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Sample records for dyfe2sic type structure

  1. Catalyst system of the structured type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.C.; Legein, C.H.; Calis, H.P.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Gerritsen, A.W.; Van den Bleek, M.

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a catalyst system of the structured type, in which a structured support is covered with a layer of molecular sieve crystals and/or modifications thereof. These crystals have substantially the same orientation relative to the support surface. The invention further relates to

  2. Catalyst system of the structured type

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, J.C.; Legein, C.H.; Calis, H.P.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Gerritsen, A.W.; Van den Bleek, M.

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a catalyst system of the structured type, in which a structured support is covered with a layer of molecular sieve crystals and/or modifications thereof. These crystals have substantially the same orientation relative to the support surface. The invention further relates to a reactor in which this catalyst system is incorporated. Finally, the invention relates to a method for the selective reduction of nitrogen oxides utilizing a compound comprising a NH group, in whi...

  3. Extraordinary electronic properties in uncommon structure types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mazhar Nawaz

    In this thesis I present the results of explorations into several uncommon structure types. In Chapter 1 I go through the underlying idea of how we search for new compounds with exotic properties in solid state chemistry. The ideas of exploring uncommon structure types, building up from the simple to the complex, using chemical intuition and thinking by analogy are discussed. Also, the history and basic concepts of superconductivity, Dirac semimetals, and magnetoresistance are briefly reviewed. In chapter 2, the 1s-InTaS2 structural family is introduced along with the discovery of a new member of the family, Ag0:79VS2; the synthesis, structure, and physical properties of two different polymorphs of the material are detailed. Also in this chapter, we report the observation of superconductivity in another 1s structure, PbTaSe2. This material is especially interesting due to it being very heavy (resulting in very strong spin orbit coulping (SOC)), layered, and noncentrosymmetric. Electronic structure calculations reveal the presence of a bulk 3D Dirac cone (very similar to graphene) that is gapped by SOC originating from the hexagonal Pb layer. In Chapter 3 we show the re-investigation of the crystal structure of the 3D Dirac semimetal, Cd3As2. It is found to be centrosymmetric, rather than noncentrosymmetric, and as such all bands are spin degenerate and there is a 4-fold degenerate bulk Dirac point at the Fermi level, making Cd3As2 a 3D electronic analog to graphene. Also, for the first time, scanning tunneling microscopy experiments identify a 2x2 surface reconstruction in what we identify as the (112) cleavage plane of single crystals; needle crystals grow with a [110] long axis direction. Lastly, in chapter 4 we report the discovery of "titanic" (sadly dubbed ⪉rge, nonsaturating" by Nature editors and given the acronym XMR) magnetoresistance (MR) in the non-magnetic, noncentrosymmetric, layered transition metal dichalcogenide WTe2; over 13 million% at 0.53 K in

  4. Post accelerator of the IH type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming

    2002-01-01

    The principle, structure, adjustment of the gap voltage, beam dynamic, RF system and the bunchers of the post-accelerator with Interdigital-H type structure, which was developed by the author and Technical University Munich in four years, is described. The energy of ions with mass of three was increased from 340 keV to 1.74 MeV, when resonant frequency of 84.2 MHz and input RF power of 3 kW. The effective shunt impedance reached to 408 MΩ/m. The commissioning was succeeded with H 3 + ion beams. The output energy of H 3 + ion beams reached the design value. The two harmonic double drift buncher used by the IH structure bunches the beam to the bunches with the width of 360 ps. Then the acceptance of the IH structure is increased to 240 degree. Its shunt impedance is three times higher than former single gap bunchers used by TUM and the length of the buncher system is one fifth of former one only because the use of λ/4 coaxial cavities with double gaps

  5. Comprehensive risk analysis for structure type selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Optimization of bridge selection and design traditionally has been sought in terms of the finished structure. This study presents a : more comprehensive risk-based analysis that includes user costs and accidents during the construction phase. Costs f...

  6. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection...

  7. Structured personal care of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This study is a 19 year observational follow-up of a pragmatic open multicentre cluster-randomised controlled trial of 6 years of structured personal diabetes care starting from diagnosis.......This study is a 19 year observational follow-up of a pragmatic open multicentre cluster-randomised controlled trial of 6 years of structured personal diabetes care starting from diagnosis....

  8. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection of water intakes and outfalls.

  9. Ceramic materials on perovskite-type structure for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surowiak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic materials exhibiting the perovskite-type structure constitute among others, resource base for many fields of widely understood electronics (i.e., piezoelectronics, accustoelectronics, optoelectronics, computer science, tele- and radioelectronics etc.). Most often they are used for fabrication of different type sensors (detectors), transducers, ferroelectric memories, limiters of the electronic current intensity, etc., and hence they are numbered among so-called intelligent materials. Prototype structure of this group of materials is the structure of the mineral called perovskite (CaTiO 3 ). By means of right choice of the chemical composition of ABO 3 and deforming the regular perovskite structure (m3m) more than 5000 different chemical compounds and solid solutions exhibiting the perovskite-type structure have been fabricated. The concept of perovskite functional ceramics among often things ferroelectric ceramics, pyroelectric ceramics, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostrictive ceramics, posistor ceramics, superconductive ceramics and ferromagnetic ceramics. New possibilities of application of the perovskite-type ceramics are opened by nanotechnology. (author)

  10. Prediction of type A behaviour: A structural equation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Wyk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The predictability of Type A behaviour was measured in a sample of 375 professionals with a shortened version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS. Two structural equation models were constructed with the Type A behaviour achievement sub-scale and global (total Type A as the predictor variables. The indices showed a reasonable-to-promising fit with the data. Type A achievement was reasonably predicted by service-career orientation, internal locus of control, power self-concept and economic innovation. Type A global was also predicted by internal locus of control, power self-concept and the entrepreneurial attitude of achievement and personal control.

  11. Structural stability and formability of ABO3-type perovskite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huan; Li Na; Li Keyan; Xue Dongfeng

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the bond-valence model (BVM) and structure-map technology, the structural stability and formability of ABO 3 -type perovskite compounds were investigated in 376 ABO 3 -type compounds. A new criterion of structural stability for ABO 3 -type perovskite compounds has been established by the bond-valence calculated tolerance factors, which are in the range 0.822-1.139. All global instability indices for ABO 3 -type perovskite compounds are found to be less than 1.2 v.u. (valence units) and increase with a decrease in oxidation state of the B cations (i.e. structural stability in the formation of an ideal cubic perovskite follows the order A + B 5+ O 3 -type > A 2+ B 4+ O 3 -type > A 3+ B 3+ O 3 -type). Three new two-dimensional structure maps were constructed based on the ideal A-O and B-O bond distances derived from the BVM. These maps indicate the likelihood of particular perovskite compounds being formed. The present work enables novel perovskite and perovskite-related compounds to be explored by screening all the possible elemental combinations in future crystal engineering. (orig.)

  12. Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant myocardial injury before overt CVD in DM can be identified early using echocardiography. This study therefore aimed at evaluating left ventricular structure and function of patients with type 2 DM. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty adult type 2 DM patients were recruited with 150 age- and sexmatched ...

  13. Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: There is high prevalence of alterations in LV structure and function in normotensive type 2 DM; and there is a ... randomly selected with 150 age- and sex-matched normal non-diabetic subjects. Type 2 DM patients and subjects with systemic hypertension, pregnancy, .... of 65 males and 85 females were studied.

  14. PROVIDING SERVICEABILITY OF STRUCTURAL BEARING TYPES FOR ROADWAY BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Polyuga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the description of structural bearing types for roadway bridges and their classification is given. Special attention is paid to effective bearings with elastomeric materials – rubber, pot, spherical ones. Characteristic defects of structural bearings and demands of serviceability are noticed.

  15. Structures of the lovozerite type - a quantitative investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovsky, Yu.A.; Burzlaff, H.; Rothammel, W.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of lovozerite is derived from perovskite. For 24 members of the lovozerite family an aristotype is postulated. The method of quantitative comparison using the concept of mappings is applied to the lovozerite family using the aristotype as a 'structural unit'. The method is extended to relationships of symmetry-type II, i.e. the derived structure and the aristotype have only a common subgroup, the remaining non-common symmetry of the derived structure is used as 'distribution' symmetry for the structural unit. The numerical results are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  16. Soil structure interactions of eastern U.S. type earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chen; Serhan, S.

    1991-01-01

    Two types of earthquakes have occurred in the eastern US in the past. One of them was the infrequent major events such as the 1811-1812 New Madrid Earthquakes, or the 1886 Charleston Earthquake. The other type was the frequent shallow earthquakes with high frequency, short duration and high accelerations. Two eastern US nuclear power plants, V.C Summer and Perry, went through extensive licensing effort to obtain fuel load licenses after this type of earthquake was recorded on sites and exceeded the design bases beyond 10 hertz region. This paper discusses the soil-structure interactions of the latter type of earthquakes

  17. Coexistence of Cluster Structure and Mean-field-type Structure in Medium-weight Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Kimura, Masaaki

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the coexistence of cluster structure and mean-field-type structure in 20Ne and 40Ca using Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics (AMD) + Generator Coordinate Method (GCM). By energy variation with new constraint for clustering, we calculate cluster structure wave function. Superposing cluster structure wave functions and mean-field-type structure wave function, we found that 8Be-12C, α-36Ar and 12C-28Si cluster structure are important components of K π = 0 3 + band of 20Ne, that of normal deformed band of 40Ca and that of super deformed band of 40Ca, respectively

  18. New compact TEM-type deflecting and crabbing rf structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Delayen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new type of rf structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle beams is presented. The structure is comprised of a number of parallel TEM resonant lines operating in opposing phase from each other. One of its advantages is its compactness compared to conventional crabbing cavities operating in the TM_{110} mode, thus allowing low frequency designs. This geometry would also be effective for the deflection of beams propagating at velocities substantially less than that of light.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of the different types of second order structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infrared spectroscopy of the different types of second order structural phase transitions in molecular crystals. G Djeteli, K Tepe, K Napo, R Guerin. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 13 (1) 2007: pp. 119-123. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  20. Atomic structures of icosahedral phases of type F and dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchesne, Jean-Tristan

    2008-01-01

    The object of this thesis is the study of atomic structures of icosahedral phases of type F and their dislocations. In this study, we have first built a prototypical structure that describes the already known F type icosahedral phases. In order to check it we synthesized some of the new compositions predicted by this model. This synthesis led to the discovery of two new quasi-periodical phases of the stoichiometry Al66,08Cu21,35Mn8,29Fe4,28. One of these phases is icosahedral (metastable) of type F and the other one is decagonal (stable). A F-IQC phase is present on these compounds that have a different composition with respect to the ones already studied for the system (Al,Pd,Fe). Globally, these experimental results on new icosahedral phases allowed to prove the viability of the model: on the three samples of new composition, two of them have shown the existence of icosahedral phases of type F and the third one has given a decagonal phase, in relation of canonical orientation with the icosahedral metastable phase (10-fold axis parallel with 5-fold axis). Using this reliable model, we have been able to introduce dislocations. We could thus provide the geometry of dislocations (outside the dislocation core) at atomic scale for F-IQC phases. On this structure we have also identified the distributions of phasons and given some elements of answer for the global dislocations moves. (author) [fr

  1. Magnetic mirror structure for testing shell-type quadrupole coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, N.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents magnetic and mechanical designs and analyses of the quadrupole mirror structure to test single shell-type quadrupole coils. Several quadrupole coils made of different Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, cable insulation and pole materials were tested using this structure at 4.5 and 1.9 K. The coils were instrumented with voltage taps, spot heaters, temperature sensors and strain gauges to study their mechanical and thermal properties and quench performance. The results of the quadrupole mirror model assembly and test are reported and discussed.

  2. A Review of Influence of Various Types of Structural Bracing to the Structural Performance of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, S. M.; Kong, T. C.; Zainol, N. Z.; Adnan, A.; Azimi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Excessive lateral drift can contribute significantly towards crack formation, leading to structural damage. The structural damage will in turn reduce the capacity of the structure and weaken it from the intended design capacity. Generally, lateral drift is more pronounced in higher and longer structure, such as high rise buildings and bridges. A typical method employed to control lateral drift is structural bracing, which works by increasing stiffness and stability of structure. This paper reviews the influence of various types of structural bracing to structural performance of buildings. The history of structural bracing is visited and the differences between numerous structural bracing in term of suitability to different types of buildings and loading, mechanisms, technical details, advantages and limitations, and the overall effect on the structural behaviour and performance are dissected. Proper and efficient structural bracing is pertinent for each high rise building as this will lead towards safer, sustainable and more economical buildings, which are cheaper to maintain throughout the life of the buildings in the future.

  3. Structural and functional salivary disorders in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carda Batalla, María del Carmen; Mosquera Lloreda, Nezly; Salom, Lucas; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Peydró Olaya, Amando

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common metabolic disorder and it causes an important morbimortality. The structural modifications in the parotid gland (sialosis) had already been described in these patients and could result in variations in the salivary composition, as well as an increase in periodontal and dental pathology. Objectives: to compare the biochemical findings in the saliva and to correlate these biochemical disturbances with the morphologic findings previously described....

  4. Structure of a Kunitz-type potato cathepsin D inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, J.; Erskine, P. T.; Coker, A. R.; Wood, S. P.; Cooper, J. B.; Mareš, Michael; Baudyš, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 3 (2015), s. 554-560 ISSN 1047-8477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18929S; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : potato cathepsin D inhibitor * Kunitz-type protease inhibitor * protein X-ray structure * reactive-site loop * docking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.570, year: 2015

  5. The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Singh, Ranjan K.; Moxley, Michael A.; Henzl, Michael T.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J. (UNL); (UMC)

    2012-08-31

    Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in {Delta}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first structure of human P5CDH (HsP5CDH) and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2. 5-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 {angstrom}) and S352L (2.85 {angstrom}) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93% identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 {angstrom} resolution), glutamate (1.5 {angstrom}), and NAD{sup +} (1.5 {angstrom}) were determined to obtain high-resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD{sup +} binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-{angstrom} rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD{sup +}, and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.

  6. PREDICTING APHASIA TYPE FROM BRAIN DAMAGE MEASURED WITH STRUCTURAL MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Smith, Kimberly G.; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Chronic aphasia is a common consequence of a left-hemisphere stroke. Since the early insights by Broca and Wernicke, studying the relationship between the loci of cortical damage and patterns of language impairment has been one of the concerns of aphasiology. We utilized multivariate classification in a cross-validation framework to predict the type of chronic aphasia from the spatial pattern of brain damage. Our sample consisted of 98 patients with five types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, global, conduction, and anomic), classified based on scores on the Western Aphasia Battery. Binary lesion maps were obtained from structural MRI scans (obtained at least 6 months poststroke, and within 2 days of behavioural assessment); after spatial normalization, the lesions were parcellated into a disjoint set of brain areas. The proportion of damage to the brain areas was used to classify patients’ aphasia type. To create this parcellation, we relied on five brain atlases; our classifier (support vector machine) could differentiate between different kinds of aphasia using any of the five parcellations. In our sample, the best classification accuracy was obtained when using a novel parcellation that combined two previously published brain atlases, with the first atlas providing the segmentation of grey matter, and the second atlas used to segment the white matter. For each aphasia type, we computed the relative importance of different brain areas for distinguishing it from other aphasia types; our findings were consistent with previously published reports of lesion locations implicated in different types of aphasia. Overall, our results revealed that automated multivariate classification could distinguish between aphasia types based on damage to atlas-defined brain areas. PMID:26465238

  7. Structural and functional salivary disorders in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Carmen; Mosquera-Lloreda, Nezly; Salom, Lucas; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa; Peydró, Amando

    2006-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common metabolic disorder and it causes an important morbimortality. The structural modifications in the parotid gland (sialosis) had already been described in these patients and could result in variations in the salivary composition, as well as an increase in periodontal and dental pathology. To compare the biochemical findings in the saliva and to correlate these biochemical disturbances with the morphologic findings previously described. Clinical information were gathered about 33 patients, 17 had type 2 diabetes. Samples of whole saliva were obtained for biochemical analysis and serum samples to determine metabolic control. In the diabetics saliva we found urea and total proteins increased and reduced levels of microalbumina. Salivary glucose was only augmented in patients with poor metabolic control. Clinical symptoms of xerostomia were present in 76,4% and dental and periodontal disease in 100%. The parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, lipid intracytoplasmic droplets, as well as adipose stroma infiltration. The acinar cytoqueratins expression was heterogeneous and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts. These biochemical disorders in the saliva of the type 2 diabetic patients would be related with the structural changes previously observed in parotid glands.

  8. Types of architectural structures and the use of smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavşan, Cengiz; Sipahi, Serkan

    2017-07-01

    about smart materials; the second discusses the types and characteristics of smart materials over the tables detailing their utilization and functions in the structures included in the set of examples. The final section of the study, on the other hand, elaborates on the findings, discussing them with reference to the types of structures.

  9. Microbial mat ecosystems: Structure types, functional diversity, and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Prieto-Barajas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mats are horizontally stratified microbial communities, exhibiting a structure defined by physiochemical gradients, which models microbial diversity, physiological activities, and their dynamics as a whole system. These ecosystems are commonly associated with aquatic habitats, including hot springs, hypersaline ponds, and intertidal coastal zones and oligotrophic environments, all of them harbour phototrophic mats and other environments such as acidic hot springs or acid mine drainage harbour non-photosynthetic mats. This review analyses the complex structure, diversity, and interactions between the microorganisms that form the framework of different types of microbial mats located around the globe. Furthermore, the many tools that allow studying microbial mats in depth and their potential biotechnological applications are discussed.

  10. Vulnerability Assessment for Various Types of Cloud Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Valerievich Tsaregorodtsev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today organizations increasingly consider cloud computing as an alternative way of using information technology. At the same time, the use of different vulnerabilities of infrastructure components, network services and applications remains are the major threat to the cloud. The article proposes a methodology for vulnerability assessment for any type of cloud structures, which will allow to determine the coefficient of counter to possible attacks and to correlate the amount of damage to the total cost of ownership of organization IT-infrastructure.

  11. Crystal structure of human quinone reductase type 2, a metalloflavoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C E; Bianchet, M A; Talalay, P; Zhao, Q; Amzel, L M

    1999-08-03

    In mammals, two separate but homologous cytosolic quinone reductases have been identified: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1) (EC 1.6.99.2) and quinone reductase type 2 (QR2). Although QR1 and QR2 are nearly 50% identical in protein sequence, they display markedly different catalytic properties and substrate specificities. We report here two crystal structures of QR2: in its native form and bound to menadione (vitamin K(3)), a physiological substrate. Phases were obtained by molecular replacement, using our previously determined rat QR1 structure as the search model. QR2 shares the overall fold of the major catalytic domain of QR1, but lacks the smaller C-terminal domain. The FAD binding sites of QR1 and QR2 are very similar, but their hydride donor binding sites are considerably different. Unexpectedly, we found that QR2 contains a specific metal binding site, which is not present in QR1. Two histidine nitrogens, one cysteine thiol, and a main chain carbonyl group are involved in metal coordination. The metal binding site is solvent-accessible, and is separated from the FAD cofactor by a distance of about 13 A.

  12. Types of marriages, population structure and genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, T M B; Bomfim, T F; Souza, L V; Soares, N; Santos, F L; Acosta, A X; Abe-Sandes, K

    2013-07-01

    A high occurrence rate of consanguineous marriages may favour the onset and increased frequency of autosomal recessive diseases in a population. The population of Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil, has a high frequency of rare genetic diseases such as mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, whose observed frequency in this population is 1:5000, while the incidence of this disease recorded in other regions of the world varies from 1:43,261 in Turkey to 1:1,505,160 in Switzerland. To verify the influence of consanguineous marriage on the increased frequency of observed genetic diseases in this population, the population structure and frequency of different types of marriage during different time periods were evaluated. A total of 9765 marriages were found in an analysis of parish marriage records from the city. Over three periods, 1860-1895, 1950-1961 and 1975-2010, the inbreeding rates were 37.1%, 13.2% and 4.2% respectively. Although there was a high rate of inbreeding, endogamic marriages were the dominant marriage type in all three periods. In the most recent period, there was an increase in the number of exogamous marriages and those among immigrants, but most of these occurred among individuals from cities that neighbour Monte Santo. The low rate of migration and high frequency of endogamic and consanguineous marriages show that growth of this population is predominantly internal and could explain the occurrence, and increase in frequency, of recessive genetic diseases in the city.

  13. The Structure and Function of Type III Secretion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notti, Ryan Q.; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE SUMMARY Type III secretion systems (T3SS) afford gram-negative bacteria a most intimate means of altering the biology of their eukaryotic hosts — the direct delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to that of the eukaryote. This incredible biophysical feat is accomplished by nanosyringe “injectisomes,” which form a conduit across the three plasma membranes, peptidoglycan layer and extracellular space that form a barrier to the direct delivery of proteins from bacterium to host. The focus of this chapter is T3SS function at the structural level; we will summarize the core findings that have shaped our understanding of the structure and function of these systems and highlight recent developments in the field. In turn, we describe the T3SS secretory apparatus, consider its engagement with secretion substrates, and discuss the post-translational regulation of secretory function. Lastly, we close with a discussion of the future prospects for the interrogation of structure-function relationships in the T3SS. PMID:26999392

  14. Structural Health Monitoring for a Z-Type Special Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolin Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there exist various kinds of special vehicles designed for some purposes, which are different from regular vehicles in overall dimension and design. In that case, accidents such as overturning will lead to large economical loss and casualties. There are still no technical specifications to follow to ensure the safe operation and driving of these special vehicles. Owing to the poor efficiency of regular maintenance, it is more feasible and effective to apply real-time monitoring during the operation and driving process. In this paper, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors are used to monitor the safety of a z-type special vehicle. Based on the structural features and force distribution, a reasonable structural health monitoring (SHM scheme is presented. Comparing the monitoring results with the finite element simulation results guarantees the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring results. Large amounts of data are collected during the operation and driving progress to evaluate the structural safety condition and provide reference for SHM systems developed for other special vehicles.

  15. Impact of type 2 diabetes and duration of type 2 diabetes on cardiac structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter G; Jensen, Magnus T; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has improved patient outcome and may also have affected myocardial structure and function. We aimed to describe the effect of T2D and T2D duration on cardiac structure and function in a large outpatient population. METHODS: We performed...... diameter and the changes were pronounced with increasing diabetes duration (Pprevalence of diastolic dysfunction (16.5% vs. 4.0%; P....5-65.1) vs. 62.1 (57.9-65.4), P=0.28). With the exception of global longitudinal strain, this was pronounced with increasing diabetes duration for all measures including increasing diastolic dysfunction (20years: 24.8%; P

  16. Structural trends in off stoichiometric chalcopyrite type compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Energy supply is one of the most controversial topics that are currently discussed in our global community. Most of the energy delivered to the customer today has its origin in fossil and nuclear power plants. Indefinable risks and the radioactive waste repository problem of the latter as well as the global scarcity of fossil resources cause the renewable energies to grow more and more important for achieving sustainability. The main renewable energy sources are wind power, hydroelectric power and solar energy. On the photovoltaic (PV) market different materials are competing as part of different kinds of technologies, with the largest contribution still coming from wafer based crystalline silicon solar cells (95 %). Until now thin film solar cells only contribute a small portion to the whole PV market, but large capacities are under construction. Thin film photovoltaic shows a number of advantages in comparison to wafer based crystalline silicon PV. Among these material usage and production cost reduction are two prominent examples. The type of PV materials, which are analyzed in this work, are high potential compounds that are widely used as absorber layer in thin film solar cells. These are compound semiconductors of the type CuB III C VI 2 (B III = In, Ga and C VI = Se, S). Several years of research have already gone into understanding the efficiency limiting factors for solar cell devices fabricated from this compound. Most of the studies concerning electronic defects are done by spectroscopic methods mostly performed using thin films from different kinds of synthesis, without any real knowledge regarding the structural origin of these defects. This work shows a systematic fundamental structural study of intrinsic point defects that are present within the material at various compositions in CuB III C VI 2 compound semiconductors. The study is done on reference powder samples with well determined chemical composition and using advanced diffraction techniques

  17. Electronic structure of p type Delta doped systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggero S, L.M.; Perez A, R.

