienten mit Epilepsie nicht auf iktale Phänomene beschränken. Bei der Behandlung dieser Patienten kommt einer guten interdisziplinären Zusammenarbeit besondere Bedeutung zu.

  8. Fire Occurrence Environments in Pinus pumila Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many serious forest fires occurred in precious Pinus pumila forests in Daxing'anling Mountains of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongolia. But up to now, there is still a lack of proper understanding of fire occurrence environments in P. pumila forests. In present paper, we investigated and studied the fire occurrence environments. The results showed that fires in P. pumila forests had their own special fire environments. Abundant fuel, drought weather, dry thunder and high altitude terrai...

  9. Two new antitumor diterpenes from Pinus sylvestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Zhang Rong; Jie Teng; Yoshihisa Takaishi; Hong Quan Duan

    2008-01-01

    Two new diterpenes,15-ethyl- 18-methyl pinifolate (1)and 18-hydroxy-labda-8(17),13E-dien-15-acetate (2),were isolated fromthe needles of Pinus sylvestris.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods,including 2D-NMR spectra.Compound1 exhibited the significant eytotoxic activity against the human carcinoma cell lines Hela,SK-N-SH and BEL-7402 in vitro.

  10. Wêreldgebeure gedurende die jaar 1954.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Die jaar 1954 het begin sonder Stalin, die magtigste diktator van die modeme tyd, en dit wa s nog onseker hoe die nuwe regime sou optree.Teen die einde van die ja a r weet ons nou dat hulle oënskynlik meer toeskietlik is maar in wese nog net so geheimsinnig en nog net so geslepe. Die Petrof-gesjriedenis in Australië het weereens laat blyk dat daar oordie hele aarde ’n netwerk van spioene is.

  11. Die voorspelling van akademiese prestasie na die eerste universiteitsjaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Huysamen

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of academic performance after the first year at university. In agreement with findings elsewhere, the correlations of high school performance (Swedish Formula Point and the verbal and nonverbal GSAT scores with the mean percentage marks (MPMs gradually decreased from the first through sixth semester at university, whereas the decrease in the corresponding correlations with the cumulative mean percentage marks (CMPMs was less pronounced. The later the semester for which either an MPM or a CMPM was used as a predictor, the higher the latter tended to correlate with the MPMs of subsequent semesters but these correlations also decreased in size over the ensuing semesters. The best predictor of the MPM of any given semester was either the MPM of the immediately preceding semester or the CMPM of all the preceding semesters. Opsomming In ooreenstemming met bevindings elders, het die korrelasies van hoërskoolprestasie (Sweedse Formulepunt en verbale en nie-verbale ASAT-tellings met die gemiddelde persentasiepunte (GPP's geleidelik van die eerste tot die sesde semester op Universiteit afgeneem, terwyl die afname in die ooreenstemmende korrelasies met die kumulatiewe gemiddelde persentasiepunte (KGP's minder opvallend was. Hoe later die semester waarvan die GGP of KGP as voorspeller gebruik is, hoe hoër was dit geneig om met die GGP's van die daaropvolgende semesters te korreleer, maar die korrelasies het: eweneens met die toename in laasgenoemde semesters in grootte afgeneem. Die beste voorspeller van die GPP van enige gegewe semester was of die GPP van die pas afgelope semester, of die KGP van al die voorafgaande semesters.

  12. Decomposition of forging die for high speed machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Today's forging die manufacturing process must be adapted to several evolutions in machining process generation: CAD/CAM models, CAM software solutions and High Speed Machining (HSM). In this context, the adequacy between die shape and HSM process is in the core of machining preparation and process planning approaches. This paper deals with an original approach of machining preparation integrating this adequacy in the main tasks carried out. In this approach, the design of the machining process is based on two levels of decomposition of the geometrical model of a given die with respect to HSM cutting conditions (cutting speed and feed rate) and technological constrains (tool selection, features accessibility). This decomposition assists machining assistant to generate an HSM process. The result of this decomposition is the identification of machining features.

  13. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available ELSEVIER Forest Ecology and Management 99 (1997) 295-307 The response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre....304 1.052(p,) 0.96 2nd ?/-= eP?CbE - 3.456 7.134( /3>) 0.95 Cathedral Total streamflow 1 st T= e6c1Clil - 0.727 1.114(/3,) 0.95 Peak Dry season streamflow 1 St Tz e6?C?? -0.871 I .207( p, ) 0.88 W. Lesch, D.F. Scott...

  14. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  15. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  16. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  17. Die Creol Taal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossem, van Cefas; Voort, van der Hein

    1996-01-01

    Negerhollands is the original creole language, lexically closely related to Dutch, of the Virgin Islands. It emerged as a separate language around 1700 and died out completely only a few years ago, having gradually been replaced by English in the course of the nineteenth century. Apart from giving i

  18. Die andere Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2005-05-01

    War Kopernikus der größte Revolutionär des naturwissenschaftlichen Weltbildes? Seine Erkenntnisse waren der Beginn eines jahrhundertelangen Denkprozesses, welcher zur Einsicht führte, dass im Weltall die gleichen physikalischen Gesetze gelten wie auf der Erde.

  19. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  20. Die Face Engineering based Springback Compensation Strategy and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing; He, Jeanne; Xu, Jinbo; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin Chun

    2005-08-01

    Springback or shape change has been one of the major challenges in sheet metal fabrication, particularly with increase application of high strength steel (HSS) and aluminum alloys in automotive stamping. Springback, an elastic material recovery after the unloading of stamping tools, causes variations and inconsistencies of final part dimensions. Minor or mild springback usually can be corrected in the re-strike process. Excessive springback must be corrected so the part will be produced within the given design tolerance and dimension. The commonly used Spring Forward approaches and shape compensations such as over-crown and over-bending are proven effective to alleviate excessive springback. To enhance these approaches, a new strategy of Die Face Engineering (DFE) based processing is proposed to quickly and easily to achieve the maximum allowable compensation using the under cut (or die lock) as the primary criteria. The implementation of the die face compensation through iterative FEA calculation, automatic surface mapping, projection and manual morphing are crucial to meet production environment requirements in terms of generating NC quality CAD surfaces of the compensated or morphed die face. In this paper, the strategy of the die face compensation with the consideration of the under cut criteria is presented. The implementation of various processes to enable user to perform the die face compensation task in a production environment is also discussed. Finally, two examples are shown to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed springback compensation scheme based on the combined CAE/CAD methodology.

  1. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  2. Die ontwikkeling van 'n instrument vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepte-orientasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. De Jager

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of an instrument (the RD-Depth Questionnaire, Form B for measuring the construct psychological depth orientation is discussed. Results show that the questionnaire has satisfactory internal consistency and that the items of the questionnaire in general measure the same characteristic. Further research is needed to refine and improve the questionnaire until it meets all the psychometric requirements of a good measuring instrument.OpsommingDie ontwikkeling van 'n instrument (die RD-Diepte Vraelys, Vorm B vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepteoriëntasie word bespreek. Resultate dui daarop dat die vraelys bevredigende interne bestendigheid toon en dat die items van die vraelys oor die algemeen dieselfde eienskap meet. Verdere navorsing word egter nog vereis om die vraelys te verfyn en te verbeter sodat dit aan al die psigometriese vereistes van 'n goeie meetinstrument sal voldoen.

  3. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro Arisuda; Akihito Hasuno; Junji Yoshida; Kazunari Tanii

    2008-01-01

    High-speed injection die casting is an efficient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, deficiencies (such as die damage in eady period) due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die temperature analysis, flow analysis and thermal stress analysis). The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  4. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Hasuno

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available High-speed injection die casting is an effi cient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, defi ciencies (such as die damage in early period due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die emperature analysis, fl ow analysis and thermal stress analysis. The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  5. Die Wiege stand doch in Africka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Kaum ein Forschungsgebiet ist so umstritten wie die Palaeoanthropologie, die Lehre yore Ursprung der Menschheit. Nicht nur die Vorgeschichte, ouch die unmittelbare Entstebung des Homo sapiens entzweit die Experten: Die einen verrnuten die Wiege in Afrika,die anderen gehen davon aus, dass sich tier moderne Mensch auf mehreren Kontinenten gleichzeifig aus Vorfahren eatwickelte,

  6. Die Tambaniprojek: ’n rekenaaranimasie van Die hebsugtige seekoei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M.C. Swanepoel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n ondersoek na en refleksie op die tegnieke en die produksieprosesse wat gebruik is in die omskakeling van ’n tradisionele Ngano-Venda-volksverhaal, Die hebsugtige seekoei, vanaf borduurwerk in ’n digitale animasiefilm. Die artikel word gerig deur ’n metode wat afgelei is uit ’n praktykgebaseerde navorsingsmodel vir skeppende uitsette. Hierdie navorsingsmodel omskryf wyses waarvolgens skeppende uitsette as geldige navorsingsopsies gereken kan word. Die metode bestaan uit die dokumentering van en refleksie ten opsigte van die projek in drie fases, naamlik pre-produksie, produksie en post-produksie. Die Tambani-borduurwerkprojek is ’n gemeenskapsuitreikingsinisiatief wat deur Ina le Roux van stapel laat loop is. Ngano is die versamelwoord vir tradisionele Vendavolksverhale. In hierdie artikel argumenteer ons dat rekenaaranimasietegnieke wel suksesvol geïmplementeer word in die digitale omskakeling van ’n Venda-volksverhaal wat oorspronklik uit ’n mondelinge tradisie stam. Ons demonstreer hierdie argument aan die hand van Christiaan van der Westhuizen se omskakeling van Die hebsugtige seekoei in ’n rekenaaranimasie.

  7. Control technique of sphaeropsis shoot blight in Pinus teada%火炬松枯梢病防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈友爱

    2001-01-01

    Sphaeropsis shoot blight in Pinus teada is a serious disease in south of China.The control experiments of cutting blight shoots,applying fertilizer and spraying fungicide were made ,The result shows that the above measures combined with spraying 50% Carbendazim wp could reach an efficacy of 88.6%.%火炬松枯梢病Sphaeropsis sapinea是为害火炬松Pinus taeda的毁灭性病害。该文通过剪枯梢、施肥和喷药相结合进行防治试验,结果表明:以剪枯梢为主,结合施肥或喷50%多菌灵的防治措施效果较好,防治率88.6%。

  8. Cutting Power during Milling of Thermally Modified Pine Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Krauss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental testing results of cutting power of thermally modified wood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. during lengthwise milling. The process of heat treatment was performed in the atmosphere of superheated steam, at temperatures of 130, 160, 190 and 220 °C, maintaining an identical heating time of 4 h for all modification variants. Cutting power was determined during milling of the radial surface of modifi ed and non--modified samples. It was calculated as the difference of power used by a milling machine during wood machining and at idling. Based on the results of measurements, it was found that, in the case of modified wood, cutting power decreases with an increase in modifi cation temperature (the dependence being linear and increases with an increase in the working engagement. At temperatures exceeding 160 °C, the power required for milling of modified wood is lower than cutting power for non-modified wood. The experiment indicated a significant reduction of cutting power with an increase in wood modification temperature. It was also found that an increase in the working engagement results in an increase of cutting power both in thermally modifi ed and non-modified wood.

  9. Effects of SO/sub 2/ on the germination of conifer pollen. [Pinus mugo; Pinus nigra; Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T.; Beda, H.

    1984-01-01

    Collections on agar of fresh and stored pollen grains of Pinus mugo, P. nigra and P. sylvestris were fumigated with SO/sub 2/ for 16 or 24 h. The ability of pollen of P. mugo and P. sylvestris to germinate was decreased by storage but sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ were not greatly altered. Germination was inhibited consistently by atmospheres with 0.225 ppm SO/sub 2/. At 0.075 ppm - a typical ambient concentration during temperature inversions - P. nigra and P. sylvestris were more sensitive than P. mugo which responded in the same way as pollen of Abies alba.

  10. Die historiese betroubaarheid van die aartsvadervertellinge. 'n Beknopte bespreking van die huidige debat na aanleiding van die jongste publikasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vosloo

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Die afgelope twintig jaar was daar �n toenemende belangstelling in die aartsvadervertellinge in Genesis. Benewens die talle tydskrifartikels het skrywers soos die volgende ook boeke oor die onderwerp die lig laat sien: A. Parrot (1962, W. M. Clark (1964, R. Kilian (1966, R. E. Clements (1967, N. Lohfink (1967, H. Weidemann (1968, R. Martin-Achard (1969, T. L. Thompson (1974, J. van Seters (1975, J. P. Fokkelman (1975, C. Westermann (1976, R. Rendtorff (1977, J. Bright (1977, W. McKane (1979 en A. R. Millard en D. J. Wiseman (1980.

  11. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  12. Gedagtes oor die begin van die kerk - 'n geskiedenis van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriously, affirm, and thankfully acknowledge Christendom, the. Church. We must ... In all this we at least approached the theology and practice of a spiritual partisan ..... Hegel se geskiedsfilosofie hou juis 'sintese' voor as die eindpunt van die.

  13. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danusevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas;

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the i...

  14. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  15. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  16. Dying for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchan, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  17. Dying for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  18. Dying from cardiac tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powari Manish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the causes of cardiac tamponade (CT, focussing especially on haemopericardium (HP, as a terminal mode of death, within a 430,000 rural English population. Methods Our hospital mortuary register and, all postmortem reports between 1995 and 2004 inclusive, were interrogated for patients dying of CT or HP. The causes of CT/HP and selected morphological characteristics were then determined. Results 14,368 postmortems were performed in this period: of these, 461 patients died of CT. Three cases were due to non-haemorrhagic pericardial effusion. HP accounted for the remaining 458 cases of which, five were post-traumatic, 311 followed rupture of an acute myocardial infarction (RAMI, 138 after intra-pericardial rupture of dissecting ascending aortic aneurysms (RD3A and four were due to miscellaneous causes. HP was more commonly due to RAMI. Men tended to die from RAMI or RD3A earlier than women. RAMI or RD3A were commoner in men Two thirds of RAMI were associated with coronary artery thrombosis. Anterior free wall rupture was commonest overall, and in women, but posterior free wall rupture was commoner in men. The volume of intrapericardial blood in RAMI (mean = 440 ml and RD3A (mean = 498 ml varied between 150 and 1000 ml: intrapericardial blood volume was greater in men than in women dying from either RAMI or RD3A. Conclusion At postmortem, CT is most often related to HP, attributable to either RAMI or intrapericardial RD3A. Post-traumatic and other causes of CT are infrequent.

  19. Graphs of Plural Cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2011-01-01

    Plural (or multiple-conclusion) cuts are inferences made by applying a structural rule introduced by Gentzen for his sequent formulation of classical logic. As singular (single-conclusion) cuts yield trees, which underlie ordinary natural deduction derivations, so plural cuts yield graphs of a more complicated kind, related to trees, which this paper defines. Besides the inductive definition of these oriented graphs, which is based on sequent systems, a non-inductive, graph-theoretical, combinatorial, definition is given, and to reach that other definition is the main goal of the paper. As trees underlie multicategories, so the graphs of plural cuts underlie polycategories. The graphs of plural cuts are interesting in particular when the plural cuts are appropriate for sequent systems without the structural rule of permutation, and the main body of the paper deals with that matter. It gives a combinatorial characterization of the planarity of the graphs involved.

  20. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting o...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type.......In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...

  1. Die medizinische Diskussion um die Fettleibigkeit 1800-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Holstermann, Inga Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Gegenstand der Untersuchung ist die medizinische Diskussion um die Fettleibigkeit von 1800 bis 1914. Dargestellt werden die unterschiedlichen Betrachtungsweisen der Fettleibigkeit beeinflusst durch gesellschaftliche, industrielle und medizinische Entwicklungen im Untersuchungszeitraum unter den Aspekten der Ursachen (Lebensführung, erbliche Veranlagung, Geschlecht, Alter, Stoffwechselstörungen) und Folgen (Gesundheitsgefahren, Ästhetik, psychische Auswirkungen). Des weiteren werden Konzepte z...

  2. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  3. Geslagsverskille in die ouditiewe ontlokte potensiaal van die brein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the auditory evoked potential of the brain. Based on literature indications of an association between temperament characteristics and the evoked potential of the brain, and indications of gender differences in certain temperament traits, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether evoked responses also differentiated between the genders. A sample of 81 male and 210 female students was randomly selected. Two auditory evoked potential procedures were applied. The results indicated statistically significant differences in evoked potential responses between the genders. The results are interpreted against the background of sensory and neurological sources of the evoked potential responses and linked to the neurophysiological foundations of temperament. Opsomming: Gegrond op aanduidings in die literatuur van ’n assosiasie tussen temperamentskenmerke en die ontlokte potensiaal van die brein, sowel as aanduidings van geslagsverskille in sekere temperamentstrekke, was die doel van die huidige studie om te bepaal of ontloktepotensiaal-response ook tussen die geslagte onderskei. ’n Steekproef van 81 manlike en 210 vroulike studente is ewekansig geselekteer. Twee ouditiewe ontloktepotensiaal- prosedures is toegepas. Die resultate het op statisties beduidende verskille tussen die geslagte gedui. Die bevindinge word teen die agtergrond van die sensoriese en neurologiese oorsprong van ontloktepotensiaal–response geïnterpreteer en verbind aan die neurofisiologiese verankering van temperament.

  4. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  5. Quantificação das perdas no desenvolvimento de Pinus taeda após o ataque de formigas cortadeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Bisognin Cantarelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main purpose was to quantify the diameter, height and productivity index losses in initial development in Pinus taeda seedlings in stands in Argentine, after leaf cutting ants attack. The treatments were: T1 = control without attack; T2 = attacked by ants; and T3 = sequential artificial deneedling. The three development stages of the plants in two distinct slopes were also evaluated. The results allow concluding that there is a significant reduction in Pinus taeda development when attacked by leaf cutting ants during the first 24 months. In the artificially deneedled plants, there was a significant reduction related to the ones deneedled by the ants, for all the analyzed variables

  6. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  7. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W. de Wet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale tipering van die verhouding tussen die teks, hoorders en prediker waarin al drie faktore ’n regmatige plek het; die maniere waarop die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die spanningsveld tussen teks, hoorders en prediker kan skeeftrek; en pneumatologiese verankering van die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die kragveld van die verbondsruimte, waarin Jesus Christus versoenend (integrerend teenwoordig is. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die prediker in die kragveld van die verbond in staat gestel word om getrou te bly aan die teks (waarin God aan die Woord kom, aan die hoorders (as mededeelgenote in die genade van God sowel as – in missionêre konteks – mense wat geroep word om deelgenote in hierdie genade te word en aan hom- of haarself (as nuwe mens in Christus sonder dat die verbintenis aan een element in die  kommunikatiewe driehoek die verbintenis aan die ander versteur of laat disintegreer.Reckoning with the force field of the covenant in aligning the communicative triangle between text, listener and preacher. In this article the communicative triangular relationship between the Biblical text, the listeners and the preacher is reflected upon from a homiletic point of view. The problem statement deals with potential distortions in this triangular relationship when the listeners and preacher (in their human finitude are brought into contact with the eternal Word of God as it proceeds from the Biblical text. In the course of the article the

  8. Die amtliche Kinder- und Jugendhilfestatistik

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Unter Rückgriff auf verschiedene wissenschaftliche Methoden umfasst die Dissertation eine differenzierte Untersuchung der amtlichen Kinder- und Jugendhilfestatistik (KJH-Statistik). Da die wissenschaftliche Sozialpädagogik erst langsam und zögerlich beginnt, die amtliche Statistik der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe wahrzunehmen, liegt das Forschungsinteresse darin, dass eine grundlegende und umfassende wissenschaftliche Analyse der Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der KJH-Statistik vorgenommen wird. Die KJ...

  9. Gods hand in die natuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duvenage

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Kan ons van so iets spreek? Daaroor bestaan daar seker geen verskil nie. Die Bybel is vol daarvan van Genesis tot Openbaring. God is Skepper. ’n Ander vraag is of ons God ook kan ken uit wat daar in die natuur gebeur? Verloop alles nie maar volgens ewige natuurwette waaraan tog niks verander kan word nie? Ons bely egter dat die Here nie net in die hart van die mens gelê het wat ons noem die „saad van die religie” nie (semen religionis, maar dat ons Hom ook ken deur die skep- ping, onderhouding en regering van die hele wêreld, aangesien dit voor ons oë is soos ’n mooi boek waarin alle skepsels, groot en klein, die letters is wat ons die onsigbare dinge van God duidelik laat sien, nl. sy ewige krag en Goddelikheid ...; dinge wat almal genoegsaam is om die mense te oortuig en hulle alle verontskuldiging te ontneem (Art. 2 Ned. Gel. Bel..

  10. Die eunug in die klassieke mitologie en samelewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Retief

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die konsep, eunug, wat na ’n gekastreerde persoon (gewoonlik manlik verwys, het sy oorsprong in die mitologie. Van hier word dit deurgevolg na die Klassieke tydperk. Kastrering vir religieuse redes was deel van godsdiensrituele gekoppel aan verering van aardgodinne en fertiliteit. Die kultusse wat aan die godinne Kubele, Hekate, Atargatis-Dea, Astarte, Artemis en Innana-Ishtar gewy was en wat deur eunugpriesters bedien was, word beskryf. Kastrering vir niereligieuse redes, oorwegend weens sosio-ekonomiese oorwegings, het waarskynlik tydens die 2de millennium v.C. sy oorsprong in Midde-Oosterse lande gehad vanwaar dit teen ongeveer die 5de eeu v.C. na Griekeland, en twee eeue later na Rome uitgebrei het. ’n Oorsig word gelewer van die invloed en rol van die eunug ten tye van die klassieke beskawing. Die sogenaamde “kongenitale eunug” waar hipogonadisme weens ’n aangebore letsel ontstaan, ’n baie seldsame verskynsel, word nie verder bespreek nie.

  11. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

    OpenAIRE

    USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

  12. The Effect of Wood Specimen Length on the Proportional Saturation of Preservative Fluid in Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican Pine (Pinus nigravar.mantima)

    OpenAIRE

    USTA*, İlker; Arif GÜRAY

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proportional saturation and the fluid uptake of preservative liquid (that was) applied under the same pressure was investigated comparatively on the various longitudinal length of wood specimens in the two softwood species. Wood specimens of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)Carr.) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var.mantima) representative of two different permeability classifications, cut into five different lengths were treated with tanalith-C using the full-cell p...

  13. Aard, funksie en invloed van die Literatuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Elst

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Binne die raam werk van die tema van hierdie simposium gaan dit om twee komponente:die Literatuur, meer bepaald die letterkundige werk of woordkunswerk met sy drie genres endie gemeenskap, die onlvangers of belewers van die Literatuur of doodgewoon die lesers.

  14. Videobasierte Unterrichtsbeobachtung: die Quadratur des Zirkels?

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Regula

    2012-01-01

    Seit einigen Jahren wird Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt videobasiert angegangen. Die methodologische Diskussion, die die Weiterentwicklung des Instrumentariums begleitet, kreist dabei zentral um die Frage der Invasivität der Aufzeichnungstechnik und möglicher Kameraeffekte. Je nach methodologischer Ausrichtung wird diesem Problem anders begegnet: So versucht die abbildtheoretische Unterrichtsvideografie, die Invasivität zu kontrollieren. Qualitative Methoden wie die Kameraethnografie dagegen m...

  15. 乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica之初步辨析%A preliminary analysis of the difference between Pinus wallichiana and Pinus bhutanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维列; 徐阿生

    2003-01-01

    根据最新的文献资料,初步分析了乔松Pinus wallichiana与不丹松Pinus bhutanica在一年生小枝、针叶(主要是树脂道)、球果、种鳞、鳞脐和种子等六个方面的性状区别特征,结合以前对藏东南和藏南地区单维管束松树的调查所掌握的材料,认为不丹松是从乔松中分出来的;它们的分布区存在重叠,但各自构成的群落具有较大的生态学差异;通过性状差异性质的辨析,讨论了不丹松种级地位成立所需的关键特征,初步得出不丹松种级地位难以成立的结论.

  16. Die wisselende rol van kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit in die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie F.M. Strauss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel wil lig werp op die onvermydelikheid van diskreetheid en kontinuïteit as primitiewe (ondefinieerbare verklaringswyses in die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde. Dit beliggaam die algemene uitdaging om rekenskap van die samehang van iets wat uniek is te gee. Gödel beklemtoon die samehang van ‘primitiewe begrippe’. Die Griekse filosofie het reeds die ruimtelike geheel-dele-relasie – en die oneindige verdeelbaarheid daarvan – ontdek. Gedurende en na die Middeleeue het filosowe wipplank gery tussen ’n atomistiese waardering van die kontinuum en die teenoorgestelde daarvan, wat byvoorbeeld in die denke van Leibniz aangetref word as die gepostuleerde wet van kontinuïteit (lex continui. Die ontdekking van ‘inkommensurabiliteit’ (irrasionale getalle deur die Grieke het aanleiding gegee tot die eerste grondslagkrisis van die wiskunde en die geometrisering daarvan. Leibniz en Newton kon die probleme rondom die limietbegrip nie besleg nie en spoedig sou dit tot die derde grondslagkrisis van die wiskunde aanleiding gee. Dit het Frege en die ‘kontinuum-teoretici’ daartoe gebring om prioriteit aan die kontinuum te gee – diskreetheid is ’n katastrofe. Onlangs waardeer Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis kontinuïteit as iets wat ’n ‘ongebroke en ononderbroke geheel’ daarstel. Die intuïsionistiese wiskunde het opnuut aangesluit by die klem op die ruimtelike geheel-dele-relasie. Ondanks pogings om kontinuïteit eksklusief aritmeties en ruimtelik te verstaan bevestig die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde onmiskenbaar dat die medekondisionerende rol van hierdie twee wyses van verklaring ’n konstante metgesel in die nadenke oor kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit sou bly. (Die rol van kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit in die fisika en biologie sal in ’n aparte artikel ondersoek word.

  17. Saving Seal Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 20, the graduation ceremony of China’s seal-cutting art postgraduates and visiting experts from the Institute of Seal Cutting Art under the China Art Academy was held in Beijing. On the same day, the exhibition of the works of the teachers and graduates of the institute was also held.

  18. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  19. Reuchlin und die Kabbala

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Auszug: Hundert Jahre nachdem Johannes Reuchlin sein wissenschaftliches Werk vollendet hatte, war der von ihm hinterlassene Eindruck auf die europäische Wissenschaft und das europäische Denken so nachdrücklich, daß er - liebe- oder vorwurfsvoll - einmal >Rabbi Capnion< genannt wurde. Und wirklich - so meint Joseph Blau in seiner Darstellung der christlichen Kabbala - habe Reuchlin der hebräischen Literatur mehr gedient als mancher ordentliche Rabbiner. Ähnlich hat Gershom Scholem, der Begründ...

  20. Die Mythosphilosophie Ernst Cassirers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    Bogen undersøger Ernst Cassirers filosofiske hovedværk - Die Philosophie der symbolischen Formen - for at finde frem til, hvilken betydning det har, at Cassirer inddrager myten som den menneskelige kulturs grundform og dermed på mange måder sidestillet med videnskab, sprog og kunst. Der...... argumenteres for, at netop arbejdet med myten muliggjorde en frugtbar åbning af erkendelsesteorien i retning af udtryksfænomenet og følelsers betydning for menneskets livsverden. Bogens anden del ser nærmere på, hvordan Cassirer bruger sin mytefilosofi fra 1920'erne til at forstå 1940'ernes fascistiske...

  1. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  2. Die ideaal van die spreker in die satiriese gedig: M.M. Walters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Cameron

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer van die satirikus gepraat word, word eintlik die spreker in die satiriese gedig veronderstel. “For the Muse ought always to be our reminder that it is not the author as man who casts these shadows on our printed page, but the author as poet” (Mack, 1971:193.

  3. Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1 with CBN tool

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Aouici; M A Yallese; A Belbah; M F Ameur; M Elbah

    2013-06-01

    This experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting conditions on surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning of X38CrMoV5-1. This steel was hardened at 50 HRC and machined with CBN tool. This is employed for the manufacture of helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. Combined effects of three cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, on the six performance outputs-surface roughness parameters and cutting force components, are explored by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimal cutting conditions for each performance level are established. The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined through the response surface methodology (RSM), using a quadratic regression model. Results show how much surface roughness is mainly influenced by feed rate and cutting speed. The depth of cut exhibits maximum influence on cutting force components as compared to the feed rate and cutting speed.

  4. Die historiese Jesus, die Jesus-beweging en die vorming van die kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries van Aarde

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical Jesus, the Jesus movement and the birth of the church. The article focuses on the birth of the church. The point at which the church began its existence is located within the boundaries of fonnative Judaism. The parting of the ways is explained as a movement from faction to sect, to the eventual fonnation of the church in its own right as distinct from the synagogue. The historical Jesus should therefore not be seen as the founder of the church. However, the article argues that the relation of the life and death of the historical Jesus to the resurrection belief of the post-paschal Jesus movement constitutes the cradle of the church. This continuum between Jesus and New Testament Christendom is referred to by means of the Gennan phrase die Sache Jesu. Reconsideration of this trajectory results in the conviction that the vision and program of the historical Jesus cannot be neglected when one reflects on the nature of the church in the New Testament or on the vocation of the church through history to the present day. Two thought complexes form the kernel of die Sache Jesu: God's unbounded presence and the concept that everyone has unmediated and non-hierarchical access to the grace of God.

  5. Die hermeneutiek van gereformeerde kerkreg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries le Roux du Plooy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel het op die belangrikheid en noodsaaklikheid van ‘n hermeneutiek vir die gereformeerde kerkreg gefokus. Die kerkregtelike dokument wat besonderlik ter sake was, is die kerkorde van die Gereformeerde kerke in Suid-Afrika, met sy besondere band met die Dordtse kerkorde van 1618 en 1619. Agtereenvolgens is aandag gegee aan die volgende aspekte soos (1 die eiesoortige aard van ‘n kerkorde as ‘n teologiese dokument en teks, in onderskeiding van regsdokumente; (2 die aard van die hermeneutiek van kerkreg; (3 enkele teorieë oor die interpretasie of uitleg van tekste, veral regstekste en (4 normatiewe vooronderstellings en reëls vir die interpretasie en verstaan van die teks en artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite van kerklike vergaderinge. Die gevolgtrekking was dat weinig indringende navorsing gedoen is oor die saak van hermeneutiek vir kerkreg, hoewel dit noodsaaklik is. Duidelike hermeneutiese reëls is gesuggereer en verduidelik, wat sou kon meehelp dat kerke en kerklike vergaderinge die artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite en reglemente wat daarop berus het, kan interpreteer en toepas.The hermeneutics of reformed church polity. The article focused on the importance and urgency of a design for reformed hermeneutics on church polity. The Church Order referred to in the article is the Church Order of the Reformed Churches in South Africa, which are closely related to the Church Order of Dordt of 1618 and 1619. The following aspects received attention namely (1  the unique character of a Church Order, in comparison to and distinguished from legal documents and statutes; (2 the character and nature of hermeneutics of church polity; (3 theories of interpretation in the common law tradition and their relevance to church polity and (4 normative presuppositions and marks for the interpretation and understanding of the text and articles of the Church Order, as well as the resolutions of church assemblies. It was found that

  6. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het.Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  7. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  8. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Danusevičius; Vitas Marozas; Gediminas Brazaitis; Raimundas Petrokas; Knud Ib Christensen

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylv...

  9. Melt Flow and Energy Limitation of Laser Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser technology is a convertible technology for plenty of parts in most materials. Laser material processing for industrial manufacturing applications is today a widespread procedure for welding, cutting, marking and micro machining of metal and plastic parts and components. Involvement and support this huge mass-production industry of laser cutting, new technology and dry-process using lasers were and are being actively developed. Fundamentally, industrial laser cutting or other applications on industry should satisfy the four key practical application issues including “Quality or Performance”, “Throughput or Speed”, “Cost or Total Ownership Cost”, and “Reliability”. Laser requires for examples several complicated physical factors to be resolved including die strength to be enable good wire-bonding and survival of severe cycling test, clean cutting wall surface, good cutting of direct attach film, and proper speed of cutting for achieving economy of throughput. Some example of maximum cutting rate, wherewith is normally limited laser energy, cutting speed is depend on type laser, different of cutting with one laser beam and beam pattern and applied laser power/material thickness will be introduced in this paper.

  10. Sedimentêre omgewings van die Inhaca-eilandstelsel met spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Peché

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Inhaca-eilandstelsel is geleë langs die suidooskus van Mosambiek. Die oostekant van die stelsel grens aan die Indiese Oseaan en die westekant aan die Baai van Maputo. Hierdie eilandstelsel bestaan uit Inhaca- en Portugese eiland, asook ’n groep sandbanke wat van die noordlike punt van Inhaca na Portugese eiland strek. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verskillende moderne en oer-sedimentêre omgewings op die eilandstelsel te identifiseer en te beskryf, die invloed van getye en golfaksie op die moderne sedimentêre omgewing vas te stel en die geochemiese en petrografiese samestelling van die geologiese eenhede te bepaal.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  12. Die gebruik van metode in die filosofie, spesiaal in die reformatoriese tra­disie 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. van der Merwe

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Die onderw erp van my voordrag, Die gebruik van metode in die fílosofie, verg ’n paar verduidelikende opinerkings vooraf. Ek dink u verm oed alreeds dat hierdie fomulering ’n versuikerde pil is om u in so ’n mate nuuskierig te maak dat una ’n heerlike vrye filosofiese ‘onderonsie’ gedurende die teepouse darem vir ’n tw eede sessie terugkeer. Want is dit nie twee smaaklike heuningdruppels nie: filosofie en sy metode’ en ‘metode in die Reformatoriese filosofiese tradisie'?! Veral as in gedagte gehou word dat in teenstelling met wat ’n mens sou verw ag, daaroor dié onderwerp as sodanig relatief maar heel weinig geskrywe is en word, selfs as die ‘Inleidings in die Metodologie’ daarby gereken word.

  13. Online Cake Cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.

  14. Die derivation der slowenischen substantive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ]ože Toporišič

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick­ sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im

  15. Functions and timescale of self-cutting in participants suffering from borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Dieben, Karen; Nicastro, Rosetta; Muscionico, Michel; Huguelet, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meanings and timescale of self-cuttings in a cohort of 22 outpatients suffering from borderline personality disorder. Sixty-one events were recorded using the newly developed self-cutting-checklist (SCUC) designed to investigate the severity of self-cuttings, and intent to die, suicidal ideation, inner tension, sense of relief and anesthesia, and consequences associated with this behavior. We found that typical self-cuttings were associated with a decrease in inner tension and suicidal ideation. Moreover self-cuttings associated with a desire to die differentiated from those associated with no desire to die by significantly less reduction in inner tension. Finally, self-cuttings occurred significantly more often during evenings and nights than during daytime. In conclusion, self-cuttings can be reasonably addressed by self-report. Attention to specific issues such as intent to die and the time of the self-cuttings may improve the outcome of these particularly high-risk subjects.

  16. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Myburgh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  17. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Ivo HLAVATÝ; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  18. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  19. Spearman se G en die faktorstrukture van die senior aanlegtoetse en die algemene skolastiese aanlegtoets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. De Bruin

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Spearman's G and the factor structures of the Senior Aptlitude Test and the General Scholastic Aptitude Test. Scores of 1507 university students on the six subtests of the General Scholastic Aptitude Test (GSAT and on nine subtests of the Senior Aptitude Tests (SAT were subjected to a joint confirmatory factor analysis. This procedure was followed to examine (a the extent to which scores in respect of the two batteries of tests, are explained by a general factor (Spearman's g, and (b the relationship between the two general factors. Scores on the GSAT subtests were adequately explained by just one factor. With regard to the SAT three group factors could be distinguished, namely Verbal Ability, Visual-Spatial Ability and Numerical Ability. The correlations between the group factors were so high that the influence of a general factor was evident. The general factors underlying the SAT and GSAT respectively, also correlated significantly. In view of findings suggesting the general intelligence is the best single predictor of criteria such as academic success and work performance, the GSAT is recommended for selection purposes. Opsomming Tellings van 1507 universiteitstudente op die ses subtoetse van die ASAT en nege subtoetse van die SAT, is gesamentlik aan 'n bevestigende faktorontleding onderwerp. Hierdie prosedure is gevolg om ondersoek in te stel na (a die mate waartoe 'n algemene faktor (Spearman se g die tellings op die twee batterye toetse onderskeidelik onderle, en (b wat die verwantskap tussen die twee algemene faktore sou wees. Ten opsigte van die ASAT is dit duidelik dat slegs een faktor tellings op al ses subtoetse verklaar. Ten opsigte van die SAT kon drie groepsfaktore onderskei word/ naamlik Verbale Vermoe, Visueel-Ruimtelike Vermoe en Numeriese Vermoe. Die korrelasies tussen die drie groepsfaktore was egter so hoog dat dit duidelik is dat daar 'n algemene faktor onderliggend is aan die nege subtoetse. Die algemene faktore wat die

  20. Die MCI im Wandel: User Experience als die zentrale Herausforderung?

    OpenAIRE

    Jetter, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Die Informationstechnologie hat heute einen Reifegrad erlangt, der stark umkämpfte Massenmärkte von interaktiven Produkten hervorgebracht hat. In diesen sind - wie auch in den herkömmlichen Konsumgütermärkten - nicht nur die pragmatische Produktqualität, sondern auch das Benutzungserlebnis und die Gesamtwirkung auf den Käufer entscheidend für den Markterfolg. Eine erfolgreiche Gestaltung dieser "User Experience" geht dabei über die reine Softwareergonomie hinaus und erfordert interdisziplinär...

  1. [Individual biomass of natural Pinus densiflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Liu, J; Jin, Y

    2000-02-01

    The aboveground biomass of individuals with different growth potentials in natural Pinus densiflora forest with different stand densities was measured in Yanbian, Jilin Province. The variation of individual biomass affected by densities was in order of dominant tree branch > needle > bark. The biomass components of P. densifliora with different growth potentials varied markedly with the approaching of density class III, and the change of intermediate trees was similar to the whole stand. The vertical distributions of biomass of different trees were different from each other, but all showed that the biomass of trunks and barks was mainly distributed below 6 m high from ground, that of branches was within 6-10 m high, that of needles was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers, and that of branches and needles in upper layer was least affected by density.

  2. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  3. RHIZOGENIC RESPONSE OF PINUS MAXIMARTINEZII RZEDOWSKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ojeda-Zacaría

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El piñón azul o maxi piñónPinus maximartineziiRzedowski es una especie endémica en peligro de extinción debido a la alteración de sus poblaciones en su hábitat natural y que ha sobrevivido a una restricción genética extrema, además es considerado el más raro de los pinos piñoneros. En este trabajo se evaluó la respuesta rizogénica de brotes dePinus maximartinezii, obtenidos a partir de embriones cigóticos regenerado vía organogénesis, los cuales se sometieron a tratamientos de enraizamientoin vitro. La mayor respuesta de enraizamiento se presentó con pulso de 24 h en presencia de 2.0 mg L-1 de IBA en los medios de cultivo DCR, GD y MS, al 100 y 50% de su concentración original más 0.5% de carbón activado por L-1. Después de ocho semanas se evaluó la variable conforme al número de brotes con raíces, la prueba de X2 mostró que el enraizamiento es independiente de los medios de cultivo así como la concentración de los mismos y dependiente al tiempos de pulso. La formación de raíces obtenidas en los brotes permite proponer esta especie con capacidad para ser propagadain vitro.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%).

  5. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  6. Meganisisme, vitalisme en holisme in die Biologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Botha

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Biologie word omskryf as die wetenskap van die lewende wesens (organismes. Die lewe staan dus in die brandpunt van die biologiese studie en ondersoek. Vra ons ons egter af wat onder „lewe” verstaan word, besef ons dadelik dat ons hier met ’n uiters moeilik definieerbare begrip te doen het. In verband met die aard van lewe het daar onder die bioloë en natuurfilosowe veral twee denkrigtings posgevat, nl. meganisisme en vitalism.

  7. Laser-assisted machining process simulation for precision mould/die manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Quanren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-assisted machining (LAM is a kind of thermally assisted manufacturing process which preheats workpiece material with a highly-localized laser beam and then is followed by a conventional machining operation. It could greatly improve the machinability and gives better machining quality, especially suitable for hard-to-cut materials such as superalloys, tool steels. For manufacturing the high-precision moulds/dies that could fabricate micro and precision components, the thermal assistance at the local cutting zone, will help to lower the cutting force and consequently improve the internal surface quality of the machined moulds/dies. In this paper, a numerical study of the laser-assisted cutting of plastic mould steel NAK80 is reported. The simulation of LAM of NAK80 is realized by combining two procedures: simulation of moving laser heat source applied on the local surface of workpiece which causes the corresponding temperature field arise and material soften, and simulation of the subsequent cutting processes. This research will offer the die/mould manufacturers a more efficient planning tool for the fabrication of the micro, precision dies/moulds of high surface quality, and hence, for forming the high-quality micro components as well as for longer die/mould life.

  8. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  9. Cutting Cakes Correctly

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Theodore P

    2008-01-01

    Without additional hypotheses, Proposition 7.1 in Brams and Taylor's book "Fair Division" (Cambridge University Press, 1996) is false, as are several related Pareto-optimality theorems of Brams, Jones and Klamler in their 2006 cake-cutting paper.

  10. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  11. Die mites rondom die val van Troje en Vergilius se uitbeelding daarvan in die tweede boek van die Aeneïs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Swanepoel

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Die mites oor die val van Troje vertel ’n aangrypende verhaal en in die tweede boek van die Aeneïs gee Vergilius op ’n besondere wyse gestalte daaraan. Maar Vergilius se vergestalting daarvan is slegs een van die variante van die verhaal.

  12. Lady Di - Die moderne Madonna

    OpenAIRE

    Steuten, Ulrich; Strasser, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Die authentischen Bekundungen von Trauer und Wertschätzung, die der bei einem Autounfall in Paris ums Leben gekommenen Prinzessin Diana weltweit entgegengebracht und seit Jahren von mehreren Seiten instrumentalisiert werden, sind unübersehbar. Das Leben und Sterben der Prinzessin von Wales ist nach Ansicht der Autoren geeignet, einer populären Mythenbildung in der modernen Gesellschaft Substanz zu verleihen. Vor allem bietet es die Möglichkeit, einen modernen Kult zu etablieren, der sich im Z...

  13. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  16. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J. Du Preez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal- holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  17. Op die grens van vakwetenskap en filosofie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Elaine Botha

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Die begrip “grens” soos dit voorkom in die titel is vir meerdere uitleg vatbaar. Eerstens sou dit kon dui op ’n onoorskreibare punt tussen die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe, so iets soos ’n grenspaal of baken, met ander woorde ’n punt van waterdigte skeiding tussen die domein van die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe. As ’n mens soms die dramatiese grensgevegte tussen die filo­ sofie en die vakwetenskappe in die wetenskaplike literatuur beskou1 dan blyk dit kennelik noodsaaklik te wees om wel sodanige grens te stel, veral ten einde die gevaar van weten­ skaplike terrorisme van die een of die ander kant die hoof te bied.

  18. het die reformasie die leer gered en aanbidding verloor?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. Spoelstra, emeritusprofessor in Diakoniologiese Vakke, Fakulteit Teo- logie, P.U. vir C.H.O. (Skool vir ... Van der Leeuw sê liturgiek en leer is verwant en die geskiedenis van liturgie weerspieël die ...... VAN LEEUWEN G. 1946. Liturgiek.

  19. Die wysgerige konsepsie van Thomas van Aquino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Van Aquino

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Samevattend is tot dusver die volgende aangetoon: Die werklikheid vertoon volgens Thomas 'n hierargiese struktuur. Daar is verskillende grade van syn. God is die hoogste, die volheid van syn, en by die laere synsniveaus is daar steeds 'n verdere verwydering van hierdie synsvolmaaktheid in die rigting van absolute afwesigheid van syn. Hierdie synshiërargie is volgens die vorm-materieskema opgebou. Die materie in die hoëre synslaag word vorm vir die laere, of omgekeerd: die vorm van die laere is die materie vir die hoëre dinge. God is absoluut suiwer vorm of wet (essensie. Die vorme van die dinge is die goddelike wet (genoem exemplar, similitudo, ratio, verbum of imago wat deur God daarin geskape is. God druk op dié wyse sy gelykenis op kreatuur.like wyse uit. Sy absolute volmaaktheid kan alleen tot uitdrukking gebring word deur 'n veelheid en verskeidenheid van geskape dinge. God word deur Thomas die causa effiaiens en exemplaris genoem. Die verhouding tussen Skepper en geskape werklikheid is dus dié van oorsaak en gevolg. As gevolg van sy wetsidee word daar deur Thomas dus nie duidelik tussen Skepper en skepping onderskei nie, want skepping beteken volgens hom onder andere dat God iets goddeliks (die wet in die dinge lê. Via die goddelike wet in die dinge ingeskape, is daar 'n sekere kontinuiteit tussen God en kosmos.

  20. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...... of a centreline hole in a single compression operation. Friction is also taken into account. The numerical analysis indicates that a lower die angle of approximately 140o results in the largest centreline hole closure for a wide range of material hardening. The value of optimum die angle is not influenced...... by friction, which was found only to change the degree of centreline porosity closure in case of small lower die angle....

  1. Statues Also Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Philippe Fraiture

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available “African thinking,” “African thought,” and “African philosophy.” These phrases are often used indiscriminately to refer to intellectual activities in and/or about Africa. This large field, which sits at the crossroads between analytic philosophy, continental thought, political philosophy and even linguistics is apparently limitless in its ability to submit the object “Africa” to a multiplicity of disciplinary approaches. This absence of limits has far-reaching historical origins. Indeed it needs to be understood as a legacy of the period leading to African independence and to the context in which African philosophy emerged not so much as a discipline as a point of departure to think colonial strictures and the constraints of colonial modes of thinking. That the first (self-appointed exponents of African philosophy were Westerners speaks volumes. Placide Tempels but also some of his predecessors such as Paul Radin (Primitive Man as Philosopher, 1927 and Vernon Brelsford (Primitive Philosophy, 1935 were the first scholars to envisage this extension of philosophy into the realm of the African “primitive.” The material explored in this article – Statues Also Die (Marker, Resnais, and Cloquet, Bantu Philosophy (Tempels, The Cultural Unity of Negro Africa (Cheikh Anta Diop, and It For Others (Duncan Campbell - resonates with this initial gesture but also with the ambition on part of African philosophers such as VY Mudimbe to challenge the limits of a discipline shaped by late colonialism and then subsequently recaptured by ethnophilosophers. Statues Also Die is thus used here as a text to appraise the limitations of African philosophy at an early stage.  The term “stage,” however, is purely arbitrary and the work of African philosophers has since the 1950s often been absorbed by an effort to retrieve African philosophizing practices before, or away from, the colonial matrix. This activity has gained momentum and has been

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  3. Die Presbiter by Lukas en Paulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste navorsing oor Lukas word die skrywer van die derde evangelieverhaal en die Handelinge van die Apostels aan ons bekend gestel as ’n teoloog wat uit die ‘Sitz im Leben’ (uit die situasie van sy eie tyd die boodskap aangaande Christus interpreteer . Lukas sou hom by sy interpretasie van die Christusboodskap laat lei het deur ’n bepaalde dogmatiese ‘Verstandnis’ waardeur hy homself verraai as ’n teoloog van die na-apostoliese tyd.

  4. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  5. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  6. Awareness of Dying Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently The New York Times reported: “VERY ILL CHILDREN TOLD OF DISEASE; Leukemia Patients at N.I.H. Not Shielded From Truth. . . . A child should always be told the truth, even when he has an incurable disease such as leukemia, according to two researchers who interviewed 51 children hospitalized at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, for treat¬ment of leukemia.” This kind of news item reflects the growing concern among researchers and public about matters which touch on morality as much as on the technical aspects of medi¬cine. The rapidly increasing proportion of elderly people in the American population presents a range of personal and social questions; not the least is how they view their newly won longevity (often including anticipated years of chronic disease as well as their attitudes toward death. In consequence, many geriatric specialists are beginning to study American attitudes toward death, while others, spurred on by what seems a sense-less prolonging of life within hospital walls by medical tech¬nology run wild, are raising questions about death and dying in American life.

  7. Adapt or die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  8. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nacide Kizildag; Husniye Aka Sagliker; Ahu Kutlay; Sahin Cenkseven; Cengiz Darici

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the...

  9. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  10. Die etiek van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Die etiek van Barth kan nie reg verstaan word sonder begrip van sy ganse teologiese agtergrond en opset, en ek wil byvoeg: sonder die besondere tydsomstandighede (oorlog! waarin hy geleef en gewerk het nie. Dit is verder bekend dat in sy teologiese ontwikkeling verskillende figure groot invloed op hom uitgeoefen het.

  11. Die Parlamentswahlen 2008 in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie; Knirsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nach den Parlamentswahlen vom März 2008 in Malaysia deutet manches auf einen politischen Umbruch hin: Die regierende Barisan Nasional (BN), die sich bislang einer komfortablen Zweidrittelmehrheit von 91,4 Prozent der Sitze im Parlament des Landes erfreut hatte, rutschte auf 63,1 Prozent ab und das...

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  13. Leierskapstyl en die lerende organisasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Victor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style and the learning organisation. In the present highly competitive environment, it has become increasingly important for organisational leaders to establish a learning organisation. In this study the focus was on the extent of influence that the evolution of organisations, as determined by their relative level of leadership practises (leadership style, has on the establishment of a learning organisation. Opsomming Die daarstel van ’n lerende organisasie deur bedryfsleiers word toenemend belangrik in die hedendaagse hoogskompeterende omgewing. In hierdie studie is gefokus op die mate van beinvloeding wat die evolusie van organisasies, soos deur hul relatiewe vlak van demokratiese leierskapspraktyke (leierskapstyl bepaal, op die daarstelling van’n lerende organisasie het.

  14. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  15. Dealing with Cuts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cellulitis First Aid: Cuts Staph Infections Bites and Scratches First Aid: Falls First Aid: ... Out Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions What's a Scab? Cellulitis Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes Staph Infections Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Contact Us Print ...

  16. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  17. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  18. Filosofiese tendense in die wordinggeskiedenis van ons verstaan van die fisiese natuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. M. Strauss

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Die ontstaan van ’n lang tradisie van natuurwetenskaplike denke is in antieke Griekeland te vind – die bakermat van die Westerse beskawing en die bron van geartikuleerde rasionele besinning. Die vroegste fases van die Griekse kultuur het reeds geboorte geskenk aan ’n teoretiese nadenke oor die heelal. Die Pythagoreërs is veral bekend vir hul klem op die verklaringskrag van getalsverhoudinge. In hul tese dat “alles getal is” het hulle egter slegs rasionale getalle (breuke erken en gevolglik uiteindelik vasgeloop in die ontdekking van irrasionale getalle wat tot die geometrisering van die Griekse wiskunde gelei het en tegelyk die bedding gevorm het van waaruit ’n magtige tradisie van ruimte-metafisika gegroei het wat die hele middeleeuse tydperk omspan het. Die vermeende statiese syn is in die mees ekstreme geval – die skool van Parmenides en die argumente van Zeno teen veelheid en beweging – tot in die uiteindelike antinomiese konsekwensies daarvan deurdink. Dit was egter eers die vroeg-moderne tyd – die voorgangers en nakomelinge van Galilei – wat naas getal en ruimte ’n waardering ontwikkel het vir die verklaringskrag van beweging (vergelyk die klassieke meganistiese wêreldbeeld van die heelal as ’n meganisme van stofdeeltjies in beweging. Maar ook hierdie meganistiese reduksie (waardeur alle fisiese verskynsels herlei is tot die beweging van al of niegelade massapunte sou uiteindelik misluk omdat dit nie van die onomkeerbaarheid van fisiese prosesse rekenskap kon gee nie. Gevolglik beliggaam eers die fisika van die 20ste eeu ’n erkenning van die deurslaggewend-stempelende rol van energie-werking (dus van die fisiese aspek in die aard van stoflike dinge en prosesse. Die artikel word afgesluit met ’n vlugtige verduideliking van die implikasies van die voorafgaande argumentasie vir ’n benadering van die misterie van die bestaan van materie.

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  20. The perfect cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scozzafava, G.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Corsi, A.

    (organic, standard, GMO free). The cross-price elasticity provides insights to which degree different cuts compete against each other from a consumer perspective and how price premiums can be achieved by producers and marketers with certification and labeling strategies. The paper will also provide...... other from the consumer perspective dependent on price, intrinsic and extrinsic product characteristics as well as intended usage. So far, there is limited knowledge about optimal marketing and pricing of meat cuts simultaneously offered at the retail shelf. Results from an online choice experiment...

  1. Die rym in Jukstaposisie (T.T. Cloete en die regverdiging van enkele fonologiese begrippe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Wissing

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Die taalkundige hon daarvan om te kan se dat die goeie literator sonder taalkundige insigte geen volledige cn behoorlike teksanalise kan docn nie. Maar die situasic kan ook omgekeerd wees: die letterkunde (eintlik die woordkunswerk kan ook vir die taalkunde van waarde wees. In hierdie stuk wil ek meer in die besonder probeer aantoon dat en hoe die taalkundige ook ondersteuning vir die invoering van bepaalde fonologiese begrippe uit die gedig kan vind. Vir die doel beperk ek my tot die bunde Jukstaposisie van T.T. Cloete.