    1998-01-01

    We summarize of the results obtained for the electronic structure of quantum wells that consist in an atomic layer doped with impurities of p type. The calculations are made within the frame worth of the wrapper function approach to independent bands and with potentials of Hartree. We study the cases reported experimentally (Be in GaAs and B in Si). We present the levels of energy, the wave functions and the rate of the electronic population between the different subbands, as well as the dependence of these magnitudes with the density of impurities in the layer. The participation of the bans of heavy holes is analysed, light and split-off band in the total electronic population. The effect of the temperature is discussed and we give a possible qualitative explanation of the experimental optical properties. (Author)

  18. Perovskite-type oxides - Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1988-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  19. Maxwell-type behaviour from a geometrical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itin, Yakov

    2006-01-01

    We study which geometric structure can be constructed from the vierbein (frame/coframe) variables and which field models can be related to this geometry. The coframe field models, alternative to GR, are known as viable models for gravity, since they have the Schwarzschild solution. Since the local Lorentz invariance is violated, a physical interpretation of additional six degrees of freedom is required. The geometry of such models is usually given by two different connections-the Levi-Civita symmetric and metric-compatible connection and the Weitzenboeck flat connection. We construct a general family of linear connections of the same type, which includes two connections above as special limiting cases. We show that for dynamical propagation of six additional degrees of freedom it is necessary for the gauge field of infinitesimal transformations (antisymmetric tensor) to satisfy the system of two first-order differential equations. This system is similar to the vacuum Maxwell system and even coincides with it on a flat manifold. The corresponding 'Maxwell-compatible connections' are derived. Alternatively, we derive the same Maxwell-type system as a symmetry condition of the viable model Lagrangian. Consequently, we derive a nontrivial decomposition of the coframe field to the pure metric field plus a dynamical field of infinitesimal Lorentz rotations. An exact spherical-symmetric solution for our dynamical field is derived. It is bounded near the Schwarzschild radius. Further off, the solution is close to the Coulomb field

  20. Structural trends in off stoichiometric chalcopyrite type compound semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, Christiane

    2011-03-15

    Energy supply is one of the most controversial topics that are currently discussed in our global community. Most of the energy delivered to the customer today has its origin in fossil and nuclear power plants. Indefinable risks and the radioactive waste repository problem of the latter as well as the global scarcity of fossil resources cause the renewable energies to grow more and more important for achieving sustainability. The main renewable energy sources are wind power, hydroelectric power and solar energy. On the photovoltaic (PV) market different materials are competing as part of different kinds of technologies, with the largest contribution still coming from wafer based crystalline silicon solar cells (95 %). Until now thin film solar cells only contribute a small portion to the whole PV market, but large capacities are under construction. Thin film photovoltaic shows a number of advantages in comparison to wafer based crystalline silicon PV. Among these material usage and production cost reduction are two prominent examples. The type of PV materials, which are analyzed in this work, are high potential compounds that are widely used as absorber layer in thin film solar cells. These are compound semiconductors of the type CuB{sup III}C{sup VI}{sub 2} (B{sup III} = In, Ga and C{sup VI} = Se, S). Several years of research have already gone into understanding the efficiency limiting factors for solar cell devices fabricated from this compound. Most of the studies concerning electronic defects are done by spectroscopic methods mostly performed using thin films from different kinds of synthesis, without any real knowledge regarding the structural origin of these defects. This work shows a systematic fundamental structural study of intrinsic point defects that are present within the material at various compositions in CuB{sup III}C{sup VI}{sub 2} compound semiconductors. The study is done on reference powder samples with well determined chemical composition and

  1. Identifying type 1 and type 2 diabetic cases using administrative data: a tree-structured model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Ciganic, Weihsuan; Zgibor, Janice C; Ruppert, Kristine; Arena, Vincent C; Stone, Roslyn A

    2011-05-01

    To date, few administrative diabetes mellitus (DM) registries have distinguished type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Using a classification tree model, a prediction rule was developed to distinguish T1DM from T2DM in a large administrative database. The Medical Archival Retrieval System at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center included administrative and clinical data from January 1, 2000, through September 30, 2009, for 209,647 DM patients aged ≥18 years. Probable cases (8,173 T1DM and 125,111 T2DM) were identified by applying clinical criteria to administrative data. Nonparametric classification tree models were fit using TIBCO Spotfire S+ 8.1 (TIBCO Software), with model size based on 10-fold cross validation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of T1DM were estimated. The main predictors that distinguished T1DM from T2DM are age <40 years; International Classification of Disease, 9th revision, codes of T1DM or T2DM diagnosis; inpatient oral hypoglycemic agent use; inpatient insulin use; and episode(s) of diabetic ketoacidosis diagnosis. Compared with a complex clinical algorithm, the tree-structured model to predict T1DM had 92.8% sensitivity, 99.3% specificity, 89.5% PPV, and 99.5% NPV. The preliminary predictive rule appears to be promising. Being able to distinguish between DM subtypes in administrative databases will allow large-scale subtype-specific analyses of medical care costs, morbidity, and mortality. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Mechanism of structural type formation of rare earth polychalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'micheva, G.M.; Eliseev, A.A.; Khalina, S.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    It proved to be possible to obtain the structural motives not only of all the known polychalcogenides of rare earth elements but to forecast compounds not yet existing on the basis of two initial structural motives. All the structural motives can be divided into superstructures and polytypes as to the mechanism of their formation [ru

  3. The influence of the type of road, the type of vehicle and the age structure on the road transport emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra KUTRZYK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The total emission level is heavily dependent on the number of vehicles. Additionally, the type of vehicles and their age structures are very important. The structure of vehicles also depends on the type of the road. The article presents the results of calculations of the pollutants emission from the road transport. Total emission was calculated with combination of the investigation results i.e. the type of vehicles and their age structures for different types of roads. The investigations have been made for different classes of roads with different types of vehicles. The traffic line has been recorded in the same length of time. On the basis of analysis of the recorded traffic line, the number and the type of vehicles have been estimated. The classification of vehicles have been made according to the level of emission i.e. passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles, busses and others, taking into consideration the age structures of vehicles. The level of total traffic emission has been calculated on the basis of results. There has been used the Copert programme methodology. The results of the calculations have been made with combination of the type of road, the speed of vehicles, the type of vehicles and their age structure, are presented.

  4. Structure of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D C; Atherton, S S; Staczek, J; O'Callaghan, D J

    1984-01-30

    Restriction endonuclease mapping studies were performed to determine the molecular structure of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3). Purified EHV-3 DNA, either unlabeled or 32P-labeled, was analyzed using the restriction enzymes BamHI, BclI, BglII, EcoRI, and HindIII. The findings that four 0.5 M (molar) fragments were present, that two of these were terminal fragments, and that all 0.5 M fragments contained homologous DNA sequences as judged by DNA hybridization analyses indicated that DNA sequences located at one terminus are repeated within the molecule and that two populations of molecules exist with regard to the arrangement of this pair of shared sequences. Mapping of BamHI, BclI, BglII, EcoRI, and HindIII fragments by double digestion of intact EHV-3 DNA, reciprocal digestion of isolated restriction enzyme fragments, and blot hybridization experiments revealed that the EHV-3 genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule with a molecular size of 96.2 +/- 0.48 MDa and is comprised of two covalently linked segments, designated L (long) and S (short). The S region is approximately 22.9 MDa in size and consists of a unique segment (Us) of approximately 5.8 MDa bracketed by 8.5 MDa inverted repeat sequences that allow the S region to invert relative to the fixed L region which is approximately 73.3 MDa in size and consists only of unique sequences. Thus, these data confirm that EHV-3 DNA exists in two isomeric forms and has a molecular structure similar to that of the genomes of EHV-1 (B. E. Henry, S. A. Robinson, S. A. Dauenhauer, S. S. Atherton, G. S. Hayward, and D. J. O'Callaghan, Virology 115, 97-114, 1981; D. J. O'Callaghan, G. A. Gentry, and C. C. Randall, "The Herpesvirus," Vol. 2, pp. 215-318, Plenum, New York, 1983; D. J. O'Callaghan, B. E. Henry, J. H. Wharton, S. A. Dauenhauer, R. B. Vance, J. Staczek, and R. A. Robinson, "Developments in Molecular Virology," Vol. 1, pp. 387-418, Nijhoff, The Hague, 1981; W. T. Ruyechan, S. A. Dauenhauer

  5. Seismic verification methods for structures and equipment of VVER-type and RBMK-type NPPs (summary of experiences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main verification methods for structures and equipment of already existing VVER-type and RBMK-type NPPs are briefly described. The following aspects are discussed: fundamental seismic safety assessment principles for VVER/RBMK-type NPPs (seismic safety assessment procedure, typical work plan for seismic safety assessment of existing NPPs, SMA (HCLPF) calculations, modified GIP (GIP-VVER) procedure, similarity of VVER/RBMK equipment to that included in the SQUG databases and seismic interactions

  6. Une structure active de type tensegrité

    OpenAIRE

    Fest, Etienne; Smith, Ian

    2005-01-01

    A tensegrity is a lightweight space reticulated structure consisting of compression members — struts — surrounded by a network of tension members — cables — that provide rigidity and stability. They can be easily dismantled and therefore, they provide innovative possibilities for reusable and modular structures. To date, tensegrity construction has been limited to sculptures. The number of full-scale prototypes built is increasing though few have been tested experimentally statically. Tensegr...

  7. The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type and its relation to some complex amalgam structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambornino, Frank; Sappl, Jonathan; Hoch, Constantin, E-mail: constantin.hoch@cup.uni-muenchen.de

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type has been revisited on the basis of single crystal diffraction data. • Symmetry analysis from electron density and TEM shows the space group P6/m to be true. • Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} shows good metallic behaviour. • Structure relations to alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal amalgams can be established. • Complexity values for the RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure family were calculated. - Abstract: A plethora of binary and ternary intermetallic compounds has been assigned to the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type, crystallising in the hexagonal system (space group P6/m, a = 1264.30(18) pm, c = 933.58(11) pm for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}). Starting in the late 1960s, much work has been invested in the structural elucidation of these crystal structures. However, reliable single crystal data are scarce, and most structure type assignments have been performed merely on the basis of powder data. We have redetermined four representatives of the binary RE{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type (RE = Y, Ce, Gd, Tb) with modern high-precision single crystal X-ray methods. The assignment of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to space group P6/m was additionally verified by careful analysis of high resolution transmission electron micrographs. We emphasise the close relation of the Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} structure type to the structures of some recently described amalgams of similar composition focussing on disorder phenomena and structural complexity. Furthermore, we provide detailed information on synthesis as well as electrical and magnetic properties for Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51}, the parent compound of this structure family.

  8. The on axis coupled structure type RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Tanabe, E

    1999-01-01

    The fundamental design of this newly developed RF gun with a thermionic cathode is the pi/2 mode standing wave structure. It has two accelerating cells and a coupling cell located on the beam axis, a so-called on axis coupled structure (OCS). This structure offers a stable operation for high beam current, owing to high group velocity and wide bandwidth. It is important to reduce damage onto the cathode caused by back bombardment, especially for long macropulse operation, such as in an FEL injector. Back bombardment, as well as output beam profile was simulated by using the electromagnetic field analytical codes 'EMSYS'(2D) and 'MAFIA'(3D). The cavity shape was optimized to reduce back bombardment power without sacrificing beam emittance.

  9. Extended, regular HI structures around early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, T.; Morganti, R.; Sadler, E. M. Van der; Hulst, J. M. van der; Serra, P.

    Abstract: We discuss the morphology and kinematics of the HI of a sample of 30 southern gas-rich early-type galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). This is the largest collection of high-resolution HI data of a homogeneously selected sample. Given the sensitivity of HIPASS,

  10. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses using generic element types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Vrijling, J.K.; Voortman, HG; Wallendorf, Louise; Cox, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A lack of appropriate guidelines for the design and assessment hampers the development of multifunctional flood defenses like parking garages in quays and houses in dikes. The aim of the present paper, therefore, is to gain insight in the structural performance of multifunctional flood defenses and

  11. Optical processes in different types of photonic band gap structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Mengqin; Ullah, Zakir; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, we investigate the photonic band gap (PBG) structure in the static and moving electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) through scanning the frequency detunings of the probe field, dressing field and coupling field. Especially, the suppression and enhancement of the four wave mixing band gap signal (FWM BGS) and the probe transmission signal (PTS) can be observed when we scan the dressing field frequency detuning in the FWM BGS system. It is worth noting that the PBG structure and FWM BGS appear at the right of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) position in the case of scanning the frequency detuning of the coupling field in the FWM BGS system, while the PBG structure and FWM BGS appears at the left of the EIT position on the condition of scanning the probe field frequency detuning. Moreover, in the moving PBG structure, we can obtain the nonreciprocity of FWM BGS. Furthermore, we can modulate the intensity, width, location of the FWM BGS and PTS through changing the frequency detunings and intensities of the probe field, dressing field and coupling field, sample length and the frequency difference of coupling fields in EIG. Such scheme could have potential applications in optical diodes, amplifiers and quantum information processing.

  12. Theory of the structural properties of A-15 type materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L.P.; Dorokhov, O.N.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of the structural properties of the A-15 compounds is developed starting with a picture of linear chains of atoms of the transition elements. The twofold-degenerate electronic term is shifted and split when interchain transfer is taken into account. A fine structure of the electronic spectrum and the density of states are examined. The latter has two singularities at the Fermi level corresponding to an estimated variation of the composition by several percent. Among the samples showing the martensitic transformation, one of these singularities is supposed to be responsible for the peculiar properties observed, and a theory of the transformation from the cubic to the tetragonal phase is suggested. The temperature dependence of the phonon spectrum has been studied in detail. The theory explains the softening of the phonon modes at large wave vectors in some directions, and predicts features of the phonon spectrum whose observation could be crucial to the theory. 26 references.

  13. Investigations on MnSb and related compounds with b8-type structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwma, Jakob

    1972-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on phases with hexagonal B8-type structures in the systems Mn-Sb-Sn, Mn-Sb-Te, Mn-Cr-Sb and Mn-V-Sb. In -chapter 1 some general remarks are made on compounds with B8-type structures. The preparation of the samples, and the X-ray crystallographic investigations

  14. Structural studies of different types of ferroelectric liquid crystalline substances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obadović, D.Ž.; Stojanović, M.; Bubnov, Alexej; Éber, N.; Cvetinov, M.; Vajda, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2011), s. 3-13 ISSN 1450-7404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Grant - others:RFASI(RU) 02.740.11.5166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystals * phase transition * structure of liquid crystalline phases * molecular parameters Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Subband structure comparison between n- and p- type double delta-doped Ga As quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez V, I.; Gaggero S, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the electron level structure (n-type) and the hole subband structure (p-type) of double -doped GaAs (DDD) quantum wells, considering exchange effects. The Thomas-Fermi (TF), and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (TFD) approximations have been applied in order to describe the bending of the conduction and valence band, respectively. The electron and the hole subband structure study indicates that exchange effects are more important in p-type DDD quantum wells than in n-type DDD Also our results agree with the experimental data available. (Author) 33 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Improved ultrasonic differentiation model for structural coal types based on neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zi-jian Tian; Fu-zhong Wang; Tao Li; Shan-shan Bai [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Electromechanical and Information Engineering

    2009-03-15

    In order to solve the difficulty of detailed recognition of subdivisions of structural coal types, a differentiation model that combines BP neural network with an ultrasonic reflection method is proposed. Structural coal types are recognized based on a suitable consideration of ultrasonic speed, an ultrasonic attenuation coefficient, characteristics of ultrasonic transmission and other parameters relating to structural coal types. We have focused on a computational model of ultrasonic speed, attenuation coefficient in coal and differentiation algorithm of structural coal types based on a BP neural network. Experiments demonstrate that the model can distinguish structural coal types effectively. It is important for the improved ultrasonic differentiation model to predict coal and gas outbursts. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. The structure and dynamics of bubble-type vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, R. E.; Ash, R. L.; Gatski, T. B.

    1990-01-01

    A unique discrete form of the Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady, three-dimensional, incompressible flow has been used to study vortex breakdown numerically. A Burgers-type vortex was introduced along the central axis of the computational domain, and allowed to evolve in space and time. By varying the strength of the vortex and the free stream axial velocity distribution, using a previously developed Rossby number criterion as a guide, the location and size of the vortex breakdown region was controlled. While the boundaries of the vortex breakdown bubble appear to be nominally symmetric, the internal flow field is not. Consequently, the mechanisms for mixing and entrainment required to sustain the bubble region are different from those suggested by earlier axisymmetric models. Results presented in this study, for a Reynolds number of 200, are in good qualitative agreement with higher Reynolds number experimental observations, and a variety of plots have been presented to help illuminate the fluid physics.

  18. Atlas of fine structures of dynamic spectra of solar type IV-dm and some type II radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slottje, C.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents an atlas of spectral fine structures of solar radio bursts of types IV and II around 1 m wavelength, as obtained with a multichannel spectrograph at Dwingeloo. The structures form largely a collection of observations of these events during late 1968 through 1974, thus covering almost entirely the declining branch of solar cycle 20. The spectrograph has an extra enhanced contrast output with properties quite different from those of the commonly used swept frequency spectrographs. The corresponding instrumental characteristics and effects are discussed. A classification of fine structures and an analysis of their statistical properties and of those of the pertinent radio events are also given. (Auth.)

  19. Advanced Functionally Graded Plate-Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    at the outer surfaces of the plate and tending toward full metal at the mid-surface UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release 3. Types of FGM ...Advanced Functionally Graded Plate -Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading Terry Hause, Ph.D. Research Mechanical Engineer U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC...AND SUBTITLE Advanced Functionally Graded Plate -Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  20. Structural Analysis of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Receptor Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, John; Karalewitz, Andrew; Benefield, Desire A.; Mushrush, Darren J.; Pruitt, Rory N.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Lacy, D. Borden (Vanderbilt); (MCW)

    2010-10-19

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype (A-G). BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins. We observe conditions under which BoNT/B binds both Syt isoforms, but BoNT/G binds only SytI. Both serotypes bind ganglioside G{sub T1b}. The BoNT/G receptor-binding domain crystal structure provides a context for examining these binding interactions and a platform for understanding the physiological relevance of different Syt receptor isoforms in vivo.

  1. Structure of V-type ATPase from Clostridium fervidus by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, EJ; Ubbink-Kok, T; Lolkema, JS; Brisson, A; Konings, WN

    F-type and V-type ATPases couple synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP to the translocation of H+ or Na+ across biological membranes and have similarities in structure and mechanism. In both types of enzymes three main parts can be distinguished: headpiece, membrane-bound piece and stalk region. We report

  2. Galactic structure and dynamics with late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Allyson Anne

    Stellar populations provide important clues to the evolution of the Milky Way. We report the results of two surveys of late-type stars aimed at understanding the nature (dynamics, chemistries) of the disk and halo Galactic stellar populations. We study the kinematical properties of 303 late-type dwarfs out to ~6 kpc at the North Galactic Pole (NGP) as derived from deep ( V ~22), high precision (.001" yr -1 ) proper motions by Majewski (1992) combined with new deep CCD photometry, which yield photometry parallaxes needed to convert the proper motions to U and V space motions. A clear disk population to Z ~3 kpc can be discerned with a strong asymmetric drift gradient of -46±4 km s -1 kpc -1. Halo dwarfs dominate over the thick disk at Z ~3 kpc. In addition to the strong signal of disk stars, a retrograde halo moving group is identified in the U - V plane that is likely the same as the moving group detected at the NGP by Majewski (1992). We have also obtained medium resolution (2-4 Å) spectra for 749 late K and early M giants at mid-latitudes selected from the 2MASS catalog with the FOBOS system at Fan Mountain Observatory. These spectra provide radial velocities (RVs) at the 5 km s -1 level, spectroscopic [Fe/H] good to [sigma]=0.25 dex, and information on the relative abundances of Mg/Fe and Na/Fe in these stars. The UCAC2 proper motions and RVs yield full stellar space motions. We find ail asymmetric drift for the thin/thick disk of -26±4 kill s -1 kpc -1 , significantly smaller than that found for the M dwarf sample above. We attribute the difference to purity of sample in that M giants are not found in the halo field except in readily identifiable halo substructures. Based on the lack of a vertical gradient in the [[alpha]/Fe]-[Fe/H] patterns and the strong vertical gradient in rotational velocity for both of our surveys, we conclude that our findings support a most likely formation scenario in which the thick disk was formed by the heating of the early disk

  3. Plant-type phytoene desaturase: Functional evaluation of structural implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Koschmieder

    Full Text Available Phytoene desaturase (PDS is an essential plant carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme and a prominent target of certain inhibitors, such as norflurazon, acting as bleaching herbicides. PDS catalyzes the introduction of two double bonds into 15-cis-phytoene, yielding 9,15,9'-tri-cis-ζ-carotene via the intermediate 9,15-di-cis-phytofluene. We present the necessary data to scrutinize functional implications inferred from the recently resolved crystal structure of Oryza sativa PDS in a complex with norflurazon. Using dynamic mathematical modeling of reaction time courses, we support the relevance of homotetrameric assembly of the enzyme observed in crystallo by providing evidence for substrate channeling of the intermediate phytofluene between individual subunits at membrane surfaces. Kinetic investigations are compatible with an ordered ping-pong bi-bi kinetic mechanism in which the carotene and the quinone electron acceptor successively occupy the same catalytic site. The mutagenesis of a conserved arginine that forms a hydrogen bond with norflurazon, the latter competing with plastoquinone, corroborates the possibility of engineering herbicide resistance, however, at the expense of diminished catalytic activity. This mutagenesis also supports a "flavin only" mechanism of carotene desaturation not requiring charged residues in the active site. Evidence for the role of the central 15-cis double bond of phytoene in determining regio-specificity of carotene desaturation is presented.

  4. UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NORMAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Liam; Kim, Dong-Woo; Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    2018-01-01

    The hot interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies (ETG's) provides crucial insight into the understanding of their formation and evolution. Mechanisms such as type Ia supernovae heating, AGN feedback, deepening potential depth through dark matter assembly and ramp-pressure stripping are known to affect the structure of the ISM. By using temperature maps and radial temperature profiles of the hot ISM from ~70 ETG's with archival Chandra data, it is possible to classify the galaxy's ISM into common structural types. This is extended by using 3D fitting of the radial temperature profile in order to provide models that further constrain the structural types. Five structural types are present, negative (temperature decreases with radii), positive (temperature increases with radii), hybrid-dip (temperature decreases at small radii and increases at large radii), hybrid-bump (inverse of hybrid-dip) and quasi-isothermal (temperature is constant at all radii). This work will be continued by 1) determining which mechanisms are present in which galaxies and 2) analysing the model parameters between galaxies within each structural type to determine whether each type can be described by a single set of model parameters, indicating that the same physical processes are responsible for creating that structural type.

  5. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human)-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies.

  6. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Rutten

    Full Text Available In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies.

  7. Types of personality motivation structure of women who are acquiring higher education in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA PARTYKO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of empirical research on the types of personality motivation structure of women who are acquiring higher education in psychology. Two types have been singled out: expressive and impulsive. The expressive type comprises two components: ideal motivation aimed at life necessities, general activity and social utility, and real motivation aimed at comfort, social status and communication. In the structure of the impulsive type there are three components: real motivation aimed at life necessities, social status, general activity and social utility; real motivation aimed at communication and comfort; creativity motivation aimed at self-development and creative activity. Women belonging to the expressive type of personality motivation structure have more positive self-attitude and a higher level of psychological well-being than women belonging to the impulsive type.

  8. The Step-Type Contrast Structure for High Dimensional Tikhonov System with Neumann Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the step-type contrast structure for high dimensional Tikhonov system with Neumann boundary conditions. We not only propose a key condition with the existence of the number of mutually independent first integrals under which there exists a step-type contrast structure, but also determine where an internal transition time is. Using the method of boundary function, we construct the formal asymptotic solution and give the analytical expression for the higher order terms. At the same time, the uniformly valid asymptotic expansion and the existence of such an available step-type contrast structure are obtained by sewing connection method.

  9. Numerical analysis and comparison of three types of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yihua; Tang, Saiqian; Xu, Yang; Mao, Kunli

    2018-04-01

    In order to obtain mechanical response distribution of herringbone frame structure for highway subgrade slopes protection and select the best structure type, 3D numerical models of three types herringbone frame structure were established and analyzed in finite element software ANSYS. Indoor physical model of soil slope protected by herringbone frame structure was built and mechanical response of the frame structure was measured by loading tests. Numerical results indicate slope foot is the stress most disadvantageous location. Comparative analysis shows that structure composed of mortar rubble base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for resisting deformation and structure with cement mortar base layer and precast concrete blocks paving layer is the best one for being of low stress.

  10. Structural Characterization of Outer Membrane Components of the Type IV Pili System in Pathogenic Neisseria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Samta; Moscicka, Katarzyna B.; Bos, Martine P.; Pachulec, Emilia; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Keegstra, Wilko; Boekema, Egbert J.; van der Does, Chris; B. Mościcka, K.; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2011-01-01

    Structures of the type IV pili secretin complexes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, embedded in outer membranes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Single particle averaging revealed additional domains not observed previously. Secretin complexes of N.