  2. ADAPTIVE LEARNING CONTROL OF CUTTING PARAMETERS FOR SCULPTURED SURFACE CUTTING BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An adaptive learning control scheme intended to the on-line optimization of sculptured surface cutting process is presented. The scheme uses a back-propagation neural network to learn the relationships between process inputs and process states. The cutting parameters of the process model are optimized through a genetic algorithms(GA). The capacity of the proposed scheme for determining optimum process inputs under a variety of process conditions and optimization strategies is evaluated on the basis of milling of a sculptured surface using a ball-end mill. The experimental results show that the neural network could model the cutting process efficiently, and the cutting conditions such as spindle speed could be regulated for achieving high efficiency and high quality. Therefore the proposed approach can be well applied to the manufacturing of dies and molds.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  4. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  5. Ekumeniese kerkreg: Die aangewese weg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Strauss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Die argument word gehoor dat kerkregeringstelsels soos dié van die Rooms-Katolieke, Lutherse en gereformeerde kerke van ’n transendentale aard was en is. Daardeur word geïmpliseer dat hierdie stelsels een transendentale, unieke vaste beginsel gebruik om ’n hele stelsel van kerkregering van buite af te bepaal. Volgens Leo Koffeman, ’n voorstander van ’n ekumeniese kerkreg, plaas hierdie stelsels hulself hiermee buite die diskoers oor kerkreg en kerkregering en die beweging van die Heilige Gees. ’n Ekumeniese kerkreg, daarenteen, is ten gunste van ’n gemeenskaplike kerkreg tussen kerke. Omdat dit verskillende tradisies bymekaar bring, is dit ’n kritiese en daarom beter benadering. Die skrywer oorweeg hierdie argumente krities in die lig van ’n gereformeerde benadering tot kerkreg.The argument is used that church political systems like that of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran and reformed churches were of a transcendental character. By that it is implied that it used one transcendental and unique ‘hard principle’ from outside to direct a system of church government. Such uniqueness, according to Leo Koffeman who advocates an ecumenical church polity, places it outside the church political discourse and the way of the Holy Spirit. An ecumenical church polity seeks a combined polity between churches and is, by bringing different traditions together, a critical and therefore better undertaking. The author examines these arguments critically in the light of a reformed church polity.

  6. 'n Begronde bedieningsmodel vir die diakonia van die gemeente

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Feb 2012 ... This work is licensed under the ... Grobler & Van der Walt 2008; Lingenfelter 2005; Armour & Browning 2000) en daarmee saam die ...... missionary structure of the church', Swedish Missiological Themes 93(3), 433–447.

  7. Die Valenz als textgrammatische Kategorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Bračič

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Vor mehr als dreißig Jahren kam der französische Linguist Lucien Tesnière auf die geniale Idee, die gegenseitigen Relationen zwischen dem Verb eines Satzes einerseits und den anderen Satzteilen andererseits mit den chemischen Relationen in der Struktur eines Moleküls zu vergleichen. Die Eigenschaft des Verbs, andere Wörter an sich zu binden, nannte er Verbvalenz. Tesnière schreibt (schon 1959 wörtlich: "Man kann das Verb mit einem Atom vergleichen, an dem Häkchen angebracht sind, so daß es -je nach der Anzahl der Häkchen - eine wechselnde Zahl von Aktanten an sich ziehen und in Abhängigkeit halten kann. Die Anzahl der Häkchen, die ein Verb aufweist, und dementsprechend die Zahl der Aktanten, die es regieren kann, ergibt das, was man die Valenz des Verbs nennt" (Tesnière 1980: 161. Und weiter: "Aufgrund der strukturalen Konnexionen bestehen Dependenzbeziehungen (Abhängigkeitsbeziehungen zwischen den Wörtem. Jede Konnexion verbindet im Prinzip einen übergeordneten mit einem untergeordneten Term" (ibid., 27. Schematisch hat Tesnière diese Relationen bekannt­ lich in den sogenannten Stemmata (Strukturbaumen, graphischen Darstellungen von Konnexionsstrukturen; ibid., 384 wiedergegeben. Im Satz "Mon vieil ami chante cette chanson fort jolie" ist das Verb "chante" als "régissant" allen anderen Wortkonstituenten iibergeordnet, wobei die üntergeordneten Elemente "ami" und "chanson" in einer zweiten Rangstufe wiederum den untergeordneten Elementen "mon", "vieil", "cette", "jolie" übergeordnet sind. (Vgl. Greule 1982: 99.

  8. Die Dankesrede bei der Preisverleihung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenmari Pletikos Olof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Festliche Preisverleihungen sind Gelegenheiten, bei denen von den Preisträgerneine kurze Rede erwartet wird. Obwohl die Dankesrede eine kleinere Randgattung innerhalb des epideiktischen Genres ist, steht sie im Mittelpunkt des Ereignisses. Rhetorikhandbücher geben zahlreiche Ratschläge, wie eine gute Festrede vorbereitet werden soll, um zu unterhalten, zu bewegen und zu belehren. Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist es festzustellen, welche Eigenschaften der Dankesrede die Zuhörer als erwünscht oder unerwünscht wahrnehmen und welche Charakteristika am meisten zur Qualität festlicher Dankesreden beitragen. Das Korpus der gesprochenen Texte bilden 30 Dankesreden anlässlich kroatischer Preisverleihungen in den Bereichen Schauspiel, Sport, Musik, Fernsehen, Literatur und Wirtschaft. Die Audio-Aufnahmen der Dankesreden wurden einer Gruppe von Hörern zur Bewertung in folgenden Kategorien vorgelegt: interessant, geistreich, hoher Sprachstil, feierlich, emotiv, persönlich, originell, bescheiden, vorbereitet und spontan. Zusätzlich wurde zu jeder Rede die offene Frage gestellt, was dem Zuhörer an der Rede gefallen oder nicht gefallen habe. Die Resultate der Perzeptionsanalye lassen erkennen, dass die Interessantheit einer Rede mit der Eigenschaft des Geistreichen, des Originellen, des Emotionalen und des Persönlichen in Verbindung gebracht wird und die Eigenschaft des Festlichen im Wesentlichen nur mit dem hohen Sprachstil und der Vorbereitetheit des Textes korreliert. Einige Eigenschaften können sowohl erwünscht als auch unerwünscht sein, z. B. Dialekt, Persönliches und Kürze. Die besten Dankesreden haben Eigenschaften, die im Grunde schwer miteinander zu verbinden sind: Einerseits soll der Text vorbereitet sein (hoher Stil, Wortwahl, Figuren, Originalität der Geschichte, Humor, andererseits wird bei der Ausführung Spontaneität (Aufrichtigkeit, Emotionalität, Persönlichkeit erwartet.

  9. Die wêreld en ons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Kruger

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die jaar 1949 het Sowjet-Rusland twee groot suksesse behaal, n.l. die oorwinning van die Komniunisnie in China en die vervaardiging van die atoombom, albei gebeurtenisse wat vir sy westerse teenstanders ’n groot ontngtering was.

  10. Ueber die Neoperla-Arten aus Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapálek, Fr.

    1910-01-01

    Die Anregung zum Versuche die bisher aus Java bekannten Neoperla-Arten zusammenzustellen, gab mir die Sendung des Herrn E. Jacobson aus Semarang. Sie enthielt zwei Arten, von welchen die eine für mich neu war; ich nehme mir die Freiheit dieselbe ihrem Entdecker zu widmen. Bei dieser Gelegenheit habe

  11. Vraagstelling vir bemagtiging: die tradisionele klaskamer as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    ... loep geneem aan die hand van kwalitatiewe data wat tydens 'n empiriese studie op die voor- .... stelling in die klas opgelei, wat die hantering van die leerders se ant- ..... tent, but as part of the meta-communication in the classroom. Reasons.

  12. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  13. A Preliminary Report on Asexual Propagation of Pinus kesiya vat. langbianensis%思茅松不同无性繁殖试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云仙; 付玉嫔; 罗娅; 陈娟

    2012-01-01

    通过高枝压接继代培养和扦插苗继代培养等方式对思茅松(Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis)进行了无性繁殖试验,结果表明:对不同母树年龄的思茅松枝条进行高枝压接均能生根,而且生根后定植亦能成活生长,经断顶获得的穗条扦插亦获得了成功。此外扦插苗继代培养成活率较实生苗继代培养扦插成活率低,二者扦插成活率分别为54.2%和80.6%。%An experiment on asexual propagation of Pinus kesiya vat. langbianensis was carried out by the way of subculture of high branch layering and cutting seedlings. The results showed that the branches on the seed trees of Pinus kesiya vat. langbianensis with different ages were used by high branch layering experiment, all of which could induce roots, and all branches cut after rooting could al- so survive and grow. It was successful to cut the scions acquired by broking tops. In addition, com- pared with seedling subculture, the survival rate of cutting seedlings subcultured was lower, which was 54.2 % and 80.6 % respectively.

  14. Afrika die Onbekende: Die Federasie van Rhodesie Njassaland (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. van der Merwe

    1960-03-01

    Full Text Available Die grondgebied van die Federasie van Rhodesië en Njassaland strek oor 14° 15’ in ’n N.-S.-rigting (vanaf22“ 30’ S. to t 8° 15’ S. en ongeveervanaf 22° 0 to t 36° 0. Dit verteenwoordig afstande in albei gevalle van tussen 900 en 1000 myl.

  15. "Kid Cuts" by Broderbund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Describes "Kid Cuts," an arts and crafts computer software program for students in prekindergarten through sixth grade that provides 22 activities in 6 curriculum areas. An example is given of an activity for kindergarten and first graders related to counting that includes library media skills objectives and mathematics objectives. (LRW)

  16. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  17. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  18. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  19. Kids Who Cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Doris Rhea; Simpson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of whether it is cutting, burning or some other form of self-harm, self-injury is a serious problem requiring serious solutions. This article reviews the various types of self-harm, descriptions of self-mutilators, common myths about self-mutilation, and effective treatment methods. (GCP)

  20. Decorative pleats; Falten, die schmuecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfurt, P. [Sulzer Rueti AG, Rueti (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    Pleated fabrics - also known as plisses - are very popular in the fashion industry. The pleats are normally created in a process which involves pressing and heat-setting. The Sulzer Ruti G6200 rapier weaving machine is now available with special equipment, which allows the pleats to be woven directly into the fabric. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im modischen Bereich sind Faltengewebe - sogenannte Plissees - sehr beliebt. Ueblicherweise entstehen die Falten in einem Press- und Thermofixiervorgang. Die Greiferwebmaschine G6200 von Sulzer Rueti ist jetzt mit einer speziellen Ausruestung lieferbar, mit deren Hilfe die Falten direkt in den Stoff gewebt werden koennen. (orig.)

  1. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  2. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  4. Die plek van goud in die huidige internasionale monetêre stelsel en die rol wat dit kan speel in die herstel van die internasionale monetêre orde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Erasmus

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vrye wêreld het sedert die oorloggedwonge opskorting van die goudstandaard in 1914, ’n groot agteruitgang in die internasionale betalingsmeganisme beleef. Hoewel die inter- nasionale goudstandaard in die laaste helfte van die twintiger- jare herstel is, was meeste lande nie langer gedwee om hulle aan die monetêre dissipline van dié stelsel te onderwerp nie en vind ons dat die een land na die ander onder die druk van die depressie in die dertigerjare die goudstandaard laat vaar het. Die Verenigde State van Amerika was die enigste uitson- dering. Geleidelik moes wisselkoersstabiliteit en die vrye inter­ nasionale betalingsverkeer vir wisselkoersmanipulasie en valu- tabeheer plek maak. Hierdie transformasie was ’n weerspieë- ling van die sterker opkoms van ekonomiese nasionalisme en die begeerte van die onderskeie lande om elkeen vir homself die beste voordeel in die internasionale ekonomiese en finan- siële terrein toe te eien. Die daarstelling van die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds te Bretton Woods in 1944, was ’n simptoom van die wêreldwye kommer oor die vooroorlogse neigings op monetêre gebied en terselfdertyd ’n poging om meer dissi­ pline in die internasionale betalingsverkeer te skep. Feit is egter dat ondanks sy positiewe resultate op sommige gebiede, die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds nie heeltemal 'n geskikte substituut vir die goudstandaard daargestel het nie. Wat meer is, die skok van die internasionale monetêre steurnisse word nog steeds deur die lande met die internasionale geldeenhede, naamlik die pond sterling en die dollar ondervind.

  5. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  6. Die verbond - van Ou Testament na Nuwe Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. van Rooy

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Die verbondsbegrip het in die Ou Testamentiese wetenskap weer ’n plek gekry op grond van die werk van Eichrodt en die studie van ooreenkomste tussen die verbond in die Ou Testament en die buite-Bybelse staatsverdrae, sedert die werk van Korosec,Mendenhall en baie ander. Natuurlik bestaan hieroor nie eenstemmigheid nie, veral omdat oor die ouderdom van die verbondsgedagte in die Ou Testament nie eenstemmigheid bestaan onder geleerdes nie. Die studie van die verbond in die Nuwe Testament het egter nie naastenby dieselfde aandag gekry nie - iets wat miskien as een van die redes vir die ontkenning van die waarde van die verbond vir Nuwe Testamentiese gelowiges beskou kan word. In hierdie studie word drie sake aangeraak, nl. die terminologie vir verbond in die Ou en Nuwe Testament, die agtergrond vir en belangrikste vorme van die verbond in die Ou Testament en enkele opmerkings oor die verbond in die Nuwe Testament.

  7. Verlossing en die verbeelding van die kinderjare: Dickens se voorstelling van kinders in A Christmas Carol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel oorweeg die uitbeelding van kinders in Dickens se bekendste Kersboek. Sentraal in hierdie staan die oorweging van die historiese omstandighede waarin hierdie boek geskryf is, asook Dickens se eie kinderjare en die moontlikheid van verlossing, deur die mag van die verbeelding, uit die negatiewe gevolge van sosiale omstandighede en persoonlike keuses. Die veranderende opvatting van die Victoriaanse kind, van die idee dat kinders van nature sondig is tot die idee dat hulle suiwer en onskuldig is, plaas hierdie literêre werk histories en teoreties. Die rol van Dickens se herinneringe aan sy kinderdae en die invloed daarvan op sy werk word bespreek. Die werk van Edmund Wilson en die kenner van kinderliteratuur, Adrienne Gavin, word ingesluit in hierdie oorweging van die kort roman.

  8. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  9. Nuwe patogene in die voedselbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ehlers

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n “Nuwe generasie” voedselpatogene het die afgelope jare hul verskyning gemaak en kan 'n ernstige gevaar vir die voedselbedryf inhou. Hierdie organismes is uiters aanpasbaar en bestaande voedselprosesseringstegnieke, veral die verkoeling van voedsel, is nie altyd volkome effektief om hul groei te voorkom nie. Clostridium botulinum tipe E, enterotoksigeniese Eschsrichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes en Aeromonas hydrophila is in staat om in voedsel by 5 °C te groei. Campylobacter jejuni en Brucella kan weer by 5 °C oorleef en 'n derde groep organismes, naamlik Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus en Vibrio vulnificus kan by temperature tussen 5 °C en 12 °C groei en hul teenwoordigheid is ’n aanduiding dat die koueketting verbreek is.

  10. A Surface Damage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    REPORI’ A SURFACE DAMAGE INVESTIGATION ON UNIAXIAL TENSILE TEST SPECIMENSPREPARED BY COMMON CUTTING METHODS JUN 2 1931 THOMAS J. C. CHEW DALE A...Sýrfa-i-mage Investigation on Uniaxial Tensile Test Specimens Prepared by Common Cutting Method I Spi-.i t’ ,, ., • T7. AUTHORý#) . _" ’ /t’ .• r...Saw 10 2.1.3 Cutting by Milling Machine 11 2.1.4 Cutting by Die Cutter 11 2.2 Uniaxial Tensile Test 12 2.3 Electron Microscope Surface Examination 13 3

  11. Die gesetzliche Frauenquote in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Amling, Svenja

    2011-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird auf eine per Gesetz vorgeschriebene Frauenquote in Deutschland eingegangen. Im Fokus steht die Frage, ob Frauendiskriminierung durch eine solche Vorschrift tatsächlich bekämpft werden kann oder ob vielmehr die Männer diskriminiert würden. Zudem werden mögliche Unterschiede in den Führungsstilen zwischen Frauen und Männern untersucht sowie einige bereits vorhandene Frauenquoten in Politik und Wirtschaft vorgestellt.

  12. Dies irae ~Acta est Fabula~

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    从2007年11月的Diesirae Also sprach Zarathstra到2009年的7月的Dies irae Also sprach Zarathustra—die Wieder kunfl-,Light社的Diesirae的完全版可说是时隔两年的大坑,发行了两个非完全版的游戏吊足玩家们的胃口后。

  13. Gedagtes oor die onbepaaldheidsbeginsel van Heisenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Stoker

    1955-03-01

    Full Text Available Van filosofiesc syde en ook deur populariserende skrywers is daar al baie geskryf oor die onbepaaldheidsbeginsel in die Fisika, wat deur Heisenberg in die twintiger jare na vore gebring is.

  14. Videobasierte Unterrichtsbeobachtung: die Quadratur des Zirkels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Fankhauser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit einigen Jahren wird Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt videobasiert angegangen. Die methodologische Diskussion, die die Weiterentwicklung des Instrumentariums begleitet, kreist dabei zentral um die Frage der Invasivität der Aufzeichnungstechnik und möglicher Kameraeffekte. Je nach methodologischer Ausrichtung wird diesem Problem anders begegnet: So versucht die abbildtheoretische Unterrichtsvideografie, die Invasivität zu kontrollieren. Qualitative Methoden wie die Kameraethnografie dagegen machen mögliche Kameraeffekte wie die Performanz vor der Kamera oder die Blickrichtung, die durch das Kameraauge fixiert wird, zum Ausgangspunkt neuer, ästhetischer Verfahrensweisen. Der vorliegende Artikel geht einen dritten Weg: Anhand eines Rückgriffs auf den Wissenschaftssoziologen LATOUR und anhand der methodologischen Reflexion eines forschungspraktischen Beispiels sollen grundsätzliche Probleme der Unterrichtsforschung herausgearbeitet werden, die sich mit dem Einsatz der Videografie besonders deutlich zeigen und mit der sich die Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt auseinandersetzen müsste. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1301241

  15. Dying at the best time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1995-03-01

    These are the results of two surveys of relatives, and others who knew people who had died, describing events in the year before death and their views on the time of the person's death. Those surveyed were identified from death certificates in England. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. Variation in peoples' views about whether an earlier death would have been better is reported, in the context of debate about euthanasia. Spouses were less likely than others to feel that it would have been better if the person had died earlier, and this held true even when controlling for the deceaseds' levels of pain, distress, dependency and age. Spouses were more likely than others to say that a later death would have been better, though not in cases where the deceased was reported as having said they wanted to die sooner. Spouses were influenced by the loss which the death of the person represented for them, being more likely than others to say they missed the person who died a great deal, and feel loneliness was a big problem. Non spouses (children and other relatives of the deceased, friends, neighbours and a few officials) on the other hand were more likely than spouses to say an earlier death would have been better, even when levels of pain, distress, dependency and age were controlled for.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  17. Uitdagings in die onderrig van evolusie in die lewenswetenskappeklaskamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. de Beer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel skryf die outeurs oor navorsing wat hulle gedoen het oor onderwysers se siening van die onderrig van evolusie, wat in 2008 as ’n tema in lewenswetenskappe in Suid-Afrikaanse skole ingesluit is. Hierdie vernuwing in die kurrikulum is met gemengde reaksies begroet. Terwyl sommige onderwysers dit met entoesiasme onderrig, is baie gekant teen die onderrig van evolusie. Die artikel is gebaseer op ’n navorsingsprojek waarby 255 onderwysers betrek is. Vraelyste is gebruik om kwalitatiewe data, wat vir diskoers ontleed is, in te samel. Die diskoers van die onderwysers het getoon dat ’n groot getal van hulle nie hul onderrigopdrag kan versoen met hul geloof nie en konsepte oor evolusie as ‘feite’ verduidelik, maar seker maak dat evolusie as ’n teorie gediskrediteer word. Dit het verreikende implikasies vir sowel onderwyseropleiding as kurrikulumontwikkeling. Konseptuele veranderingsteorie word as ’n lens gebruik om na hierdie problematiek te kyk. Challenges in the teaching of evolution in the life sciences classroom. In this article the authors report on research that was conducted about teachers’ views on evolution, which was introduced as a theme in the school life sciences curriculum in 2008. This innovation in the curriculum has been met with mixed reactions. Whereas some teachers embrace this new theme, many teachers are opposed to the teaching of evolution. The article reports on an inquiry that was conducted amongst 255 teachers and in which survey questionnaires were used to collect qualitative data, which was analysed for its discourse. The discourse of the teachers shows that many of them cannot reconcile their religious faith with their teaching and that they may teach the ‘facts’ of evolution, but make sure that they discredit evolution as a theory. This raises serious concerns about teacher education and curriculum development. The authors examine these issues through the lens of conceptual change

  18. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  19. Process orientation - an issue for the energy industry; Prozessorientierung - ein Thema fuer die Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A. [Horvath und Partner, Duesseldorf (Germany). Competence Center Utilities; Fink, C.A.; Krieger, A. [Horvath und Partner, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The liberalisation of the energy markets and thus the increased level of competition have urgent utility companies to dramatically cut costs, reduce staff and dispose of plant capacities. New visions of management, such as continuous process management, are a means to further improve the efficiency of performance and above all to be more customer-oriented. [German] Die Oeffnung der Energiemaerkte und der durch sie induzierte Wettbewerbsdruck haben die Energieversorger zu drastischen Kostensenkungen und damit zu Einschnitten bei Personal- und Anlagenkapazitaeten gezwungen. Neue Leitbilder der Unternehmensfuehrung - wie das kontinuierliche Prozessmanagement - sind ein Schritt, um die eigene Leistungserbringung noch effizienter und vor allem kundenorientierter zu gestalten.

  20. Die Departement Godsdiens- en Sending- wetenskap (Afd A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die teologiese leergang aan die Transvaalse Universiteitskollege (TUK). Die. ISSN 0259 9422 = m s 4 ... Die Universiteit van Pretoria neem in 1916 'n eerste tree met die onderrig van teo- logie. In die TUK ...... Van Leeuwen, A T 1966.

  1. Effects of different forest practices on Pinus tabulaeformis population dynamics and species diversity in the Huanglongshan forest region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; ZHANG Wenhui; LU Yuanchang; FAN Shaohui

    2007-01-01

    Three Pinus tabulaeformis populations which experienced tending,shelterwood cutting,and closed tending were separately investigated to study the effects of these three forest practices on the age structures,static life tables,survivorship curves,and species diversities of P.tabulaeformis populations in Huanglongshan Mountain.Time sequence model was adopted to predict the dynamic population numbers of different P tabulaeformis populations with different forest practices.The results revealed that the three populations are essentially identical in population structure,their young and old individuals make up a small proportion and their mid-aged individuals make up a large proportion and consequentially P.tabulaeformis populations generally stand stable.In the P tabulaeformis communities with three tending practices,the highest species abundance index appears with tending and shelterwood cutting and the highest evenness index and species diversity appears with closed tending.The P.tabulaeformis populations with tending and shelterwood cutting practices belong to one developmental type and the P.tabulaeformis populations with closed tending practices belong to a stable type.It indicated that in the future,closed tending as the major practice and tending and shelterwood cutting as the supporting practices should be applied for P tabulaeformis populations in Huanglongshan Mountain so that the communities will develop continuously.

  2. Kantaantekeninge by die formele en materiële beginsels van die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedskrywing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brown

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Die totstandkoming van ons Kerkhistoriese Werkgemeenskap staan sekerlik in die teken van ’n ‘geschichtliche Bevifusstsein’ met betrekking tot die kerkgeskiedenis in ons land. In die geskiedenis van die ecclesia patria val dit nie sonder rede met die toenemende pleitredes vir ’n krities (teologiese beoefening van hierdie vakgebied saam nie.

  3. Die Energiesicherheit Europas in Bezug auf Erdgas und die Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung im Gassektor

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Luis-Martín

    2011-01-01

    Die Dissertation untersucht die aktuelle Sicherheit der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung. Sie beruecksichtigt zudem die moeglichen Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung auf die europaeische Gasversorgungssicherheit. Die Arbeit besteht aus einer detaillierten empirischen Studie und darauf aufbauender Szenarioanalyse. Hierzu wird auf den Interdependenzansatz von Robert O. Keohane und Joseph Nye zurueckgegriffen. Zur Darstellung des komplexen Themenbereichs wird auf die Darstellungspraxis der Dichten ...

  4. Die Literêre Sisteem Van Dertig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Viljoen

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In die literatuurgeskiedenis is daar onteenseglik ’n behoefte aan sistematiek. ’n Vinnige oorsig oor byvoorbeeld die geskiedenis v an die Afrikaanse poesie kan die leser erg verward laat. Daar is verskeie redes daarvoor. Eerstens word verskillende kategorieë gebruik om die verskillende generasies mee te beskryf — as dit al hoegenaamd duidelik is waar die grense tussen generasies nou eintlik lê. Die leser word as belangrike kategorie beskou by die poësie voor 1900, bewuste kunstenaarskap by Dertig, stad en oorlog (tematiese dinge by Veertig. Standaardbegrippe is nodig waarmee verskillende generasies vergelyk kan word.

  5. Die filosofie van Smuts en Boodin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. de Wet

    1936-03-01

    Full Text Available Die werk van generaal Smuts, baie goed bekend omder die titel ,,Holism and Evolution” , en sy artikel oor ,,Some recent scientificadvances in their bearing on philosophy” in ,,Our Changing worldview”, as ook die werke van J. E. Boodin, professor in die wysbegeerteaan die Universiteit van California, Los Angeles, ,,Cosmic Evolution 1925, ,,Three interpretations of the Universe” 1934 en ,,God” 1934, toon die besondere en kenmerkende gedagtegamg vandie filosofie van die laaste tiental jare aan. Die kenmerkende is dit dat dit ’in filosofie is van sintese of, soos Whitehead

  6. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  7. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  8. Manual bamboo cutting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Mariana Pereira; Correia, Walter Franklin Marques; da Costa Campos, Fabio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a cutting tool guide, specifically for the harvest of bamboo. The development was made based on precepts of eco-design and ergonomics, for prioritizing the physical health of the operator and the maintenance of the environment, as well as meet specific requirements of bamboo. The main goal is to spread the use of bamboo as construction material, handicrafts, among others, from a handy, easy assembly and material available tool.