  11. Bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}: New crystal structure type and electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Wang, Chun-Hai; So, Karwei; Evans, John S.O. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Evans, Ivana Radosavljević, E-mail: ivana.radosavljevic@durham.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, known for its visible light photocatalytic activity. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6} adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra, ZnO{sub 6} octahedra and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 12} dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, a new structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Mg, Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn; A=V, P, As) family. - Highlights: • Structure solution from PXRD data by repeated minimisations from random starting values. • New structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family. • Electronic structure calculation.

  12. The research of structural features of astralens - nanodimensional carbon particles of fulleroid type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.N.; Nikitin, V.A.; Rybalko, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The article is focused on the research of structural features of astralens - nanodimensional carbonic particles of fulleroid type. Astralens are perspective nanomodificators of properties of materials of different types. The potentials os astralens as modificators depend on their characteristic structural features, and in the first place, on the distribution of nanoparticles by sizes. The typical dimensions of astralens are determined to be within the range of 15-75 nm [ru

  13. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae Type 3 Fimbriae▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng-Jung; Chan, Chia-Han; Huang, Ying-Jung; Liu, Kuo-Liang; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chang, Hwan-You; Liou, Gunn-Guang; Yew, Tri-Rung; Liu, Cheng-Hsien; Hsu, Ken Y.; Hsu, Long

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the structural and mechanical properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 fimbriae, which constitute a known virulence factor for the bacterium. Transmission electron microscopy and optical tweezers were used to understand the ability of the bacterium to survive flushes. An individual K. pneumoniae type 3 fimbria exhibited a helix-like structure with a pitch of 4.1 nm and a three-phase force-extension curve. The fimbria was first nonlinearly stretched with increasing fo...

  14. Structural and biochemical characterization of the type-II LOG protein from Streptomyces coelicolor A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-03-29

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3 contains Sc5140, a gene coding for poorly understood bacterial LOG-like protein. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Sc5140 and found it resembles the overall structure of other type-II LOGs. In addition, Sc5140 exhibited phosphoribohydrolase activity against adenosine monophosphate (AMP), indicating that it had the same function as known type-II LOGs. Based on these results, we designated Sc5140 as ScLOGII. We performed docking calculations of AMP into the ScLOGII structure, which suggested the mode of binding for type-II LOG with their AMP substrate. The ScLOGII structure uniquely exhibited a long tail-like structure at the N-terminus that was involved in hexamerization of the protein; the disordered N-terminal region (DNR). Truncation of DNR in ScLOGII negatively affected both the phosphoribohydrolase activity and the oligomerization of the protein, suggesting that this region functioned in enzyme stabilization. However, results from truncation experiments using ScLOGII and CgLOGII, a type-II LOG homologue from Corynebacterium glutamicum, were quite different, leaving uncertainty regarding the general functions of DNR in type-II LOGs. Overall, the current structural work may help in understand the significance of type-II LOG protein at the molecular level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  16. Synthesis, structure and ionic conductivity in scheelite type Lnx MoO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aSolid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. bDepartment of ... ment19 and laser wave guide material.20 ..... our future study. 3.2 Crystal structure determination. Powder diffraction data of LCM, LCPM and LCSM confirmed the formation of single scheelite type phase.

  17. Synthesis, structure and ionic conductivity in scheelite type Li 0.5 Ce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since these scheelite type structures show significant conductivity, the series of compounds could serve in high temperature lithium battery operations. ... Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India; Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  18. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  19. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non-toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure. MS accepted http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. THYAGESHWAR CHANDRAN, ALOK SHARMA and M VIJAYAN. J. Biosci. 40(5), October 2015, 929–941, © Indian Academy of ...

  20. Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B; Chow, Betty Shingpui; Deland, Jonathan T

    2013-03-01

    Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMat II gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pair wise comparisons. Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 1: Structure and Function of the Asymptomatic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J.; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Mootanah, Rajshree; Dufour, Alyssa B.; PT, Betty (Shingpui) Chow; Deland, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in foot structure are thought to be associated with differences in foot function during movement. Many foot pathologies are of a biomechanical nature and often associated with foot type. Fundamental to the understanding of foot pathomechanics is the question: do different foot types have distinctly different structure and function? Aim To determine if objective measures of foot structure and function differ between planus, rectus and cavus foot types in asymptomatic individuals. Methods Sixty-one asymptomatic healthy adults between 18 and 77 years old, that had the same foot type bilaterally (44 planus feet, 54 rectus feet, and 24 cavus feet), were recruited. Structural and functional measurements were taken using custom equipment, an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device, a GaitMatII gait pattern measurement system, and a goniometer. Generalized Estimation Equation modeling was employed to determine if each dependent variable of foot structure and function was significantly different across foot type while accounting for potential dependencies between sides. Post hoc testing was performed to assess pairwise comparisons. Results Several measures of foot structure (malleolar valgus index and arch height index) were significantly different between foot types. Gait pattern parameters were invariant across foot types. Peak pressure, maximum force, pressure-time-integral, force-time-integral and contact area were significantly different in several medial forefoot and arch locations between foot types. Planus feet exhibited significantly different center of pressure excursion indices compared to rectus and cavus feet. Conclusions Planus, rectus and cavus feet exhibited significantly different measures of foot structure and function. PMID:23107625

  2. Relationship Structures and Semantic Type Assignments of the UMLS Enriched Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Halper, Michael; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Cimino, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Enriched Semantic Network (ESN) was introduced as an extension of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network (SN). Its multiple subsumption configuration and concomitant multiple inheritance make the ESN's relationship structures and semantic type assignments different from those of the SN. A technique for deriving the relationship structures of the ESN's semantic types and an automated technique for deriving the ESN's semantic type assignments from those of the SN are presented. Design: The technique to derive the ESN's relationship structures finds all newly inherited relationships in the ESN. All such relationships are audited for semantic validity, and the blocking mechanism is used to block invalid relationships. The mapping technique to derive the ESN's semantic type assignments uses current SN semantic type assignments and preserves nonredundant categorizations, while preventing new redundant categorizations. Results: Among the 426 newly inherited relationships, 326 are deemed valid. Seven blockings are applied to avoid inheritance of the 100 invalid relationships. Sixteen semantic types have different relationship structures in the ESN as compared to those in the SN. The mapping of semantic type assignments from the SN to the ESN avoids the generation of 26,950 redundant categorizations. The resulting ESN contains 138 semantic types, 149 IS-A links, 7,303 relationships, and 1,013,876 semantic type assignments. Conclusion: The ESN's multiple inheritance provides more complete relationship structures than in the SN. The ESN's semantic type assignments avoid the existing redundant categorizations appearing in the SN and prevent new ones that might arise due to multiple parents. Compared to the SN, the ESN provides a more accurate unifying semantic abstraction of the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:16049233

  3. Structural assessments of plate type support system for APR1400 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Anh Tung; Namgung, Ihn, E-mail: inamgung@kings.ac.kr

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • This paper investigates plate-type support structure for the reactor vessel of the APR 1400. • The tall column supports of APR1400 reactor challenges in seismic and severe accident events. • A plate-type support of reactor vessel was proposed and evaluated based on ASME code. • The plate-type support was assessed to show its higher rigidity than column-type. - Abstract: This paper investigates an alternative form of support structure for the reactor vessel of the APR 1400. The current reactor vessel adopts a four-column support arrangement locating on the cold legs of the vessel. Although having been successfully designed, the tall column structure challenges in seismic events. In addition, for the mitigation of severe accident consequences, the columns inhibit ex-vessel coolant flow, hence the elimination of the support columns proposes extra safety advantages. A plate-type support was proposed and evaluated for the adequacy of meeting the structural stiffness by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approach. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was used to verify the design. The results, which cover thermal and static structural analysis, show stresses are within allowable limits in accordance with the design code. Even the heat conduction area is increased for the plate-type of support system, the results showed that the thermal stresses are within allowable limits. A comparison of natural frequencies and mode shapes for column support and plate-type support were presented as well which showed higher fundamental frequencies for the plate-type support system resulting in greater rigidity of the support system. From the outcome of this research, the plate-type support is proven to be an alternative to current APR column type support design.

  4. On the equilibrium configuration of the Kittel type domain structure with Bloch walls, l80deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrila, H.

    1975-01-01

    Using a phenomenologic method for appreciating different components of the free energy, the equilibrium configuration of the Kittel-type domain structure with Bloch walls is obtained. By improving the known methods, more accurate magnetostatic energy calculations are reported. In order to determine the equilibrium structure, the total free energy is minimized with respect to two system parameters: the Bloch wall width and the structure half-period. (author)

  5. Alkaloids from Narcissus poeticus cv. Pink Parasol of various structural types and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafratová, Marcela; Hošťálková, Anna; Hulcová, Daniela; Breiterová, Kateřina; Hrabcová, Veronika; Machado, Marta; Fontinha, Diana; Prudêncio, Miguel; Kuneš, Jiří; Chlebek, Jakub; Jun, Daniel; Hrabinová, Martina; Nováková, Lucie; Havelek, Radim; Seifrtová, Martina; Opletal, Lubomír; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2018-02-01

    Fifteen Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (1-15) of various structural types were isolated by standard chromatographic methods from fresh bulbs of Narcissus poeticus cv. Pink Parasol. The chemical structures were elucidated by MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, and by comparison with literature data. Narcipavline (5) and narcikachnine (6) are reported here for the first time. In their structure are combined two basic structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (galanthamine- and galanthindole-structural types), which represent a new structural type of these compounds. Alkaloids isolated in sufficient amounts were evaluated for their human erythrocytic acetylcholinesterase, and human serum butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) inhibition activity using Ellman's method. Z-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide was used as substrate in the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) assay. Untested alkaloids were also screened for their cytotoxic activity against a small panel of human cancer cells, which spanned cell lines from different tissue types. In parallel, MRC-5 human fibroblasts were employed to determine overall toxicity against noncancerous cells. Some compounds were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activity. The newly isolated alkaloid narcipavline (5) showed interesting HuBuChE inhibition activity (IC 50  = 24.4 ± 1.2 µM), and norlycoramine (11) demonstrated promising POP inhibition (IC 50  = 0.21 ± 0.01 mM).

  6. Structural and Thermal Safety Analysis Report for the Type B Radioactive Waste Transport Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S

    2007-09-15

    We carried out structural safety evaluation for the type B radioactive waste transport package. Requirements for type B packages according to the related regulations such as IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, Korea Most Act. 2001-23 and US 10 CFR Part 71 were evaluated. General requirements for packages such as those for a lifting attachment, a tie-down attachment and pressure condition were considered. For the type B radioactive waste transport package, the structural, thermal and containment analyses were carried out under the normal transport conditions. Also the safety analysis were conducted under the accidental transport conditions. The 9 m drop test, 1 m puncture test, fire test and water immersion test under the accidental transport conditions were consecutively done. The type B radioactive waste transport packages were maintained the structural and thermal integrities.

  7. Development, characteristics and comparative structural analysis of tensegrity type cable domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadović Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensegrity type cable domes are three-dimensional structural configurations, prestressed inside the perimeter compression ring, in which the continuous tension throughout the roof structure is made by continuous tension cables and discontinuous compression struts. These kinds of structures can be formed like spatially triangulated networks or like networks nontriangulated in space. This paper examines some effects of network geometry on the behaviour and structural efficiency of tensegrity type cable domes. In this paper the roof cover is considered non-interactive with the supporting structure, unlike rigidly clad tensegrity type cable domes. Since the main bearing elements of tensegrity type cable domes are prestressed cables, they show non-linear load deformation and rely upon geometric stiffness. A geometrically non-linear analysis of non-triangulated and triangulated structures for different load conditions was conducted employing a computer program based on the perturbation theory. The incrementally-iterative procedure, with an approximation of the stiffness matrix by combining the elastic and geometric stiffness matrix, allows detection of structural instabilities.

  8. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  9. The Types of Argument Structure Used by Hillary Clinton in the CNN Democratic Presidential Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggie Angeline

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research was conducted to examine the types of argument structure by Hillary Clinton in part one of the CNN Democratic Presidential Debate since Hillary, who had a great deal of experiences in political parties, was supposed to be able to construct convincing arguments that had good argument structures. The theories used to analyze were Bierman and Assali’s (1996, King’s (n.d. and Stanlick’s (2003. The findings showed that there were five types of argument structure used: serial, linked, convergent, divergent, and hybrid argument structures. The linked argument structure was the argument structure used the most frequently in Hillary’s utterances in the debate, while the divergent was the least one. Thus, it could be concluded that Hillary’s speech in the Presidential Debate was quite interesting since she could combine all the five types of argument structure, though the frequency of using them was not the same and it seems that linked argument structure was the most effective strategy for her in arguing about the politic, economy, and social issues.

  10. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  11. An efficient algorithm for planar drawing of RNA structures with pseudoknots of any type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Yanga; Han, Kyungsook

    2016-06-01

    An RNA pseudoknot is a tertiary structural element in which bases of a loop pair with complementary bases are outside the loop. A drawing of RNA secondary structures is a tree, but a drawing of RNA pseudoknots is a graph that has an inner cycle within a pseudoknot and possibly outer cycles formed between the pseudoknot and other structural elements. Visualizing a large-scale RNA structure with pseudoknots as a planar drawing is challenging because a planar drawing of an RNA structure requires both pseudoknots and an entire structure enclosing the pseudoknots to be embedded into a plane without overlapping or crossing. This paper presents an efficient heuristic algorithm for visualizing a pseudoknotted RNA structure as a planar drawing. The algorithm consists of several parts for finding crossing stems and page mapping the stems, for the layout of stem-loops and pseudoknots, and for overlap detection between structural elements and resolving it. Unlike previous algorithms, our algorithm generates a planar drawing for a large RNA structure with pseudoknots of any type and provides a bracket view of the structure. It generates a compact and aesthetic structure graph for a large pseudoknotted RNA structure in O([Formula: see text]) time, where n is the number of stems of the RNA structure.

  12. Cryo-EM structures of two bovine adenovirus type 3 intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xiong, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Sun, Wei; Yang, Chongwen; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ying [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Hongrong [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zheng, Congyi, E-mail: cctcc202@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Zhu, Ping, E-mail: zhup@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Adenoviruses (Ads) infect hosts from all vertebrate species and have been investigated as vaccine vectors. We report here near-atomic structures of two bovine Ad type 3 (BAd3) intermediates obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison between the two intermediate structures reveals that the differences are localized in the fivefold vertex region, while their facet structures are identical. The overall facet structure of BAd3 exhibits a similar structure to human Ads; however, BAd3 protein IX has a unique conformation. Mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography analyses indicate that one intermediate structure represents the stage during DNA encapsidation, whilst the other intermediate structure represents a later stage. These results also suggest that cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during, rather than after, the DNA encapsidation process. Overall, our results provide insights into the mechanism of Ad assembly, and allow the first structural comparison between human and nonhuman Ads at backbone level. - Highlights: • First structure of bovine adenovirus type 3. • Some channels are located at the vertex of intermediate during DNA encapsidation. • Protein IX exhibits a unique conformation of trimeric coiled–coiled structure. • Cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during the DNA encapsidation process.

  13. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorui Yao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G, a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2 that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2. Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.

  14. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2017-03-08

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A-G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (H C ) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the H C . Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-H C at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.

  15. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng (Cornell); (Dusseldorf); (UCI)

    2017-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures

  16. Precipitate structure of Zr (CrFe)2 type in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, R.A.; Ipohorski, M.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of precipitate structure in β -quenched alloys heat-treated at 500 to 700 0 C has been studied by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In zircaloy-4, Zr (CrFe) 2 type precipitates with a polytype structure have been observed. Their composition has been determined and compared with the correspondent to precipitates present in zircaloy-2. Contents of Fe and Cr are different, but the hexagonal structure seems to be dominant for the precipitates on both alloys. The electrons/atom ratios calculated from the composition data, are consistent with the hexagonal structure of the precipitates.(Author) [pt

  17. Structural insights into DNA sequence recognition by Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manasi; Nirwan, Neha; van Aelst, Kara; Szczelkun, Mark D; Saikrishnan, Kayarat

    2016-05-19

    Engineering restriction enzymes with new sequence specificity has been an unaccomplished challenge, presumably because of the complexity of target recognition. Here we report detailed analyses of target recognition by Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes. We determined the structure of the Type ISP enzyme LlaGI bound to its target and compared it with the previously reported structure of a close homologue that binds to a distinct target, LlaBIII. The comparison revealed that, although the two enzymes use almost a similar set of structural elements for target recognition, the residues that read the bases vary. Change in specificity resulted not only from appropriate substitution of amino acids that contacted the bases but also from new contacts made by positionally distinct residues directly or through a water bridge. Sequence analyses of 552 Type ISP enzymes showed that the structural elements involved in target recognition of LlaGI and LlaBIII were structurally well-conserved but sequentially less-conserved. In addition, the residue positions within these structural elements were under strong evolutionary constraint, highlighting the functional importance of these regions. The comparative study helped decipher a partial consensus code for target recognition by Type ISP enzymes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic systems identification using recurrent interval type-2 TSK fuzzy neural network - A novel structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nagar, Ahmad M

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel structure of a recurrent interval type-2 Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy neural network (FNN) is introduced for nonlinear dynamic and time-varying systems identification. It combines the type-2 fuzzy sets (T2FSs) and a recurrent FNN to avoid the data uncertainties. The fuzzy firing strengths in the proposed structure are returned to the network input as internal variables. The interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2FSs) is used to describe the antecedent part for each rule while the consequent part is a TSK-type, which is a linear function of the internal variables and the external inputs with interval weights. All the type-2 fuzzy rules for the proposed RIT2TSKFNN are learned on-line based on structure and parameter learning, which are performed using the type-2 fuzzy clustering. The antecedent and consequent parameters of the proposed RIT2TSKFNN are updated based on the Lyapunov function to achieve network stability. The obtained results indicate that our proposed network has a small root mean square error (RMSE) and a small integral of square error (ISE) with a small number of rules and a small computation time compared with other type-2 FNNs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 1H and 15N NMR resonance assignments and secondary structure of titin type I domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Nilges, Michael; Pastore, Annalisa [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (Germany)

    1997-01-15

    Titin/connect in is a giant muscle protein with a highly modular architecture consisting of multiple repeats of two sequence motifs, named type I and type II. Type I modules have been suggested to be intracellular members of the fibronectin type III (Fn3) domain family. Along the titin sequence they are exclusively present in the region of the molecule located in the sarcomere A-band. This region has been shown to interact with myosin and C-protein. One of the most noticeable features of type I modules is that they are particularly rich in semiconserved prolines, since these residues account for about 8% of their sequence. We have determined the secondary structure of a representative type I domain (A71) by 15N and 1HNMR. We show that the type I domains of titin have the Fn3 fold as proposed, consisting of a three- and a four-stranded {beta}-sheet. When the two sheets are placed on top of each other to form the {beta}-sandwich characteristic of the Fn3 fold, 8 out of 10 prolines are found on the same side of the molecule and form an exposed hydrophobic patch. This suggests that the semiconserved prolines might be relevant for the function of type I modules, providing a surface for binding to other A-band proteins. The secondary structure of A71 was structurally aligned to other extracellular Fn3 modules of known 3D structure. The alignment shows that titin type I modules have closest similarity to the first Fn3 domain of Drosophila neuroglian.

  20. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: Are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W.; Hafer, Jocelyn F.; Backus, Sherry I.; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Hypothesis Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n = 12), rectus (n = 27) and planus (n = 22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Results Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10–37% of the model variance (adjusted R2) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R2 increased to 45–77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7–47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16–64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. PMID:23107624

  1. Two-stage multishape segmentation of brain structures using image intensity, tissue type, and location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2010-08-01

    The authors propose a fast, robust, nonparametric, entropy-based, coupled, multishape approach to segment subcortical brain structures from magnetic resonance images (MRIs). The proposed method uses three types of information: Image intensity, tissue types, and locations of structures. The image intensity information is captured by estimating the probability density function (pdf) of the image intensities in each structure. The tissue type information is captured by applying an unsupervised tissue segmentation method to the image and estimating a probability mass function (pmf) for the tissue type of each structure. The location information is captured by estimating pdf of the location of each structure from the training datasets. The resulting pmf's and pdf's are used to define an entropy function whose minimum corresponds to a desirable segmentation of the structures. The authors propose a three-step optimization strategy for the segmentation method. In the first step, a powerful automatic initialization method is developed based on tissue type and location information of the structures. In the second step, a quasi-Newton method is used to optimize the parameters of the energy function. To speed up the iterations, derivatives of the energy function with respect to its parameters are analytically derived and used in the optimization process. In the last step, the limitations related to the prior shape model are removed and a level-set method is applied for the fine tuning of the segmentation results. The proposed method is applied to two different datasets and the results are compared to those of previous methods in literature. Experimental results are presented for lateral ventricles, caudate, thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, and amygdala. The results illustrate superior performance of the proposed segmentation method compared to other methods in literature. The execution time of the algorithm is a few minutes, suitable for a variety of applications.

  2. Type-II Quantum Dot Nanowire Structures with Large Oscillator Strengths for Optical Quantum Gating Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherkhani, Masoomeh; Gregersen, Niels; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The exciton oscillator strength (OS) in type-II quantum dot (QD) nanowires is calculated by using a fast and efficient method. We propose a new structure in Double-Well QD (DWQD) nanowire that considerably increases OS of type-II QDs which is a key parameter in optical quantum gating in the stimu...... in the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) process [1] for implementing quantum gates....

  3. Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kaituo; Sitsel, Oleg; Meloni, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    A) are crucial for cellular redistribution and detoxification of Zn2+ and related elements2, 3. Here we present crystal structures representing the phosphoenzyme ground state (E2P) and a dephosphorylation intermediate (E2·Pi) of ZntA from Shigella sonnei, determined at 3.2 Å and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively....... The structures reveal a similar fold to Cu+-ATPases, with an amphipathic helix at the membrane interface. A conserved electronegative funnel connects this region to the intramembranous high-affinity ion-binding site and may promote specific uptake of cellular Zn2+ ions by the transporter. The E2P structure...... been proposed for H+-ATPases. Indeed, transport studies in liposomes provide experimental support for ZntA activity without counter transport. These findings suggest a mechanistic link between PIB-type Zn2+-ATPases and PIII-type H+-ATPases and at the same time show structural features...

  4. A Study of the Types of Organizational Structure in Venezuelan University Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Pertuz Belloso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the type of organizational structure of Venezuelan university institutes. It is a field investigation of a descriptive nature with a non-experimental transactional field design. We worked with a population sample consisting of a director, assistant directors, academic assistant directors and eighty-eight teachers from technological institutes in Cabimas and Maracaibo in Venezuela. A survey, in the form of a questionnaire, was used as the data collection technique, which included 24 items, validated by 5 experts, with Cronbach Alpha reliability of 0.93. The data analysis technique utilized was the percentage frequency distribution. The results indicated the coexistence of bureaucratic structural typologies; departmental and simple. An implementation of a structural migration strategy to the implementation of a matrix-type structure is recommended.

  5. In and out of the cation pumps: P-type ATPase structure revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, Maike; Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben

    2010-01-01

    Active transport across membranes is a crucial requirement for life. P-type ATPases build up electrochemical gradients at the expense of ATP by forming and splitting a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate, coupled to conformational changes in the transmembrane section where the ions are translocated....... The marked increment during the last three years in the number of crystal structures of P-type ATPases has greatly improved our understanding of the similarities and differences of pumps with different ion specificities, since the structures of the Ca2+-ATPase, the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+-ATPase can now...

  6. Structural insight into the quinolone-DNA cleavage complex of type IIA topoisomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponogov, Ivan; Sohi, Maninder K; Veselkov, Dennis A; Pan, Xiao-Su; Sawhney, Ritica; Thompson, Andrew W; McAuley, Katherine E; Fisher, L Mark; Sanderson, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Type II topoisomerases alter DNA topology by forming a covalent DNA-cleavage complex that allows DNA transport through a double-stranded DNA break. We present the structures of cleavage complexes formed by the Streptococcus pneumoniae ParC breakage-reunion and ParE TOPRIM domains of topoisomerase IV stabilized by moxifloxacin and clinafloxacin, two antipneumococcal fluoroquinolones. These structures reveal two drug molecules intercalated at the highly bent DNA gate and help explain antibacterial quinolone action and resistance.