  9. Making the cut

    OpenAIRE

    Millard, Chris

    2013-01-01

    ‘Deliberate self-harm’, ‘self-mutilation’ and ‘self-injury’ are just some of the terms used to describe one of the most prominent issues in British mental health policy in recent years. This article demonstrates that contemporary literature on ‘self-harm’ produces this phenomenon (to varying extents) around two key characteristics. First, this behaviour is predominantly performed by those identified as female. Second, this behaviour primarily involves cutting the skin. These constitutive char...

  10. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  14. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  15. Strategieë om die implementering van die Suid-Afrikaanse professionele leergemeenskapmodel te bevorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. van Staden

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Die Geïntegreerde Strategiese Beplanningsraamwerk vir Onderwyseropleiding en -ontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika 2011–2025 vereis dat vakverwante professionele leergemeenskappe tussen 2011 en 2017 op skool- en distriksvlak gevestig word. Die doel daarvan is om onderwysers van geleenthede te voorsien om hul eie leerbehoeftes te identifiseer en te vervul. Slegs sommige van die Distriksonderwysersontwikkelingsentra wat as vergaderplekke moet dien, hoef egter teen 2025 gereed te wees. Die gaping tussen beleid en die implemetering daarvan kan die vestiging van professionele leergemeenskappe rem en selfs verhoed. Drie implementeringsprobleme wat die professionele leergemeenskapmodel op die berugte onderwyshervormingsiklus kan stuur, word geïdentifiseer ten einde strategieë aan die hand te doen om die probleme op te los. Die ondersoek het tot die voorstel gelei dat ’n gekoördineerde benadering noodsaaklik geword het ten einde te verhoed dat die professionele leergemeenskapmodel die prooi van die berugte onderwyshervormingsiklus word.

  16. Die rol van die onderwys in die handhawing en uitbouing van ons volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Jordaan

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Op die oog af lyk dit ’n baie maklike onderwerp, maar hoe meer 'n mens daaroor nadink hoe ingewikkelder en omvangryker word die implikasies wat verband hou. Dit is veral so omdat dit hier voor alles gaan om eerste fundamentele uitgangspunte, dit wil sê, om lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. Dit geld van albei komponente — van onderwys sowel as van kultuur.

  17. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity......). A number of different work materials were considered, with emphasis on austenitic stainless steel. Cutting fluids from two main groups were investigated, water miscible (reviewed from previous work) and straight oils. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists...... within the same group of cutting fluids, for stainless steel. A possible rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested. In order to select a set of basic tests and optimise them for use as general and standardised testing methods, an original approach to the evaluation of cutting force...

  18. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  19. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Danusevičius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  20. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  1. Fundamental studies on a novel die concept for round-point shear-clinching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörhold, Réjane; Müller, Martin; Merklein, Marion; Meschut, Gerson

    2016-10-01

    A newly-developed round-point shear-clinching technology could increase the use of different materials like well formable aluminium and hardly formable ultra-high-strength steels (UHSS). This innovative technology joins in a single-stage process without any pilot-hole, surface pre-treatment or auxiliary joining part. The combination of an inner and outer punch realises an indirect cutting operation of the die-sided material, whereas the punch-sided material remains unharmed. The current die-sided tool set acts as a cutting die and enables a radial extrusion of the punch-sided material after being drawn though the created hole in the UHSS. The die has a fixed die depth. After ejecting the joined components, the slug has to be removed from the top of the spring-loaded anvil. The novel die concept investigated in this paper offers the possibility to push the slug continuously through the die in the joining direction. The removed slugs remain inside the die, so manual removal is unnecessary. The one-parted tool is supposed to be more robust than the multi-parted one that is currently used. This paper represents the task to evaluate the geometry of a useful shear-clinching die concept. To reduce the experimental effort, FEM should assist the development of the most promising approach. To quantify the success, conventional shear-clinching with opening die acts as a reference. The results show the high potential and the raison d'être of shear-clinching technologies as a mechanical joining technology for future multimaterial applications especially for UHSS.

  2. Die anderen Ausdrucksweisen: subtile Offensiven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Jasiowka

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Was passiert, wenn der „Herrscher des filmischen Blickes“ eine Frau ist? Anhand zweier jeweils sehr unterschiedlicher Beispiele „weiblicher“ Filmkunst zeigt die Autorin, dass es nötig ist, herkömmliche Interpretationsmuster zu überwinden, um dem Filmschaffen einzelner Künstler und Künstlerinnen auf den Grund zu gehen. Da es nicht die „feministische Kunst“ an sich gibt, muß man für das Werk so unterschiedlicher Künstlerinnen wie Sally Potter und Jane Campion jeweils unterschiedliche Schlüssel suchen, um ihnen gerecht zu werden. Dies tut Radkiewicz in ihrem Werk – aus feministischer Perspektive. Sie holt jeweils verschieden weit aus, wenn es darum geht, künstlerische Herkunft, Biographie, Vorbilder und Ziele der Künstlerinnen zu deren Werk in Bezug zu setzten. Ohne zu bahnbrechend neuen Erkenntnissen zu kommen, gelingt es ihr doch, ein komplexes Bild der von ihr behandelten Filmemacherinnen und den Filmen zu entwerfen, das einen umfassenden Gesamteindruck vermittelt. Die Kürze des Buches bringt dabei eine Konzentration mit sich, die zu einer Weiterbeschäftigung und Vertiefung einlädt.

  3. Estudio de potenciales alelopáticos originados por Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D.

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, A.; Arias, A. M.; Cobián, B.; López Calvo, E.; Vieitez, E.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el potencial alelopático de Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus pinaster Ait. y Pinus radiata D. sobre el crecimiento y la germinación de diferentes especies herbáceas. Extractos acuosos de hojas y acículas recogidas en los meses de enero y abril inhiben fundamentalmente la germinación de las semillas de festuca, siendo la acción más importante en el mes de abril que en el de enero. El contacto directo entre hojas y acículas y las semillas a ensayar produce una inhibición muy f...

  4. Tweedimensionele generatorfunksie vir die vektorkardiogram vir gebruik in volume-geleidingsmodelle van die toraks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Geldenhuys

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ’n Elektrokardiogram (EKG meet die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart op die veloppervlak. Volumegeleidingsmodelle van die toraks kan ontwerp word om hierdie metings te simuleer. ’n Generatorfunksie, wat die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart beskryf, word benodig om hierdie simulasies aan te dryf. Hoewel soortgelyke simulasies van variërende kompleksiteit in die literatuur bespreek word, is daar ’n behoefte aan ’n vereenvoudigde, dog omvattende benadering wat kan dien as inleiding tot die onderwerp of vir gevalle waar ’n eerste-orde-benadering tot die probleem voldoende is. In hierdie artikel word ’n oorsig gegee oor die vektorinterpretasie van die EKG, ook bekend as ’n vektorkardiogram (VKG, in die tweedimensionele menslike frontale vlak. Die afleiding van die ekwivalente elektriese dipool (met ander woorde die kardiale vektor vanaf die VKG, wat gebruik kan word as ’n stroombron-generatorfunksie vir volumegeleidingsmodelle wat die EKG simuleer, word bespreek. ’n Prosedure om so ’n volume-geleidingsmodel met die eindige-element-tegniek te implementeer en die vereenvoudigde tweedimensionele generatorfunksie te gebruik, sowel as die resultate daarvan, word bespreek. Die algemene kenmerke van gemete EKG-afleidings stem ooreen met dié wat deur die eenvoudige model voorspel word.

  5. Die Meting van die verband tussen geslag en konformiteit as groepdinamiese veranderlikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. de Villiers

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount and kind of conformity induced by group pressure depend upon the nature of the situation. The nature of the group and the characteristics of the individual. In this particular study the experimental measurement of conformity developed by Asch and Crutchfield was repeated. Confirmation was found that sex operates as one of the determinants of conformity. OpsommingIn die sosiale bedryfsielkunde is die invloed van die groep op die individu een van die vernaamste studieterreine. Die mate waarin ‘n individu konformeer tot groepsdruk hang af van die aard van die situasie, die aard van die groep en die eienskappe van die individu. In hierdie studie is die eksperimentele meting van konformiteit soos ontwikkel deur Asch en Crutchfield herhaal en bevestiging is gevind dat geslag een van die individuele determinante van konformiteit is.

  6. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  7. Die resepsie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (Sondag 17 en 22 insake die opstanding in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk sedert 2000 (Deel 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes W. Hofmeyr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Met die 450e herdenking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus as vertrekpunt, word met die huidige en die vorige artikel gepoog om lig te werp op die plek, die rol en die interpretasie van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in veral Sondag 17 en 22, spesifiek in die konteks van twee besondere eras in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde (NG Kerk. In die vorige artikel is allereers ’n bespreking gevoer oor die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK. Daar is gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die era van Andrew Murray, spesifiek teen die agtergrond van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in Nederland. In die huidige artikel word soortgelyk gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die NG Kerk na 2000, teen die agtergrond van die herverskyning van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in die vorm van die Jesus Seminaar, die Nuwe Hervorming en ondersteuners daarvan binne die NG Kerk. Sowel die negentiende-eeuse liberale stryd in die NG Kerk asook die stryd oor die opstanding in die NG Kerk van die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu, soos verder in hierdie artikel sal blyk, was gekenmerk deur kontekstueelbepaalde uniekhede. Die gemene deler was dat albei deel was van tye van teologiese vrysinnigheid. In die lig van hierdie bespreking word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die NG Kerk tans, betreffende haar identiteit as gereformeerde kerk waarskynlik in ’n kritieke geloofs- en toekomskrisis verkeer. Dit impliseer kommerwekkende gevolge vir haar Skrifverstaan en getuienis as belydenis en belydende kerk van Jesus Christus en haar toekoms. Alleen duidelike visie, verantwoordelike leierskap en ’n herontdekking van die verlossingskrag van Christus se kruis en opstanding sal herstellende, positiewe en dinamiese oplossings kan bied om sodoende die NG Kerk te red van ’n snelwentelende afwaartse spiraal.With the 450th celebrations of the origin of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC in mind, the main aim of this and the

  8. Die «ASEAN-Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft»

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2014-01-01

    Entwicklungsstufen, wie sie unterschiedlicher kaum sein können. Der Autor, Bonn Juego, nimmt die ASEAN Vision 2020 sowie die Debatten, die diesbezüglich in den einzelnen Ländern geführt werden, unter die Lupe. Er geht dem Potenzial des ASEANAnsatzes zu sozialer Teilhabe und wirtschaftlicher Verteilungsgerechtigkeit...

  9. Moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word aandag gevra vir enkele moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag. Volgens die outeur staan die vrae oor God, Jesus, die mens en die aarde in die sentrum van belangstelling en oorheers dit in ’n groot mate die teologiese debat. Die opkoms van die moderne aggressiewe ateïsme, die wetenskaplike navorsing oor die historiese Jesus, die groeiende vrae oor die mens en die menslike samelewing, asook die dreigende ekologiese krisis op aarde, sorg vir nuwe debatte van ongekende omvang. Die outeur bespreek hierdie debatte oorsigtelik, met kritiek waar nodig, en sluit af met enkele rigtingwysers van wat hy as ‘goeie teologie’ verstaan.In this article attention is paid to some modern discourses in theology today. According to the author the questions about God, Jesus, man and the earth are in the centre of interest and to a large extent dominate the theological debate. The rise of modern aggressive atheism, the scientific research on the historic Jesus, the growing questions about man and human society as well as the threatening ecological crisis on earth, provide new discourses of unparalleled magnitude. The author provides a broad summary of these discourses, with criticism where necessary, and concludes with some indicators of his view what can be called ‘good theology’.

  10. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  11. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  12. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  13. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  14. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  15. Die Welt als Fassade : kosmischer Schrecken als Angriff auf die Wirklichkeit

    OpenAIRE

    Zuch, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    "The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown." Mit diesem Satz eröffnet Howard Phillips Lovecraft 1927 seinen berühmten Essay "Supernatural Horror in Literature". In der Phantastik wird oft die Demontage der Erfahrungswirklichkeit durch die Kontaminierung mit dem Wunderbaren thematisiert; die bekannte Welt bekommt Risse, durch die das Unbekannte eindringt. Radikalisiert wird dies in Konzepten, die die gesamte vertrau...

  16. A new C-methylated flavonoid glycoside from Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M J; Choi, J H; Chung, H Y; Jung, J H; Choi, J S

    2001-12-01

    A new C-methyl flavonol glycoside, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the needles of Pinus densiflora, together with kaempferol 3-O-beta-(6"-acetyl)-galactopyranoside.

  17. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

  18. Pathways of stand development in ageing Pinus sylvestris forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Vincent; Mohren, G.M.J.; Geudens, Guy; Wulf, de R.; Lust, Noel

    2004-01-01

    Question: What are the main pathways of long-term stand development in forest ecosystems on oligotrophic and acidic sandy soils? Location: Nine forest reserves at different locations in The Netherlands: all ageing Pinus sylvestris forests that are no longer managed and where massive regeneration of

  19. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  20. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  1. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  2. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  3. How Tycho Brahe really died

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Petersen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 we commemorate the 4th centenary of the death of Tycho Brahe, perhaps the first great scientists in a modern sense.This famous Danish astronomer died in Prague on the 24th of October 1601, eleven days after he had attended a banquet at the Bohemian count of Rosenberg. Tycho was too...... courteous to obey the calls of nature during the hour-long dinner and finally his bladder burst, which led to his death. Or so the story goes. But is this the real cause of Tycho's death? Is it at all possible to die from a burst bladder? Or are there more likely explanations of his death?...

  4. Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kempter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In den Games-Workshops der wienXtra-spielebox lernen Kinder zwischen 7 und 12 Jahren empfehlenswerte Computer- und Konsolenspiele kennen und reflektieren nebenbei ihren Spielkonsum. Dieser Beitrag lässt die Leserinnen und Leser einen Blick hinter die Kulissen der Arbeit von wienXtra werfen.wienXtra-spielebox offers gaming workshops for young people between 7 and 12 years. The objective of these workshops is to explore new games that are evaluated as suited for the target group and to let the girls and boys reflect their playing habits. This article describes the work of wienXtra-spielebox.

  5. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  6. Improved performance of linear coal cutting compared with rotary cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, W.W.; Hanson, B.D.; Olson, R.C.; Wingquist, C.F.; Myren, T.A.

    1995-09-01

    The linear cutting system, developed by the US Bureau of Mines uses geometric principles developed by Cardan to produce a nearly constant cut depth. The new system has been extensively tested in a synthetic material under laboratory conditions to verify mechanical capability and to identify operational characteristics. Comparison between 15-rpm linear cutting and 50-rpm rotary cutting systems show significant improvement in respirable dust entrainment, product size distribution, and energy usage. Respirable dust is reduced by as much as 90%. Recovered product showed a 67% reduction in {minus}0.32-cm ({minus}1/8-in) material and a 200% increase in +5.08 cm (+ 2 in) materials. Average power was reduced by 66% for the linear cutting. Because the bit cutting paths differ between linear and rotary cutting, it was necessary to compare the two at the same cut depths and bit types. These comparisons show that low revolution per minute rotary cutting entrains about the same amount of respirable dust as the linear cutting system, but the average shaft torque may be 55 to 130% greater for the rotary system.

  7. ’n Etiek van liefde: Die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Vorster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel behandel die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus – een van die prominente belydenisskrifte in die gereformeerde tradisie. Die etiese relevansie is ingebed in die konfessie se verklaring van die tien gebooie. Die artikel verduidelik dat die etiek van die Heidelbergse Kategismus ten diepste ’n karakteretiek is en dat dit gelowiges oproep tot ’n etiek van liefde. Hierdie liefde sluit in liefde vir die verbondsgemeenskap, die bediening van die Woord, die heiligheid van God en die waardigheid van mense, die gemeenskap van die gelowiges, gesag, die lewe, die huwelik, privaatbesit en arbeid asook waarheid en geregtigheid. As gevolg van die sinekdogeekarakter van die wet is hierdie etiek van liefde vandag baie relevant.This article deals with the ethical relevance of one of the prominent confessions in the reformed tradition, namely the Heidelberg Cathechism. The ethical relevance lies in the confession’s elucidation of the ten commandments and its application to moral conduct. The article explains that the ethics of the Heidelberg Catechism is essentially a virtue ethics calling for an ethics of love. This love should include love for the covenantal communion, ministry of the Word, the holiness of God and the dignity of people, the communion of the saints, authority, life, marriage, private property and labour, and truth and justice. Due to the synecdochical character of the ten commandments this ethics of love is highy relevant in the present times.

  8. Optimization strategy in end milling process for high speed machining of hardened die/mold steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An optimization strategy for high speed machining of hardened die/mold steel based on machining feature analysis was studied. It is a further extension of the previously presented study on the thermal mechanism of end milling and constant cutting force control. An objective function concerning machining cost and associated optimization algorithm based on machining time and cutting length calculation was proposed. Constraints to satisfy specific machining strategies when high speed machining the hardened die/mold steel, trochoid tool path pattern in slot end milling to avoid over-heat and feed rate adaptation to avoid over-load, were also discussed.As a case study, the tool selection problem when machining a die part with multiple machining features was investigated.

  9. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  10. Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P. Retief

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse, geneesmiddels en chirurgie – laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie ’n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk ’n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islam-geneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra.

  11. The Cape Gunsmith / Die Kaapse Geweersmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Otto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In die Verslag van die Kommissie van Ondersoek na die Koordinering van Museums op 'n Nasionale Vlak (RP 113/1975, word vyf kolomme gewy aan historiese vuurwapens. Die kommissie wys op die belangrike plek wat vuurwapens in Suid-Afrika se wordingsgeskiedenis inneem en voeg daaraan toe dat geen museum in Suid-Afrika hierdie belangrike veld in sy uitstallings dek nie.

  12. Variations in electrical impedance and phase angle among seedlings of Pinus densata and parental species in Pinus tabuliformis habitat environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Chen; Huwei Yuan; Xiange Hu; Jingxiang Meng; Xianqing Zhou; Xiao-Ru Wang; Yue Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance (EI) and phase angle (PHI) parameters in AC impedance spectroscopy are important electrical parameters in the study of medical pathology. However, little is known about their application in variation and genetic relationship studies of forest trees. In order to test whether impedance parameters could be used in genetic relationship analysis among conifer species, EI and PHI were measured in a seedling experiment test composed of Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus yunnanensis, and Pinus densata in a habitat of Pinus tabuliformis. The results showed that variations in both EI and PHI among species were sig-nificant in different electric frequencies, and the EI and PHI values measured in the two populations of P. densata were between the two parental species, P. yunnanensis and P. tabuliformis. These results show that these two impedance parameters could reflect the genetic relationship among pine species. This was the first time using the two AC impedance spectroscopy parameters to test the genetic relationship analysis between tree species, and would be a hopeful novel reference methodology for future studies in evolution and genetic variation of tree species.

  13. Bevordering van transformerende leer: Die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna R. du Toit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die doel van die artikel is om aan te toon hoe die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe die perspektiewe en denke van onderwysstudente kan transformeer en/of leer kan bevorder. Die studie maak voorspraak vir die gebruik van ’n reflektiewe joernaal as ’n instrument vir studente om betekenis te gee aan die leeromgewing vanuit verskillende perspektiewe deur te leer in praktyk. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode is gevolg om die inskrywings in ’n joernaal te analiseer aan die hand van bepaalde indikatore. Die bevindinge toon dat die meeste studente na die praktykervaring positief was en sommiges het tot ander perspektiewe vanweë hul ervaring gekom.

  14. Die invloed van drie kruisbestuiwers op die saadinhoud van Minneola tangelo (Citrus parodist x C reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Die invloed van verskillende kruisbestuiwers (Clementine, Empress en Valencia op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van Minneo­la tangelo is ondersoek. Clementine en Empress as kruisbestuiwers het die grootste invloed op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte gehad, terwyl dié van Valencia nie noemenswaardig was nie. Die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte het afgeneem met toename in afstand vanaf die kruisbestuiwer. Indien ’n beperking op die afstand tussen kultivar en kruisbestuiwer geplaas word, sal ’n groter persentasie vrugte aan uitvoerstandaarde ten opsigte van saadinhoud voldoen.

  15. MOOCs; vanwaar al die ophef?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderikx, Maartje; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    MOOCs; vanwaar die ophef? Het nog maar zeer recente fenomeen MOOCs (massive open online courses) heeft zich in korte tijd al een onwrikbare positie weten in te nemen in het open online onderwijs. De hype rondom deze nieuwe manier van onderwijs geven bereikte zijn hoogtepunt in 2012, dat prompt werd

  16. Die Suche nach den Gottesteilchen

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2008 wird der größte jemals gebaute Teilchenbeschleuniger in Betrieb genommen Anlässlich des Mathematik-Jahres 2008 hat der Experimentalphysiker der Universität Hamburg und der designierte Generaldirektor des europäischen Zentrums für Teilchenphysik CERN in Genf, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, die Bedeutung des Dialogs zwischen Naturwissenschaftlern und Philosophen hervorgehoben.

  17. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  18. ANÁLISE ECONÔMICA DA PRODUÇÃO DE Pinus elliottii NA SERRA DO SUDESTE, RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pagel Floriano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for Pinus elliottii Engelm. at Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, with the following objectives: to check production costs and possible revenues; to perform the economic and financial analysis of Pinus elliottii's wood production under regional conditions; and to determine the rotation of maximum Net Present Value (NPV. The costs for planting the stands were estimated at $2,292.09/ha and the annual maintenance ranged from R$ 134.84 to R$ 363.98 per hectare. Departing from the Site Index 28, with NPV of R$ 1,147.17/ha, Pinus' wood production becomes interesting. At the IS 26, with 6.86% Internal Rate of Return (IRR, it would be possible to pay the 6.75% Propflora's interest. Analysis of different rotations for IS 28 showed maximum VPL with rotation of 26 years, thinning in cycle of 4 years, starting up the cuts to 10 years. The economic analysis was performed with considerable caution, using productivity moderated levels, costs within patterns that can be considered between middle and high and moderated prices for today's wood market. Even with the restrictions imposed on the analysis, results are promising; especially in view of the regional market prices' increase tendency and the probability of wood veneer industries comes to absorb the larger log's size production in a closed future.

  19. An investigation into the effects of nitrogen on growth and morphology of stable and die-back populations of Phragmites australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1998-01-01

    In many European countries a strong decline of Phragmites australis (common reed) populations has been observed during the past two decades. This has become known as die-back or reed regression. A greenhouse growth experiment was performed with P. australis cuttings from stable and die-back populati

  20. Protetores físicos para semeadura direta de Pinus elliottii Engelm Shelters for direct seeding of Pinus elliottii Engelm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Luciano Matteiq

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de protetores físicos tem se revelado uma eficiente técnica para o sucesso da semeadura direta de pinus. O presente trabalho avaliou diferentes tipos e tamanhos de protetores físicos de pontos de semeadura para a implantação de povoamentos de Pinus elliottii por semeadura direta. Como protetores, foram utilizados copos plástico, copos de papel e laminado de madeira. Esses protetores foram colocados sobre os pontos semeados com três sementes cada. Foi avaliada a emergência, sobrevivência, perdas por pássaros, perdas por tombamento e número de pontos com, pelo menos, uma planta viva, seis meses após a semeadura. Os protetores utilizados influenciaram positivamente, nos resultados, para todas as variáveis analisadas, por evitar perdas de sementes causadas por arraste ou soterramento e, principalmente por diminuíram os danos causados por pássaros que juntamente com as formigas, foram os principais problemas encontrados na implantação do povoamento de pinus por semeadura direta.The use of individual shelters has become an efficient method for direct seeding of pine. This work investigated the use of different kinds and sizes of shelters placed at sowing sites to establish new populations of directly seeded Pinus elliottii. Plastic and paper cups with open bottoms, or wood slats were used as protective shields. These were placed at sowing sites, each one containing 3 seeds. Emergencies, survival, losses due to birds or lodging, and number of sites with at least one live plant were analyzed six months after sowing. Shelters had positive effects on all variables analyzed both for avoiding losses resulted from dragging or burying of seeds, and for diminidhing the harm caused by birds which along with ants were the main problems found during the establishment of directly seeded pinus population.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  2. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  3. Die spel van assosiasies in en om 'Die verlossing van die beeld' van Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. du Toit

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The play of association in and around 'The liberation of the image' by Breyten Breytenbach This analysis focuses on the conjunction of memory and imagination, which is an important impulse in, and key to, Breytenbach’s work. The play with language and with associations, the foregrounding, in the short story, “Die verlossing van die beeld” (Breytenbach, 1983 with its metafictional title and apparently divergent motifs (rain/water, watch, onion, the death and burial of a grandfather acts, as it were, as an invitation to the reader to become a co-player. The reader ventures on a search for traces, intertextual links within the Breytenbach oeuvre and for already acknowledged influences such as Surrealism (which in turn casts some light on the strange title of the story and the Eastern philosophies such as Zen and the even older Taoism. The analysis also takes into account the context in which “Mouroir” was written, namely Breytenbach’s term in prison (1975-1982. Seeing that the writer had to hand in his manuscripts to the jail authorities regularly, he might have decided, consciously or by intuition, to hide some thoughts and feelings behind a screen or a mask, in, for example in “Die verlossing van die beeld”, a lighter tone and irony.

  4. Die Wissensgesellschaft und die Bildung des Subjekts - ein Widerspruch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hacke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag untersucht, inwiefern sich medienpädagogisch relevante Diskrepanzen zwischen dem Diskurs der Wissensgesellschaft und jugendlichem Medienhandeln nachzeichnen lassen. Dazu werden zunächst einige Aspekte des Konstrukts Wissensgesellschaft skizziert, das in seiner gegenwärtig populären Form ins Fahrwasser an volkswirtschaftlichen Verwertungskalkülen orientierter Denkformen geraten ist. Dies wird in Bezug auf die sich daran gekoppelte Programmatik von Kompetenz diskutiert, welche den «homo oeconomicus» beschwört und sich darin konträr zu klassisch bildungstheoretischen Kategorien verhält. Weitergeführt werden diese Überlegungen anhand der Problematisierung des Medienkompetenztheorems, das sich bis heute damit schwer tut, sich von der Vereinnahmung durch zweckrationale und restringierende Tendenzen zu befreien. Argumentiert wird, dass mit Medienkompetenz zu wenig einer milieuspezifischen Differenzierung Rechnung getragen werden kann, die eine wichtige Prämisse für eine soziale Ungleichheiten ernst nehmende Medienpädagogik ist. Als eine Alternative diskutieren wir, inwieweit sich hier praxeologische Perspektiven zum Verständnis jugendlichen Handelns anbieten. Der Beitrag mündet in einige medienpädagogisch fruchtbare Ideen, in deren Zentrum eine reflexivere, stärker am Habitus von Jugendlichen orientierte Praxis steht.

  5. Die impak van tutoriale op die wiskundeprestasie van eerstejaarstudente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Maree

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Studente uit histories-agtergeblewe gemeenskappe in Suid-Afrika onderpresteer dikwels in wiskunde vanweë ’n verskeidenheid faktore. Aksienavorsing wat aan die (voormalige Technikon Noord-Gauteng uitgevoer is, om ondersoek in te stel na wyses waarop hierdie studente se wiskundeprestasie verbeter kan word, het die implementering van ’n tutoriaalstelsel behels. Kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe data is deur middel van ’n verskeidenheid instrumente ingesamel. Die resultate het sekere tendense in tersiêre wiskundeonderrig, wat in ’n tweede of derde taal geskied, uitgewys.

    Abstract

    The impact of tutorials on achievement in mathematics of first year students

    Historically disadvantaged students in South Africa often underachieve in mathematics due to a number of factors. Action research that was conducted at the (former Technikon Northern Gauteng to investigate ways in which these students’ achievements in mathematics could be improved comprised the implementation of tutorial sessions. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered by means of a variety of instruments. The results revealed certain trends in tertiary mathematics education where learning takes place in a second or third language.

  6. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  7. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  8. Development processes and growth pattern of Pinus densiflora stands in central eastern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pil Sun; Kim, Kyung Yoon; Han, Ahreum; Jang, Woongsoon; Son, Yowhan; Yi, Myong Jong; Park, Byung Bae; Son, Yeongmo

    2010-07-01

    Stand growth and developmental processes were investigated in Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. stands of different ages in the central eastern region of Korea. Stands were inventoried and five trees per stand were sampled for stem analysis, age estimation, and growth analysis. More than 80% of sampled trees in a stand were established within 3-5 years, and most stands had a single cohort structure. The initial growth of pine seedlings was slow, but the height growth accelerated beyond 2-3 m height, 5-10 years after establishment. Linear growth was maintained until 10-12 m height, at which suppressed trees fell behind and might die out. The young stand was composed of pure pines, while few pine seedlings and saplings were found in the understory of older stands. The peak of diameter growth rate occurred around 5-15 years after tree establishment, implying that competition begins during that period. The pine stand development follows four stages: (1) the young stage when the growth rate increases and peaks; (2) the height competition stage when trees focus on height growth for light while maintaining a narrow DBH and height distribution; (3) the differentiation stage when suppressed trees die out, and the DBH distribution becomes wider; and (4) the mature stage when stands have a multi-canopy structure with a wide DBH and height distribution, while the understory is dominated by other tree species. The changes in growth rates and stand structure through forest development would be implemented to predict alterations of above-ground carbon sequestration rates.

  9. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  10. Die aard en problematiek van vertaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Swanepoel

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available George Steiner (1975 se onlangse werk oor vertaling dra die treffende titel: After Babel. Dit is met hierdie dilemma wat die mens in sy na-babelse bestaan in sy strewe na sinvolle kommunikasie te kampe het: die bestaan van ’n magdom van tale wat geen individu, hoe begaafd ookal, eers kan droom om te beheers nie. Vandaar die strewe na die totstandbrenging van ’n eenvoudige en universele wereldtaal, Esperanto, of — meer algemeen — die behoefte aan vertaling. Maar vertaling is nie net ’n dilemma nie, dit is ook ’n uitdaging.

  11. Die Felsfassadengräber von Kyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Greve, Anika

    2006-01-01

    Die griechische Kolonie Kyrene wurde im letzten Drittel des 7. Jhs. v. Chr. einige Kilometer vom Mittelmeer entfernt im libyschen Innenland gegründet. Die Siedler waren dorische Griechen aus Thera im Süden der Kykladen. Nicht nur die erhaltenen innerstädtischen Gebäude zeugen von einem einstigen Wohlstand, auch die Nekropole nahm im Laufe der Zeit gewaltige Ausmaße mit aufwendig gestalteten Grabanlagen an, die sich rund um die urbane Bebauung entlang der Ausfallstraßen ausbreitete. Viele Ruhe...

  12. Introduction of HSC technology in tool and die making; Einfuehrung der HSC-Technologie fuer den Werkzeugbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, D. [ThyssenKrupp Gerlach GmbH, Homburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the production of forged crankshafts, ThyssenKrupp Gerlach is a recognized partner to the worldwide car and truck industry. The die shop, integrated in the value chain, is one of the company's success factors. Over the course of several years, a complete production process encompassing CAD (computer aided design), CAM (computer aided manufacturing), HSC (high-speed cutting) machining centers and milling cutters has been developed, with the result that today complex geometries can be milled directly into roughly 65% of all dies. Using the example of a die half, this article describes what has been achieved so far. As well as cost savings, the systematic introduction of the new process also led to changes in die shop organization and the design process. (orig.) [German] Bei der Herstellung geschmiedeter Kurbelwellen ist ThyssenKrupp Gerlach ein weltweit anerkannter Partner fuer die Automobil- und Nutzfahrzeugindustrie. Der in die Wertschoepfungskette integrierte Werkzeugbau ist einer der Erfolgsfaktoren im Unternehmen. Aus den Technologiebausteinen CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing), HSC (High-Speed-Cutting)-Bearbeitungszentrum und Fraeswerkzeugen wurde in mehrjaehriger Arbeit ein durchgaengiger Fertigungsprozess entwickelt, so dass heute bei etwa 65% der Werkzeuge die komplexe Geometrie direkt gefraest werden kann. Am Beispiel einer Gesenkhaelfte wird verdeutlicht, was bisher erreicht wurde. Die konsequente Einfuehrung des neuen Verfahrens fuehrte neben Kosteneinsparungen auch zu Aenderungen in der betrieblichen Organisation und im Konstruktionsablauf. (orig.)

  13. Psychotherapy of the dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedeford, A

    1979-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  14. Skrifberoep in die vorming van etiese uitsprake, Deel 1: ’n Etiese verstaan van die vrou in die Bybel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan L. Rheeder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Na 30 jaar kon die grammaties-historiese metode van Skrifondersoek nie daarin slaag om die etiese probleem van die vrou in die kerklike ampte (en homoseksualiteit in die GKSA op te los nie. Hierdie metode kan na alle waarskynlikheid nie meer as die enigste verklaringsmetode gebruik word nie en moet deur ander uitgangspunte aangevul word. In hierdie artikel word twee hermeneutiese uitgangspunte bespreek wat saam met die grammaties-historiese metode in die vertolking van die Skrif gebruik kan word. Hierdie hermeneutiese uitgangspunte sal gedemonstreer word in ‘n bespreking oor die etiese verstaan van die vrou in die Bybel, spesifiek soos dit op die vrou in kerklike ampte toegepas word. In aansluiting by laasgenoemde twee vertrekpunte word in ’n opvolgartikel ’n verdere drie hermeneutiese vertrekpunte behandel. Die twee hermeneutiese vertrekpunte wat in hierdie artikel behandel word, staan as reëldoelwit en analogie bekend. Die eerste hermeneutiese vertrekpunt gaan uit van die veronderstelling dat die reëldoelwit van ’n teks swaarder weeg as die teks self, terwyl analogie van die veronderstelling uitgaan dat analogie as beredenering ’n aanvaarbare en noodsaaklike vertrekpunt is. Bogenoemde hermeneutiese vertrekpunte (vyf in totaal is op twee aannames gegrond. Ten eerste word aanvaar dat die Bybel, alhoewel ’n goddelike boek, ’n besliste kreatuurlike kant het wat in die vertolking daarvan in ag geneem moet word. Tweedens word geredeneer dat die Skrif nie ’n  teologiese boek is nie, wat beteken dat gelowiges in etiese sake waaroor daar twee verstaansmoontlikhede bestaan, die reg gegun moet word om self die Skrif te vertolk. Daar word tot die  gevolgtrekking gekom dat ’n etiese verstaan van die vrou daartoe moet lei dat die vrou as gelykwaardig aan die man beskou en behandel moet word, met die gevolg dat die vrou tot alle ampte in die kerk toegelaat moet word.Appeal to Scripture in the formation of ethical judgments, Part 1: An

  15. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  16. Letting die and mercy killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

    2003-01-01

    We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome.

  17. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants.

  18. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  19. Dynamics of natural regeneration in Pinus laricio stands from southern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanesi E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings establishment was studied in small (380 m2, medium (855 m2 and large (1520 m2 gaps created in calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret stands (mean height 22 m in the Southern Apennine. After three growing seasons first results put in evidence: a no significant differences of water soil content were observed between gap sizes; b transmittance was higher in large and medium gaps than in small ones and in the centre and northern sides in both gap sizes; c calabrian pine seedling density was higher in large gaps than in medium and small ones and namely in the centre positions; silver fir seedlings appear after the second growing season in small and medium gaps; d seedling mortality of calabrian pine was relevant in small and medium gaps in the edge and silver fir seedling mortality in the centre of the large ones; e in these first years the ground vegetation (bramble and bracken represents a moderate detrimental effect on seedlings establishment that could be removed by partial cuttings.

  20. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  1. Cutin fluorescence in early embryos of Pinus and Tsuga

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Szczuka; Irena Gielwanowska

    2014-01-01

    Embryos of Pinus nigra Arnold and Tsuga canadensis Carr. (Pinaceae) at different stages of development were dissected from fresh, unfixed seeds and examined in a fluorescence microscope with 400 nm excitation light. The embryos of the investigated species showed cutin fluorescence after auramine 0 staining. At first the fluorescing cutin layer was formed on the apical part of the embryo with a well developed secondary suspensor, then it extended over the lateral surface of the embryo; the sus...

  2. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  3. TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM SCOTTISH ABIES NOBILIS AND PINUS SYLVESTRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Seidel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three active compounds obtained from the aerial parts of Abies nobilis and Pinus sylvestris isolated by different chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HMBC spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data and established as catechin, dehydroabietic acid and Dihydroconiferyl alcohol. The isolated compounds were exhibited activity against blood stream form of parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (S 427.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. MALE GAMETOPHYTE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L.P. Khlebova; O. V. Bychkova

    2016-01-01

    The peculiarities of the development of the male gametophyte of Pinus silvestris L. in the urban environment were studied. Quality of pollen was evaluated by laboratory experiments through germination at the nutrient medium and by histochemical staining to determine the presence of redox enzymes. It was shown that pollen viability is closely linked to climatic and weather conditions during the period of microsporogenesis and mass pollination. Atmospheric pollution affected the pollen signific...

  5. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  6. Ethnographische Filme und die Darstellung von Frauen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Filmographie werden ethnographische und koloniale Filme aus dem Bestand des Nederlands Filmmuseum kommentiert, die für die Frage nach der Darstellung von Frauen und Geschlechterverhältnissen von Interesse sind.

  7. [Die Gründung...] / Anders Henriksson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henriksson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Rets.: Karsten Brüggemann. Die Gründung der Republik Estland und das Ende des "Einen und unteilbaren Russland" : die Petrograder Front des Russischen Bürgerkrieges, 1918-1920. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2002

  8. Die ausbildung von wertbedeutungen im schuljugendalter*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Heusinger

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Die folgenden Darlegungen stützen sich auf Untersuchungsergebnisse des Verlassers zur Sprachentwicklung in der Ontogenese. Angeregt wurde die UnterSuchung durch die besonders in den letzten Jahren in mehreren Ländern verstärkt erhobenen Forderungen, nicht nur die Sprache des Klein­ kindes, sondern vornehmlich den Entwicklungsstand der Schülersprache auf den einzelnen Klassenstufen zu erforschen und den Prozeß der Sprachentwicklung des Schülers genauer zu bestimmen. Die Forderungen sind (so z. B. in der DDR durch das Bestreben motiviert, weitere wissenschaftliche Voraussetzungen für die Verbesserung der muttersprachlichen Bildung und Erzliehung zu schaffen. Es geht also vor allem um Bedürfnisse des Muttersprachunterrichts, die aus der gesellschaftlichen Bedeutung der Sprache überhaupt und den steigenden Anforderungen an die gesellschaftliche Kommunikation insbesondere erwachsen.

  9. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  10. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  11. Dominus for cut flower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation with methyl bromide was the principal method of soilborne pest control in cut flower production. Many cut flower growers in Florida have ceased production, but those that remain are restricted in the fumigants that they are able to utilize due to proximity to potable water sources and oc...

  12. Will Intel Grow Through Cuts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAN; STEINBOCK

    2006-01-01

    Short-term cuts, perhaps, but long-term growth in China may be inevitable T he world's largest chipmaker, Intel, is sending a ripple effect through its pool of labor globally, including in China, with the announcement of deep workforce cuts.

  13. Rimbaud Cut-Up Burroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vasconcelos

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é o de explorar a relação entre a poesia de Rimbaud e as experiências de William Burroughs com os cut-ups. A influência de Rimbaud sobre o trabalho de Burroughs se estende, contudo, para além dos cut-ups, envolvendo sua escrita ficcional.

  14. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  15. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  16. Die invloed van verpoeiering op die kwikinhoud van verskeie gesertifiseerde verwysingsmateriale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Roelofse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Die meeste analitiese tegnieke wat gebruik word vir die bepaling van die kwikinhoud van aardmateriale benodig komminusie van monsters voor analise. Dit word gewoonlik bewerkstellig deur die vergruising van die monsters, gevolg deur die verpoeiering daarvan. Dit is bekend dat in konvensionele meule hitte tydens verpoeiering vrygestel word, en dit volg dat kwikverlies verwag kan word weens die element se vlugtigheid. Om kwikverlies tydens verpoeiering te bestudeer het ons nege gesertifiseerde verwysingsmateriale van stolrotse geanaliseer voor verpoeiering, asook na 3 en weer na 10 minute van verpoeiering, met behulp van ’n direkte kwikanaliseerder. Die resultate van die eksperimente dui daarop dat: (1 kwikverlies onbeduidend is na 3 minute van verpoeiering, (2 kwikverlies beduidend raak indien monsters oormatige verpoeiering ondergaan, (3 kwikverlies klaarblyklik nie deur mineralogie beheer word nie en (4 vir monsters met ’n lae kwikinhoud, kontaminasie tydens verpoeiering ’n baie meer beduidende invloed op die geanaliseerde kwikinhoud het as die duur van verpoeiering.

  17. Die tätigkeitstheoretische Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    Stroh, Wolfgang Martin

    2012-01-01

    Die Perspektive, die der Autor entwickelt, ist die der dialektischen Tätigkeitstheorie. Gemäß dieser Theorie ist Musik eine spezifische Art der Aneignung von Wirklichkeit. SchülerInnen sollten im Musikunterricht lernen, bewusst, selbstbestimmt und sozial zu handeln, wenn sie sich durch Musizieren Wirklichkeit aneignen. Wenn SchülerInnen im Unterricht Musik machen, müssen sie sich daher auch des kulturellen Kontextes bewusst sein, dem die Musik entstammt. Sie sollten auch selbstbestimmt handel...

  18. Aanspreekvorme in die poësie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wybenga

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available By die deurblaai van die Groot Verseboek (hierna GV is dit opvallend dat daar so baie keer van aanspreekvorme in gedigte gebruik gemaak word. Van die heel eerste gedig wat daarin opgeneem is, naamlik Klaas Geswind en sy perd (p. 1 tot ’n gedig van die laaste opgenome digter, André le Roux, (struisbaai-blues, p. 506, gebruik digters telkens hierdie taalmiddel om een of ander spesifieke effek te verkry.

  19. “Ruik die verderf in die kieliebakke”: Breyten Breytenbach se blik op die lyk

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    M. Crous

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available “Smell the rot in the armpits”: Breyten Breytenbach’s perspectives on the corpse The purpose of this article is to analyse Breyten Breytenbach’s so-called corpse poem, “bekommernis”, taken from his debut album “die ysterkoei moet sweet” (1964. The theoretical point of departure is the theories of Kristeva, in particular her essay on abjection. Not only does the article focus on Breytenbach’s portrayal of the abject, but also shows to what extent his use of language describing death, decay and the cadaver illustrates what Kristeva calls “a revolution in poetic language”. Given the fact that the poem is situated in a Zen Buddhist context, the Zen philosophy on death and dying is also taken into consideration when analysing aspects such as the dissolution of the ego, the bardos of death, et cetera.

  20. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF CNC CUTTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The intelligent optimizing method of cutting parameters and the cutting stable districts searching method are set up. The cutting parameters of each cutting pass could be optimized automatically, the cutting chatter is predicted through setting up the dynamic cutting force AR(2) model on-line, the spindle rotation speed is adjusted according to the predicting results so as to ensure the cutting system work in stable district.

  1. Online Cake Cutting (published version)

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2011-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where agents arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some fairness properties that online cake cutting procedures can possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness. We also consider the impact of collusion between agents. Finally, we study theoretically and empirically the competitive ratio of these online cake cutting procedures. Based on its resistance to collusion, and its good performance in practice, our results favour the online version of the cut-and-choose procedure over the online version of the moving knife procedure.

  2. Die waarde van voorafopleiding deur die ouer vir pedo-oudiometrie by drie- en vierjarige kleuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Lodewyckx

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Die verkryging van akkurate, betroubare inligting aangaande die gehoorvermoë van jong kinders is van besondere belang vir die oudioloog, maar word dikwels bemoeilik aangesien die kleuter nie goeie samewerking bied in die vreemde pedo-oudiometriese situasie nie. Die oplossing hiervoor is grootliks geleë in die opleiding van die kind voor formele  gehoortoetsing en meer spesifiek  opleiding tuis deur die ouer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n voorbereidende program op te stel wat die ouer tuis met die kind kan uitvoer, voordat formele  toetsing plaasvind. Die waarde en effek van hierdie program in die pedo-oudiometriese situasie is geevalueer by 'n groep drie- en vierjarige kleuters. Resultate dui daarop dat laer en meer akkurate drempels, 'n korter toetstydperk, verminderde angs en beter samewerking verkry is by die kleuters wat vooraf  opleiding ontvang het. Die opleidingsprogram kan dus in die kliniese praktyk benut word as voorafopleiding  vir pedo-oudiometrie.

  3. Cutting forces in orthogonal cutting of unidirectional GFRP composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprino, G.; Nele, L. [Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy). Dept. of Materials and Production Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The results of orthogonal cutting tests carried out on unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, using HSS tools, are presented and discussed. During the tests, performed on a milling machine at very low cutting speed to avoid thermal effects, the cutting speed was held constant and parallel to the fiber direction. Three parameters, namely the tool rake angle {alpha}, the tool relief angle {gamma}, and the depth of cut t, were varied. According to the experimental results, the horizontal force per unit width, F{sub hu}, undergoes a dramatic decrease, never verified for metals, with increasing {alpha}. Besides, F{sub hu} is only negligibly affected by the relief angle, and linearly increases with t. Similarly to metals, an effect of the depth of cut on the specific energy (size effect) is found also for composites. However, the presented results indicate that the size effect can be analytically modeled in a simple way in the case of composites. The vertical force per unit width, F{sub vu}, exhibits a marked reduction when the relief angle is increased. F{sub vu} is also very sensitive to the rake angle: the lower {alpha}, the higher is F{sub vu}. It is shown that this behavior probably reflects a strong influence of the rake angle on the forces developing at the flank. A linear dependence of the vertical force on the depth of cut is also demonstrated. Finally, the experimental data are utilized to obtain empirical formulae, allowing an approximate evaluation of cutting forces.

  4. Die persoonlikheidseienskappe en bestuurspotensiaal van bestuursgemotiveerde persone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality traits and managerial potential of managerial motivated persons: In the ligth of criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation a new scale, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ, was developed. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory of Miner. The MMQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency. The aim of this study is to clarify the construct validity of the MMQ. Significant and positive correlations were found between managerial motivation, overall managerial potential, and nine managerial dimensions. The construct validity of the MMQ was further supported by correlations between sixteen personality traits and managerial motivation. Opsomming In die lig van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering is 'n nuwe skaal, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV/ ontwikkel. Dit is gedoen op grond van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering en die rolmotiveringsteorie van Miner. Die BMV vertoon toereikende interne konsekwentheid. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die konstrukgeldigheid van die BMV verder op te klaar. Beduidend positiewe korrelasies is tussen bestuursmotivering/ globale bestuurspotensiaal en nege bestuursdimensies gevind. Hierbenewens het die korrelasies tussen sestien persoonlikheidseienskappe en bestuursmotivering verdere ondersteunende bewyse gelewer van die konstrukgeldigheid van die BMV.

  5. Die Prozessionsspinner Mitteleuropas - Ein Überblick

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    Bräsicke, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels lassen sich bereits auch in Deutschland beobachten. Dabei werden die Waldökosysteme in besonderer Weise betroffen. Waldstandorte sind stärker trockenen Bedingungen ausgesetzt, die zusammen mit höheren Vegetationszeittemperaturen eine erhöhte Stressanfälligkeit der Bäume verursachen. Bei den Insekten beeinflusst eine erhöhte Temperatur u. a. die Entwicklungsdauer, die Populationsdichte und die Verwertbarkeit der Wirtspflanzen als Nahrung (BMLFUW 2003, Petercord et al. 2008. Es ist zu erwarten, dass die Wachstumsrate und die Entwicklung der Insektenarten beeinflusst wird (Netherer & Schopf 2009, die aufgrund eines relativ hohen Populationswachstums und hoher Mobilität durch Migration oder Adaption auf veränderte Klimabedingungen rascher reagieren (Harrington et al. 2001. Bei einigen Schädlingen zeichnet sich eine solche Entwicklung bereits ab. Unter ihnen befinden sich humanpathogene Arten, die zunehmend auch zum Forstschädling avancieren und die Waldbestände existenziell gefährden. Der Eichenprozessionsspinner gehört zu diesen Arten. Ebenfalls relevant für Mitteleuropa sind Thaumetopoea pinivora und Th. pityocampa, die mit dem Beitrag näher betrachtet werden.

  6. Die kuns van Maggie Laubser . 1

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    G. Dekker

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Dis vir my ’n groot genoeë om iets te mag sê oor die kuns van 'n vrouw at jare lank haar pad eensaam gegaan het, trou gebly het aan haar kunstenaarsoortuiging en nie toegegee het aan die smaak van die publiek, geenkompromieë daarmee gesluit het terwille van populariteit of stoflike gewin nie.

  7. Eenheid en differensiasie in die onderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie tenia van die interíakultêre lesings sny in werkliklieid oor alle fakulteite lieen en is ’11 probleem wal by elke dissipliiie ontstaan, sonder twyfel by almal wat met die mens en met levve te doen het, maar ook by die fisiese wetenskappe waar met die lewelosc skepping gewerk word. Waar ons in ons land en veral in Transvaal deesdae voortdurend te doen het met differensiasie in die onderwys, met A-, B- en C-bane, is hierdie beginsel van eenheid en verskeidenheid, van eeridersheid en ver- skillendbeid, van integrasie en differensiasie, van verdeelde beheer in die onderwys en van ’11 eenheidsheleid en -beheer, van nasionale en inter- nasionale onderwys, van verskillende skooltipes en van komprehensiewe skole e.d.m., voortdurend in die nuus. Saam met die eenheid en differen­ siasie in die volkewêreld van Afrika, is die probleem in die onderwys seker die popnlêrste; dis byna reeds gemeen|laas.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  9. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp. Grown in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo P. Vanhanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L., Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little, Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don, Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert, Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L. and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière, was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  10. 天然油菜素内酯对油松和刺槐种子发芽的影响%EFFECT OF NATRUAL BRASSINOLIDE ON GERMINATION OF PINUS TABULAEFORMIS AND ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA SEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯荣; 张胜利; 贺秀贤

    2002-01-01

    The germination capacity of Pinus tabulaeformis seeds was obviously improved after the seeds were soaked with the different concentrations of natural brassinolide.The germination rate and germination energy of the seeds were increased by 23.1% and 14.94% respectively,and the mean germination speed (i.e.germination time)of the seeds was cut down by 1 day under the best concentration (0.05mg·L-1)treatment,compared with the control.After Robinia pseudoacacia seeds were treated with the best concentration (0.1mg·L-1) of natural brassinolide,the germination rate and germination energy of the seeds were increased by 10.9% and 15.9% respectively,and the mean germination speed of the seeds was cut down by 1.26 day,compared with the control.After hypocotyls of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia were treated with the natural brassinolide,the elongation of their hypocotyls was obviously increased.0.01 mg·L-1 concentration of the natural brassinolide was the most suitable for the elongation of Pinus tabulaeformis hypocotyls,and 0.005mg·L-1 concentration was the best for the elongation of Robinia pseudoacacia hypocotyls.

  11. Missionale kerkwees en die elektroniese sosiale media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Lazenby

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Die geweldige toename in die benutting van die sosiale media as interaktiewe kommunikasiemiddel wêreldwyd, bied aan die Christelike kerk groot missionale geleenthede, maar stel ook groot uitdagings en eise. Hierdie geleentheid moet benut word om missionaal ’n verskil ten gunste van God se koninkryk te maak. Die inhoud en die kommunikasiestyl kom onder die vergrootglas. Hierdie artikel poog om ’n paar bybels-etiese beginsels aan te dui wat as basis vir die missionale styl van kommunikasie moet dien. As uitgangspunt word die Bybel as die Woord van God gebruik. Daar word geredeneer dat die moreel-etiese beginsels wat in die Bybel aan die gelowige voorgeskryf word, van die grootste belang is om gestalte te gee aan die koninkryk van God in hierdie wêreld wanneer via die sosiale media op horisontale vlak met mense gekommunikeer word. Dit gaan dus vir die gelowige nooit net om humanistiese, sosiale kommunikasie nie, maar altyd dat die beeld van God in hierdie wêreld geëer en sy koninkryk daardeur uitgebou word. Vir die Christen-gelowige gaan dit nooit om die mens nie, maar altyd om God se eer en die manifestasie van sy koninkryk.Being a missional church and the social media. The tremendous increase in using the social media as interactive communication medium worldwide creates the opportunity for the Christian church to make a missional difference in favour of God’s kingdom on earth. It also brings great challenges with it. This means that the way communication via the mass social media is done, becomes of the utmost importance. The content as well as the manner in which the communication is conducted must be considered. This article aims at providing certain basic biblical-ethical principles for communicating in the mass social media that will serve the missional calling of the church. The point of departure is the Word of God. The basic focus of the argument is that the moral-ethical principles given to the believer in the Bible are of the

  12. Straatsburg en artikel 2 van die dordtse kerkorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Schulze

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available In art. 2 K.O. word daar vier soorte kerklike dienste on dcrskei, nl. „dié van die bedienaars van die Woord, dié van die professore aan die teologiese skool, die van die ouderlinge, en dié van die diakens”.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF A OIL RESIDUE FROM PETROLEUM ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF Pinus sp. (Pinus AND Mimosa scabrella Bentham (Bracatinga WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In search for alternative uses of a petroliferous oily residue known as “LCO” (Liquid Cycle Oil, its capacity to improve the dimensional stability of the wood was evaluated using Pinus sp. (pinus and Mimosa scabrella Bentham (bracatinga. The LCO was tested in its original composition and also diluted in different proportions into a commercial kerosene. The dimensional stability in the three anatomic axis, volumetric changes, shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients, basic density and 12% relative humidity density changes were evaluated, in different stages during the investigation process. The results show no significant differences in maximum swelling and shrinkage between treated and untreated wood blocks at 5% probability level for both species. However, a reduction in the shrinkage coefficient was observed with the increase of LCO concentration, for both species. In general, pinus showed lowest values in all parameter evaluated. The shrinkage and anisotropy coefficient were higher for bracatinga than pinus, nevertheless, no significant differences were observed between treated and untreated wood blocks. These results indicated that changes between tangential and radial faces were minimal, possible due to a poor penetration of LCO into the cell walls. This result, as a consequence, could be associated with a weak performance of the tested chemical, which could not improve the dimensional stability of wood for both species. The increasing LCO concentrations increased the density of both species at 12% relative humidity. This result could be associated to the presence of part of the chemical remaining in the walls of the cellular lumen and the resiniferous channels. Besides, the external aspect of the treated wood was also other restrictive factor to the use of LCO.