  7. Structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahuhta, Markus; Xu, Qi; Brunecky, Roman; Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.; Lunin, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The 1.6 Å resolution structure of a fibronectin type III-like module from Clostridium thermocellum with two molecules in the asymmetric unit is reported. The crystals used for data collection belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 35.43, b = 45.73, c = 107.72 Å, and the structure was refined to an R factor of 0.166. Structural comparisons found over 800 similar structures in the Protein Data Bank. The broad range of different proteins or protein domains with high structural similarity makes it especially demanding to classify these proteins. Previous studies of fibronectin type III-like modules have indicated that they might function as ligand-binding modules, as a compact form of peptide linkers or spacers between other domains, as cellulose-disrupting modules or as proteins that help large enzyme complexes remain soluble

  8. Allomorph distribution and granule structure of lotus rhizome C-type starch during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Canhui; Cai, Jinwen; Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-01

    The allomorph distribution and granule structure of C-type starch from lotus rhizomes were investigated using a combination of techniques during gelatinization. The disruption of crystallinity during gelatinization began from the end distant from the eccentric hilum and then propagated into the center of granule. The periphery of hilum end was finally gelatinized, accompanied by high swelling. The crystallinity changed from C-type to A-type via CA-type during gelatinization, and finally became amorphous structure. The amylose content, crystal degree, helix content, ratio of 1045/1022cm(-1), and peak intensity of crystalline lamellae of gelatinizing starch significantly decreased after 70°C. The amorphous content and ratio of 1022/995cm(-1) increased after 70°C. This study elucidated that B-type allomorph was mainly arranged in the distal region of eccentric hilum, A-type allomorph was mainly located in the periphery of hilum end, and the center of granule was a mixed distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Best Entry Points for Structured Document Retrieval - Part II: Types, Usage and Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Jane; Lalmas, Mounia; Finesilver, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Structured document retrieval makes use of document components as the basis of the retrieval process, rather than complete documents. The inherent relationships between these components make it vital to support users' natural browsing behaviour in order to offer effective and efficient access...... to structured documents. This paper examines the concept of best entry points, which are document components from which the user can browse to obtain optimal access to relevant document components. It investigates at the types of best entry points in structured document retrieval, and their usage...

  10. Crystal structure of Mabinlin II: a novel structural type of sweet proteins and the main structural basis for its sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Feng; Jiang, Peihua; Zhu, De-Yu; Hu, Yonglin; Max, Marianna; Wang, Da-Cheng

    2008-04-01

    The crystal structure of a sweet protein Mabinlin II (Mab II) isolated from the mature seeds of Capparis masaikai Levl. grown in Southern China has been determined at 1.7A resolution by the SIRAS method. The Mab II 3D structure features in an "all alpha" fold mode consisting of A- and B-chains crosslinked by four disulfide bridges, which is distinct from all known sweet protein structures. The Mabinlin II molecule shows an amphiphilic surface, a cationic face (Face A) and a neutral face (Face B). A unique structural motif consisting of B54-B64 was found in Face B, which adopts a special sequence, NL-P-NI-C-NI-P-NI, featuring four [Asn-Leu/Ile] units connected by three conformational-constrained residues, thus is called the [NL/I] tetralet motif. The experiments for testing the possible interactions of separated A-chain and B-chain and the native Mabinlin II to the sweet-taste receptor were performed through the calcium imaging experiments with the HEK293E cells coexpressed hT1R2/T1R3. The result shows that hT1R2/T1R3 responds to both the integrated Mabinlin II and the individual B-chain in the same scale, but not to A-chain. The sweetness evaluation further identified that the separated B-chain can elicit the sweetness alone, but A-chain does not. All data in combination revealed that the sweet protein Mabinlin II can interact with the sweet-taste receptor hT1R2/T1R3 to elicit its sweet taste, and the B-chain with a unique [NL/I] tetralet motif is the essential structural element for the interaction with sweet-taste receptor to elicit the sweetness, while the A-chain may play a role in gaining a long aftertaste for the integrate Mabinlin II. The findings reported in this paper will be advantage for understanding the diversity of sweet proteins and engineering research for development of a unique sweetener for the food and agriculture based on the Mabinlin II structure as a native model.

  11. An Investigation of Structure, Flexibility, and Function Variables that Discriminate Asymptomatic Foot Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sarah P; Song, Jinsup; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Rao, Smita; Backus, Sherry; Hillstrom, Rajshree M; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2017-07-01

    It has been suggested that foot type considers not only foot structure (high, normal, low arch), but also function (overpronation, normal, oversupination) and flexibility (reduced, normal, excessive). Therefore, this study used canonical regression analyses to assess which variables of foot structure, function, and flexibility can accurately discriminate between clinical foot type classifications. The feet of 61 asymptomatic, healthy adults (18-77 years) were classified as cavus (N = 24), rectus (N = 54), or planus (N = 44) using standard clinical measures. Custom jigs assessed foot structure and flexibility. Foot function was assessed using an emed-x plantar pressure measuring device. Canonical regression analyses were applied separately to extract essential structure, flexibility, and function variables. A third canonical regression analysis was performed on the extracted variables to identify a combined model. The initial combined model included 30 extracted variables; however 5 terminal variables (malleolar valgus index, arch height index while sitting, first metatarsophalangeal joint laxity while standing, pressure-time integral and maximum contact area of medial arch) were able to correctly predict 80.7% of foot types. These remaining variables focused on specific foot characteristics (hindfoot alignment, arch height, midfoot mechanics, Windlass mechanism) that could be essential to discriminating foot type.

  12. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  13. Pool Structures: A New Type of Interaction Zones of Lithospheric Plate Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetskyi, R. G.; Leonov, M. G.

    2018-02-01

    Study of tectono-geodynamic clusters of the continental lithosphere (the Sloboda cluster of the East European Platform and the Pamir cluster of Central Asia) permitted identification of pool structures, which are a specific type of zone of intraplate interaction of rock masses.

  14. Structural studies on a non toxic homologue of type II RIPs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Each domain carries a carbohydrate binding site in type II RIPS of known structure. BGSL has a sugar binding site only on one domain, thus impairing its interaction at the cell surface. The adenine binding site in the catalytic chain is defective. Thus, defects in sugar binding as well as adenine binding appear to contribute to ...

  15. Insect-inspired wing actuation structures based on ring-type resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolsman, C.T.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van Keulen, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate and study the opportunities of resonant ring type structures as wing actuation mechanisms for a flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). Various design alternatives are presented and studied based on computational and physical models. Insects provide an excellent source of

  16. Ensuring Structural Constraints in Graph-Based Models with Type Inheritance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taentzer, G.; Rensink, Arend; Cerioli, M.

    Graphs are a common means to represent structures in models and meta-models of software systems. In this context, the description of model domains by classifying the domain entities and their relations using class diagrams or type graphs has emerged as a very valuable principle. The constraints that

  17. Structural barriers to coping with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural barriers to coping with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Ghana: Experiences of diabetic youth and their families. ... Methods: Qualitative study conducted with families with a child with T1DM, receiving care in the greater Accra area. Total of 17 individuals ... Social support networks need to be explored and strengthened.

  18. Tangshen Formula Attenuates Colonic Structure Remodeling in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Haojun

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine Tangshen Formula (TSF) on GI structure remodeling in the rat model of diabetes. Methods. Type 2 diabetic rats were used. Wet weight per unit length, layer thicknesses, levels of collagens I and III, nuclear factor...

  19. Bilingual Children's Acquisition of English Verb Morphology: Effects of Language Exposure, Structure Complexity, and Task Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether bilingual-monolingual differences would be apparent in school-age children's use and knowledge of English verb morphology and whether differences would be influenced by amount of exposure to English, complexity of the morphological structure, or the type of task given. French-English bilinguals (mean age = 6;10)…

  20. Tectonic types of deepwater basins and structural segmentation of the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2012-03-01

    Typification of tectonic structures is one of the important lines of tectonic research. Recently, I have published several articles, which are concerned with deepwater oceanic basins. This paper is focused on tectonic typification of deepwater basins of the North Atlantic. They are attributed to three types: perispreading, central thalassogenic, and pericontinental. The first type comprises the Irminger, Iceland, Greenland, and Lofoten basins. The first two basins are associated with the Reykjanes Ridge and the two others, with the Mohns Ridge. The central thalassogenic type is exemplified in the Norwegian Basin, while the pericontinental type in the Rockall Trough. Two systems of basins are distinguished by morphostructural and historical-geological features: the northern system of the Oligocene-Quaternary structures and the southern system of the Paleocene-Quaternary structures. The Greenland-Faroe tectonovolcanic zone serves as their tectonic interface. In the tectonic typology of their deepwater basins, the North Atlantic is closer to the Indian than to other oceans. The present-day configuration of the northern basins is determined by neotectonics. The tectonic movements in the northern system of basins at this stage were more contrasting than in the southern system. This explains the greater depth of the former basins. The spatial position of the deepwater basins belonging to different types determines the tectonic segmentation of the oceanic bottom. The southern, central, and northern latitudinal segments correspond to different geodynamic states of the Earth's interior.

  1. Insights into the Mechanism of Type I Dehydroquinate Dehydratases from Structures of Reaction Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Duban, Mark-Eugene; Caffrey, Michael; Anderson, Wayne F.; Lavie, Arnon (NWU); (UIC)

    2012-02-27

    The biosynthetic shikimate pathway consists of seven enzymes that catalyze sequential reactions to generate chorismate, a critical branch point in the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids. The third enzyme in the pathway, dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD), catalyzes the dehydration of 3-dehydroquinate to 3-dehydroshikimate. We present three crystal structures of the type I DHQD from the intestinal pathogens Clostridium difficile and Salmonella enterica. Structures of the enzyme with substrate and covalent pre- and post-dehydration reaction intermediates provide snapshots of successive steps along the type I DHQD-catalyzed reaction coordinate. These structures reveal that the position of the substrate within the active site does not appreciably change upon Schiff base formation. The intermediate state structures reveal a reaction state-dependent behavior of His-143 in which the residue adopts a conformation proximal to the site of catalytic dehydration only when the leaving group is present. We speculate that His-143 is likely to assume differing catalytic roles in each of its observed conformations. One conformation of His-143 positions the residue for the formation/hydrolysis of the covalent Schiff base intermediates, whereas the other conformation positions the residue for a role in the catalytic dehydration event. The fact that the shikimate pathway is absent from humans makes the enzymes of the pathway potential targets for the development of non-toxic antimicrobials. The structures and mechanistic insight presented here may inform the design of type I DHQD enzyme inhibitors.

  2. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented

  3. Dowel-type fastener connections in timber structures subjected to short-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen Jensen, J.

    Design of dowel-type fastener connections in framed timber structures usually involves a two-step analysis: determination of the distribution of the sectional forces, and design of the eccentrically loaded connections. This report presents an integrated model for design of framed timber structures...... with dowel-type fastener connections. A Finite-Element approach has been adopted. An element has been developed for modelling a plane group of dowel-type fasteners, taking due account of the material and geometric non-linearities, and two different elements have been developed for modelling gap closure...... and contact pressure. All elements developed are compatible with conventional beam elements. An arc-length technique has been adopted for solving the non-linear equilibirum equations in order to take full account of strain softening effects....

  4. Relationship between the structural stability with the types and land uses in southeastern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Sanleandro, P.; Sanchez Navarro, A.; Delgado Iniesta, M. J.; Fernandez-Delgado Juarez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Structural stability is one of the most important physical properties and is proposed as an indicator of quality. The aim of this study is to see the possible relationship between this property with soil types and uses of them. In this paper we have selected the Mazarron area based on their environmental characteristics and has taken forty-one topsoil samples, after analysis and study of the relationship between its structural stability with soil types and uses of same, we find a closer relationship in the case of uses that type, so that the natural soil as the percentage of stable aggregates close to 75%, while in soils anthropized this value reaches 44 %. (Author) 6 refs

  5. Population structure of Lactobacillus helveticus isolates from naturally fermented dairy products based on multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an economically important lactic acid bacterium used in industrial dairy fermentation. In the present study, the population structure of 245 isolates of L. helveticus from different naturally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia were investigated using an multilocus sequence typing scheme with 11 housekeeping genes. A total of 108 sequence types were detected, which formed 8 clonal complexes and 27 singletons. Results from Structure, SplitsTree, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated the presence of 3 subpopulations in the L. helveticus isolates used in our study, namely koumiss, kurut-tarag, and panmictic lineages. Most L. helveticus isolates from particular ecological origins had specific population structures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging the atomic structure and local chemistry of platelets in natural type Ia diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, E J; Neethling, J H; Kroon, R E; Naidoo, S R; Allen, C S; Sawada, H; van Aken, P A; Kirkland, A I

    2018-03-01

    In the past decades, many efforts have been devoted to characterizing {001} platelet defects in type Ia diamond. It is known that N is concentrated at the defect core. However, an accurate description of the atomic structure of the defect and the role that N plays in it is still unknown. Here, by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy we have determined the atomic arrangement within platelet defects in a natural type Ia diamond and matched it to a prevalent theoretical model. The platelet has an anisotropic atomic structure with a zigzag ordering of defect pairs along the defect line. The electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure of both carbon K- and nitrogen K-edges obtained from the platelet core is consistent with a trigonal bonding arrangement at interstitial sites. The experimental observations support an interstitial aggregate mode of formation for platelet defects in natural diamond.

  7. Lexicographical structuring: the number and types of fields, data distribution, searching and data presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2015-01-01

    dictionaries. However, only by producing monofunctional dictionaries is it possible to avoid the type of information overload, which makes polyfunctional dictionaries close to useless on electronic devices such as tablets and smartphones. In the case of monofunctional dictionaries, lexicographical structuring......This contribution will not describe the structure in existing dictionaries. Instead, it will focus on the decisions that lexicographers make when they draw up the concept for and carry out the production of one or more new dictionaries, or when they consider making changes in the data presentation...... in an existing dictionary. This part of the lexicographical work is what we call structuring, which encompasses a number of various lexicographical decisions. One of these is choosing the fields that a database should contain. Typically, for some of these field types, it will be easy to distribute data...

  8. From Proteomics to Structural Studies of Cytosolic/Mitochondrial-Type Thioredoxin Systems in Barley Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahpiri, Azar; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2009-01-01

    for Trx, indicating that Trx plays a key role in several aspects of cell metabolism. In contrast to other organisms, plants contain multiple forms of Trx that are classified based on their primary structures and sub-cellular localization. The reduction of cytosolic and mitochondrial types of Trx...... is dependent on NADPH and catalyzed by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR). In barley, two isoforms each of Trx and NTR have been identified and investigated using proteomics, gene expression, and structural studies. This review outlines the diverse roles suggested for cytosolic/mitochondrial-type Trx...... systems in cereal seeds and summarizes the current knowledge of the barley system including recent data on function, regulation, interactions, and structure. Directions for future research are discussed....

  9. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Backus, Sherry I; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n=12), rectus (n=27) and planus (n=22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10-37% of the model variance (adjusted R(2)) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R(2) increased to 45-77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7-47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16-64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (p<0.05), supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The structure of the polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide produced by Taylorella equigenitalis type strain (ATCC 35865).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Evgeny; MacLean, Leann L; Brooks, Brian W; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl; Perry, Malcolm B

    2008-12-08

    Taylorella equigenitalis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes venereally transmitted contagious equine metritis (CEM), and its identification and differentiation from other bacteria and Taylorella species is an important requirement for the control of CEM infection. Based on the results of NMR and MS analysis, the antigenic O-polysaccharide (O-PS) component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by the type strain T. equigenitalis (ATCC 35865) was found to be a linear polymer composed of a repeating disaccharide unit, containing partially amidated 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-L-guluronic and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-mannuronic acids, terminated with a 4-O-methylated non-reducing Gulp-NAc3NAcA residue, and has the structure [structure: see text]. The O-PS of the type strain T. equigenitalis LPS provides a specific antigenic marker for the discrimination of the pathogen from the related type strain of T. asinigenitalis sp. nov, a phenotypically indistinguishable non-pathogenic bacterium having a serologically and structurally unrelated LPS O-antigen. The analysis of a structurally unusual core oligosaccharide of the LPS is also reported.

  11. THE INFLUENCES OF THE SLAB DISCONTINUITIES ON THE INTERNAL FORCES, AT FRAME TYPE REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TERZİ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To resist earthquake forces in a confidential manner is one of the fundamental requirements of the structural system design of buildings. The main principles of Earthquake-resistant design of buildings have the symetric plan and regular configuration of the structural system. Regular buildings are easier in application, for designing, dimensioning of structural elements and much more economic for consruction cost. Also, the results of the structural system analysis of regular buildings represent the behaviour of the real structure. For these reasons, regular buildings are prefered for the best building design and analysis. Vertical and horizontal discontinuities in building structures, instant stiffness changes and variation of mass distribution are negative states, display good seismic behaviour. The buildings having irregularities in plan and in elevation are accepted as non-regular buildings. In practise, non-regular buildings are not economic in construction cast, lead to stress concentrations hazardous to the structure and causing erroneous application. If the basic methods of structural analysis for regular buildings are applied to non-regular buildings the effects of irregularities must be considered. Analysis of the regular frame type structural systems according to The Turkish earthquake code is performed on a lineer elastic model assuming different cavity ratios of the floor slab by using SAP2000 Structural Analysis Programme applying simplified modal response spectrum analysis methods. Numerical results of the internal forces of the elements of the structural system are obtained and compared for two different casses in one case the floor diaphragms are sufficiently rigid in their plane, in the other case unsuffiently rigid in their plane.

  12. Monitoring Structural Health of Different Types of Bridges Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Liao, Mingsheng; Yang, Mengshi; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Since the bridges paly a significance role in national economic development and transportation safety, the structure health and safety of bridges aroused a lot of concern in society and become a hotspot research in earth observation and civil engineering. However, the materials degradation and environmental stresses increase may destroy the structure of bridges and pose significant risks to public safety and quality of life. This highlighted the importance of developing effective structure health monitoring strategies to reflect the current status of bridges and identify structural problems. In this work, an advanced multi-temporal InSAR technique is introduced into deformation monitoring of bridges. We focus on analysis the distribution of PSs, distinction of stable and unstable parts and recognition temporal-spatial deformation characteristics at the scale of single bridge through the examples of different types of bridges in Tianjin and Shanghai.

  13. Precision photonic band structure calculation of Abrikosov periodic lattice in type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokabi, Alireza; Zandi, Hesam; Khorasani, Sina [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fardmanesh, Mehdi [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: fardmanesh@sharif.edu

    2007-09-01

    We have performed a numerical solution for band structure of an Abrikosov vortex lattice in type-II superconductors forming a periodic array in two dimensions for applications of incorporating the photonic crystals concept into superconducting materials with possibilities for optical electronics. The implemented numerical method is based on the extensive numerical solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equation for calculating the parameters of the two-fluid model and obtaining the band structure from the permittivity, which depends on the above parameters and the frequency. This is while the characteristics of such crystals highly vary with an externally applied static normal magnetic field, leading to nonlinear behavior of the band structure, which also has nonlinear dependence on the temperature. The similar analysis for every arbitrary lattice structure is also possible to be developed by this approach as presented in this work. We also present some examples and discuss the results.

  14. The thermodynamic and structural properties of metallocenes-type random ethylene copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanke, Adriane G.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Galland, Griselda B. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: asimanke@portoweb.com.br; Alamo, Rufina G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (UNited States). College of Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: alamo@eng.fsu.edu

    2001-07-01

    The properties of a series of random ethylene copolymers prepared with the metallocenes catalytic system rac-Et[Ind]{sub 2} ZrCl{sub 2}/MAO were studied for a large variety of comonomer types. These include the classical 1-alkene type with length up to 10 carbons and those of the cyclic type such as cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. Under rapid crystallization, the melting temperatures of the newly synthesized copolymers followed the relation of model random copolymers indicating a behavior that conforms to that predicted by Flory's phase equilibrium theory. The molar entropy of fusion is not significantly altered by the comonomer type including the dicyclopentadiene type. All types of comonomers studied showed, for a fixed comonomer content, the same change in properties during annealing, except the ethylene 1-butenes. These latter copolymers and the hydrogenated poly butadiene showed a faster rate of change in thermal properties. This is consistent with a higher molecular diffusion for the butene comonomer than for the rest of comonomers analyzed. The properties of the inter lamellar region were also studied as a function of comonomer type and content following the variation of the amorphous halo extracted from the WAXS diffractograms. The observed systematic decrease in the peak scattering angle with increasing comonomer content indicates a variation of the intermolecular liquid structure. (author)

  15. The thermodynamic and structural properties of metallocenes-type random ethylene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanke, Adriane G.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Galland, Griselda B.; Alamo, Rufina G.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of a series of random ethylene copolymers prepared with the metallocenes catalytic system rac-Et[Ind] 2 ZrCl 2 /MAO were studied for a large variety of comonomer types. These include the classical 1-alkene type with length up to 10 carbons and those of the cyclic type such as cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. Under rapid crystallization, the melting temperatures of the newly synthesized copolymers followed the relation of model random copolymers indicating a behavior that conforms to that predicted by Flory's phase equilibrium theory. The molar entropy of fusion is not significantly altered by the comonomer type including the dicyclopentadiene type. All types of comonomers studied showed, for a fixed comonomer content, the same change in properties during annealing, except the ethylene 1-butenes. These latter copolymers and the hydrogenated poly butadiene showed a faster rate of change in thermal properties. This is consistent with a higher molecular diffusion for the butene comonomer than for the rest of comonomers analyzed. The properties of the inter lamellar region were also studied as a function of comonomer type and content following the variation of the amorphous halo extracted from the WAXS diffractograms. The observed systematic decrease in the peak scattering angle with increasing comonomer content indicates a variation of the intermolecular liquid structure. (author)

  16. Biophysical investigation of type A PutAs reveals a conserved core oligomeric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korasick, David A. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Singh, Harkewal [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Pemberton, Travis A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Luo, Min [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Dhatwalia, Richa [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Tanner, John J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA

    2017-08-01

    Many enzymes form homooligomers, yet the functional significance of self-association is seldom obvious. Herein, we examine the connection between oligomerization and catalytic function for proline utilization A (PutA) enzymes. PutAs are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze both reactions of proline catabolism. Type A PutAs are the smallest members of the family, possessing a minimal domain architecture consisting of N-terminal proline dehydrogenase and C-terminal l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase modules. Type A PutAs form domain-swapped dimers, and in one case (Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA), two of the dimers assemble into a ring-shaped tetramer. Whereas the dimer has a clear role in substrate channeling, the functional significance of the tetramer is unknown. To address this question, we performed structural studies of four-type A PutAs from two clades of the PutA tree. The crystal structure of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus PutA covalently inactivated by N-propargylglycine revealed a fold and substrate-channeling tunnel similar to other PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that Bdellovibrio PutA is dimeric in solution, in contrast to the prediction from crystal packing of a stable tetrameric assembly. SAXS studies of two other type A PutAs from separate clades also suggested that the dimer predominates in solution. To assess whether the tetramer of B. japonicum PutA is necessary for catalytic function, a hot spot disruption mutant that cleanly produces dimeric protein was generated. The dimeric variant exhibited kinetic parameters similar to the wild-type enzyme. These results implicate the domain-swapped dimer as the core structural and functional unit of type A PutAs.

  17. Structural Variation of Type I-F CRISPR RNA Guided DNA Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausch, Patrick; Müller-Esparza, Hanna; Gleditzsch, Daniel; Altegoer, Florian; Randau, Lennart; Bange, Gert

    2017-08-17

    CRISPR-Cas systems are prokaryotic immune systems against invading nucleic acids. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems employ highly diverse, multi-subunit surveillance Cascade complexes that facilitate duplex formation between crRNA and complementary target DNA for R-loop formation, retention, and DNA degradation by the subsequently recruited nuclease Cas3. Typically, the large subunit recognizes bona fide targets through the PAM (protospacer adjacent motif), and the small subunit guides the non-target DNA strand. Here, we present the Apo- and target-DNA-bound structures of the I-Fv (type I-F variant) Cascade lacking the small and large subunits. Large and small subunits are functionally replaced by the 5' terminal crRNA cap Cas5fv and the backbone protein Cas7fv, respectively. Cas5fv facilitates PAM recognition from the DNA major groove site, in contrast to all other described type I systems. Comparison of the type I-Fv Cascade with an anti-CRISPR protein-bound I-F Cascade reveals that the type I-Fv structure differs substantially at known anti-CRISPR protein target sites and might therefore be resistant to viral Cascade interception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genomic structure and evolution of the mating type locus in the green seaweed Ulva partita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Ichihara, Kensuke; Suzuki, Ryogo; Oshima, Kenshiro; Miyamura, Shinichi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Hattori, Masahira; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2017-09-15

    The evolution of sex chromosomes and mating loci in organisms with UV systems of sex/mating type determination in haploid phases via genes on UV chromosomes is not well understood. We report the structure of the mating type (MT) locus and its evolutionary history in the green seaweed Ulva partita, which is a multicellular organism with an isomorphic haploid-diploid life cycle and mating type determination in the haploid phase. Comprehensive comparison of a total of 12.0 and 16.6 Gb of genomic next-generation sequencing data for mt - and mt + strains identified highly rearranged MT loci of 1.0 and 1.5 Mb in size and containing 46 and 67 genes, respectively, including 23 gametologs. Molecular evolutionary analyses suggested that the MT loci diverged over a prolonged period in the individual mating types after their establishment in an ancestor. A gene encoding an RWP-RK domain-containing protein was found in the mt - MT locus but was not an ortholog of the chlorophycean mating type determination gene MID. Taken together, our results suggest that the genomic structure and its evolutionary history in the U. partita MT locus are similar to those on other UV chromosomes and that the MT locus genes are quite different from those of Chlorophyceae.