  14. Thermal Fatigue of Die-Casting Dies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Hassan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled studies by experimental and numerical simulations are necessary for an increased understanding of the material behaviour as related to the interaction between the thermal and mechanical conditions. This paper focus on the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in the failure of dies and cores used in the die casting of aluminum alloys. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. Samples of various types of H13 steel were compared with a standard H13 steel by testing under identical thermal fatigue cycles. To determine the thermal constraint developed in the sample during the test, a finite difference technique was used to obtain the temperature distribution, based on temperature measurements at the boundaries. The resulting stresses and strains were computed, and the strain calculated at the edge or weakest point of the sample was used to correlate the number of cycles to crack initiation. As the strain at the edge increased, the number of cycles to failure decreased. The influence of various factors on thermal fatigue behavior was studied including austenitizing temperature, surface condition, stress relieving, casting, vacuum melting, and resulfurization. The thermal fatigue resistance improved as the austenitizing temperature increased from 1750 to 2050ºF.

  15. Die effekvan punttoekenningstandaarde op die korrelasie tussen matriek- en universiteitsprestasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Huysamen

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of marking standards on the correlation between matriculation and university performance. Marking standards differ between courses in the sense that the same group of students shows different course means in different courses. Goldman andWidawski (1976 proposed a within-persons procedure to adjust for such differences between university departments and Elliott and Strenta (1988 adjusted this procedure to perform such corrections between courses within departments. In this study the correlation between matriculation performance and university performance has been increased by applying this adjustment not only to university courses but also to matriculation subjects. Opsomming Punttoekenningstandaarde verskil tussen kursusse in die opsig dat dieselfde groep studente verskillende kursusgemiddeldes in verskillende kursusse toon. Goldman en Widawski (1976 het 'n tussenproefpersoonprosedure voorgestel om vir sodanige verskille tussen universiteitsdepartemente te korrigeer en Elliott en Strenta (1988 het dit aangepas om sodanige korreksies tussen kursusse binne departemente uit te voer. In hierdie ondersoek is die korrelasie tussen matriekprestasie en universiteitsprestasie verhoog deur hierdie aanpassing nie slegs op universiteit-kursusse nie, maar ook op matriekvakke toe te pas.

  16. Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling in die gesprek tussen wetenskap en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Erasmus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel. Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word ’n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat ’n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos.Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible. This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to

  17. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae propagation by setem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancato Giulio Cesare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhipsalis is being cultivated as a potted plant since the view of the pendant branches with coloured flowers and fruit is very appreciated. Considering that there is no information about the production of rooted propagules of these species, the goal of this work was to evaluate the development of stem cuttings, stimulated by the application of plant growth regulators. The indolebutyric acid (IBA was tested at 0; 4.07; 5.81, and 11.63 mmol L-1 and the naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0; 4.53; 6.47, and 12.94 mmol L-1 for their activity in promoting roots on apical stem segments of Rhipsalis grandiflora Raw. The base of stem cuttings was dipped into auxin solutions mixed with talc and each one was partially embedded in fir bark (Pinus sp and fern fiber (1:1 in polystyrene propagation flats, placed throughout the rooting period in a greenhouse (50% shading, at 60-90% of relative humidity and temperatures from 20 to 25ºC. The experimental design was a completely randomised with eight treatments (twelve replicates, with samplings at 0; 20; 50; 80, and 150 days. The results indicate no differences between IBA and NAA regarding the dry mass of roots, but an increase in for concentrations of 0 and 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 0 and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, in relation to treatments with auxins. Stem cuttings treated with 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, had greater dry mass of shoot bud differentiation in relation to those treated with 0 mmol L-1.

  18. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  19. Die rol van kapitaal in die ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling van onderontwikkelde gebiede*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. du Plessis

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available In die teorie oor ekonomiese groei speel kapitaal ’n besonder prominente rol. Kapitaal met die daarby behorende tegnologiese ontwikkeling, word beskou as die belangrikste enkele faktor verantwoordelik vir die bereiking en instandhouding van ’n „ten voile ontwikkelde” volkshuishouding.

  20. Die persoonlikheidsoriëntasieprofiel van die saluto-genies-funksionerende mens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Viviers

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to integrate the theoretical personality profile of the salutogenic functioning person, drawn from the literature on Salutogenesis, with the personality orientation profile of the optimal functioning employee, as documented in the literature on Organisational and Personnel psychology. The integration is done according to intra- (cognitive affective, conative and physical characteristics and interpersonal characteristics. The two profiles could be integrated, according to these characteristics, into a profile of the salutogenic functioning person who handles life and work stressors effectively and functions optimally in his daily existence. This integration shows a theoretical relationship between the two constructs and confirms a meaningful relationship found in empirical research. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om die teoretiese persoonlikheidsprofiel van die salutogenies-funksionerende mens vanuit die literatuur oor Salutogenese met die persoonlikheidsorientasieprofiel van die optimaal- funksionerende werknemer soos deur die Organisasie- en Personeelsielkunde-literatuur voorgehou, te integreer. Die integrasie word volgens intra- (kognitiewe, affektiewe, konatiewe en fisiese eienskappe en interpersoonlike eienskappe gedoen. Daar is bevind dat die twee profiele volgens die eienskappe geïntegreer kan word tot 'n profiel van die salutogenies-funksionerende mens wat die stressors van die lewe en werk effektief kan hanteer en sodoende optimaal in sy daaglikse bestaan funksioneer. Die integrasie bevind 'n teoretiese verband tussen die twee konstrukte. Dit bevestig empiriese navorsing wat 'n beduidende verband tussen die twee konstrukte bevind het.

  1. Was die neuen Frauen wollen

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Hannah; Meyen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Seit Mitte der 90er Jahre hat sich eine neue Generation von Frauenzeitschriften auf einem als übersättigt geltenden Markt etabliert. Diese Blätter richten sich an Frauen zwischen 20 und 35 Jahren. Glamour aus dem Condé Nast Verlag scheint die Perfektion dieses neuen Zeitschriftentypus zu sein. Das Magazin im Pocket-Format wurde sofort nach seiner Einführung im Februar 2001 Marktführer im Segment der monatlich erscheinenden Frauenzeitschriften. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, wie dieser Erfol...

  2. An Integrated Die Casting Design System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y; K; Woon; K; S; Lee

    2002-01-01

    Die casting process is one of the prime options for m anufacturing precisely dimensioned, sharply defined metal parts. The design of d ie casting dies comprises several stages and entails a large amount of time. Tra ditionally, the different stages of the die design were not integrated but exist as separate entities. Moreover, recurring modifications or even redesigns are r equired due to the complexity in achieving an accurate initial die design. As a result, die design is usually time-consuming and cos...

  3. USING LOGIC COMPONENTS FOR CONCEPTUAL DIE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Logic components are used to support the conceptual design. Taking the stamping die structure as the research object,several logic components are defined for the conceptual die construction design. A new method-logic assembly modeling is presented to satisfy the characteristic of the top-down die design process. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic can provide a natural,intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about die construction design at the conceptual stage. This method can reflect the designer's thought clearly and provide the designer with a test bed for generating alternatives and performing reasoning work at the conceptual die design stage.

  4. Genl. Koos De La Rey, die krygsman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. du Plessis

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available 22 Oktober is die geboortedag van genl. Koos de la Rey, wat van dag tot ons heldeverlede behoort. Vanjaargedenk ons ook op 11 Oktober die uitbreek van die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, sestig jaar gelede. Daarom wil ek graag by hierdie geleentheid die persoon van Koos de la Rey in herinnering roepen by wyse van hierdie artikel huldebring aan hom wat God aan ons volkgegee het op ’n tydstip toe sulke mannedringend noodsaaklik was; ’n man wat in die ure van dood en benoudheid leidingkon gee; ’n man sonder wie onsvolksgeskiedenis beslis armer sou gewees het. Aangesien hy by uitstek krygsmanen veldheer.

  5. Anforderungen an die Detektoren von DIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S. J.

    Neben dem optischen System sind die Detektoren in der Fokalebene die wichtigste Komponente des Instruments eines astrometrischen Minisatelliten. Einer möglichst optimalen Auswahl des Detektorsystems und seiner Operationsmodi kommt daher eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu. In diesem Beitrag werden die Anforderungen vorgestellt, die sich zum gegenwärtigen Stand der Planung eines Interferometrie-Minisatelliten für astrometrische und photometrische Untersuchungen ergeben. Sie basieren auf dem grundlegenden Missionskonzept für die DIVA Mission (Bastian et al., 1996) und dem an der Landessternwarte Heidelberg zusammen mit dem ARI Heidelberg und DSS Ottobrunn erarbeiteten optischen Konzept des Instruments.

  6. Die resepsie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (Sondag 17 en 22 insake die opstanding in die negentiende-eeuse Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (Deel 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes W. Hofmeyr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Met die 450e herdenking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK as vertrekpunt word in twee artikels gepoog om lig te werp op die plek, die rol en die interpretasie van die opstanding van Jesus Christus uit veral Sondag 17 en 22, spesifiek in die konteks van twee besondere eras in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde (NG Kerk. Na ’n kort bespreking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus , word in hierdie eerste artikel uitgebreid gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die era van Andrew Murray, spesifiek teen die agtergrond van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in Nederland. In ’n tweede artikel word soortgelyk gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die NG Kerk na 2000, veral teen die agtergrond van die herverskyning van die liberale teologie in die vorm van die Jesus Seminaar, die Nuwe Hervorming en die aanhangers daarvan se standpunte binne die NG Kerk. Sowel die negentiende-eeuse liberale stryd in die NG Kerk as die stryd rondom die opstanding in die NG Kerk van die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu, soos in die tweede artikel duidelik sal blyk, was gekenmerk deur kontekstueelbepaalde uniekhede. Die gemene deler is dat albei deel was van tye van teologiese vrysinnigheid. In die lig van hierdie bespreking, ook ten opsigte van die negentiende eeu, sal tot die gevolgtrekking gekom word dat die NG Kerk, wat sy identiteit as gereformeerde kerk betref, tans waarskynlik in ’n kritieke geloofs- en toekomskrisis verkeer wat kommerwekkende gevolge vir sy Skrifverstaan en getuienis as belydenis en belydende kerk van Jesus Christus en sy toekoms inhou. Alleen ’n duidelike visie, verantwoordelike leierskap en die herontdekking van die kruis en die opstanding as ononderhandelbare heilsgebeure, wat ook deur die HK gehandhaaf word, sal die NG Kerk kan red van ’n snelwentelende afwaartse spiraal. Slegs die pasgenoemde faktore kan ’n herstellende, positiewe en dinamiese oplossing vir hierdie proses bied wat

  7. Ouditiewe aandag by die voorskoolse kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Niemand

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Daar is met hierdie navorsingsprojek gepoog om 'n duidelike beeld te vorm van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering by die voorskoolse kind. Aangesien ouditiewe aandagsprosessering van groot belang is vir die kind wat skool toe gaan is daar op die groep wat in die daaropvolgende jaar skool toe gaan besluit. 'n Groep van 64 kinders is geselekteer. Daar is gebruik gemaak van 'n gegradeerde ouditiefgerigte  ondersoekprogram wat so saamgestel is dat dit wetenskaplik verantwoordbaar is. In sy geheel gesien dui die navorsingsresultate daarop dat die basiese ontwikkelingsproses van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering op hierdie ouderdom (5;2 tot 5;8 voltooi is. 'n Verdere evaluering van die resultate in terme van die uiteengesette doelstellings van die navorsingsprojek dui daarop dat kinders in hierdie ouderdomsgroep nog soms moeite ondervind om aan 'n ouditiewe sei binne omgewingslawaai aandag te skenk. Bekende seine verhoog die vermoë om aandag te skenk. Daar kon egter nie vir alle aannames wat in die literatuur gemaak word, bewys gevind word nie.

  8. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Soldering of cast alloys to the dies has been a continuing source of die surface damage in the aluminum die-casting industry. To reduce the repair and maintenance costs, an approach to modeling the damage and predicting the die lifetime is required. The aim of the present study is the estimation...... of the die lifetime based on a quantitative analysis of die soldering in the framework of the numerical simulations of the die-casting process. Full 3D simulations of the process, including the filling. solidification, and the die cooling, are carried out using the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft....... The resulting transient temperature fields on the die surface and in the casting are then post-processed to estimate the die soldering. The present work deals only with the metallurgical/chemical kind of soldering which occurs at high temperatures and involves formation and growth of intermetallic layers...

  9. Simulating a high pressure die casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldak, J.; Zhou, J.; Downey, D.; Aldea, V.; Li, G.; Mocanita, M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    High pressure die casting is simulated for parts with complex geometry such as a large automotive transmission case. The closed die is filled in approximately 40 ms, the casting cools in the closed die for approximately 40s, to open the die, eject the casting and spray the die cavity surface requires another 40s. This 3D cyclic process is simulated using the following coupled composite solvers: the energy equation in the die and in the casting with solidification; filling of the casting by a droplet or a Navier-Stokes solver, and thermal stress analysis of the casting machine, casting and die during the cycle. This thermal analysis can be done for both starting and stopping transients and for the cyclic steady state. The software enables this analysis to be done almost automatically by designers. (author)

  10. "Paper Cut Lady" Ku Shulan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WHEN the people in Xunyi County of Shaanxi Province talk about the traditional paper cut, they always speak of a "paper cut lady" Ku Shulan. Her works have been shown at the Xi’an Artists’ Gallery, Beijing China Art Gallery and Exhibition Hall of Central Academy of Fine Arts. Almost seventy years old, Ku Shulan is an ordinary country lady, and her artistic achievements were closely linked with her mother countryside. The traditional paper cut created and developed in Xunyi County, has a simple and bold style of Northern Shaanxi, and an exquisitely

  11. Die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. de Kock

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. These constructs were selected by virtue of their importance in the literature, as well as the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship which exists between them. The Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC General Scholastic Aptitude Test (ASAT was used for measuring intelligence, Duttweiler's Internal Control Index (ICI was used for determining locus of control and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM was used as a criterion for coping with task complexity. These instruments were administered to 292 subjects to determine whether the relationship between locus of control and task complexity was effected when the effect of intelligence was controlled. The results indicated a significant relationship between locus of control and task complexity, however the relationship was no longer significant after the effect of intelligence was controlled. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taak-kompleksiteit te ondersoek. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies na aanleiding van hulle belangrikheid in die literatuur asook die leemte in empiric se navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband wat tussen hulle bestaan. Die Algemene Skolastiese Aanlegtoets (ASAT van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing (RGN is gebruik vir die meting van intelligensie, die Internal Control Index (ICI van Duttweiler is gebruik vir die meting van lokus van kontrole en die Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM van Raven is gebruik as maatstaf vir die bantering van taakkompleksiteit. Die genoemde meetinstrumente is op 292 proefpersone toegepas om te bepaal of die verband tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit geaffekteer word wanneer daar vir die effek

  12. Die invloed van ‘n intensiewe opleidingsprogram op die Kardio Stres-indeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Claassen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mense ondervind baie stressors in hul alledaagse lewe, wat ‘n groot uitwerking het op daagliksefunksionering. Kardio Stres-indeks (KSI is ‘n nie-indringende mate van die stres wat die hartervaar. KSI (uitgedruk as ‘n persentasie berekeninge word gebaseer op die duur van die QRSkompleks, hart tempo, ritme en standaardafwyking van die RR-interval (RRSD spesifieke parameters.

  13. Implikasies van ontwikkelings in die leerstelling van goddelike genesing binne die Pinksterbeweging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Pinksterbeweging het met verloop van tyd sy begrip van die leer van goddelike genesing verander. Die veranderings is hoofsaaklik as gevolg van vorderings wat deur die mediese wetenskap gemaak is en die pinksterteologie moes opnuut die verhouding tussen versoening en heling definieer. Die veranderings word in terme van die geskiedenis van die wit afdeling van die Apostoliese Geloof Sending van Suid-Afrika (AGS, die grootste pinksterdenominasie in Suid-Afrika, beskryf. Dit dien tot ’n groot mate as verteenwoordigend van veranderings in die res van die AGS, maar ook van die Pinksterbeweging as sodanig. Die ontleding toon dat die veranderde houding teenoor die gebruik van medisyne en inenting sowel as mediese prosedures soos operasies pinksterkerke uiteindelik dwing om toegewings in sy genesingsbediening te maak wat aan sy Skrifbeskouing verwant is. Dat die kerk veranderings aanbring in ’n belangrike leerstelling soos dié van goddelike genesing, hou belangrike implikasies vir die kerk in. Die implikasies hou verband met die wyse waarop die pinkstermense die Bybel lees en benut en dit noodsaak die Pinksterbeweging om ook oor ander leerstellings na te dink wat uitdagings daaraan stel, byvoorbeeld die eskatologie en ekklesiologie.Implications of developments in die doctrine of divine healing in die Pentecostal movement. The Pentecostal movement changed over time its understanding of the doctrine of divine healing. These changes are mainly in the attitude towards the advances made by medical science and reflected in the way pentecostal theology defined the relation between atonement and healing. The changes are described in terms of the history of the white division of the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa (AFM, the largest pentecostal denomination within South Africa. It serves to a large extent as representative of the changes in the AFM, but also the Pentecostal movement per se. The analysis shows that the changed attitude towards the

  14. Dat die klip kan heers: Pieter Fourie se Die koggelaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Coetser

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Die koggelaar (The teaser, by playwright Pieter Fourie, is generally regarded as exceptional among his recent works. The purpose of this article is to discuss the title and drought as recurring themes in the drama. The teaser is Boet Cronje, but he is of the opinion that everyone teases him. In an ironic twist of events he finally believes that God teases him by not providing the rain he so desperately needs. An investigation of the text reveals the utilization of psychoanalytical theory, i.e. the theory of the collective and the personal unconscious as formulated by Jung. In this case physical drought initiates events which lead to the development of a fully-fledged psychosis in Boet. As a consequence of the interconnection of the personal and the collective unconscious the physical drought surrounding Boet additionally becomes a dramatic metaphor for the figurative drought in the community of which he is part.

  15. Verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae in Suid-Afrika gebaseer op die rekords in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die kosmopolities-verspreide Unionoida bereik hul grootste diversiteit in Noord-Amerika. In Suid-Afrika word twee genera van die familie Unionidae, naamlik Unio en Coelatura wat vier spesies insluit, aangetref. Hierdie artikel handel oor die verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 gebaseer op die rekords in die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVWSV van Suid-Afrika. Alhoewel dit elders in Suid-Afrika sporadies aangetref is, is die Wes-Kaap die enigste provinsie waarvan geen monster op rekord in die databasis van die NVWSV is nie. Van die 58 monsters wat op rekord is, is die meerderheid in riviere (32.8% en damme (20.7% versamel en in watertoestande wat as standhoudend, staande, helder en vars beskryf is. ’n Temperatuur-indeks wat vir hierdie spesie bereken is, het dit vyfde in rangorde geplaas van die 12 Bivalvia-spesies wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word op grond van ’n assosiasie met lae omgewingstemperature. ’n Besluitnemingsboom-analise het aangedui dat temperatuur, substratum en waterbronne die mees betekenisvolle bydrae gelewer het tot die daarstelling van die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van U. caffer. Omdat omvattende opnames van varswater Mollusca deur staatsinstansies reeds in die tagtigerjare van die vorige eeu uitgefaseer is en die meerderheid versamelpunte sedertdien nie weer gemonster is nie, is kennis oor hul huidige stand van bewaring en spesiediversiteit gebrekkig. Negatiewe resultate by drie voormalige lokaliteite van U. caffer wat wel intussen deur die outeurs besoek is, dui egter daarop dat die voortbestaan daarvan, soos van sommige verwante spesies elders in die wêreld, bedreig word. Dit word bepleit dat opnames van varswater Mollusca met die gedokumenteerde verspreiding in die databasis van die NVWSV as riglyn, beplan en uitgevoer behoort te word. Die resultate van sulke opnames behoort ’n groot bydrae te lewer om die huidige stand van die verspreiding en spesiediversiteit van

  16. AHM cutting expenses, adding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, S

    1990-04-30

    American Healthcare Management, emerging from bankruptcy protection is cutting corporate costs and expanding into new technology to attract more private-paying patients and lessen dependence on Medicare business.

  17. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  18. Optimization of Cutting Variables in Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueyan; Wu Zhenye; Zhou Guohua

    1996-01-01

    With the three criteria for cutting variables proposed by W. W. Gilbert and K.Hitomi, th is paper analyzes the reasonable selection of cutting variables, and further states the relations among maximum profit-oriented cutting speed,minimum cost-oriented cutting speed and maximum productivity-oriented cutting speed. It puts forward a mathematical model for the optimization of cutting variables in machining.

  19. Pre-logging Treatment of Invasive Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. Promotes Regeneration of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. is invasive in forests of the northeastern USA but little is known of its effects on tree regeneration. We tested whether killing buckthorn stems before logging reduces its post-logging abundance and increases the density and height of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings. Three 0.4 ha plots were clearcut, three were thinned, and three were left as controls. Each plot had previously been divided into three subplots that received different buckthorn treatments during the two years before logging. Buckthorn treatments were (1 stems cut at base five times; (2 stems cut once then heat killed four times; (3 untreated control. Three years post-logging, buckthorn density and stem height were unaffected by logging but equally reduced by the two buckthorn treatments. Buckthorn reduction increased density and height of pine seedlings, and seedling height also increased with logging. In the fifth year post-logging, pine height growth and biomass were greater in clearcut than in thinned treatments, greater in areas of buckthorn removal and, within treated subplots, greater in areas with low buckthorn density than in thickets of recovering buckthorn. Thus, although buckthorn inhibited regenerating pine, pre-logging destruction of buckthorn stems reduced such competition for at least four years.

  20. Shift in fungal communities and associated enzyme activities along an age gradient of managed Pinus sylvestris stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaschenko, Julia; Clemmensen, Karina E; Hagenbo, Andreas; Karltun, Erik; Lindahl, Björn D

    2017-04-01

    Forestry reshapes ecosystems with respect to tree age structure, soil properties and vegetation composition. These changes are likely to be paralleled by shifts in microbial community composition with potential feedbacks on ecosystem functioning. Here, we assessed fungal communities across a chronosequence of managed Pinus sylvestris stands and investigated correlations between taxonomic composition and extracellular enzyme activities. Not surprisingly, clear-cutting had a negative effect on ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity. In contrast, clear-cutting favoured proliferation of saprotrophic fungi correlated with enzymes involved in holocellulose decomposition. During stand development, the re-establishing ectomycorrhizal fungal community shifted in composition from dominance by Atheliaceae in younger stands to Cortinarius and Russula species in older stands. Late successional ectomycorrhizal taxa correlated with enzymes involved in mobilisation of nutrients from organic matter, indicating intensified nutrient limitation. Our results suggest that maintenance of functional diversity in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community may sustain long-term forest production by retaining a capacity for symbiosis-driven recycling of organic nutrient pools.

  1. Bedryf- en organisasiesielkunde - Die grondslag van personeelbestuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Coetzee

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article in People and Profits Whyte (1978 attempts to distinguish between Industrial Psychology and Personnel Management and states that Industrial Psychology is "one specific aspect" of Personnel Management. Whether such difference exists is analysed in terms of Whyte's definition and views of Personnel Management and Industrial Psychology and recent developments in the field of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. It is concluded that differences do exist but that they are not the same as those which Whyte emphasizes. In order to promote common objectives both the similarities and differences should be recognized and close co-operation between Industrial and Organizational psychologists and Personnel Mangers should be encouraged.OpsommingIn 'n onlangse artikel in People and Profits poog Whyte (1978 om 'n onderskeid te tref tussen Bedryfsielkunde en Personeelbestuur en spreek die mening uit dat die Bedryfsielkunde 'n spesifieke aspek van Personeelbestuur is. Of daar wel so 'n onderskeid bestaan word in hierdie artikel ontleed aan die hand van Whyte se definisie en beskouinge van Personeelbestuur en Bedryfsielkunde en die resente ontwikkelinge op die terrein van die Bedryf- en Organisasiesielkunde. Daar word tot die slotsom gekom dat daar wel geringe klemverskille bestaan, maar dat dit nie dieselfde is as die wat Whyte beklemtoon nie. Ten einde die gemeenskaplike doelstellings te bevorder, moet beide die ooreenkomste en verskille erken word en moet noue samewerking tussen Bedryf- en Organisasiesielkundiges en personeelbestuurders aangemoedig word.