  19. Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III secretion protein YscE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, Jason; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S. (NIH)

    2010-12-06

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence factors from the bacterial cytosol directly into the interior of mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. The type III secretion apparatus is composed of 20-25 different Yersinia secretion (Ysc) proteins. We report here the structure of YscE, the smallest Ysc protein, which is a dimer in solution. The probable mode of oligomerization is discussed.

  20. The environment effect on creep fatigue strength for FBR high temperature structural material, Type 304 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Masaaki; Nitta, Akito

    1988-01-01

    In order to rationalize FBR high temperature structural design, the creep fatigue strength of Type 304 stainless steel for FBR main vessel was investigated in air and vacuum. The results obtained were as follows: Independent of strain wave forms, creep fatigue lives in vacuum were longer than those in air, and especially strain wave forms of fatigue damage type had noticeably longer lives. Also, a tendency to have too much longer lives at low strain level being important for real plant condition was shown. At last, it was confirmed that cyclic deformation behavior in vacuum was coincident with that in air. (author)

  1. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  2. Analysis of offshore platforms lifting with fixed pile structure type (fixed platform) based on ASD89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugianto, Agus; Indriani, Andi Marini

    2017-11-01

    Platform construction GTS (Gathering Testing Sattelite) is offshore construction platform with fix pile structure type/fixed platform functioning to support the mining of petroleum exploitation. After construction fabrication process platform was moved to barges, then shipped to the installation site. Moving process is generally done by pull or push based on construction design determined when planning. But at the time of lifting equipment/cranes available in the work area then the moving process can be done by lifting so that moving activity can be implemented more quickly of work. This analysis moving process of GTS platform in a different way that is generally done to GTS platform types by lifting using problem is construction reinforcement required, so the construction can be moved by lifting with analyzing and checking structure working stress that occurs due to construction moving process by lifting AISC code standard and analysis using the SAP2000 structure analysis program. The analysis result showed that existing condition cannot be moved by lifting because stress ratio is above maximum allowable value that is 0.950 (AISC-ASD89). Overstress occurs on the member 295 and 324 with stress ratio value 0.97 and 0.95 so that it is required structural reinforcement. Box plate aplication at both members so that it produces stress ratio values 0.78 at the member 295 and stress ratio of 0.77 at the member 324. These results indicate that the construction have qualified structural reinforcement for being moved by lifting.

  3. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  4. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed...

  5. Structural and evolutionary aspects of algal blue light receptors of the cryptochrome and aureochrome type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, Lars-Oliver; Franz, Sophie; Banerjee, Ankan

    2017-10-01

    Blue-light reception plays a pivotal role for algae to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this review we summarize the current structural and mechanistic knowledge about flavin-dependent algal photoreceptors. We especially focus on the cryptochrome and aureochrome type photoreceptors in the context of their evolutionary divergence. Despite similar photochemical characteristics to orthologous photoreceptors from higher plants and animals the algal blue-light photoreceptors have developed a set of unique structural and mechanistic features that are summarized below. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis of the effects of cereal type and variety within a type of grain on structural makeup in relation to rumen degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Amanda M; Yu, Peiqiang; Christensen, Colleen R; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J

    2009-08-12

    The objectives of this study were to use Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) to determine structural makeup (features) of cereal grain endosperm tissue and to reveal and identify differences in protein and carbohydrate structural makeup between different cereal types (corn vs barley) and between different varieties within a grain (barley CDC Bold, CDC Dolly, Harrington, and Valier). Another objective was to investigate how these structural features relate to rumen degradation kinetics. The items assessed included (1) structural differences in protein amide I to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC, starch) intensity and ratio within cellular dimensions; (2) molecular structural differences in the secondary structure profile of protein, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and their ratio; (3) structural differences in NSC to amide I ratio profile. From the results, it was observed that (1) comparison between grain types [corn (cv. Pioneer 39P78) vs barley (cv. Harrington)] showed significant differences in structural makeup in terms of NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, and rumen degradation kinetics (degradation ratio, effective degradability of dry matter, protein and NSC) (P makeup in terms of amide I, NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, alpha-helix and beta-sheet protein structures, and rumen degradation kinetics (effective degradability of dry matter, protein, and NSC) (P makeup differences between cereal types and between different varieties within a type of grain could be revealed. These structural makeup differences were related to the rate and extent of rumen degradation.

  7. Crystal Structure of a Putative HTH-Type Transcriptional Regulator yxaF from Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharaman, J.; Kumaran, D.; Bonanno, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    The New York Structural GenomiX Research Consortium (NYSGXRC) has selected the protein coded by yxaF gene from Bacillus subtilis as a target for structure determination. The yxaF protein has 191 residues with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and had no sequence homology to any structure in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) at the time of target selection. We aimed to elucidate the three-dimensional structure for the putative protein yxaF to better understand the relationship between protein sequence, structure, and function. This protein is annotated as a putative helix-turn-helix (HTH) type transcriptional regulator. Many transcriptional regulators like TetR and QacR use a structurally well-defined DNA-binding HTH motif to recognize the target DNA sequences. DNA-HTH motif interactions have been extensively studied. As the HTH motif is structurally conserved in many regulatory proteins, these DNA-protein complexes show some similarity in DNA recognition patterns. Many such regulatory proteins have a ligand-binding domain in addition to the DNA-binding domain. Structural studies on ligand-binding regulatory proteins provide a wealth of information on ligand-, and possibly drug-, binding mechanisms. Understanding the ligand-binding mechanism may help overcome problems with drug resistance, which represent increasing challenges in medicine. The protein encoded by yxaF, hereafter called T1414, shows fold similar to QacR repressor and TetR/CamR repressor and possesses putative DNA and ligand-binding domains. Here, we report the crystal structure of T1414 and compare it with structurally similar drug and DNA-binding proteins

  8. Structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify and explore the structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and methods: 543 patients with type 2nd DM were included into the study. The average age of patients was (56.2 ± 0.65 years. The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of DM. The first clinical group (CG-1 included 57 patients with type 2nd DM of mild severity, who was treated in outpatient department; the average age in the group was (51.8 ± 1.28 years. The second clinical group (CG-2 made up of 312 patients with type 2nd DM, moderate severity, they were in inpatient department; the median age of the group was (55.1 ± 1.12 years. The third clinical group (CG-3 included 174 patients with type 2nd DM, severe degrees of severity, they undergone inpatient treatment too; average age in the group was (61.8 ± 0.85 years. Research methods: clinical-anamnesis, clinical- psychopathological, statistical. Research results. The study established the incidence of non-psychotic mental disorders of varying severity in patients with type 2nd DM at the level of 94.11 %, among them, for 91.16 % – of psychogenic origin. Proportional correlation between the severity of type 2nd DM and the absence of comorbid psychopathological manifestations was detected (rs = -0.3416, p < 0.01. It is revealed that the dominant psychopathological syndromes among all patients with type 2nd DM were psychoorganic (62.43 %, dyssomnia (60.86 %, asthenic (55.58 % and anxiety (43.05 % syndromes. Structure of the dominant psychopathological syndromes was established depending on severity of type 2nd DM: in CG-1 dominated dyssomnia (36.84 %, anxiety (31.58 %, psychoorganic (21.05 % syndromes; in CG-2 – psychoorganic (65.38 %, asthenic (40.38 %, dyssomnia (38.46 %, anxiety (37, and 82 % syndromes; in CG-3 – dyssomnia (97.70 %, asthenic (89.08 %, organic mental (70.69 %, anxious 48.28 % syndromes. Significant

  9. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  10. Structural modeling of dahlia-type single-walled carbon nanohorn aggregates by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawelek, L; Brodka, A; Dore, John C; Hannon, Alex C; Iijima, S; Yudasaka, M; Ohba, T; Kaneko, K; Burian, A

    2013-09-19

    The structure of dahlia-type single-walled carbon nanohorn aggregates has been modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations, and the validity of the model has been verified by neutron diffraction. Computer-generated models consisted of an outer part formed from single-walled carbon nanohorns with diameters of 20-50 Å and a length of 400 Å and an inner turbostratic graphite-like core with a diameter of 130 Å. The diffracted intensity and the pair correlation function computed for such a constructed model are in good agreement with the neutron diffraction experimental data. The proposed turbostratic inner core explains the occurrence of the additional (002) and (004) graphitic peaks in the diffraction pattern of the studied sample and provides information about the interior structure of the dahlia-type aggregates.

  11. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    O-GalNAc-glycosylation is one of the main types of glycosylation in mammalian cells. No consensus recognition sequence for the O-glycosyltransferases is known, making prediction methods necessary to bridge the gap between the large number of known protein sequences and the small number of proteins...... experimentally investigated with regard to glycosylation status. From O-GLYCBASE a total of 86 mammalian proteins experimentally investigated for in vivo O-GalNAc sites were extracted. Mammalian protein homolog comparisons showed that a glycosylated serine or threonine is less likely to be precisely conserved...... than a nonglycosylated one. The Protein Data Bank was analyzed for structural information, and 12 glycosylated structures were obtained. All positive sites were found in coil or turn regions. A method for predicting the location for mucin-type glycosylation sites was trained using a neural network...

  12. Complex structure of type VI peptidoglycan muramidase effector and a cognate immunity protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianyu [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ding, Jinjing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1–Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results reveal that Tse3 contains a C-terminal catalytic domain that adopts a soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT) fold in which three calcium-binding sites were surprisingly observed close to the catalytic Glu residue. The electrostatic properties of the substrate-binding groove are also distinctive from those of known structures with a similar fold. All of these features imply that a unique catalytic mechanism is utilized by Tse3 in cleaving glycosidic bonds. Tsi3 comprises a single domain showing a β-sandwich architecture that is reminiscent of the immunoglobulin fold. Three loops of Tsi3 insert deeply into the groove of Tse3 and completely occlude its active site, which forms the structural basis of Tse3 inactivation. This work is the first crystallographic report describing the three-dimensional structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 effector–immunity pair.

  13. Geology and structural features of vein-type lead and zinc deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    The geological and structural position and localization conditions of the vein-type Pb-Zn deposits of the Sadon (North Ossetia) and East Karamazar (North Tajikistan) ore districts are considered. The leading role of long-lived deep faults in the control of large deposits is emphasized. Examples of such deposits in different provinces are given. The study of fractures and faults at Pb-Zn deposits is important for understanding of the formation conditions of other hydrothermal deposits.

  14. Structural Basis for Cyclization Specificity of Two Azotobacter Type III Polyketide Synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Ryutaro; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Ozawa, Hiroki; Funa, Nobutaka; Katsuyama, Yohei; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2013-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) show diverse cyclization specificity. We previously characterized two Azotobacter type III PKSs (ArsB and ArsC) with different cyclization specificity. ArsB and ArsC, which share a high sequence identity (71%), produce alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones through aldol condensation and lactonization of the same polyketomethylene intermediate, respectively. Here we identified a key amino acid residue for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis. Trp-281 of ArsB corresponded to Gly-284 of ArsC in the amino acid sequence alignment. The ArsB W281G mutant synthesized alkylpyrone but not alkylresorcinol. In contrast, the ArsC G284W mutant synthesized alkylresorcinol with a small amount of alkylpyrone. These results indicate that this amino acid residue (Trp-281 of ArsB or Gly-284 of ArsC) should occupy a critical position for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme. We then determined crystal structures of the wild-type and G284W ArsC proteins at resolutions of 1.76 and 1.99 Å, respectively. Comparison of these two ArsC structures indicates that the G284W substitution brings a steric wall to the active site cavity, resulting in a significant reduction of the cavity volume. We postulate that the polyketomethylene intermediate can be folded to a suitable form for aldol condensation only in such a relatively narrow cavity of ArsC G284W (and presumably ArsB). This is the first report on the alteration of cyclization specificity from lactonization to aldol condensation for a type III PKS. The ArsC G284W structure is significant as it is the first reported structure of a microbial resorcinol synthase. PMID:24100027

  15. Vibration Characteristics of Gravity-Type Caisson Breakwater Structure with Water-Level Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, So-Young; Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Yoon, Han-Sam; Han, Sang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Vibration characteristics of gravity-type caisson breakwater structures which have water-level variations are experimentally examined by using wave load excitations. To achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, vibration analysis methods are selected to examine the dynamic characteristics of the lab-scale caisson. Secondly, vibration test on a lab-scale caisson which is installed in a two-dimensional wave flume is performed under several excitation sources and ...

  16. Structure of the minor pseudopilin XcpW from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type II secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Laura P.; Douzi, Badreddine; Durand, Eric; Dyer, David H.; Voulhouxd, Romé; Forest, Katrina T. (CNRS-UMR); (CNRS-CRMD); (UW)

    2012-01-13

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes the type II secretion machinery to transport virulence factors through the outer membrane into the extracellular space. Five proteins in the type II secretion system share sequence homology with pilin subunits of type IV pili and are called the pseudopilins. The major pseudopilin X{sub cp}T{sub G} assembles into an intraperiplasmic pilus and is thought to act in a piston-like manner to push substrates through an outer membrane secretin. The other four minor pseudopilins, X{sub cp}U{sub H}, X{sub cp}V{sub I}, X{sub cp}W{sub J} and X{sub cp}X{sub K}, play less well defined roles in pseudopilus formation. It was recently discovered that these four minor pseudopilins form a quaternary complex that is presumed to initiate the formation of the pseudopilus and to localize to its tip. Here, the structure of X{sub cp}W{sub J} was refined to 1.85 {angstrom} resolution. The structure revealed the type IVa pilin fold with an embellished variable antiparallel {beta}-sheet as also found in the X{sub cp}W{sub J} homologue enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli G{sub sp}J{sub W} and the X{sub cp}U{sub H} homologue Vibrio cholerae E{sub ps}U{sub H}. It is proposed that the exposed surface of this sheet may cradle the long N-terminal 1 helix of another pseudopilin. The final 31 amino acids of the X{sub cp}W{sub J} structure are instrinsically disordered. Deletion of this unstructured region of X{sub cp}W{sub J} did not prevent type II secretion in vivo.

  17. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates.

  18. [Bacterial TEM-type serine beta-lactamases: structure and analysis of mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, V G; Rubtsova, M Yu; Uporov, I V; Ishtubaev, I V; Andreeva, I P; Shcherbinin, D S; Veselovsky, A V; Egorov, A M

    2017-11-01

    Beta-lactamases (EC 3.5.2.6) represent a superfamily containing more than 2,000 members: it includes genetically and functionally different bacterial enzymes capable to destroy the beta-lactam antibiotics. The most common are beta-lactamases of molecular class A with serine in the active center. Among them, TEM-type beta-lactamases are of particular interest from the viewpoint of studying the mechanisms of the evolution of resistance due to their broad polymorphism. To date, more than 200 sequences of TEM-type beta-lactamases have been described and more than 60 structures of different mutant forms have been presented in Protein Data Bank. We have considered the main structural features of the enzymes of this type with particular attention to the analysis of key drug resistance and the secondary mutations, their location relative to the active center and the surface of the protein globule. We have developed the BlaSIDB database (www.blasidb.org) which is an open information resource combining available data on 3D structures, amino acid sequences and nomenclature of the corresponding forms of beta-lactamases.

  19. 18-Electron Resonance Structures in the BCC Transition Metals and Their CsCl-type Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2017-03-06

    Bonding in elemental metals and simple alloys has long been thought of as involving intense delocalization, with little connection to the localized bonds of covalent systems. In this Article, we show that the bonding in body-centered cubic (bcc) structures of the group 6 transition metals can in fact be represented, via the concepts of the 18-n rule and isolobal bonding, in terms of two balanced resonance structures. We begin with a reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) analysis of elemental Mo in its bcc structure. The raMO analysis indicates that, despite the low electron count (six valence electrons per Mo atom), nine electron pairs can be associated with any given Mo atom, corresponding to a filled 18-electron configuration. Six of these electron pairs take part in isolobal bonds along the second-nearest neighbor contacts, with the remaining three (based on the t 2g d orbitals) interacting almost exclusively with first-nearest neighbors. In this way, each primitive cubic network defined by the second-nearest neighbor contacts comprises an 18-n electron system with n = 6, which essentially describes the full electronic structure of the phase. Of course, either of the two interpenetrating primitive cubic frameworks of the bcc structure can act as a basis for this discussion, leading us to write two resonance structures with equal weights for bcc-Mo. The electronic structures of CsCl-type variants with the same electron count can then be interpreted in terms of changing the relative weights of these two resonance structures, as is qualitatively confirmed with raMO analysis. This combination of raMO analysis with the resonance concept offers an avenue to extend the 18-n rule into other transition metal-rich structures.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Doorframe Structure of Single Oblique Pole Type in Container Crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X. F.; Wu, F. Q.; Tang, G.; Hu, X.

    2017-07-01

    Compared with the composite type, the single oblique pole type has more advantages, such as simple structure, thrift steel and high safe overhead clearance. The finite element model of the single oblique pole type is established in nodes by ANSYS, and more details are considered when the model is simplified, such as the section of Girder and Boom, torque in Girder and Boom occurred by Machinery house and Trolley, density according to the way of simplification etc. The stress and deformation of ten observation points are compared and analyzed, when the trolley is in nine dangerous positions. Based on the result of analysis, six dangerous points are selected to provide reference for the detection and evaluation of container crane.

  1. [Soil microbial community structure of two types of forests in the mid-subtropics of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-zhong; Gao, Ren; Li, Ai-ping; Ma, Hong-liang; Yin, Yun-feng; Si, You-tao; Chen, Shi-dong; Zheng, Qun-rui

    2015-07-01

    Soil microbial community structures were analyzed by biomarker method of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) for a natural forest dominated by Castanopsis fabri (CF) and an adjacent plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata (CL) in the mid-subtropics of China. The results showed that the amounts of total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, fungal PLFAs, gram-positive bacterial PLFAs and gramnegative bacterial PLFAs in the 0-10 cm soil layer were higher than in the 10-20 cm soil layer, and each type of PLFAs in CF were higher than in CL. In either soil layer of the two forest types, the contents of bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher than those of fungal PLFAs. In the two forests, the contents of bacterial PLFAs accounted for 44%-52% of total PLFAs, while the contents of fungal PLFAs just accounted for 6%-8%, indicating the bacteria were dominant in the soils of the two vegetation types. Principal component analysis showed that the influence of vegetation types was greater than soil depth on the microbial community structures. Correlation analysis showed that gram-negative bacterial PLFAs, gram-positive bacterial PLFAs and bacterial PLFAs were significantly negatively correlated with pH, positively with water content, and the PLFAs of main soil microorganism groups were significantly positively correlated with soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, C/N and ammonium.

  2. Structure and operation of the DNA-translocating type I DNA restriction enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennaway, Christopher K.; Taylor, James E.; Song, Chun Feng; Potrzebowski, Wojciech; Nicholson, William; White, John H.; Swiderska, Anna; Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Callow, Philip; Cooper, Laurie P.; Roberts, Gareth A.; Artero, Jean-Baptiste; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Trinick, John; Kneale, G. Geoff; Dryden, David T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Type I DNA restriction/modification (RM) enzymes are molecular machines found in the majority of bacterial species. Their early discovery paved the way for the development of genetic engineering. They control (restrict) the influx of foreign DNA via horizontal gene transfer into the bacterium while maintaining sequence-specific methylation (modification) of host DNA. The endonuclease reaction of these enzymes on unmethylated DNA is preceded by bidirectional translocation of thousands of base pairs of DNA toward the enzyme. We present the structures of two type I RM enzymes, EcoKI and EcoR124I, derived using electron microscopy (EM), small-angle scattering (neutron and X-ray), and detailed molecular modeling. DNA binding triggers a large contraction of the open form of the enzyme to a compact form. The path followed by DNA through the complexes is revealed by using a DNA mimic anti-restriction protein. The structures reveal an evolutionary link between type I RM enzymes and type II RM enzymes. PMID:22215814

  3. Structure and operation of the DNA-translocating type I DNA restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennaway, Christopher K; Taylor, James E; Song, Chun Feng; Potrzebowski, Wojciech; Nicholson, William; White, John H; Swiderska, Anna; Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Callow, Philip; Cooper, Laurie P; Roberts, Gareth A; Artero, Jean-Baptiste; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Trinick, John; Kneale, G Geoff; Dryden, David T F

    2012-01-01

    Type I DNA restriction/modification (RM) enzymes are molecular machines found in the majority of bacterial species. Their early discovery paved the way for the development of genetic engineering. They control (restrict) the influx of foreign DNA via horizontal gene transfer into the bacterium while maintaining sequence-specific methylation (modification) of host DNA. The endonuclease reaction of these enzymes on unmethylated DNA is preceded by bidirectional translocation of thousands of base pairs of DNA toward the enzyme. We present the structures of two type I RM enzymes, EcoKI and EcoR124I, derived using electron microscopy (EM), small-angle scattering (neutron and X-ray), and detailed molecular modeling. DNA binding triggers a large contraction of the open form of the enzyme to a compact form. The path followed by DNA through the complexes is revealed by using a DNA mimic anti-restriction protein. The structures reveal an evolutionary link between type I RM enzymes and type II RM enzymes.

  4. Distinct Structural Elements Dictate the Specificity of the Type III Pentaketide Synthase from Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin-Pitel, Sheryl B.; Zhang, Houjin; Vu, Trang; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC); (NWU)

    2009-01-15

    The fungal type III polyketide synthase 2'-oxoalkylresorcyclic acid synthase (ORAS) primes with a range of acyl-Coenzyme A thioesters (C{sub 4}--C{sub 20}) and extends using malonyl-Coenzyme A to produce pyrones, resorcinols, and resorcylic acids. To gain insight into this unusual substrate specificity and product profile, we have determined the crystal structures of ORAS to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution, the Phe-252{yields}Gly site-directed mutant to 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, and a binary conplex of ORAS with eicosanoic acid to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution. The structures reveal a distinct rearrangement of structural elements near the active site that allows accomodation of long-chain fatty acid esters and a reorientation of the gating mechanism that controls cyclization and polyketide chain length. The roles of these structural elements are further elucidated by characterization of various structure-based site-directed variants. These studies establish an unexpected plasticity to the PKS fold, unanticipated from structural studies of other members of this enzyme family.

  5. A new type of intelligent wireless sensing network for health monitoring of large-size structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Liu, Ch.; Wu, D. T.; Tang, Y. L.; Wang, J. X.; Wu, L. J.; Jiang, X. D.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, some innovative wireless sensing systems have been proposed. However, more exploration and research on wireless sensing systems are required before wireless systems can substitute for the traditional wire-based systems. In this paper, a new type of intelligent wireless sensing network is proposed for the heath monitoring of large-size structures. Hardware design of the new wireless sensing units is first studied. The wireless sensing unit mainly consists of functional modules of: sensing interface, signal conditioning, signal digitization, computational core, wireless communication and battery management. Then, software architecture of the unit is introduced. The sensing network has a two-level cluster-tree architecture with Zigbee communication protocol. Important issues such as power saving and fault tolerance are considered in the designs of the new wireless sensing units and sensing network. Each cluster head in the network is characterized by its computational capabilities that can be used to implement the computational methodologies of structural health monitoring; making the wireless sensing units and sensing network have "intelligent" characteristics. Primary tests on the measurement data collected by the wireless system are performed. The distributed computational capacity of the intelligent sensing network is also demonstrated. It is shown that the new type of intelligent wireless sensing network provides an efficient tool for structural health monitoring of large-size structures.

  6. Reverse engineering of wörner type drilling machine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, A.; Belly, I.; llhamsyah, R.; Indrawanto; Yuwana, Y.

    2018-03-01

    A product design needs to be modified based on the conditions of production facilities and existing resource capabilities without reducing the functional aspects of the product itself. This paper describes the reverse engineering process of the main structure of the wörner type drilling machine to obtain a machine structure design that can be made by resources with limited ability by using simple processes. Some structural, functional and the work mechanism analyzes have been performed to understand the function and role of each basic components. The process of dismantling of the drilling machine and measuring each of the basic components was performed to obtain sets of the geometry and size data of each component. The geometric model of each structure components and the machine assembly were built to facilitate the simulation process and machine performance analysis that refers to ISO standard of drilling machine. The tolerance stackup analysis also performed to determine the type and value of geometrical and dimensional tolerances, which could affect the ease of the components to be manufactured and assembled

  7. The extracellular architecture of adherens junctions revealed by crystal structures of type I cadherins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Oliver J; Jin, Xiangshu; Hong, Soonjin; Bahna, Fabiana; Ahlsen, Goran; Brasch, Julia; Wu, Yinghao; Vendome, Jeremie; Felsovalyi, Klara; Hampton, Cheri M; Troyanovsky, Regina B; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; Frank, Joachim; Troyanovsky, Sergey M; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry

    2011-02-09

    Adherens junctions, which play a central role in intercellular adhesion, comprise clusters of type I classical cadherins that bind via extracellular domains extended from opposing cell surfaces. We show that a molecular layer seen in crystal structures of E- and N-cadherin ectodomains reported here and in a previous C-cadherin structure corresponds to the extracellular architecture of adherens junctions. In all three ectodomain crystals, cadherins dimerize through a trans adhesive interface and are connected by a second, cis, interface. Assemblies formed by E-cadherin ectodomains coated on liposomes also appear to adopt this structure. Fluorescent imaging of junctions formed from wild-type and mutant E-cadherins in cultured cells confirm conclusions derived from structural evidence. Mutations that interfere with the trans interface ablate adhesion, whereas cis interface mutations disrupt stable junction formation. Our observations are consistent with a model for junction assembly involving strong trans and weak cis interactions localized in the ectodomain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural basis of eukaryotic cell targeting by type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Tommaso; Pflug, Alexander; Discola, Karen F; Neves, David; Dessen, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are macromolecular complexes that translocate a wide number of effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Once within the cytoplasm, many T3SS effectors mimic the structure and/or function of eukaryotic proteins in order to manipulate signaling cascades, and thus play pivotal roles in colonization, invasion, survival and virulence. Structural biology techniques have played key roles in the unraveling of bacterial strategies employed for mimicry and targeting. This review provides an overall view of our current understanding of structure and function of T3SS effectors, as well as of the different classes of eukaryotic proteins that are targeted and the consequences for the infected cell. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal structure of a copper-transporting PIB-type ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourdon, Pontus Emanuel; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Skjørringe, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-metal homeostasis and detoxification is crucial for cell viability. P-type ATPases of the class IB (PIB) are essential in these processes, actively extruding heavy metals from the cytoplasm of cells. Here we present the structure of a PIB-ATPase, a Legionella pneumophila CopA Cu......(+)-ATPase, in a copper-free form, as determined by X-ray crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. The structure indicates a three-stage copper transport pathway involving several conserved residues. A PIB-specific transmembrane helix kinks at a double-glycine motif displaying an amphipathic helix that lines a putative...... copper entry point at the intracellular interface. Comparisons to Ca(2+)-ATPase suggest an ATPase-coupled copper release mechanism from the binding sites in the membrane via an extracellular exit site. The structure also provides a framework to analyse missense mutations in the human ATP7A and ATP7B...

  10. Sloshing and fluid-structure interaction in a 400-MWe pool-type advanced fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Chang, Y.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic analysis of a 400-MWe advanced fast reactor under 0.3 g SSE ground excitation. Two types of analyses are performed - the sloshing analysis and the fluid-structure interaction analysis. In the sloshing analysis, the sloshing frequency and wave patterns are calculated. The maximum wave height and the sloshing forces exerted on the submerged components and the primary tank are evaluated. In the fluid-structure interaction analysis, the maximum horizontal acceleration for the reactor core and the relative displacement between the reactor core and UIS are examined. The fluid-coupling phenomena between various components are investigated. Seismic stresses at critical areas are examined. The results obtained from this study are very useful to the design of the advanced reactors. Meanwhile, the computer code FLUSTR-ANL has proved to be a useful analytical tool for assessing the complicated seismic fluid-structure interactions and sloshing in the fast reactor systems. 10 refs., 25 figs

  11. Structural Comparison of n-type and p-type LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Christopher

    2011-08-19

    Using a surface x-ray diffraction technique, we investigated the atomic structure of two types of interfaces between LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}, that is, p-type (SrO/AlO{sub 2}) and n-type (TiO{sub 2}/LaO) interfaces. Our results demonstrate that the SrTiO{sub 3} in the sample with the n-type interface has a large polarized region, while that with the p-type interface has a limited polarized region. In addition, the atomic intermixing was observed to extend deeper into STO substrate at the n-type interface than at the p-type. These differences result in different degrees of band bending, which likely contributes to the striking difference in electrical conductivity between the two types of interfaces.

  12. PTSD's factor structure and measurement invariance across subgroups with differing count of trauma types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Caldas, Stephanie V; Dolan, Megan; Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Chérie

    2018-03-24

    To investigate the effect of the count of traumatizing event (TE) types on post-trauma mental health, several studies have compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity between individuals experiencing one versus multiple TE types. However, the validity of these studies depends on the establishment of measurement invariance of the construct(s) of interest. The current study examined the stability of the most optimal PTSD Model symptom cluster constructs (assessed by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 [PCL-5]) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. The sample included university students (n = 556) endorsing at least one TE (Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire). Using data from the entire sample, results suggest that the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model provided a significantly better fit compared to other models. Results also indicated invariance of factor loadings (metric), and intercepts (scalar) for the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model factors across subgroups endorsing one (n = 191) versus multiple TE types (n = 365). Our findings thus support the stability, applicability, and meaningful comparison of the PCL-assessed Hybrid Model factor structure (including subscale severity scores) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting temperate forest stand types using only structural profiles from discrete return airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrigo, Melissa; Newnham, Glenn J.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Culvenor, Darius S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2018-02-01

    Light detection and ranging (lidar) data have been increasingly used for forest classification due to its ability to penetrate the forest canopy and provide detail about the structure of the lower strata. In this study we demonstrate forest classification approaches using airborne lidar data as inputs to random forest and linear unmixing classification algorithms. Our results demonstrated that both random forest and linear unmixing models identified a distribution of rainforest and eucalypt stands that was comparable to existing ecological vegetation class (EVC) maps based primarily on manual interpretation of high resolution aerial imagery. Rainforest stands were also identified in the region that have not previously been identified in the EVC maps. The transition between stand types was better characterised by the random forest modelling approach. In contrast, the linear unmixing model placed greater emphasis on field plots selected as endmembers which may not have captured the variability in stand structure within a single stand type. The random forest model had the highest overall accuracy (84%) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (0.62). However, the classification accuracy was only marginally better than linear unmixing. The random forest model was applied to a region in the Central Highlands of south-eastern Australia to produce maps of stand type probability, including areas of transition (the 'ecotone') between rainforest and eucalypt forest. The resulting map provided a detailed delineation of forest classes, which specifically recognised the coalescing of stand types at the landscape scale. This represents a key step towards mapping the structural and spatial complexity of these ecosystems, which is important for both their management and conservation.

  14. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, Chien Y. [Giant Magellan Telescope Corporation, 251 S. Lake Ave., Suite 300, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Im, Myungshin, E-mail: mkim@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: lho.pku@gmail.com, E-mail: peng@gmto.org, E-mail: barth@uci.edu, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frontier Physics Research Division (FPRD), Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift ( z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope . The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (H β FWHM ≤ 2000 km s{sup −1}) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (H β FWHM > 2000 km s{sup −1}) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population.

  15. Crystal Structure of Hcp from Acinetobacter baumannii: A Component of the Type VI Secretion System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico M Ruiz

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a bacterial macromolecular machine widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria, which transports effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells or other bacteria. Membrane complexes and a central tubular structure, which resembles the tail of contractile bacteriophages, compose the T6SS. One of the proteins forming this tube is the hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp, which acts as virulence factor, as transporter of effectors and as a chaperone. In this study, we present the structure of Hcp from Acinetobacter baumannii, together with functional and oligomerization studies. The structure of this protein exhibits a tight β barrel formed by two β sheets and flanked at one side by a short α-helix. Six Hcp molecules associate to form a donut-shaped hexamer, as observed in both the crystal structure and solution. These results emphasize the importance of this oligomerization state in this family of proteins, despite the low similarity of sequence among them. The structure presented in this study is the first one for a protein forming part of a functional T6SS from A. baumannii. These results will help us to understand the mechanism and function of this secretion system in this opportunistic nosocomial pathogen.

  16. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins

  17. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M., E-mail: gulick@hwi.buffalo.edu [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins.

  18. Structure of the Type IVa Major Pilin from the Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Patrick N.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-10-11

    Several species of bacteria are capable of reducing insoluble metal oxides as well as other extracellular electron acceptors. These bacteria play a critical role in the cycling of minerals in subsurface environments, sediments, and groundwater. In some species of bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, the transport of electrons is facilitated by filamentous fibers that are referred to as bacterial nanowires. These nanowires belong to the type IVa family of pilin proteins and are mainly comprised of one subunit protein, PilA. Here, we report the high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the PilA protein from G. sulfurreducens determined in detergent micelles. The protein is over 85% α-helical and exhibits similar architecture to the N-terminal regions of other non-conductive type IVa pilins. The detergent micelle interacts with the first 21 amino acids of the protein, indicating that this region likely associates with the bacterial inner membrane prior to fiber formation. A model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus fiber is proposed based on docking of this structure into the fiber model of the type IVa pilin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This model provides insight into the organization of aromatic amino acids that are important for electrical conduction.

  19. Strain Typing and Determination of Population Structure of Candida krusei by Multilocus Sequence Typing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Mette D.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Shaw, Duncan J.; Odds, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Candida krusei was devised, based on sequencing of six gene fragments of the species. The existence of heterozygous results for each of the six fragments sequenced confirms that C. krusei is diploid for at least part of its genome. The C. krusei MLST scheme had a discriminatory index of 0.998, making this system ideal for strain typing of C. krusei clinical isolates. MLST data for 122 independent C. krusei isolates from a range of geographical sources were analyzed by eBURST, structure, and the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages to derive a population structure comprising four subtype strain clusters. There was no evidence of geographical associations with particular subtypes. Data for pairs of isolates from seven patients showed that each patient was colonized and/or infected with strain types that were indistinguishable by MLST. The C. krusei MLST database can be accessed online at http://pubmlst.org/ckrusei/. PMID:17122025

  20. Crystal structure of a novel cysteinless plant Kunitz-type protease inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Daiane; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Verissimo, Paula; Yoo Im, Sonia; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2007-01-01

    Bauhinia bauhinioides Cruzipain Inhibitor (BbCI) is a cysteine protease inhibitor highly homologous to plant Kunitz-type inhibitors. However, in contrast to classical Kunitz family inhibitors it lacks cysteine residues and therefore disulfide bridges. BbCI is also distinct in the ability to inactivate enzymes belonging to two different classes, cysteine and serine proteases. Besides inhibiting the cysteine protease cruzipain, BbCI also inhibits cathepsin L and the serine proteases HNE (human neutrophil elastase) and PPE (porcine pancreatic elastase). Monoclinic crystals of the recombinant inhibitor that diffract to 1.7 A resolution were obtained using hanging drop method by vapor diffusion at 18 o C. The refined structure shows the conservative β-trefoil fold features of the Kunitz inhibitors. In BbCI, one of the two characteristic S-S bonds is replaced by the water-mediated interaction between Tyr125 and Gly132. In this work we explore the structural differences between Kunitz-type inhibitors and analyze the essential interactions that maintain the protein structural stability preserving its biological function

  1. Nonisothermal elasto-visco-plastic response of shell-type structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitses, G. J.; Carlson, R. L.; Riff, R.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model and solution methodologies for analyzing structural response of thin, metallic shell-type structures under large transient, cyclic or static thermomechanical loads is disussed. Among the system responses, which are associated with these load conditions, are thermal buckling and creep buckling. Thus, geometric as well as material-type nonlinearities (of high order) can be anticipated and have been considered in the development of the mathematical model. Furthermore, this was accommodated in the solution procedures. A complete true ab-inito rate theory of kinematics and kinetics for continuum and curved thin structures, without any restriction on the magnitude of the strains or the deformation, was formulated. The time dependence and large strain behavior are incorporated through the introduction of the time rates of the metric and curvature in two coordinate systems, a fixed (spatial) one and a convected (material) coordinate system. The relations between the time derivative and the covariant derivatives (gradients) have been developed for curved space and motion, so that the velocity components supply the connection between the equations of motion and the time rate of change of the metric and curvature tensors.

  2. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labudde, D.; Leitner, D.; Krueger, M.; Oschkinat, H.

    2003-01-01

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the α-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely α-helix, β-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time

  3. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudde, D; Leitner, D; Krüger, M; Oschkinat, H

    2003-01-01

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the alpha-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time.

  4. A study on structural changes in protein by time-division type Laue method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    In order to know the physiological roles of proteins, it is important to investigate the intermediate states of their structural changes. The sizes of proteins are generally several tens angstrom(A). Considering the resolution, only x-ray crystal analysis can be used in practice for the investigation of the mechanism of protein structural changes, though NMR is applicable only for small-sized proteins. However, x-ray analysis is not so suitable for analysis of their intermediate states. Thus, the author paid attention to the time-division type Laue method for the study of hemoglobin (Hb). Laser-flash induces to release carbonmonooxide (CO) from carboxyhemoglobin (Hb(CO) 4 ). Therefore, if an appropriate length of x-ray pulse (∼100 picosec) is available, the processes in the period from cleavage of the bond between a ligand (O 2 , CO or NO) and Hb to recombination of them might be monitored. Using DNA recombination and chemical modification techniques, recombinant Hb, of which T structure is stable was produced. An investigation on the conditions which allow to release CO from the Hb is undertaken using a single crystal of this Hb. The experimental systems applicable to time-division type Laue method are some protein molecules participating in chemical reactions inducible by light absorption, the electron-transfer system excited by light and so on. (M.N.)

  5. Impact of inhomogeneity on SH-type wave propagation in an initially stressed composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Singh, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    The present analysis has been made on the influence of distinct form of inhomogeneity in a composite structure comprised of double superficial layers lying over a half-space, on the phase velocity of SH-type wave propagating through it. Propagation of SH-type wave in the said structure has been examined in four distinct cases of inhomogeneity viz. when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in density only (Case I); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layers is due to exponential variation in rigidity only (Case II); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case III) and when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to linear variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case IV). Closed-form expression of dispersion relation has been accomplished for all four aforementioned cases through extensive application of Debye asymptotic analysis. Deduced dispersion relations for all the cases are found in well-agreement to the classical Love-wave equation. Numerical computation has been carried out to graphically demonstrate the effect of inhomogeneity parameters, initial stress parameters as well as width ratio associated with double superficial layers in the composite structure for each of the four aforesaid cases on dispersion curve. Meticulous examination of distinct cases of inhomogeneity and initial stress in context of considered problem has been carried out with detailed analysis in a comparative approach.

  6. Fluid Flow through Porous Sandstone with Overprinting and Intersecting Geological Structures of Various Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L.; Aydin, A.

    2010-12-01

    Impact of a wide variety of structural heterogeneities on fluid flow in an aeolian sandstone in the Valley of Fire State Park (NV), such as (1) dilatant fractures (joints), (2) shear fractures (faults), and (3) contraction/compaction structures (compaction bands), are considered. Each type of these structures has its own geometry, spacing, distribution, connectivity, and hydraulic properties, which either enhance or impede subsurface fluid flow. Permeability of these structures may, on average, be a few orders of magnitude higher or lower than those of the corresponding matrix rocks. In recent years, the influence of a single type of these heterogeneities on fluid flow has been studied individually, such as joints, compaction bands or faults. However, as different types of geological structures are commonly present together in the same rock volume, their combined effect requires a more detailed assessment. In this study, fluid flow simulations are performed using a special finite-volume discretization technique that was developed by Karimi-Fard et al. (2004; 2006). Using this approach, thin features such as fractures and compaction bands are represented as linear elements in unstructured 2D models and as planar elements in 3D models, which significantly reduces the total number of cells and simplifies grid generation. The cell geometric information and the cell-to-cell transmissibility obtained from this discretization technique are input to Stanford’s General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) for fluid flow simulation. To account for the effects of the various geological structures on subsurface flow, we perform permeability upscaling over regions corresponding to large-scale simulation grid blocks in order to obtain equivalent permeability components in two principal directions. We will focus on the following problems: (1) compaction bands of multisets; (2) compartmentalization of compaction bands of high-angle, low-angle and horizontal; (3) joints overprinting

  7. Pressure and Temperature Dependent Structural Studies on Hollandite Type Ferrotitanate and Crystal Structure of a High Pressure Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S Nagabhusan; Garg, Nandini; Chitnis, Abhishek; Sastry, P U; Shinde, A B; Krishna, P Siva Ram; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar

    2018-02-19

    The structural stability and phase transition behavior of tetragonal (I4/m) hollandite type K 2 Fe 2 Ti 6 O 16 have been investigated by in situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and a diamond anvil cell as well as by variable temperature powder neutron and X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal phase is found to be stable in a wider range of temperatures, while it reversibly transforms to a monoclinic (I2/m) structure at a moderate pressure, viz. 3.6 GPa. The pressure induced phase transition occurs with only a marginal change in structural arrangements. The unit cell parameters of ambient (t) and high pressure (m) phases can be related as a m ∼ a t , b m ∼ c t , and c m ∼ b t . The pressure evolution of the unit cell parameters indicates anisotropic compression with β a = β b ≥ β c in the tetragonal phase and becomes more anisotropic with β a ≪ β b pressure-volume equations of state of both phases have been obtained by second order Birch-Murnaghan equations of state, and the bulk moduli are 122 and 127 GPa for tetragonal and monoclinic phases, respectively. The temperature dependent unit cell parameters show nearly isotropic expansion, with marginally higher expansion along the c-axis compared to the a- and b-axes. The tetragonal to monoclinic phase transition occurs with a reduction of unit cell volume of about 1.1% while the reduction of unit cell volume up to 6 K is only about 0.6%. The fitting of temperature dependent unit cell volume by using the Einstein model of phonons indicates the Einstein temperature is about 266(18) K.

  8. Structure and age-dependent development of the turkey liver: a comparative study of a highly selected meat-type and a wild-type turkey line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünigen, Hana; Mainzer, Kathleen; Hirschberg, Ruth M; Custodis, Pia; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Al Masri, Salah; Richardson, Kenneth C; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Plendl, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    In this study the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the liver of a fast growing, meat-type turkey line (British United turkeys BUT Big 6, n=25) and a wild-type turkey line (Wild Canadian turkey, n=48) were compared at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wk. Because the growth plates of long bones were still detectable in the 20-week-old wild-type turkeys, indicating immaturity, a group of 8 wild-type turkeys at the age of 24 wk was included in the original scope of the study. Over the term of the study, the body and liver weights of birds from the meat-type turkey line increased at a faster rate than those of the wild-type turkey line. However, the relative liver weight of the meat-type turkeys declined (from 2.7 to 0.9%) to a greater extent than that of the wild-type turkeys (from 2.8 to 1.9%), suggesting a mismatch in development between muscle weights and liver weights of the meat-type turkeys. Signs of high levels of fat storage in the liver were detected in both lines but were greater in the wild-type turkey line, suggesting a better feed conversion by the extreme-genotype birds i.e., meat-type birds. For the first time, this study presents morphologic data on the structure and arrangement of the lymphatic tissue within the healthy turkey liver, describing two different types of lymphatic aggregations within the liver parenchyma, i.e., aggregations with and without fibrous capsules. Despite differences during development, both adult meat-type and adult wild-type turkeys had similar numbers of lymphatic aggregations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Mechanical adaptability of the Bouligand-type structure in natural dermal armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schaible, Eric; Dave, Neil K. N.; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2013-10-01

    Arapaima gigas, a fresh water fish found in the Amazon Basin, resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armour. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in distinct lamellae. Here we show how the Bouligand-type (twisted plywood) arrangement of collagen fibril lamellae has a key role in developing their unique protective properties, by using in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering during mechanical tensile tests to observe deformation mechanisms in the fibrils. Specifically, the Bouligand-type structure allows the lamellae to reorient in response to the loading environment; remarkably, most lamellae reorient towards the tensile axis and deform in tension through stretching/sliding mechanisms, whereas other lamellae sympathetically rotate away from the tensile axis and compress, thereby enhancing the scale’s ductility and toughness to prevent fracture.

  10. Function and Evolutionary Origin of Unicellular Camera-Type Eye Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Hayakawa, Shiho

    2015-03-03

    The ocelloid is an extraordinary eyespot organelle found only in the dinoflagellate family Warnowiaceae. It contains retina- and lens-like structures called the retinal body and the hyalosome. The ocelloid has been an evolutionary enigma because of its remarkable resemblance to the multicellular camera-type eye. To determine if the ocelloid is functionally photoreceptive, we investigated the warnowiid dinoflagellate Erythropsidinium. Here, we show that the morphology of the retinal body changed depending on different illumination conditions and the hyalosome manifests the refractile nature. Identifying a rhodopsin gene fragment in Erythropsidinium ESTs that is expressed in the retinal body by in situ hybridization, we also show that ocelloids are actually light sensitive photoreceptors. The rhodopsin gene identified is most closely related to bacterial rhodopsins. Taken together, we suggest that the ocelloid is an intracellular camera-type eye, which might be originated from endosymbiotic origin. © 2015 Hayakawa et al.

  11. Effect of boundary conditions on magnetocapacitance effect in a ring-type magnetoelectric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanjuan

    2017-12-01

    By considering the nonlinear magneto-elastic coupling relationships of magnetostrictive materials, an analytical model is proposed. The resonance frequencies can be accurately predicted by this theoretical model, and they are in good agreement with experimental data. Subsequently, the magnetocapacitance effect in a ring-type magnetoelectric (ME) structure with different boundary conditions is investigated, and it is found that various mechanical boundaries, the frequency, the magnetic field, the geometric size, and the interface bonding significantly affect the capacitance of the ME structure. Further, additional resonance frequencies can be predicted by considering appropriate imperfect interface bonding. Finally, the influence of an external force on the capacitance is studied. The result shows that an external force on the boundary changes the capacitance, but has only a weak influence on the resonance frequency.

  12. Simulating the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Rogge, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs...... and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance...... is quantified in terms of the group’s system failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories. The underlying system model accounts for the structural redundancy of the frames and the interdependence among their failure events due to similar loading conditions. The model also...

  13. Creep deformation and rupture behavior of type 304/308 stainless steel structural weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.; Richardson, M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    The creep deformation and rupture of type 304/308 stainless steel structural weldments at 593 0 C (1100 0 F) was experimentally investigated to study the comparative behavior of the base metal and weld metal constituents. The tests were conducted in support of ORNL's program to develop high-temperature structural design methods applicable to liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) system components that operate in the creep range. The specimens used were thin-walled, right circular cylinders capped with either flat or hemispherical heads and tested under internal gas pressure. Circumferential welds were located in different regions of the cylinder or head and, with one exception, were geometrically duplicated by all base metal regions in companion specimens. Results are presented on the comparative deformation and rupture behavior of selected points in the base metal and weldment regions of the different specimens and on the overall surface strains for selected specimens

  14. Impact of model structure and parameterization on Penman-Monteith type evaporation models

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, A.