  2. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  3. Die andersheid van Die verdwaalde land – die waarheid as storie vertel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hattingh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Die verdwaalde land was written by Abraham Phillips, a so-called Coloured man from a South African working class background; someone who has no knowledge of literary conventions. The question arises: how can such a text be read without its uniqueness being affected by biased preconceptions? This article shows that post-structurally inspired theories on colonial discourse reveal perspectives on the complexity within the simplicity of this story. In this analysis of Die verdwaalde land particular emphasis is placed on identifying the framing strategies through which images and presentations of the Self and Other are created. Literary conventions are exposed as mechanisms which demarcate meaning, which in principle do not differ much from the manipulative strategies which define identity in the real world.Irrespective of nationality and time the line at which light race meets dark is the line at which human sociality is found at the lowest ebb; and wherever that line conies into existence there arc found the darkest shadows which we humans have cast by our injustice and egoism across the earth. (Olive Schreiner - Thoughts on South Africa

  4. Evaluation of the hemostatic and coagulation effects of AUTO CUT and DRY CUT using a computer-controlled cutting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrach, Mara N I; Tolba, Rene H; Voigtländer, Matthias; Neugebauer, Alexander; Enderle, Markus D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate a newly developed computer-controlled cutting system for the generation of standardized resections and to systematically compare the hemostatic properties and tissue effect of 2 cutting modes, namely, AUTO CUT and DRY CUT used in urologic procedures. An isolated perfused kidney model was used to assess blood loss and coagulation depth after resection of tissue specimens of standardized geometry, size, and cutting velocity with a resection loop. Three different effect settings (E1, E3, and E6; 200 W) of the electrosurgical modes AUTO CUT and DRY CUT were compared. Blood loss was determined semiquantitatively by weighing a swab before and after placing it onto the resection area. The coagulation depth was estimated microscopically on cross sections. The computer-controlled cutting system creates resections of standardized geometry and size with a high reproducibility. An effect level-dependent increase in hemostasis and coagulation depth could be demonstrated with the cutting modes DRY CUT and AUTO CUT using this computer-controlled cutting system. The hemostatic effect with DRY CUT is significantly more pronounced than with AUTO CUT (E1, E3: P computer-controlled cutting system creating reproducible resections in combination with the isolated perfused kidney model offers the possibility to systematically investigate bleeding rate and coagulation depth. The stronger hemostatic properties of the DRY CUT mode are more favorable for urologic interventions requiring a higher hemostatic effect than the AUTO CUT mode. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Die sterwende kind in hospitaalvernand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrika de Villiers

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Illness and death of a child is a crisis situation in the family, affecting all members. Parents experience certain universal problems such as denial, feelings of guilt and withdrawal. The dying child is usually aware of his situation and experiences fear and loneliness. He has diverse physical and psychological needs as a result of his illness which must be met by parents and nurses. In caring for the terminally ill child attention must be given to providing: a physical environment conducive to well-being; a consistent emotional climate; communication which should include therapeutic play; a therapeutic program in which various measures are taken to enhance acceptability; physical care where the child is encouraged to help himself as far as possible; psycological and spiritual care to allay his fears and anxiety.

  6. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  7. Variabilidad ambiental y productividad en Pinus halepensis Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El pino carrasco (Pinus halepensis Mill.) es una especie de gran importancia en restauraciones y repoblaciones en la península Ibérica, capaz de subsistir en zonas secas y ambientes desfavorables, y crucial en el estudio del cambio climático al situarse en un enclave tan representativo como la cuenca mediterránea. A pesar de ello, es muy poca la información que se tiene sobre el comportamiento de esta especie. Por este motivo en el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la productividad del pino...

  8. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-29

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  9. Lig op Satan en Satanisme vanuit die Nuwe Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. van Rensburg

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word, in aansluiting by en as voorsetting van prof. Vosloo se "Lig op Satanisme vanuit die Ou Testament" ook in die Nuwe Testament lig op die Satan en Satanisme-verskynsel gesoek. Wat die aard van die inhoud van hierdie artikel betref, probeer ek doelbewus om die stof só aan te bied dat dit gemaklik tot die gemiddelde ernstige Bybelleser kommunikeer. Derhalwe is die aanpak nie akademies-wetenskaplik nie, maar populêr-wetenskaplik.

  10. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  11. Application of response surface methodology for determining cutting force model in turning hardened AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Fnides; M A Yallese; T Mabrouki; J-F Rigal

    2011-02-01

    This experimental study is conducted to determine statistical models of cutting forces in hard turning of AISI H11 hot work tool steel (∼ 50 HRC). This steel is free from tungsten on Cr–Mo–V basis, insensitive to temperature changes and having a high wear resistance. It is employed for the manufacture of highly stressed diecasting moulds and inserts with high tool life expectancy, plastic moulds subject to high stress, helicopter rotor blades and forging dies. The workpiece is machined by a mixed ceramic tool (insert CC650 of chemical composition 70%Al23+30%TiC) under dry conditions. Based on 33 full factorial design, a total of 27 tests were carried out. The range of each parameter is set at three different levels, namely low, medium and high. Mathematical models were deduced by software Minitab (multiple linear regression and response surface methodology) in order to express the influence degree of the main cutting variables such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on cutting force components. These models would be helpful in selecting cutting variables for optimization of hard cutting process. The results indicate that the depth of cut is the dominant factor affecting cutting force components. The feed rate influences tangential cutting force more than radial and axial forces. The cutting speed affects radial force more than tangential and axial forces.

  12. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great significance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

  13. Amensie en demensie met verwysing na die intellek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. W. Deppe

    1958-03-01

    Full Text Available ,,Es ist der Geist der sich den Kórper baut” het Goethe gesê en hy het daardeur die monistiese begrip in die psigiatrie beklemtoon. Dwarsdeur die eeue het die ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis van die mens maar telkens getoon hoedat daar by die mens veral, nie anders gedink kan word dan as 'n psigosomatiese eenheid nie. 

  14. MIDCAB Operationen in Wien - die ersten Erfahrungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny M

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Die sogenannte MIDCAB (minimal invasive direct coronary artery bypass Operation wurde als chirurgische Therapie der koronaren Eingefäßerkrankung in letzter Zeit kontroversiell diskutiert. Ihr klinischer Stellenwert ist weiterhin unklar. Im Zeitraum von April 1996 bis Mai 1998 wurde die MIDCAB-Operation an 57 Patienten an der Abteilung für Herz-Thorax Chirurgie, Universität Wien durchgeführt. Zielgefäße für eine chirurgische Revaskularisierung waren die LAD (n = 52 und die RCA (n = 5. Als arterieller Graft dienten die linke Art. mammaria interna (LAD-Bypass bzw. die Art. gastroepiploica dextra (RCA-Bypass. Als Zugänge wurden limitierte Schnittführungen gewählt, in 91% der Fälle die anterolaterale Thorakotomie und in 9% der subxyphoidale Zugang, die Anastomosierungen erfolgten am schlagenden Herzen ohne Herzlungenmaschine. In 52 Fällen wurde die LIMA (Left internal mammary artery mit der LAD anastomosiert. Bei 3 von 52 Patienten mußte wegen einer intramyokardialen LAD zu einer konventionellen Operation gewechselt werden, in 4 Fällen war eine Revision notwendig. In allen Fällen gab es keinen Todesfall und keinen perioperativen Infarkt. Bei 36 Patienten wurde eine postoperative Kontrollangiographie durchgeführt, es ergab sich eine primäre Offenheitsrate von 96%. In 5 Fällen wurde eine Anastomose zwischen GEA und RCA hergestellt. Es gab keine Konversion, keinen Todesfall und keinen Myokardinfarkt. Drei dieser Patienten wurden postoperativ nachangiographiert, die Bypässe waren gut durchgängig. Zum derzeitigen Zeitpunkt sind alle 57 Patienten klinisch symptomfrei. Nach Überwindung von anfänglichen technischen Schwierigkeiten sind die Ergebnisse mit der MIDCAB-Operation sehr gut. Als potentielles Patientenkollektiv für die Zukunft scheinen sich vor allem Patienten nach multiplen kardiologischen Interventionen an der LAD bzw. der RCA anzubieten.

  15. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  16. Leaf-cutting ant attack in initial pine plantations and growth of defoliated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Aparecida Nickele

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the natural attack by Acromyrmex crassispinus in initial Pinus taeda plantations without control measures against ants, as well as the effect of defoliation in seedlings of P. taeda. Evaluations of the attack of leaf-cutting ants on P. taeda plantations were done monthly in the first six months, then 9 and 12 months after planting. The percentages of plants that were naturally attacked by ants were registered. The effect of defoliation was evaluated by artificial defoliation, simulating the natural patterns of attack by A. crassispinus on P. taeda seedlings. The natural attack of A. crassispinus was greater during the first months after planting, being more intense in the first 30 days. Artificial defoliation indicated that there were no significant losses in diameter and height in plants with less than 75% defoliation. However, there were significant losses in diameter and height in plants with 100% defoliation, independently of the cut of the apical meristem, and also plant death. The control of leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda plantings, in which A. crassispinus is the most frequent leaf-cutting ant, should be intense only at the beginning of planting, since the most severe attacks occur during this time.

  17. Cut Front Geometry Characterization in Cutting Applications of Brass with Abrasive Water Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2010-06-01

    Abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting is an advanced manufacturing process for machining hard to cut materials. In this study, brass-353 samples of different thicknesses were cut by AWJ using different feed rates to identify the relationships between depth of cut (material thickness), feed rate, and deflection of cutting edge geometry. The effects of material thickness on the AWJ cut surface roughness were investigated and discussed. Deflection of cutting edge geometry in AWJ cutting process was assessed. Cutting edge geometry was characterized by analyzing the surface properties of cut samples.

  18. Anfangen, sich die Welt anders vorzustellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fuchs

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband Butler Matters bezeugt Judith Butlers außerordentliche Bedeutung für feministische und queere Studien und Forschung. In elf Beiträgen wird Butlers (frühes Werk von Gender Trouble und Bodies That Matter über Excitable Speech bis zu The Psychic Life of Power betrachtet und sein weit reichender Einfluss quer durch die wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen nachgewiesen. Dargestellt werden auch die kontroverse Rezeption von Butlers Werk sowie die politischen Wirkungen von Butlers Denken. Besonders anregend ist ein zweiteiliges Interview mit Judith Butler, in dem sie auf ein breites Spektrum von Fragen eingeht, die auch wichtige Themen ihrer aktuelleren Werke betreffen.

  19. Die Osteonekrose des Hüftgelenks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizer R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Osteonekrose des Hüftgelenkes entsteht durch eine Ischämie des Hüftkopfes. Diese kann traumatisch bedingt sein oder durch Risikofaktoren wie Kortikosteroide, Alkohol, Blutgerinnungsstörungen, Schwangerschaft sowie entzündliche und systemische Erkrankungen begünstigt werden. Als Sonderform der avaskulären Nekrose wird das Knochenmarködemsyndrom diskutiert. In der Diagnostik hat sich die Magnetresonanztomographie insbesondere wegen der Erfassung des reversiblen Frühstadiums zur Methode der Wahl entwickelt. Die Stadieneinteilung der ARCO unterscheidet zwischen Initialstadium (Stadium 0, reversiblem und irreversiblem Frühstadium (1 und 2, Übergangsstadium (3 und Spätstadium (4. Der Erfolg der verschiedenen Behandlungsmöglichkeiten hängt sehr vom Stadium bei Diagnosestellung ab. Im Frühstadium sowie beim Knochenmarködemsyndrom hat sich die Therapie mit dem Prostazyklinanalogon Iloprost bewährt und die Behandlung durch Hüftkopfbohrung in den Hintergrund gedrängt. Erfolgversprechend sind weiters die Therapien mit Enoxaparin und Bisphosphonaten. In fortgeschrittenen Stadien sind Umstellungsosteotomien und die Verwendung von Knochentransplantaten möglich. Bei großen Läsionen im Spätstadium ist die Hüftendoprothetik die Therapie der Wahl.

  20. Goethe und die Kindsmörderin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Künning

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Am 28. November 1783 wurde in Weimar die vierundzwanzigjährige Dienstmagd Johanna Catharina Höhn wegen der Tötung ihres neugeborenen Kindes hingerichtet. Maßgeblich beteiligt am Todesurteil war Johann Wolfgang von Goethe als Mitglied des Beratungsgremiums des Herzogs von Weimar Carl Gustav. Äußerst kritisch beurteilt Rüdiger Scholz in seinem Text die Goetherezeption, die bis in die Gegenwart hinein den Schriftsteller idealisiert und Rechtfertigungen für seine Mitwirkung am Schicksal der Johanna Catharina Höhn sucht.

  1. Die religieuse grondslag van ons omgewingskrisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Hugo

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Die mensdom is besig om sy habitat op so ’n wyse te misbruik en te besoedel dat sy toekoms op hierdie planet duister is. In die woorde van White “.. surely no creature other than man has ever managed to foul its nest in such short order”. Hierdie stelling is nie oordrewe nie soos blyk uit die vloedgolf van literatuur wat tans verskyn oor hierdie kwessie. Miskien die sprekendste titel onder hierdie bronne wat onlangs verskyn het, is dié onder redaksie van Anderson: “OMEGA: Murder of the Ecosystem and Suicide of Man.”

  2. Die samestelling en evaluering van 'n groepfasiliteringskursus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and evaluation of a group facilitation course. The personality profile of a group facilitator is conceptualised as consisting of group knowledge and skills, interpersonal effectiveness, and personality traits. A group facilitation course directed at the stimulation of this profile was developed. The course improved the skills of praticipants to respond to process issues in a group, as well as their knowledge of group facilitation. Their empathy, respect, genuineness and concreteness improved significantly. Although changes in spontaneity, time competence and existentiality were found after completing the course, these changes cannot be ascribed to the course. Organisational factors may impede the development of the personality traits of the group facilitator. Opsomming Die persoonlikheidsprofiel van die groepfasiliteerder word gekonseptualiseer as groepkennis en -vaardighede, interpersoonike effektiwiteit, en persoonlikheidskenmerke. 'n Groepfasiliteringskursus gerig op die stimulering van hierdie profiel is ontwikkel. Die kursus het daartoe bygedra om deelnemers se vaardigheid om op prosesaangeleenthede in 'n groep te reageer, asook om hul kennis van groepfasilitering te verbeter. Deelnemers se empatie, respek, egtheid en konkreetheid het beduidend toegeneem. Alhoewel veranderinge ten opsigte van spontaneïteit, tydsbewustheid en eksistensialiteit gevind is, kan hierdie veranderinge nie aan die kursus toegeskryf word nie. Organisasiefaktore kan struikelblokke wees in die weg van die ontwikkeling van die persoonliheidskenmerke van die groepfasiliteerder.

  3. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE MILITÊRE AKADEMIE, 1950 - 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Visser

    2012-02-01

    part of the debate. Also in dispute, was the location of the Academy at Saldanha, rather than in the military heart-land in Pretoria. By interpreting the academic training needs of the Defence Force correctly and positioning itself accordingly, the Academy survived that crisis. Thereafter, the Academy time and again adapted to the changing military and socio-political environment and strove towards ever increasing relevance to the Defence Force. In this way female and non-European students were admitted to the Military Academy, whilst the way was also paved for the admittance of students from other African states. In anticipation of the new political dispensation in South Africa, a concerted effort was launched in 1990 to make the student body more representative of the South Africa population in terms of race and sex. The Military Academy has through the years established itself as a credible military academic institution and has made a significant contribution towards military professionalism in South Africa. By 1990 it favourably positioned itself to continue that role in future. Though forming only a small percentage of the total officer corps, the Academy graduates have gradually been distributed at all levels of the' officer corps and have dominated the top posts in the SA Defence Force since the early 1970's. They were consequently well placed in 1990 to play a significant role in preparing the Defence Force for the so-called "New South Africa". ****** AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid-Afrikaanse Militêre Akademie is op 1 April 1950 gestig met die doel om die militêrakademiese opleiding van kandidaatoffisiere hier te lande op dieselfde peil as in die buiteland te bring en dit terselfdertyd tot universiteitsvlak te verhef. Die Minister van Verdediging, F.C. Erasmus, wou egter ook die Akademie gebruik as instrument om die Afrikaner sy regmatige plek, naas Engelssprekendes, in die offisierskorps te laat inneem en sodoende die oorwegend Britse karakter van die

  4. Ideologiese normverplasings en die Afrikaanse handwoordeboek van die negentigerjare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carstens

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Ideological norm replacement and the Afrikaans desk dictionary of the ninetiesIn South Africa the past decade has been marked by extensive sociopolitical changes and by concomitant linguistic changes. These changes may be regarded as instances of norm replacement - a process during the course of which a norm or a set of norms is gradually replaced by another norm or set of norms. It is maintained that the standard synchronic dictionaries of a language not only have the obligation to reflect lexicalised norm replacements, but also to make projections with regard to future use. Two standard synchronic desk dictionaries of Afrikaans, namely the eighth edition of Verklarende Afrikaanse Woordeboek (1992 and the third edition of Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (1994 are explored with special regard to their reflection of norm replacements within the domains of race and political ideology. It is shown that the compilers of these dictionaries consciously and sincerely aimed at removing all racial bias but that they failed to record the diversity of meaning within the political lexicon and the semantic shifts which have occurred within that lexicon during the past decade.

  5. Verskyningsvorme van die Simbolisme in die ouer Afrikaanse vertelkuns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Roos

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available As the Symbolist movement has primarily been linked to the poetic mode, the association of symbolism with prose writing, and particularly with traditional Afrikaans prose, raises many questions, From the writings of older critics it appears that whereas they did identify symbolic patterns in the work of contemporaries, the presence of a specific Symbolist influence is either not recognized at all, or played down and evaluated negatively. However, several of the early authors themselves, e.g. Leipoldt, Grosskopf and Marais, referred to, or admitted to being influenced by the great 19th-century Symbolist poets. The most marked example of Symbolist writing is evident in the short stories of Marais (“Die Reënbul” and Van Melle (Denker kom kyk. In all the cases where the symbolist influence can be traced, several common characteristics are evident: the authors remained outside the mainstream of traditional Afrikaans prose writing, the lyrical tone and a decadent mood dominate, and in these early works signs of the innovative “Sestiger” prose are already evident.

  6. Handelinge in die erediens: Die verryking van die liturgie deur musiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsabé Kloppers

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Actions in the worship service: Enriching liturgy through musicThe worship service in the Reformed Churches in South Africa has of late come under pressure. On the one hand it is experienced as too rigid and “traditional”. On the other hand superficial forms of renewal create tension. In this article the worship service and the meaning of the liturgical actions in the worship service of the Afrikaans Reformed Churches are discussed, and related to world-wide ecumenical tendencies. It is argued that certain liturgical actions are a necessary part of the ritual of the worship service. The structure needs inner logic, although there should also be some degree of flexibility. Hymns and music offer the means for a more creative presentation of liturgical actions and traditional forms. Suggestions to enrich the liturgy through the use of hymns and liturgical forms in the Liedboek van die Kerk (2001 are offered.

  7. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  8. Cutting inlays with a laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaczyna, Irena; Grabczewski, Zbigniew

    1995-03-01

    To cut inlay from a stack of glued veneer a CO2 HEBAR-1A laser was used. For setting optimal working parameters of the set used in industrial production of inlay the following elements were defined: the shape and dimensions of the cutting fissure, the dependence between the width of the cutting fissure and the speed with which the laser beam moves and the total thickness of the stack of veneer sheets, the application of the laser for cutting various patterns. Computer aided designing and computer steering of the laser beam enables fast and precise production of large numbers of inlay elements not only from wood but also from other materials like glass, stone, metal, etc. Taking into consideration the high running cost of such a laser set and its very big production only few factories or even one factory in the given area could produce inlay ready for gluing. Further investigation should be carried out on this field particularly considering the lowering of costs not only in inlay production but generally where cutting of wood is concerned.

  9. Annual shoot growth components related to growth of Pinus brutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Isik, Kani; Yildirim, Tolga; Li, Bailian

    2002-01-01

    Shoot elongation patterns of Pinus brutia Ten. were studied in six natural populations and 10 open-pollinated families within each population. The data were collected from a provenance-progeny trial that was thinned at Ages 13 and 17 years. Annual height increment was partitioned into first flush (spring shoot) and subsequent flushes (summer shoots) and the contribution of each to annual height increment was measured from Ages 7 to 17. Spring shoot elongation patterns were similar in all populations and families for 9 out of 10 years. In contrast, at all ages, populations differed significantly in total summer shoot growth and number of summer flushes. Families within populations differed in number of summer flushes in 7 out of 10 years. Summer shoot growth was the major cause of the differences in annual height growth among the six populations. Significant and high correlations were observed between summer shoot growth at Ages 7 to 12 and height at Age 13. A population from near the middle of the species' altitudinal range had more summer flushes than populations from higher or lower elevations, indicating an opportunistic growth pattern. Compared with mid-elevation populations, low- and high-elevation populations had more conservative growth patterns that depended mainly on growth of spring shoots. We conclude that summer shoot growth can serve as an explanatory variable to predict height growth of populations. Differences in shoot elongation patterns among Pinus brutia populations may be useful for selecting seed sources and for gene conservation programs.

  10. Emerging Needle Blight Diseases in Atlantic Pinus Ecosystems of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ortíz de Urbina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Red band needle blight caused by Dothistroma septosporum and D. pini, and brown spot needle blight caused by Lecanosticta acicola provoke severe and premature defoliation in Pinus, and subsequent reduction of photosynthetic surfaces, vitality, and growth in young and adult trees. The recurrent damage results in branch and tree death. Until recently, pine needle blight diseases have had only minor impacts on native and exotic forest trees in the North of Spain, but in the past five years, these pathogen species have spread widely and caused severe defoliation and mortality in exotic and native plantations of Pinus in locations where they were not detected before. In an attempt to understand the main causes of this outbreak and to define the effectiveness of owners’ management strategies, four research actions were implemented: a survey of the management activities implemented by the owners to reduce disease impact, the evaluation of specific symptoms and damage associated with infection, and the identification of the causative pathogenic species and their reproductive capacity. Morphological characteristics of the fungus and molecular identification were consistent with those of Lecanosticta acicola and Dothistroma spp., D. septosporum, D. Pini, and both mating types were present for the three identified pathogens. The local silvicultural management performed, mainly pruning and thinning, was not resulting in the expected improvement. The results of this study can be applied to establish guidelines for monitoring and controlling the spread of needle blight pathogens.

  11. Modelagem do crescimento e de biomassa individual de Pinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Schikowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo testar modelos matemáticos para estimativas de biomassa de diferentes compartimentos de Pinus spp., a partir de variáveis de fácil mensuração. Os dados utilizados são provenientes de plantios localizados no centro sul do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados de peso seco total e parcial de 35 árvores de Pinus spp., obtidos por meio do método destrutivo direto. De cada árvore amostrada foram medidos também o CAP (circunferência à altura do peito e a altura total. Os modelos para estimativa de biomassa de folhagem não apresentaram bom desempenho, verificado pelos indicadores de ajuste. Entretanto, para os compartimentos: galhos, raízes, casca, fuste e para biomassa total, os ajustes apresentaram elevados valores de R² e baixos valores de Syx%. O modelo de crescimento de Richards obteve melhor desempenho que os demais testados para a estimativa da biomassa total.

  12. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  13. Kontekstuele bepalers by die beplanning van skoolwoordeboeke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman L. Beyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie artikel is om tot die metaleksikografiese gesprek oor skoolwoordeboeke as 'n tipe pedagogiese woordeboek by te dra. Die fokus is op kontekstuele bepalers wat by die beplanning van skoolwoordeboeke verreken behoort te word: Binne die konteks van 'n veeltalige Namibië word enkele onderwyskundige sisteme verken wat 'n impak op die ontwerp van gedrukte skoolwoordeboeke vir die sekondêre skoolfase kan hê, naamlik skoolkurrikula, die nasionale taalbeleid vir skole en die beleid van leerdergerigte onderwys. Hierdie artikel voer ook aan dat die voor die hand liggende teikengebruiker van 'n skoolwoordeboek, naamlik die leerder, nie die enigste teikengebruiker is nie: Die onderwyser word as medeteikengebruiker gestel wanneer dit by die gebruik van woordeboeke in die onderrigleersituasie kom. Verskillende tipes gevalle van woordeboekgebruik in die mikrokonteks van die onderrigleersituasie word onderskei, naamlik woordeboekonderrig, woordeboekgeïntegreerde taalonderrig en woordeboekgeondersteunde taalonderrig. Hierdie tipes gebruik behoort komponente van 'n woordeboekpedagogie te wees, wat uiteindelik behoort te lei tot outonome woordeboekgebruik en die gepaardgaande vestiging van 'n individuele woordeboekkultuur by die leerder. Die leksikograaf moet al hierdie aspekte inreken wanneer 'n skoolwoordeboek beplan word ten einde die nodige leksikografiese vernuwing in te voer. Enkele voorstelle vir sodanige vernuwings en vir verdere navorsing word ten slotte aangebied.

    Sleutelwoorde: GEBRUIKERSGERIGTE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, KONTEKS, LEERDER, LEERDERGERIGTE ONDERWYS, LEERWOORDEBOEK, LEKSIKOGRAAF, METALEKSIKOGRAFIE, NASLAANWOORDEBOEK, ONDERWYSER, PEDAGOGIESE WOORDEBOEK, SISTEEM, SKOOLWOORDEBOEK, TAALBELEID, TEIKENGEBRUIKER, WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, WOORDEBOEKGEÏNTEGREERDE TAALONDERRIG, WOORDEBOEKONDERSTEUNDE TAALONDERRIG, WOORDEBOEKONDERRIG, WOORDEBOEKPEDAGOGIE

    ABSTRACT: Contextual Determiners in the Planning of School

  14. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  15. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  16. Application of water jetfor cutting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stoić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of polymeric materials, during thermal cutting processes it leads to their melting, and therefore appear errors in the final product. This paper presents a “cold” process of cutting polyamide 6 ie. SIPAS 60, where there are given the characteristics of materials and guidelines for satisfactory quality of process. The authors made the cut experiment 32 were they changed the cutting parameters (cutting pressure, cutting feed and abrasive mass flow; the surface roughness was measured by the depth of material, because the roughness changes with the thickness of the material to be cut.

  17. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  18. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  19. Optimum Vegetation Conditions for Successful Establishment of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Pitt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 10th-growing season performance of planted eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings was evaluated in response to herbaceous and woody vegetation control treatments within a clearcut and two variants of the uniform shelterwood regeneration system (single vs. multiple future removal cuts. Herbaceous vegetation control involved the suppression of grasses, forbs, ferns and low shrubs for the first 2 or 4 growing seasons after planting. Deciduous woody vegetation control treatments, conducted in combination with the herbaceous treatments within a response-surface design, involved the permanent removal of all tall shrubs and deciduous trees at the time of planting, at the end of the 2nd or 5th growing seasons, or not at all. In general, the average size of planted pine was related positively to the duration of herbaceous vegetation control and negatively to delays in woody control. White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck altered these trends, reducing the height of pine on plots with little or no overtopping deciduous woody vegetation or mature tree cover. Where natural pine regeneration occurred on these plots, growth was similar but subordinate to the planted pine. Data from the three sites indicate that at least 60% of planted pine may be expected to reach an age-10 height target of 2.5 m when overtopping cover (residual overstory + regenerating deciduous is managed at approximately 65% ± 10%, and total herbaceous cover is suppressed to levels not exceeding 50% in the first five years. On productive sites, this combination may be difficult to achieve in a clearcut, and requires fairly rigorous vegetation management in shelterwood regeneration systems. Currently, synthetic herbicides offer the only affordable and effective means of achieving such vegetation control.