    2015-04-12

    The impact of model structure and parameterization on the estimation of evaporation is investigated across a range of Penman-Monteith type models. To examine the role of model structure on flux retrievals, three different retrieval schemes are compared. The schemes include a traditional single-source Penman-Monteith model (Monteith, 1965), a two-layer model based on Shuttleworth and Wallace (1985) and a three-source model based on Mu et al. (2011). To assess the impact of parameterization choice on model performance, a number of commonly used formulations for aerodynamic and surface resistances were substituted into the different formulations. Model response to these changes was evaluated against data from twenty globally distributed FLUXNET towers, representing a cross-section of biomes that include grassland, cropland, shrubland, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. Scenarios based on 14 different combinations of model structure and parameterization were ranked based on their mean value of Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Results illustrated considerable variability in model performance both within and between biome types. Indeed, no single model consistently outperformed any other when considered across all biomes. For instance, in grassland and shrubland sites, the single-source Penman-Monteith model performed the best. In croplands it was the three-source Mu model, while for evergreen needleleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests, the Shuttleworth-Wallace model rated highest. Interestingly, these top ranked scenarios all shared the simple lookup-table based surface resistance parameterization of Mu et al. (2011), while a more complex Jarvis multiplicative method for surface resistance produced lower ranked simulations. The highly ranked scenarios mostly employed a version of the Thom (1975) formulation for aerodynamic resistance that incorporated dynamic values of roughness parameters. This was true for all cases except over deciduous broadleaf

  15. Particular qualities of intranasal structures conditions in children with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layko А.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine particular qualities of the intranasal structures state in children and adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Patients and methods. During the period of 2013–2015 161 patients with type 1 were examined having been treated at the endocrinology department of the National Children's Specialized Hospital OKHMATDET and Children's Hospital №6 (Kyiv. The study group included 138 (85.7% patients with type-1 with the changes of intranasal structures, the control group — 23 (14.3% patients with type-1 with no pathology of upper respiratory tract. Among children of the main group — 92 (66.67% boys and 46 (33.33% girls aged 6–17. All children received clinical and laboratory examination in accordance with the protocols, as well as endoscopy of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinus computed tomography (if necessary. Results. The most pronounced changes of intranasal structures in children with T1D in the study group were identified in the form of the curvature of the nasal septum (IEF. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx in children of the main group diagnosed the hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in 54% of patients, acute rhinosinusitis — 12%, chronic adenoids, adenoid vegetations in 10%, polyps — 2%. Microcirculatory disorders according to the nail bed capillaroscopy in patients of the main group were observed 3 times more often than the control group. As a result of bulbar microscopy for children with T1D and IEF vascular changes in a single non-niformity of the caliber of vessels were identified in — 75%, unit sakkulyation venules — 50% maendricus tortuosity of the capillaries — 75%, as well as single-venular anastomoses arteriolo — 37.5%. Intra- and extravascular changes in this group of patients have not been identified. Conclusions. The results of studies in children with T1D indicate the need for timely early diagnosis of the state of intranasal structures and

  16. Large-displacement analysis of beam-type structures considering elastic-plastic material behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanc, D. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: dlanc@riteh.hr; Turkalj, G.; Brnic, J. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2009-01-15

    A one-dimensional finite element analysis is presented for large elastic-plastic displacements in beam-type structures. Spatial displacements and rotations are allowed to be large while strains are assumed to be small. The corresponding equilibrium equations are formulated in the framework of co-rotational description, using the virtual work principle. Material is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Elastic-plastic material behavior is modeled supposing isotropic hardening law, while stress-strain curve is approximated as bilinear. An own computer program (BMCA) is developed, and its implementation is tested on several typical examples.

  17. A note on the prolongation structure of the cubically nonlinear integrable Camassa-Holm type equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, S. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Senthilvelan, M., E-mail: velan@cnld.bdu.ac.in [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-10-17

    In this Letter, we formulate an exterior differential system for the newly discovered cubically nonlinear integrable Camassa-Holm type equation. From the exterior differential system we establish the integrability of this equation. We then study Cartan prolongation structure of this equation. We also discuss the method of identifying conservation laws and Baecklund transformation for this equation from the identified exterior differential system. -- Highlights: → An exterior differential system for a cubic nonlinear integrable equation is given. → The conservation laws from the exterior differential system is derived. → The Baecklund transformation from the Cartan-Ehresmann connection is obtained.

  18. Relationships between NDVI, canopy structure, and photosynthesis in three California vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, J.A.; Field, C.B.; Goulden, M.L.; Griffin, K.L.; Hartley, A.E.; Joel, G.; Penuelas, J.; Valentini, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a range of plant species from three Californian vegetation types, we examined the widely used ''normalized difference vegetation index'' (NDVI) and ''simple ratio'' (SR) as indicators of canopy structure, light absorption, and photosynthetic activity. These indices, which are derived from canopy reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavebands, highlighted phenological differences between evergreen and deciduous canopies. They were poor indicators of total canopy biomass due to the varying abundance of non-green standing biomass in these vegetation types. However, in sparse canopies (leaf area index (LAI) apprxeq 0-2), NDVI was a sensitive indicator of canopy structure and chemical content (green biomass, green leaf area index, chlorophyll content, and foliar nitrogen content). At higher canopy green LAI values ( gt 2; typical of dense shrubs and trees), NDVI was relatively insensitive to changes in canopy structure. Compared to SR, NDVI was better correlated with indicators of canopy structure and chemical content, but was equivalent to the logarithm of SR. In agreement with theoretical expectations, both NDVI and SR exhibited near-linear correlations with fractional PAR intercepted by green leaves over a wide range of canopy densities. Maximum daily photosynthetic rates were positively correlated with NDVI and SR in annual grassland and semideciduous shrubs where canopy development and photosynthetic activity were in synchrony. The indices were also correlated with peak springtime canopy photosynthetic rates in evergreens. However, over most of the year, these indices were poor predictors of photosynthetic performance in evergreen species due to seasonal reductions in photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency that occurred without substantial declines in canopy greenness. Our results support the use of these vegetation indices as remote indicators of PAR absorption, and thus potential photosynthetic activity, even in

  19. Network-Level Structural Abnormalities of Cerebral Cortex in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Perry F.; Hwang, Jaeuk; Bae, Sujin; Musen, Gail; Kim, Jieun E.; Bolo, Nicolas; Jeong, Hyeonseok S.; Simonson, Donald C.; Lee, Sun Hea; Weinger, Katie; Jung, Jiyoung J.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Choi, Yera; Jacobson, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) usually begins in childhood and adolescence and causes lifelong damage to several major organs including the brain. Despite increasing evidence of T1DM-induced structural deficits in cortical regions implicated in higher cognitive and emotional functions, little is known whether and how the structural connectivity between these regions is altered in the T1DM brain. Using inter-regional covariance of cortical thickness measurements from high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance data, we examined the topological organizations of cortical structural networks in 81 T1DM patients and 38 healthy subjects. We found a relative absence of hierarchically high-level hubs in the prefrontal lobe of T1DM patients, which suggests ineffective top-down control of the prefrontal cortex in T1DM. Furthermore, inter-network connections between the strategic/executive control system and systems subserving other cortical functions including language and mnemonic/emotional processing were also less integrated in T1DM patients than in healthy individuals. The current results provide structural evidence for T1DM-related dysfunctional cortical organization, which specifically underlie the top-down cognitive control of language, memory, and emotion. PMID:24058401

  20. Shear strength in corner region of reinforced concrete duct type structures to be embedded in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Y.; Endo, T.

    1993-01-01

    Reinforced concrete ducts for accommodating emergency cooling water pipes are generally embedded in soil. The structures is classified as one of the most important structures in terms of earthquake resistant design. During a strong earthquake it is subjected to shear deformations in concerted movement with surrounding soil. The comer regions of the duct should be designed against shear with moment combined. However, the complicated stress conditions in the region render the design more intricate in comparison with the case of simple determinate RC beam type structures. With the above situation in mind an experimental study was conducted, in which prototype as well as one half scale models representing the stress conditions in the region of interest were loaded and brought to failure in shear. The cross section of the prototype test model without shear reinforcements was 60 (height) x 30cm (width), and the tensile reinforcement ratio was 2.58%. The following results were obtained within the limit of the experimental study. (1) The shear capacity predicted by Japanese Design Code for linear RC members over-estimated the experimental ones with a considerably large safety margin of 4.4-5.0. (2) An improved design procedure to be applied to the specific structure was proposed, which gave a reasonable safety factor against shear failure of 1.7-2.0. (3) Combined smeared and discrete cracking model was utilized to simulate the shear failure mechanism, which could realistically pursue experimental behaviors. (author)

  1. Structural and functional cardiac changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Mieke CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is a neuromuscular disorder with potential involvement of the heart and increased risk of sudden death. Considering the importance of cardiomyopathy as a predictor of prognosis, we aimed to systematically evaluate and describe structural and functional cardiac alterations in patients with MD1. Methods Eighty MD1 patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Blood samples were taken for determination of NT-proBNP plasma levels and CTG repeat length. Results Functional and structural abnormalities were detected in 35 patients (44%. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in 20 cases, left ventricular dilatation in 7 patients, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 patients. Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 10 patients (12.5%. In general, patients had low left ventricular mass indexes. Right ventricular involvement was uncommon and only seen together with left ventricular abnormalities. Functional or structural cardiac involvement was associated with age (p = 0.04, male gender (p Conclusions CMR can be useful to detect early structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in patients with MD1. Myocardial involvement is strongly associated with conduction abnormalities, but a normal ECG does not exclude myocardial alterations. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that MD1 patients have a complex cardiac phenotype, including both myocardial and conduction system alteration.

  2. Structure of a microsporidian methionine aminopeptidase type 2 complexed with fumagillin and TNP-470

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, J.; Nemkal, A; Sauder, J; Russell, M; Akiyoshi, D; Shi, W; Almo, S; Weiss, L

    2009-01-01

    Microsporidia are protists that have been reported to cause infections in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have emerged as human pathogens particularly in patients that are immunosuppressed and cases of gastrointestinal infection, encephalitis, keratitis, sinusitis, myositis and disseminated infection are well described in the literature. While benzimidazoles are active against many species of microsporidia, these drugs do not have significant activity against Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues have been demonstrated to have activity in vitro and in animal models of microsporidiosis and human infections due to E. bieneusi. Fumagillin and its analogues inhibit methionine aminopeptidase type 2. Encephalitozoon cuniculi MetAP2 (EcMetAP2) was cloned and expressed as an active enzyme using a baculovirus system. The crystal structure of EcMetAP2 was determined with and without the bound inhibitors fumagillin and TNP-470. This structure classifies EcMetAP2 as a member of the MetAP2c family. The EcMetAP2 structure was used to generate a homology model of the E. bieneusi MetAP2. Comparison of microsporidian MetAP2 structures with human MetAP2 provides insights into the design of inhibitors that might exhibit specificity for microsporidian MetAP2.

  3. UNIFIED CONTROL STRUCTURE OF MULTI-TYPE INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NORHISAM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the control strategy structure to extract the speed torque characteristic for the newly designed three phase Multi Type Interior Permanent Magnet Motor. The proposed structure with the driving circuits exhibit the performance of torque characteristics of the stepper motor and brushless motor with independent coil winding per phase especially used as an in-wheel motor in agricultural applications. Brushless Direct Current motors exhibit characteristics of generating high torque at high speed while the Permanent Magnet Stepper motors has characteristic of generating high torque at low speed. The typical characteristics of the above two are integrated in the proposed structure with a complex control structure that handle the switching complexity and speed control in real time. Thus, a specially designed driving system is essential to drive and control this special motor. The evaluation of the motor mechanical characteristics when applying load torque is also presented. The result determines the practical torque range applicable for each motor configuration and as combined machine.

  4. Synthesis, structural transformation, thermal stability, valence state, and magnetic and electronic properties of PbNiO3 with perovskite- and LiNbO3-type structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaguma, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kie; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Mori, Daisuke; Katsumata, Tetsuhiro; Ohba, Tomonori; Hiraki, Ko-ichi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Saitoh, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-26

    We synthesized two high-pressure polymorphs PbNiO(3) with different structures, a perovskite-type and a LiNbO(3)-type structure, and investigated their formation behavior, detailed structure, structural transformation, thermal stability, valence state of cations, and magnetic and electronic properties. A perovskite-type PbNiO(3) synthesized at 800 °C under a pressure of 3 GPa crystallizes as an orthorhombic GdFeO(3)-type structure with a space group Pnma. The reaction under high pressure was monitored by an in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction experiment, which revealed that a perovskit-type phase was formed even at 400 °C under 3 GPa. The obtained perovskite-type phase irreversibly transforms to a LiNbO(3)-type phase with an acentric space group R3c by heat treatment at ambient pressure. The Rietveld structural refinement using synchrotron X-ray diffraction data and the XPS measurement for both the perovskite- and the LiNbO(3)-type phases reveal that both phases possess the valence state of Pb(4+)Ni(2+)O(3). Perovskite-type PbNiO(3) is the first example of the Pb(4+)M(2+)O(3) series, and the first example of the perovskite containing a tetravalent A-site cation without lone pair electrons. The magnetic susceptibility measurement shows that the perovskite- and LiNbO(3)-type PbNiO(3) undergo antiferromagnetic transition at 225 and 205 K, respectively. Both the perovskite- and LiNbO(3)-type phases exhibit semiconducting behavior.

  5. Structure and assembly of a trans-periplasmic channel for type IV pili in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie-Lee Berry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pili are polymeric fibers which protrude from the cell surface and play a critical role in adhesion and invasion by pathogenic bacteria. The secretion of pili across the periplasm and outer membrane is mediated by a specialized secretin protein, PilQ, but the way in which this large channel is formed is unknown. Using NMR, we derived the structures of the periplasmic domains from N. meningitidis PilQ: the N-terminus is shown to consist of two β-domains, which are unique to the type IV pilus-dependent secretins. The structure of the second β-domain revealed an eight-stranded β-sandwich structure which is a novel variant of the HSP20-like fold. The central part of PilQ consists of two α/β fold domains: the structure of the first of these is similar to domains from other secretins, but with an additional α-helix which links it to the second α/β domain. We also determined the structure of the entire PilQ dodecamer by cryoelectron microscopy: it forms a cage-like structure, enclosing a cavity which is approximately 55 Å in internal diameter at its largest extent. Specific regions were identified in the density map which corresponded to the individual PilQ domains: this allowed us to dock them into the cryoelectron microscopy density map, and hence reconstruct the entire PilQ assembly which spans the periplasm. We also show that the C-terminal domain from the lipoprotein PilP, which is essential for pilus assembly, binds specifically to the first α/β domain in PilQ and use NMR chemical shift mapping to generate a model for the PilP:PilQ complex. We conclude that passage of the pilus fiber requires disassembly of both the membrane-spanning and the β-domain regions in PilQ, and that PilP plays an important role in stabilising the PilQ assembly during secretion, through its anchorage in the inner membrane.

  6. Comparative study on the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahi-Moghaddam Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin function, or both. Causing dysfunction in the body general metabolism, diabetes-induced chronic hyperglycemia leads to alterations in those endocrine glands involved in regulating the body metabolism. In this line, the present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rat. Methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups including control, experimental type 1 diabetes (subcutaneous injection of 135 mg/kg alloxan and experimental type 2 diabetes (8 weeks treatment with drinking water containing 10% fructose. Two months after the induction of both types of diabetes, the level of blood biochemical factors (glucose, insulin, cortisol, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were measured. Structural changes of the adrenal cortex were then evaluated, using stereological techniques. Results Serum biochemical analysis showed significant difference in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin and cortisol in experimental groups, compared to the control. The results of structural alterations were also indicative of increase in adrenal cortex volume in both types of diabetes. Conclusion Probably through increasing HPA axis activity, type1 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia leads to adrenal hypertrophy and increase the hormonal output of adrenal gland.

  7. Characteristics of sandwich-type structural elements built of advanced composite materials from three dimensional fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón, L.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich-type structures have proved to be alternatives of great success for several fields of application, and specially in the building sector. This is due to their outstanding properties of .specific rigidity and strength against bending loads and other range of advantages like fatigue and impact resistance, attainment of flat and smooth surfaces, high electric and thermal insulation, design versatility and some others. However, traditional sandwich structures present problems like their tendency towards delamination, stress concentrations in bores or screwed Joints, and pre resistance. These problems are alleviated thanks to the use of new sandwich structures built using three dimensional structures of advanced composite materials, maintaining the present advantages for more traditional sandwich structures. At this rate, these new structures can be applied in several areas where conventional sandwich structures used to be like walls, partitions, floor and ceiling structures, domes, vaults and dwellings, but with greater success.

    Las estructuras tipo sándwich han demostrado ser alternativas de gran éxito para diversos campos de aplicación y, en concreto, en el sector de la construcción, listo es gracias a sus excelentes propiedades de rigidez y resistencia específica frente a cargas de flexión y otra larga lista de ventajas, a la que pertenecen, por ejemplo, su buena resistencia a fatiga, resistencia al impacto, obtención de superficies lisas y suaves, elevado aislamiento térmico y eléctrico, versatilidad de diseño y otras. Sin embargo, las estructuras sándwich, tradicionales presentan una problemática consistente en su tendencia a la delaminación, concentraciones de tensiones ¿aparecidas ante la existencia de agujeros o uniones atornilladas y resistencia al fuego. Estos problemas son pifiados gracias a la aplicación de estructuras novedosas tipo sándwich, construidas a partir de tejidos tridimensionales de materiales

  8. Antiferromagnetic bipolar semiconductor LaMnPO with ZrCuSiAs-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takumi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of a layered compound LaMnPO are examined in relation to a newly discovered iso-structural superconductor LaFeAs(P)O. Neutron diffraction measurements, together with temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, clarify that LaMnPO is an antiferromagnet at least up to 375 K. The spin moment of a Mn ion is determined to be 2.26 μB at room temperature, and the spin configuration is antiparallel in the Mn-P plane and parallel between the Mn-P planes, which is rather different from that of LaFeAsO. Optical absorption spectra, photoemission spectra, and temperature dependent electrical conductivity indicate that LaMnPO is a semiconductor. Furthermore, nominally undoped LaMnPO exhibits n-type conduction while the conduction type is changed by doping of Cu or Ca to the La sites, indicating that LaMnPO is a bipolar conductor. Density functional calculation using the GGA+U approximation supports the above conclusions; the electronic band structure has an open band gap and the antiferromagnetic spin configuration is more stable than the ferromagnetic one.

  9. Coronal Thermal Structure and Abundance of Super-Metal-Rich Late-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers the NASA grant NAG5-9943 for Cycle 1 XMM Guest Observer Program. The project is entitled 'Coronal Thermal Structure and Abundances of Super-Metal-Rich Late-Type Stars.' This observation is for grating spectroscopy of 30 Ari, a late-type star with very high metallicity (about twice solar). The goal is to use extreme cases to help understand how abundances change from the photosphere to the corona. The target was obtained by XMM-Newton on 2001 January 16 for 28000 sec. Data processing could not proceed until last fall because the SAS RGS software did not work. A poster was presented at the conference 'New Visions of the X-ray Universe in the XMM-Newton and Chandra Era,' held in Noordwijk 26-30 November 2001. The paper was entitled,'Coronal Abundances and Thermal Structure of the Super-Metal-Rich Star 30 Ari,'. The poster presented analysis of EPIC and RGS data to determine the individual abundances from the star and the emission measure distribution as a function of temperature. Results were compared with previous results on this star by our team using ASCA data.

  10. Synthesis and ferroelectric properties of rare earth compounds with tungsten bronze-type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouziane, M., E-mail: bouzianemeryem@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue Ibn Batouta, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Taibi, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, LAF 502, Ecole Normale Superieure, BP 5118, Rabat (Morocco); Boukhari, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue Ibn Batouta, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {center_dot} Polycrystalline materials with the tungsten bronze-type structure have been synthesized and characterized. {center_dot} Effect of the incorporation of rare earth ions and paramagnetic cations (Fe{sup 3+}) into a matrix ferroelectrically active was studied. {center_dot} Ferroelectric transition is pronounced by a large thermal hysteresis during the heating and cooling cycles. {center_dot} Phase transitions around T{sub c} were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. - Abstract: Polycrystalline materials with a general formula Pb{sub 2}Na{sub 0.8}R{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 4.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 15} (R = Dy, Eu, Sm, Nd, La) have been synthesized, in air by a high temperature solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction study, at room temperature, revealed that they crystallize in the tungsten bronze-type structure. Dielectric properties were performed, in the temperature range 25-500 deg. C, at three different frequencies 10, 100 and 1000 kHz. The ferroelectric transition is pronounced by a large thermal hysteresis during the heating and cooling cycles. The determined Curie temperature values T{sub c} were discussed as a function of rare earth size. Phase transitions around T{sub c} for the investigated compounds were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements.

  11. Structure and properties of alloys of A15 type compounds with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Efimov, Yu.V.; Myasnikova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Microstructure and some properties of the alloys on the base of the phases of A15 type in the V-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Nb-Sn-C, Nb-Al-C, Nb-Ga-C, V-Ga-C ternary systems are investigated. It is established that in the niobium-rich corners of the A-B-C ternary systems the new ternary conpounds do not form, as a rule, bUt the wide ranges of threephase equilibrium A-A 3 B-C exist. New ternary phases with A15 type structure stabilized with carbon are established only in the Nb-Si-C and V-Al-C systems. Alloying with carbon results in sharp refining of structural components of stable and metastable alloys, promotes transition of the alloys into amorphous state at super fast cooling of the melts as well as increases stability of metastable state of the alloys against tempering. After super fast quenching and tempering Tsub(c) of the ternary alloys close to the A15 phases exceed Tsub(c) of equilibrium samples

  12. The Comparative Observational Study of Timescale of Feedback by Bar Structure in Late-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woong-bae Woong-bae Zee, Galaxy; Yoon, Suk-jin

    2018-01-01

    We investigate star formation activities of ~400 barred and ~1400 unbarred faced-on late-type galaxies from the SDSS DR13. We find that gas-poor and barred galaxies are considerably show enhanced high central star formation activities, while there is no difference among gas-rich barred and unbarred galaxies regardless of their HI gas content. This seems counter-intuitive given that gas contents simply represent the total star formation rate of galaxies and suggests that there is a time delation between the central gas migration/consumption through bar structures and the enhancement of star formation activity at the centre. We analysed the distribution of the stellar population of specific galaxies with MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) IFU survey among the total samples. The gas-poor and barred galaxies show the flatter gradient in metallicity and age with respect to the stellar mass than other types of galaxies, in that their centre is more metal-rich and younger. There is an age difference, about 5-6 Gyrs, between centrally star-forming gas-poor barred galaxies and gas-rich galaxies and this value is a plausible candidate of the longevity of bar feedback. The results indicate that the gas migration/mixing driven by bar structure plays a significant role in the evolution of galaxies in a specific of timescale.

  13. Influence of samarium substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of M-type hexagonal ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Nazia; Mirza, Misbah; Muhammad, Safdar; Zahid, Maria; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Awan, M. S.; Muhammad, Altaf

    2018-01-01

    The M-type hexagonal ferrites with chemical formula SrFe12-xSmxO19 (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) were synthesized via sol-gel method. We studied the effects of substitution of rare earth on the structural and magnetic temperament of M-type hexaferrites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) strategies are employed for the systematical examination of micrographs and structures of the samples. The magnetic particularities are studied by the use of vibrating sample magnetometery. The M-H loops are used to investigate the hard magnetic behavior of all the samples. The substantial value of coercivity (>1 kOe) for all the samples shows that the particular sample is permanent magnet and reveals the hard magnetic action. It is observed that values of saturation magnetization (Mr) and remanence (Ms) decline with increasing the rare earth ions substitution. This decrease may follow spin canting and the magnetic dilution, which results in dislocation of superexchange interactions. The improvement in Hc may be because of large anisotropy of magnetocrystalline, where ion anisotropy of Fe2+ ion on the 2a site probably overriding in all hexaferrites series. The synthesized composites were useful for applications in magnetic microwave absorbing materials.