  20. Osmotic measurements in whole megagametophytes and embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Gerald S; Johnson, Shannon

    2009-06-01

    Water potential (Psi) and osmotic potential (Psis) were measured weekly through the sequence of seed development in megagametophytes of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A Wescor 5500XRS vapor pressure osmometer, modified with a cycle hold switch, was used to measure Psi for whole megagametophytes containing embryos. The Psi measurements for megagametophytes with embryos removed were also attempted but readings were distorted due to cell lysates from the cut surfaces. Six seasonal sets of megagametophyte Psi profiles were generated. Megagametophytes from most of the trees examined showed a consistent Psi pattern: low measurements of -1.0 to -0.75 MPa during early embryo development in late June to early July when embryo Stages 1-2 occur; an increase for one to several weeks to levels of -0.5 to -0.75 MPa, beginning at Stages 3-5 when apical dome formation occurs; followed by a steady drop from -0.85 to -1.7 to -2.0 MPa from Stage 6 onward from late August until just before cone seed release. The Psis was measured for supernatant from centrifuged frozen-thawed megagametophyte tissue (embryos removed). Megagametophyte Psis profiles were similar for seeds analyzed from two trees and resembled Psi observations starting low, rising around Stages 4-7 and then undergoing a major reduction indicating a strong solute accumulation beginning at Stages 7-9.1. Somatic embryos stop growth prematurely in vitro at Stages 8-9.1. The major change in the accumulation of megagametophyte solutes at Stages 8-9.1 correlates with the halt in somatic embryo maturation and suggests that identifying, quantifying and using the major natural soluble compounds that accumulate during mid- to late-stage seed development may be important to improve conifer somatic embryo maturation.

  1. Secondary vegetation succession on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiveau, Daniel

    2000-07-01

    The effects of different harvesting and site preparation methods on competing vegetation were studied in nine jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Six different treatments plus glyphosate herbiciding and no herbiciding were applied: 1) tree-length harvesting followed by trenching, and full-tree harvesting followed by five site preparations, 2) no site preparation, 3) trenching and 4) blading and compaction as well as blading followed by two planting densities, 5) 1.2m and 6) 2m. Competing vegetation was assessed preharvest and years 1, 2, 3, and 5 postharvest. Data was also available from nine juvenile sites as well as nine semimature sites. Data collection consisted of coverage values of each species as well as structural data for main life forms in height classes. Growth and health data of the planted jack pine seedlings were also available. The data was analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), diversity indices and tabular analysis. Three years after the herbicide application there is no difference between the total coverage in the halfplots that have received herbiciding and those that have not, but an alteration of the relative abundance of species groups has developed; glyphosate herbiciding promotes grasses over shrubs. When no site preparation is applied, shrubs increase and compete with the seedlings, whose growth is cut in half compared to the ones that have been site prepared by trenching. Five years after blading, and blading plus compaction, there is still very little vegetation in the research plots, but there is no reduction of the survival rate and growth of the jack pine seedlings. More dense planting after this treatment leads to more competing vegetation, probably due to increased availability of moisture. Grasses do not seem to be affected by compaction and pioneer mosses are promoted by this treatment but compaction leads to a significant reduction of the total coverage of competing vegetation

  2. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Elvira-Recuenco

    Full Text Available There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival. These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  3. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...

  4. Vokaalverplasing in die Afrikaans van die Griekwas van Griekwaland-Wes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J.P. Henning

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Afrikaans is die totaal van al sy dialekte — Griekwa-afrikaans en Standaardafrikaans is maar twee voorbeelde daarvan. Chambers (1980:3 sê baie duidelik: “… a language is a collection of mutually intelligible dialects” . Hierdie definisie het die voordeel dat dit dialekte kan karakteriseer as subslandaarvorme van ’n taal en dit kan ook weer die kriterium wees om deur middel van vergelyking die variasies op te spoor.

  5. Die Motions of New Forging Process Using IntermediateDie Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The die motions of a new forging process for automation with an intermediate die assembly called hamburger were analyzed through high-speed video pictures. The results showed that the upper die that is assembled in the hamburger and retained over the lower die collides few times with the ram and workpiece, but sound products can be obtained with less sticking in spite of the lowered impacts of hit.

  6. Goethe almost died of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A J; Hummel, G

    1999-12-01

    In the year of 1805, Goethe almost died of urosepsis. His urological problems were not diseases arising from full health but a new variation in a life accompanied by illnesses. Some sources date the first colics he experienced to the year 1795 and others say 1805. The most dramatic period in the course of his illness was in February, when he suffered from fever of such an extent that one could speak of urosepsis. Recovery took place slowly and was accompanied by minor relapses. Nothing about this is written down in his work. On the advice of his doctors, Goethe undertook a cure in Lauchstädt in July and August. The report of his consultant, Professor Johann Christian Reil, on his problems in the field of urology remained undiscovered until 1937. Professor Reil recommended treatment with thermae carolinae, aqua calcis, soap soda crystallisata, herbae subastringentes, and uva ursi, among other measures. With increasing age, Goethe's colics disappeared. The passing of a stone has never been described. Whereas Goethe hinted about medical problem other than those reported herein, the urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned. Nonetheless, literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting from the aspect of both the history of medicine and the history of culture.

  7. Correlation methods in cutting arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.

  8. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  9. Bylaag 3 tot „Koer&’’, April en Junie, 1955: Die belang van toegepaste geologie en die werk van die geoloog in ons mineral afhanklike besawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Ackermann

    1955-03-01

    Full Text Available Die toekomstigc ontwikkeling, welvaart en sekuriteit van ons land en die handhawing en verbetering van ons huidige lewenstandaard hang tot’n groot mate af van die doeltreffendste gebruik van ons oorvloedige mineraalhulpbronne, maar beperkte watervoorrade.

  10. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  11. Some soil properties and microbial biomass of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea and Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the Eastern Mediterranean coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacide Kizildag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salt-affected soils occupy wide areas that have ecological importance in semi-arid and arid regions. Excessive amounts of salt have adverse effects on soil physical and chemical properties and also on the microbiological processes. The soils of Pinus maritima, Pinus pinea, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were found to be under salinity stress in the present study area. Thus, the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus contents, microbial biomass, and carbon mineralization were determined in the soils sampled from the Tarsus-Karabucak Forest of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Turkey. Method: Carbon mineralization of all samples was measured by the CO2 respiration method over 30 d at 28�C and constant moisture. Results: There were no significant differences in the carbon mineralization among the soils. The average fungi count in 1 g of air dried soils of E. camaldulensis, P. pinea, and P. maritima were found to be a 72000 colony forming unit (cfu/g, 25300 cfu/g, and 28500 cfu/g, respectively. The total bacterial counts were 4x103 cfu/g, 10x103 cfu/g, and 7x103 cfu/g and the counts of anaerobic bacteria were 17800 cfu/g, 42900 cfu/g, and 27300 cfu/g, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that salt, as an ecological factor, had no effect on microbial activity. This may be as a result of heavy rains which decreased the salt concentrations of the soil in the sampling region.

  12. Metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van wetenskaplike navorsing in die Liturgiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend J. de Klerk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Om die nuwe ontwikkelings in die Liturgiek grondig te kan beoordeel, moet na die metateoretiese onderbou van die verskillende standpunte gekyk word. Wanneer ’n navorser op die terrein van die Liturgiek nie hierdie wendings in sy metateoretiese vertrekpunte verreken nie, kan sodanige navorser of meegesleur word deur hierdie denkrigtings, of aan die ander kant, impulsief reaksionêr ’n onwetenskaplike oordeel daaroor uitspreek. Die navorsingsartikel het daarom ten doel om die eie reformatoriese metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van die Liturgiek te probeer formuleer en om vas te stel wat die invloed daarvan is in die konteks van wendings in die denkklimaat asook die leefwêreld en kultuur waarin die wetenskaplike taak uitgevoer word. Hierdie navorsingsartikel het verder ten doel om ’n voorbeeld daar te stel hoe hierdie metateoretiese beskouing ’n navorsingsprojek kan stuur. Die wyse waarop God in die doop werksaam is en die effek daarvan op vergifnis en versoening in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, is die voorbeeld van hoe ’n navorsingsprojek in die wetenskap van die Liturgiek aangepak kan word.

  13. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  14. Die Gattung Stenothoe (Crustacea, Amphipoda) im Mittelmeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapp-Schickel, Gertraud

    1976-01-01

    Ausgangssituation dieser Untersuchung war die Kenntnis von 11 nominellen Stenothoe-Arten im Mittelmeer. Von diesen wurde St. bosphorana Sowinski, 1898, seit der Beschreibung nicht mehr wiedergefunden, von St. dactylipotens Chevreux, 1908, kannte man nur das ♀, schließlich waren die Arten im Komplex

  15. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  16. Killing and letting die: a defensible distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, W

    1996-04-01

    The distinction between killing and letting die is investigated and clarified. It is then argued that in most cases, though not in all, it is worse to kill than to let die. In euthanasia the significance of the distinction is diminished, but still important.

  17. Puzzling cases about killing and letting die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favor, C D

    1996-01-01

    Discussions of euthanasia often appeal to the distinction between killing people and letting them die. Favor asks whether this distinction is morally important--in particular, whether killing is worse than merely letting someone die, even when the motivations and consequences are the same. She explores our moral intuitions via a discussion of various subtly different hypothetical examples.

  18. DIE SAGD - SY ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... totstandkoming van die mediese diens is aan It- kol M,C, Roland ... mediese hulp aan verskeie regi- mente op die Rand te gee, Lt-kol D,W, Johnston. 38 .... lent work you have done with us, all of it con- structive and under the ...

  19. Abraham Kuyper en volksideologie onder die Afrikaners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smit

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Om die waarheid te sê, Kuyper is lank nie meer gewild in Gereformeerde geledere in Suid-Afrika nie. Deels moet dit gewyt word aan die assosiasie van apartheidsideologie met Kuyper se idee van skeppingsordeninge (’n idee wat ook verbind kan word met Hitler se regverdiging van sy uitwissingsoperasies.

  20. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  1. Die Königlich Zoologische Gesellschaft „Natura Artis Magistra” und die Tierpsychologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierens de Haan, J.A.

    1939-01-01

    Die Königlich Zoologische Gesellschaft „Natura Artis Magistra”, deren Hundertjahrfeier wir diesen Sommer feiern, hat sich von Anfang an die Aufgabe gestellt, mehr als die Eigentümerin eines Gartens zu sein, in welchem mehr oder weniger seltene und kuriose Tiere für das Publikum zur Schau gestellt si

  2. Die vraag na ’n nuwe belydenis, met besondere verwysing na die ‘Proeve’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Uit Matt. 16:16–18 blyk dat daar ’n allernouste verband deur Christus gelê is tussen kerk en belydenis. Die belydenis staan ook in onmiddellike verband met die bediening van die sleutelmag (vgl. vr. 84 H. Kateg..

  3. Die Kasteel "De Goede Hoop" (1921-1923 : Die verhaal van 'n reddingsdaad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Die Kasteel De Goede Hoop is ongetwyfeld die belangrikste historiese monument waaroor OIlS vandag beskik. Nie aileen was dit gedurende die Nederlandse en Britse koloniale tydperke in ons geskiedenis belangrik as 'n setelplaas vir siviele en militêre bestuur nie, maar ook is dieselfde vyfhoekige militêre bouwerk, militêrhistories beskou, besonder waardevol.

  4. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roodt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of voluntary, controllable labour turnover. Labour turnover for individuals can be classified as voluntary or non-voluntary, whereas labour turnover in organisations can be categorised as controllable or non-controllable. Data on total labour turnover in a particular service organisation indicated the existence of a possible problem. Voluntary, controllable labour turnover between 1 January 1988 and 31 March 1991 for technicians only within this particular organisation was closely scrutinised by calculating the direct recruitment, training, and separation costs for this period. The replacement costs of the technical population alone (N = 1594 for the last-mentioned period were approximately R94 million and could possibly increase to as high as R470 million if the hidden costs are also considered. If these costs are projected to the period 1980-1991 in which there were 60284 voluntary leavers, the total labour turnover costs for this organisation could be astronomical. It is clear from the above that preventative strategies by management could reduce the negative consequences of labour turnover and improve the prospects of a positive outcome. Opsomming Arbeidomset kan vir individue as vrywillig of nie-vrywillig geklassifiseer word; daarenteen kan arbeidomset vir organisasies as beheerbaar of nie-beheerbaar gekategoriseer word. Gegewens oor totale arbeidomset in "n bepaalde diensorganisasie het op die bestaan van 'n moontlike probleem gewys. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset van slegs tegnici is vir die periode 1 Januarie 1988 tot 31 Maart 1991 in die betrokke organisasie nader ondersoek, deur die direkte verkrygings-, opieidings- en skeidingskoste van tegniciverlaters vir hierdie tydperk te bereken. Die vervangingskoste van slegs die tegnicipopulasie (N = 1594 vir die laasgenoemde tydperk het sowat R94 miljoen beloop en kon selfs so hoog soos R470 miljoen wees as die verskuilde kostes ook verreken is. Indien hierdie kostes

  5. Etiese perspektiewe op haatspraak in die lig van die derde gebod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobus M. (Koos Vorster

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel fokus op die implikasies van die derde gebod met betrekking tot haatspraak in Suid-Afrika (SA vandag. Die artikel gaan uit van die standpunt dat die name van God op sy wese dui. Die name van God soos dit in die bybelse openbaringsgeskiedenis ontwikkel word, druk die gemeenskapskarakter van God se verhouding met mense en die skepping uit. Die betekenis van die name kulmineer in die Nuwe-Testamentiese uitdrukkings Vader en God is liefde. Alle verbale gedrag wat hierdie gemeenskaps- en liefdesverhouding inhibeer, oortree die derde gebod. Die misbruik van die Naam van God vind onder andere plaas wanneer mense, wat na die beeld van God geskep is, gedegradeer word deur haatspraak, omdat sodanige degradering die gemeenskap en liefde tussen God en die mens skend. Ten slotte word sekere gevalle van haatspraak soos dit vandag in Suid-Afrika voorkom, teologies-eties belig teen die agtergrond van die betekenis van die derde gebod. Hierdie vorms sluit religieuse, rassistiese, xenofobiese, seksistiese en homofobiese haatspraak in.This article focuses on the implications of the third commandment for hate speech in modern-day South Africa. The article contends that the names of God are expressions of his Being. The names of God as they are developed in the biblical history of revelation express his creation of covenantal community and restored relations with humankind and creation. The meaning of the names of God culminates in the New Testament expressions Father and God is love. Verbal actions that inhibit the new community created by God or violate love transgress the third commandment. Misuse of the name of God occurs among others when people, created in the image of God, are verbally degraded by hate speech because such degradation violates the community of love between God and humankind. In conclusion, the article indicates forms of hate speech in South Africa that should be dealt with in the light of the third commandment. These are acts

  6. Die funksionaliteit van die martelaarsverhale in Victor van Vita se Historia Persecutionis (HP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico P. Swartz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Victor van Vita het geglo dat die Vandale se vervolging van die Christene in Noord-Afrika (429–489 n.C. ’n straf van God was. Die Christene in Noord-Afrika was volgens hom immoreel en het losbandige lewens gelei. Lyding of marteling is hiervolgens ’n natuurlike resultaat van die mens se sonde. Victor verklaar in Pauliniese konteks dat die sondige liggaam deur middel van marteling vernietig word en dat die mens nie meer slaaf van die sonde sal wees nie. Victor wil dus die persepsie by die leser tuisbring dat marteling ’n goddelike en verlossende kwaliteit behels. Die uitbeelding van die martelaars se leefwyse moet die leser aanspoor om hulle dade na te streef. Hieromtrent bied die martelaarverhale ’n vierledige funksie vir die handhawing van morele waardes in die burgerlike samelewing. Dié funksies vergestalt die etiese, eksemplariese, filosofiese en aansporende dimensies van die martelaarsverhale in die Historia Persecutionis. Op grond hiervan is die martelaarsverhale in die Historia Persecutionis nie net as ’n literêre werk nie, maar dra dit ook by tot onderrig in die sedeleer.The functionality of the martyrs’ accounts in Victor of Vita’s Historia Persecutionis (HP. Victor of Vita believed that the Vandal persecution of the Christians in North Africa (429–489 AD was a visitation of God to punish them for their immoral and dissolute life. In this context, suffering and torture are the logical results of profligacy which Victor explains in Paulinian terms as a means of destroying the human body and thus releasing mankind from bondage to sin. Victor therefore advances arguments to convince the reader that torture contains both divine and redeeming qualities. The life of the martyr is portrayed as an encouragement so that the reader may emulate this conduct. The martyr narratives provide four measures for the preservation of moral values in civil society. They embody the ethical, exemplary, philosophical and stimulant dimensions

  7. Killing, letting die, and simple conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, H M

    1989-01-01

    Proponents of the moral equivalence of killing and letting die argue that in cases of simple conflict, where one agent must either perform a positive act and kill one person, or not perform that act and allow another person to die, the agent's alternatives are clearly morally equivalent. Malm rejects this view in a three part essay. He argues that in cases of simple conflict, the acts of killing and letting die are morally different, and that killing is not in itself worse than letting die. Malm considers and rejects the suggestion that the agent should decide randomly between the two alternatives. He concludes that while simple conflict cases require us to recognize a morally significant difference between killing and letting die, they do not require us to recognize a morally significant difference between acting and refraining.

  8. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  9. Research on Forging Die Design Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenlei; FAN Yushun

    2006-01-01

    Forging die design is heavily dependent on engineers' experiences. But traditional AI technologies can barely provide a standard knowledge representation style for knowledge transferring. This paper introduces ontology into forging die design. 3-layer forging die design ontology is built, which includes Meta-ontology, Domain-ontology and Bottom ontology. Further, by conceptualization, the concepts and their relations are formally addressed by primitives such as Term, Relation and Function etc, which are explicitly expressed by concept tree. Bottom ontology uses Knowledge Item and Prototype to represent and capture general knowledge for knowledge reuse and share. Forging die design ontology building approach is discussed for standard knowledge representation, knowledge mine and knowledge driven CAD design etc. And OWL language is employed for integration among different domain ontologies integration. Finally a locomotive forging die KBE system is presented to demonstrate this approach.

  10. Moyamoya disease; Die Moyamoya-Erkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Roth, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2005-05-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic progressive vasculopathy characterized by slowly progressive narrowing involving the distal internal carotid artery and the proximal circle of Willis. Collateral vessels develop to compensate for the slowly progressive stenosis. These enlarged collaterals appear as a ''puff of smoke'' on angiography, which gives the disease its name. This review discusses the clinical manifestation, imaging findings, and angiographic features. (orig.) [German] Die Moyamoya-Erkrankung ist eine idiopathische progressive Vaskulopathie, die durch eine langsam progrediente Stenosierung der distalen A. carotis interna und der proximalen Arterien des Circulus arteriosus Wilisii charakterisiert wird. Kollaterale Gefaesse hypertrophieren, um die progressive Stenosierung auszugleichen. In der Angiographie zeigen diese Kollateralen ein ''nebelartiges'' Erscheinungsbild, was der Erkrankung ihren Namen gab. In diesem Review werden das klinische Bild, die Bildgebung sowie die angiographischen Eigenschaften der Erkrankung diskutiert. (orig.)

  11. Die Krakauer Kirche von Karmeliten und Karmelitaninnen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szymon Wronski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten Karmelitinnen Zum Heiligen Josef. Ein glücklicher Auftakt und somit die charakteristische Einführung in das 20. Jh. für den Kirchenbau von Krakau war die Errichtung der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche an der Lobzowska-Straße 40, in der die Architekten (Tadeusz Stryjeński (1849-1943 - Projektant der Kirche und Franciszek Mączyński (1874-1947 - Ausführer des Bauprojektes mit eigenen Verbesserungen die historisch- eklektizistischen Formen d.h. die mittelalterlichen Formen vor allem des sog. Übergangsstils vereinfachten. Die Kirche, die in den Jahren 1903-1905 errichtet wurde, steht inmitten vom Baukomplex des Klosters, dessen Grundriss das Quadrat ist49. Der Kirchenbau ist ein dem Gesamtbau des Klosters eingefügter Längsraum. Hinter dem Chor liegt das Oratorium des Konvents. Das Material Backstein (mit Verwendung von Stein erinnert an die Baukunst eines der besten Architekten jener Zeit, nämlich Teodor Talowskis (1857-1910, der viele Kirchen in Südpolen, aber auch viele Bürgerhäuser nicht nur in Krakau im ausgehenden 19. Jh. baute. Die Architektur der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche ist immer noch im Malerischen begriffen. Aber die Vereinfachung der historischen Formen führt zu ihrer „Beruhigung” und dadurch zur Wuchtigkeit des Ausdrucks. Bemerkenswert ist die in dieser Zeit (in der Anlage noch seltene ausgewogene Proportionierung des Baukörpers. Das methodische Prinzip jener Zeit ist der Kontrast. Im Kontrast zu den gedrungenen und wuchtigen Formen des Baukörpers stehen z.B. die sich verjüngenden obeliskenförmigen und pylonenartigen Türmchen, die nicht nur die Eingangsfassade der Kirche flankieren, sondern auch an den Ecken des Querhauses der Kirche stehen. Die ingravierten weißen Steine an der Fassade in der Zahl von Zehn erinnern an das Gebot des Karmelterinnenordens: Bete täglich den Rosenkranz und sind zugleich ein Vanitativmotiv. 2. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten

  12. Wedge cutting of mild steel by CO 2 laser and cut-quality assessment in relation to normal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Karatas, C.; Uslan, I.; Keles, O.; Usta, Y.; Yilbas, Z.; Ahsan, M.

    2008-10-01

    In some applications, laser cutting of wedge surfaces cannot be avoided in sheet metal processing and the quality of the end product defines the applicability of the laser-cutting process in such situations. In the present study, CO 2 laser cutting of the wedge surfaces as well as normal surfaces (normal to laser beam axis) is considered and the end product quality is assessed using the international standards for thermal cutting. The cut surfaces are examined by the optical microscopy and geometric features of the cut edges such as out of flatness and dross height are measured from the micrographs. A neural network is introduced to classify the striation patterns of the cut surfaces. It is found that the dross height and out of flatness are influenced significantly by the laser output power, particularly for wedge-cutting situation. Moreover, the cut quality improves at certain value of the laser power intensity.

  13. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  14. Die Verwandlung der Philosophie in eine historische Diagnostik der Differenzen

    OpenAIRE

    Casale, Rita

    2001-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag versucht die Autorin, „den philosophischen Kontext darzustellen, in dem der Differenzbegriff entstand“. Die Autoren (Nietzsche, Heidegger, Derrida, Deleuze und Foucault), die die Autorin „für die Frage der begrifflichen Thematisierung der Differenz“ betrachtet, „gelten als die theoretischen Bezugspunkte der Postmoderne, wobei dieser Beitrag „die Rekonstruktion eines philosophischen Ansatzes“ ist, „dem Nietzsche den Namen ‚historisches Philosophieren’ gab“. Inhalt: 1. Nietzsc...

  15. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  16. Endokrinologie in der Lebensmitte: Die Perimenopause.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifert-Klauss V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anhand dreier Kasuistiken aus der gynäkologischen Hormonsprechstunde werden beispielhaft besondere Situationen und eine darauf individuell abgestimmte Hormontherapie während der Perimenopause vorgestellt. Der erste Fall beschreibt eine 47-jährige Patientin mit ausgeprägter perimenopausaler Symptomatik und Östrogen-Dominanz. Die Dokumentation über 5 Jahre illustriert die Probleme, die perimenopausal durch die endogene Überstimulation der Ovarien entstehen können. Über die Unvorhersehbarkeit der perimenopausalen Hormonschwankungen, die sich in Brustspannen und Wassereinlagerungen bei hohen Östrogenspiegeln sowie Hitzewallungen und Schweißausbrüchen bei Abfall der endogenen Östrogenspiegel äußern, sollten Patientinnen aufgeklärt werden. Durch eine zyklische Gestagensubstitution kann bei Östrogendominanz unter Umständen mehr Beschwerdeerleichterung erreicht werden als durch eine hochdosierte Östrogentherapie. Fall 2 stellt eine 47-jährige Patientin mit Epilepsie vor, deren perimenopausal bedingte Hormonschwankungen zu vermehrten Anfällen führen. Hier gilt es abzuklären, ob die Anfälle durch stark erhöhte Estradiolspiegel, die zum Ende des Zyklus hin abfallen, begünstigt werden oder aber die Art und Entstehungsgeschichte der Epilepsie nicht auf eine andere Interaktion zwischen Perimenopause und Anfällen hindeuten. In der dritten Kasuistik geht es um eine 54- jährige Patientin mit Morbus Basedow, bei der die ausgeprägte Interaktion zwischen der Schilddrüseneinstellung und den steigenden FSH-, LHsowie unvorhersehbar wechselnden Östrogenspiegeln aufgezeigt und eine individuelle symptombezogene Hormontherapie erforderlich ist.

  17. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  18. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  19. Bestuursontwikkelingsbehoeftes in die Suid-Afrikaanse lugmag: 'n Vergelykende studie van die persepsies van die vier kultuurgroepe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Theart

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Management Development Needs in the South African Air Force: A comparative study of the perceptions of four cultural groups. The object of the study was to determine whether the perceptions of managers and supervisors from different cultural groups in the South African Air Force differ concerning their managerial skills, and to determine to what extent the perceptions of the superiors differ from those of their subordinates. A questionnaire of perceived management development needs was used to determine whether specific training needs exist. It was found that there are indeed statistically significant differences between the various cultural groups'perceptions of their management development needs and that training needs exist within all four cultural groups. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of die persepsies van bestuurders en toesighouers mt verskillende kultuurgroepe in die Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag, rakende hul bestuursvaardighede, onderling van mekaar verskil en om te bepaal in watter opsig die persepsies van bogeskiktes van die van hul ondergeskiktes verskil. nVraelys van waargenome bestuursontwikkelingsbehoeftes is gebruik om te bepaal of daar spesifieke opieidingsbehoeftes bestaan. Daar is bevind dat daar wel statistics beduidende verskille tussen die kultuurgroepe se persepsies van hul bestuursontwikkelingsbehoeftes bestaan en dat daar opieidingsbehoeftes by al vier groepe bestaan.

  20. Analysis of changes in paper cutting forces during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Agnieszka; Petriaszwili, Georgij

    2013-01-01

    Paper presents the results of changes in the three components of cutting forces of paper stacks cutting during the cutting cycle in single-knife guillotine. The changes of the three components of cutting force at different stages of cutting cycle were analyzed.