  14. Electronic structure and chemical bonding in LaIrSi-type intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matar, Samir F. [Bordeaux Univ., Pessac (France). CNRS; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Nakhl, Michel [Univ. Libanaise, Fanar (Lebanon). Ecole Doctorale Sciences et Technologies

    2017-05-01

    The cubic LaIrSi type has 23 representatives in aluminides, gallides, silicides, germanides, phosphides, and arsenides, all with a valence electron count of 16 or 17. The striking structural motif is a three-dimensional network of the transition metal (T) and p element (X) atoms with TX{sub 3/3} respectively XT{sub 3/3} coordination. Alkaline earth or rare earth atoms fill cavities within the polyanionic [TX]{sup δ-} networks. The present work presents a detailed theoretical study of chemical bonding in LaIrSi-type representatives, exemplarily for CaPtSi, BaIrP, BaAuGa, LaIrSi, CeRhSi, and CeIrSi. DFT-GGA-based electronic structure calculations show weakly metallic compounds with itinerant small magnitude DOSs at E{sub F} except for CeRhSi whose large Ce DOS at E{sub F} leads to a finite magnetization on Ce (0.73 μ{sub B}) and induced small moments of opposite sign on Rh and Si in a ferromagnetic ground state. The chemical bonding analyses show dominant bonding within the [TX]{sup δ-} polyanionic networks. Charge transfer magnitudes were found in accordance with the course of the electronegativites of the chemical constituents.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  17. Conformational Analysis of the DFG-Out Kinase Motif and Biochemical Profiling of Structurally Validated Type II Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Structural coverage of the human kinome has been steadily increasing over time. The structures provide valuable insights into the molecular basis of kinase function and also provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of kinase inhibitors. There are a large number of kinase structures in the PDB for which the Asp and Phe of the DFG motif on the activation loop swap positions, resulting in the formation of a new allosteric pocket. We refer to these structures as “classical DFG-out” conformations in order to distinguish them from conformations that have also been referred to as DFG-out in the literature but that do not have a fully formed allosteric pocket. We have completed a structural analysis of almost 200 small molecule inhibitors bound to classical DFG-out conformations; we find that they are recognized by both type I and type II inhibitors. In contrast, we find that nonclassical DFG-out conformations strongly select against type II inhibitors because these structures have not formed a large enough allosteric pocket to accommodate this type of binding mode. In the course of this study we discovered that the number of structurally validated type II inhibitors that can be found in the PDB and that are also represented in publicly available biochemical profiling studies of kinase inhibitors is very small. We have obtained new profiling results for several additional structurally validated type II inhibitors identified through our conformational analysis. Although the available profiling data for type II inhibitors is still much smaller than for type I inhibitors, a comparison of the two data sets supports the conclusion that type II inhibitors are more selective than type I. We comment on the possible contribution of the DFG-in to DFG-out conformational reorganization to the selectivity. PMID:25478866

  18. Biophysical investigation of type A PutAs reveals a conserved core oligomeric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasick, David A; Singh, Harkewal; Pemberton, Travis A; Luo, Min; Dhatwalia, Richa; Tanner, John J

    2017-09-01

    Many enzymes form homooligomers, yet the functional significance of self-association is seldom obvious. Herein, we examine the connection between oligomerization and catalytic function for proline utilization A (PutA) enzymes. PutAs are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze both reactions of proline catabolism. Type A PutAs are the smallest members of the family, possessing a minimal domain architecture consisting of N-terminal proline dehydrogenase and C-terminal l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase modules. Type A PutAs form domain-swapped dimers, and in one case (Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA), two of the dimers assemble into a ring-shaped tetramer. Whereas the dimer has a clear role in substrate channeling, the functional significance of the tetramer is unknown. To address this question, we performed structural studies of four-type A PutAs from two clades of the PutA tree. The crystal structure of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus PutA covalently inactivated by N-propargylglycine revealed a fold and substrate-channeling tunnel similar to other PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that Bdellovibrio PutA is dimeric in solution, in contrast to the prediction from crystal packing of a stable tetrameric assembly. SAXS studies of two other type A PutAs from separate clades also suggested that the dimer predominates in solution. To assess whether the tetramer of B. japonicum PutA is necessary for catalytic function, a hot spot disruption mutant that cleanly produces dimeric protein was generated. The dimeric variant exhibited kinetic parameters similar to the wild-type enzyme. These results implicate the domain-swapped dimer as the core structural and functional unit of type A PutAs. Proline dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.5.2); l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.88). The atomic coordinates and structure factor amplitudes have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession number 5UR2. The SAXS data have

  19. P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Parreira, P.; Lavareda, G.; Brogueira, P.; Amaral, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu x S thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu 2 S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of Cu x S films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 °C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show Cu x S films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the Cu x S films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of Cu x S surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of Cu x S films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the Cu x S material. - Highlights: • Surface properties of annealed Cu x S films. • Variation of conductivity with annealing temperatures of Cu x S films. • Application of evaporated Cu x S films in a thin film transistor (TFT) structure. • Determination of Cu x S p-type characteristic from TFT behaviour

  20. Structural, dielectric, magnetic, and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of multiferroic Y-type hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduri, H.; Chandra Dimri, M.; Kooskora, H.; Heinmaa, I.; Viola, G.; Ning, H.; Reece, M. J.; Krustok, J.; Stern, R.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of strontium substitution on structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of a multiferroic Y-type hexaferrite (chemical formula Ba2-xSrxMg2Fe12O22 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2) was investigated. Y-type hexaferrite phase formation was not affected by strontium substitution for barium, in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5, confirmed by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measured at room temperature. Two intermediate magnetic spin phase transitions (at tempertures TI and TII) and a ferrimagnetic-paramagnetic transition (at Curie temperature TC) were identified from the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic transition temperatures (TI, TII, and TC) increased with increasing strontium content. Magnetic hysteresis measurements indicated that by increasing strontium concentration, the coercivity increases, while the saturation magnetization decreases. The 57Fe NMR spectrum of the Y-type hexaferrite measured at 5 K and in zero magnetic field showed remarkable differences compared to that of other hexaferrites due to their different number of tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites. The temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity evidenced broad peaks with frequency dispersion in correspondence of the Curie temperature.

  1. Structure and electrical properties of p-type twin ZnTe nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanying; Jiang, Yang; Wu, Di; Wang, Binbin; Zhang, Yugang; Li, Junwei; Liu, Xinmei; Zhong, Honghai; Chen, Lei; Jie, Jiansheng

    2011-02-01

    Resonant tunneling is firstly found in twin p-type ZnTe nanowire field-effect transistors. The twin ZnTe nanowires are synthesized via the thermal evaporation process. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization indicate that the as-grown twin nanowire has a zinc-blende crystal structure with an integrated growth direction of [11-1]. The twin plane is (11-1) and the angle between the mirror symmetrical planes is 141°. The formation of twins is attributed to the surface tension from the eutectic liquid droplet. Field-effect transistors based on single ZnTe twin nanowire are constructed, the corresponding electrical measurements demonstrate that the twin nanowires have a p-type conductivity with a mobility ( μ h ) of 0.11 cm2 V-1 S-1, and a carrier concentration ( n h ) of 1.1×1017 cm-3. Significantly, the negative differential resistance with a peak-to-valley current ratio of about 1.3 is observed in p-type twin ZnTe nanowire field-effect transistors at room temperature. As the periodic barriers produced in the periodic twin interfaces can form multi-barrier and multi-well along one-dimensional direction. The multibarrier can be modulated under external electrical field. When the resonant condition is met, the space charge will be enhanced with the inherent feedback mechanism, and the resonant tunneling will occur.

  2. Structural Pre-sizing of a Coaxial Double-tube Type Hot Gas Duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Y-W [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The nuclear hydrogen system being researched at KAERI is planning to produce hydrogen in the order of 950 .deg. C by using nuclear energy and a thermo-chemical process, and helium gas is tentatively considered as the choice for the coolant. A hot gas duct (HGD) is a key component connecting the reactor pressure vessel and the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the nuclear hydrogen system. The HGD is a unique component exclusively found in an HTR-module concept where a nuclear core and IHX are placed separately into two pressure vessels, which require a connecting duct between them. A coaxial double-tube type cross vessel is considered for the HGD structure of the nuclear hydrogen system because of its successive extensive experience. In this study, a structural pre-sizing for the primary HGD was carried out. These activities include a predecision on the geometric dimensions, a pre-evaluation on the strength, and a pre-selection on the material of the coaxial double-tube type cross vessel components. A predecision on the geometric dimensions was undertaken based on various engineering concepts, such as a constant flow velocity (CFV) model, a constant flow rate (CFR) model, a constant hydraulic head (CHH) model, and finally a heat balanced (HB) model. For the CFV model, CFR model, and CHH model, the HGD structure might be insensitive to a flow induced vibration (FIV) in the case where there are no pressure differences between the hot and cold helium regions. Also we compared the geometric dimensions from the various models.

  3. High-pressure synthesis of ferromagnetic Mn sub 3 Ge with the Cu sub 3 Au-type structure

    CERN Document Server

    Takizawa, H; Uheda, K; Endo, T

    2002-01-01

    A new intermetallic compound, Mn sub 3 Ge, has been synthesized by direct reaction of elemental components at 6.2 GPa and 1000 deg. C for 30 min using a belt-type high-pressure apparatus. The compound crystallizes into a cubic structure with the space group Pm3m, namely the L1 sub 2 -type (Cu sub 3 Au-type) structure. The structure was refined by Rietveld analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction data and the lattice constant was determined as a = 0.380 19(3) nm. The compound shows metallic conductivity and ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature of 400 K.

  4. Assembly and stoichiometry of the core structure of the bacterial flagellar type III export gate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Takuma; Makino, Fumiaki; Dietsche, Tobias; Kinoshita, Miki; Kato, Takayuki; Wagner, Samuel; Namba, Keiichi; Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus, which is required for flagellar assembly beyond the cell membranes, consists of a transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR form the gate complex inside the basal body MS ring, although FliO is required for efficient export gate formation in Salmonella enterica. However, it remains unknown how they form the gate complex. Here we report that FliP forms a homohexameric ring with a diameter of 10 nm. Alanine substitutions of conserved Phe-137, Phe-150, and Glu-178 residues in the periplasmic domain of FliP (FliPP) inhibited FliP6 ring formation, suppressing flagellar protein export. FliO formed a 5-nm ring structure with 3 clamp-like structures that bind to the FliP6 ring. The crystal structure of FliPP derived from Thermotoga maritia, and structure-based photo-crosslinking experiments revealed that Phe-150 and Ser-156 of FliPP are involved in the FliP-FliP interactions and that Phe-150, Arg-152, Ser-156, and Pro-158 are responsible for the FliP-FliO interactions. Overexpression of FliP restored motility of a ∆fliO mutant to the wild-type level, suggesting that the FliP6 ring is a functional unit in the export gate complex and that FliO is not part of the final gate structure. Copurification assays revealed that FlhA, FlhB, FliQ, and FliR are associated with the FliO/FliP complex. We propose that the assembly of the export gate complex begins with FliP6 ring formation with the help of the FliO scaffold, followed by FliQ, FliR, and FlhB and finally FlhA during MS ring formation.

  5. Structure of a bacterial type III secretion system in contact with a host membrane in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nans, Andrea; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Saibil, Helen R.; Hayward, Richard D.

    2015-12-01

    Many bacterial pathogens of animals and plants use a conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells to subvert host functions. Contact with host membranes is critical for T3SS activation, yet little is known about T3SS architecture in this state or the conformational changes that drive effector translocation. Here we use cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging to derive the intact structure of the primordial Chlamydia trachomatis T3SS in the presence and absence of host membrane contact. Comparison of the averaged structures demonstrates a marked compaction of the basal body (4 nm) occurs when the needle tip contacts the host cell membrane. This compaction is coupled to a stabilization of the cytosolic sorting platform-ATPase. Our findings reveal the first structure of a bacterial T3SS from a major human pathogen engaged with a eukaryotic host, and reveal striking `pump-action' conformational changes that underpin effector injection.

  6. Optimization of chemical structure of Schottky-type selection diode for crossbar resistive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun Hwan; Lee, Jong Ho; Jeon, Woojin; Song, Seul Ji; Seok, Jun Yeong; Yoon, Jung Ho; Yoon, Kyung Jean; Park, Tae Joo; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2012-10-24

    The electrical performances of Pt/TiO(2)/Ti/Pt stacked Schottky-type diode (SD) was systematically examined, and this performance is dependent on the chemical structures of the each layer and their interfaces. The Ti layers containing a tolerable amount of oxygen showed metallic electrical conduction characteristics, which was confirmed by sheet resistance measurement with elevating the temperature, transmission line measurement (TLM), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis. However, the chemical structure of SD stack and resulting electrical properties were crucially affected by the dissolved oxygen concentration in the Ti layers. The lower oxidation potential of the Ti layer with initially higher oxygen concentration suppressed the oxygen deficiency of the overlying TiO(2) layer induced by consumption of the oxygen from TiO(2) layer. This structure results in the lower reverse current of SDs without significant degradation of forward-state current. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) analysis showed the current conduction through the local conduction paths in the presented SDs, which guarantees a sufficient forward-current density as a selection device for highly integrated crossbar array resistive memory.

  7. Structure and function of RET in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Menacho, Iván

    2018-02-01

    It has been twenty-five years since the discovery of oncogenic germline RET mutations as the cause of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2). Intensive work over the last two and a half decades on RET genetics, signaling and cell biology has provided the current bases for the genotype-phenotype and functional correlations within this cancer syndrome. On the contrary, the structural and molecular basis for RET tyrosine kinase domain activation and oncogenic deregulation has remained largely elusive. Recent studies with a strong crystallographic and biochemical focus have started to elucidate key insights into such molecular and atomic details revealing unexpected and private mechanisms of actions and molecular determinants not previously envisioned. This review focuses on the structure and function of the RET receptor, and in particular, on what a more detailed view of the protein itself and what the current structural and molecular information tell us about the genotype and phenotype relationships in the cancer syndrome MEN2. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Structure of the MacAB-TolC ABC-type tripartite multidrug efflux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabrés, Salomé; Neuberger, Arthur; Blaza, James N.; Bai, Xiao-chen; Okada, Ui; Murakami, Satoshi; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Zachariae, Ulrich; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Luisi, Ben F.

    2017-01-01

    The MacA-MacB-TolC assembly of Escherichia coli is a transmembrane machine that spans the cell envelope and actively extrudes substrates, including macrolide antibiotics and polypeptide virulence factors. These transport processes are energized by the ATPase MacB, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We present an electron cryo-microscopy structure of the ABC-type tripartite assembly at near-atomic resolution. A hexamer of the periplasmic protein MacA bridges between a TolC trimer in the outer membrane and a MacB dimer in the inner membrane, generating a quaternary structure with a central channel for substrate translocation. A gating ring found in MacA is proposed to act as a one-way valve in substrate transport. The MacB structure features an atypical transmembrane domain (TMD) with a closely packed dimer interface and a periplasmic opening that is the likely portal for substrate entry from the periplasm, with subsequent displacement through an allosteric transport mechanism. PMID:28504659

  9. Some design constraints required for the assembly of software components: The incorporation of atomic abstract types into generically structured abstract types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    It is nearly axiomatic, that to take the greatest advantage of the useful features available in a development system, and to avoid the negative interactions of those features, requires the exercise of a design methodology which constrains their use. A major design support feature of the Ada language is abstraction: for data, functions processes, resources, and system elements in general. Atomic abstract types can be created in packages defining those private types and all of the overloaded operators, functions, and hidden data required for their use in an application. Generically structured abstract types can be created in generic packages defining those structured private types, as buildups from the user-defined data types which are input as parameters. A study is made of the design constraints required for software incorporating either atomic or generically structured abstract types, if the integration of software components based on them is to be subsequently performed. The impact of these techniques on the reusability of software and the creation of project-specific software support environments is also discussed.

  10. Structure and Conceptual Design of a Water-Hammering-Type Honsang for Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sam Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the manufacturing procedure, specifications, repair history, and details of celestial movements of the water-hammering type Honsang (celestial globe. Results from our study on the remaining Honsangs in China and Japan and on the reconstruction models in Korea were applied to our conceptual design of the water-hammering type Honsang. A Honui (armillary sphere and Honsang using the water-hammering method were manufactured in Joseon in 1435 (the 17th year of King Sejong. Jang Yeong-Sil developed the Honsang system based on the water-operation method of Shui yün i hsiang t’ai in China. Water-operation means driving water wheels using a water flow. The most important factor in this type of operation is the precision of the water clock and the control of the water wheel movement. The water-hammering type Honsang in Joseon probably adopted the Cheonhyeong (天衡; oriental escapement device system of Shui yün i hsiang t’ai in China and the overflow mechanism of Jagyeongnu (striking clepsydra in Joseon, etc. In addition to the Cheonryun system, more gear instruments were needed to stage the rotation of the Honsang globe and the sun’s movement. In this study, the water-hammering mechanism is analyzed in the structure of a water clock, a water wheel, the Cheonhyeong system, and the Giryun system, as an organically working operation mechanism. We expect that this study will serve as an essential basis for studies on Heumgyeonggaknu, the water-operating astronomical clock, and other astronomical clocks in the middle and latter parts of the Joseon dynasty.

  11. Novel barium triel/tetrelides with the Pu3Pd5 structure type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Ines; Schwarz, Michael; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    A series of ternary barium triel(M III )/tetrel(M IV )-ides Ba 3 M x III M 5-x IV (M III =Ga,In;M IV =Si,Ge,Sn;x=0-0.7) has been prepared from melts of the elements. They all crystallize with the Pu 3 Pd 5 type structure (orthorhombic, space group Cmcm) exhibiting isolated M 5 clusters of slightly distorted nido shape (square pyramids). For the silicides, where the binary border compound Ba 3 Si 5 does not exist, the Pu 3 Pd 5 type is stabilized by substituting 0.7 Si atoms per formula unit against Ga (Ba 3 Ga 0.7 Si 4.3 :a=1024.82(1),b=856.58(1),c=1024.18(1) pm, R1=0.0220) or by a very small substitution of In (Ba 3 In 0.1 Si 4.9 :a=1017.8(2),b=852.5(2),c=1020.1(3) pm, R1=0.0406). A comparable situation is found for the corresponding germanides, where 0.7 atoms of In (Ba 3 In 0.7 Ge 4.3 :a=1051.3(2),b=864.05(14),c=1054.7(3) pm, R1=0.0248) or Ga (Ba 3 Ga x Ge 5-x :a=1035.1(1),b=861.5(1),c=1036.8(1) pm, R1=0.0148) are necessary to stabilize a Ge-rich compound of this structure type. For the stannides, the situation is somewhat different, because the binary phase Ba 3 Sn 5 itself forms the Pu 3 Pd 5 type. In this case, the structure type remains stable up to a Ga content of 0.5 Ga/f.u. (Ba 3 Ga 0.5 Sn 4.5 :a=1100.41(14),b=896.19(11),c=1111.82(14) pm, R1=0.0169) and also with a substantial In content (Ba 3 In x Sn 5-x :x∼0.9(1);a=1110.5(2),b=900.0(2),c=1120.7(2) pm, R1=0.0262). As the five-atom nido cluster requires only 24 valence electrons per formula unit according to Zintl and Wade, an excess of electrons would be assumed for the binary tetrelides such as Ba 3 Sn 5 (26 v.e./f.u.) that even the maximal amount of triel substitution 0.7 M III /f.u. attained in the title compounds cannot sufficiently compensate for. An assessment of the geometric influence of varied valence electron counts however, coupled with a detailed analysis of the calculated electron densities and the partial densities of states in the energy region above the pseudo band gap at 24 v

  12. Frequency Modulation and Absorption Improvement of THz Micro-bolometer with Micro-bridge Structure by Spiral-Type Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Niu, Qingchen; Liang, Kai; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2018-03-01

    Antenna-coupled micro-bridge structure is proven to be a good solution to extend infrared micro-bolometer technology for THz application. Spiral-type antennas are proposed in 25 μm × 25 μm micro-bridge structure with a single separate linear antenna, two separate linear antennas, or two connected linear antennas on the bridge legs, in addition to traditional spiral-type antenna on the support layer. The effects of structural parameters of each antenna on THz absorption of micro-bridge structure are discussed for optimized absorption of 2.52 THz wave radiated by far infrared CO2 lasers. The design of spiral-type antenna with two separate linear antennas for wide absorption peak and spiral-type antenna with two connected linear antennas for relatively stable absorption are good candidates for high absorption at low absorption frequency with a rotation angle of 360* n ( n = 1.6). Spiral-type antenna with extended legs also provides a highly integrated micro-bridge structure with fast response and a highly compatible, process-simplified way to realize the structure. This research demonstrates the design of several spiral-type antenna-coupled micro-bridge structures and provides preferred schemes for potential device applications in room temperature sensing and real-time imaging.

  13. Frequency Modulation and Absorption Improvement of THz Micro-bolometer with Micro-bridge Structure by Spiral-Type Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Niu, Qingchen; Liang, Kai; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2018-03-05

    Antenna-coupled micro-bridge structure is proven to be a good solution to extend infrared micro-bolometer technology for THz application. Spiral-type antennas are proposed in 25 μm × 25 μm micro-bridge structure with a single separate linear antenna, two separate linear antennas, or two connected linear antennas on the bridge legs, in addition to traditional spiral-type antenna on the support layer. The effects of structural parameters of each antenna on THz absorption of micro-bridge structure are discussed for optimized absorption of 2.52 THz wave radiated by far infrared CO 2 lasers. The design of spiral-type antenna with two separate linear antennas for wide absorption peak and spiral-type antenna with two connected linear antennas for relatively stable absorption are good candidates for high absorption at low absorption frequency with a rotation angle of 360*n (n = 1.6). Spiral-type antenna with extended legs also provides a highly integrated micro-bridge structure with fast response and a highly compatible, process-simplified way to realize the structure. This research demonstrates the design of several spiral-type antenna-coupled micro-bridge structures and provides preferred schemes for potential device applications in room temperature sensing and real-time imaging.

  14. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) and Standardized Data and Crystal Chemical Characterization of Inorganic Structure Types (TYPIX)—Two Tools for Inorganic Chemists and Crystallographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Ekkehard

    1996-01-01

    The two databases ICSD and TYPIX are described. ICSD is a comprehensive compilation of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds (about 39 000 entries). TYPIX contains 3600 critically evaluated data sets representative of structure types formed by inorganic compounds. PMID:27805158

  15. Machine-Thermal Coupling Stresses Analysis of the Fin-Type Structural Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yue, Hao; Chen, Dongbo; Qin, Delei; Chen, Zijian

    2017-05-01

    The design structure and heat-transfer mechanism of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) determine its body temperature state. Thermal stress and thermal deformation generated by the temperature variation directly affect the stress state of thermoelectric modules (TEMs). Therefore, the rated temperature and pressing force of TEMs are important parameters in TEG design. Here, the relationships between structural of a fin-type TEG (FTEG) and these parameters are studied by modeling and "machine-thermal" coupling simulation. An indirect calculation method is adopted in the coupling simulation. First, numerical heat transfer calculations of a three-dimensional FTEG model are conducted according to an orthogonal simulation table. The influences of structural parameters for heat transfer in the channel and outer fin temperature distribution are analyzed. The optimal structural parameters are obtained and used to simulate temperature field of the outer fins. Second, taking the thermal calculation results as the initial condition, the thermal-solid coupling calculation is adopted. The thermal stresses of outer fin, mechanical force of spring-angle pressing mechanism, and clamping force on a TEM are analyzed. The simulation results show that the heat transfer area of the inner fin and the physical parameters of the metal materials are the keys to determining the FTEG temperature field. The pressing mechanism's mechanical force can be reduced by reducing the outer fin angle. In addition, a corrugated cooling water pipe, which has cooling and spring functionality, is conducive to establishing an adaptable clamping force to avoid the TEMs being crushed by the thermal stresses in the body.

  16. Structural basis for promiscuous PAM recognition in type I-E Cascade from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Robert P; Xiao, Yibei; Ding, Fran; van Erp, Paul B G; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Bailey, Scott; Wiedenheft, Blake; Ke, Ailong

    2016-02-25

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the cas (CRISPR-associated) operon form an RNA-based adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements in prokaryotes. Type I accounts for 95% of CRISPR systems, and has been used to control gene expression and cell fate. During CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided interference, Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defence) facilitates the crRNA-guided invasion of double-stranded DNA for complementary base-pairing with the target DNA strand while displacing the non-target strand, forming an R-loop. Cas3, which has nuclease and helicase activities, is subsequently recruited to degrade two DNA strands. A protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence flanking target DNA is crucial for self versus foreign discrimination. Here we present the 2.45 Å crystal structure of Escherichia coli Cascade bound to a foreign double-stranded DNA target. The 5'-ATG PAM is recognized in duplex form, from the minor groove side, by three structural features in the Cascade Cse1 subunit. The promiscuity inherent to minor groove DNA recognition rationalizes the observation that a single Cascade complex can respond to several distinct PAM sequences. Optimal PAM recognition coincides with wedge insertion, initiating directional target DNA strand unwinding to allow segmented base-pairing with crRNA. The non-target strand is guided along a parallel path 25 Å apart, and the R-loop structure is further stabilized by locking this strand behind the Cse2 dimer. These observations provide the structural basis for understanding the PAM-dependent directional R-loop formation process.

  17. Multilocus sequence typing and genetic structure of Cryptosporidium hominis from children in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatei, Wangeci; Das, Pradeep; Dutta, Phalguni; Sen, Abhik; Cama, Vitaliano; Lal, Altaf A; Xiao, Lihua

    2007-03-01

    Endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in India has been documented with little genetic characterization of the parasites. Fifty Cryptosporidium-positive specimens collected between 2001 and 2004 from pediatric patients in Kolkata, India were analyzed for parasite genetic structure using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Genotype analyses showed the presence of Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium felis in 49, 2 and 1 patients, respectively (two patients had mixed infections of C. hominis and C. meleagridis). To assess the extent of genetic heterogeneity of C. hominis, minisatellites, microsatellites and polymorphic markers in three different chromosomes were sequenced, including genes encoding the 60kDa glycoprotein (GP60), a 47kDa protein (CP47), a mucin-like protein (Mucin1), a serine repeat antigen (MSC6-7), and a 56kDa trans-membrane protein (CP56) in chromosome 6, the 70kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) in chromosome 2, and a T-rich gene fragment (Chrom3T) in chromosome 3. Population sub-structure of C. hominis based on multilocus gene sequences showed that there were 25 multilocus subtypes defined by combined sequence length and nucleotide polymorphism, which formed four distinct groups in this population. Significant intra- and inter-genic linkage disequilibria were observed with minimum recombination or expansion of limited subtypes, all indicative of a mostly clonal population structure. The results highlight the importance of high resolution MLST in studying Cryptosporidium population sub-structure especially when length polymorphism may be inadequate in identifying unique subtypes. The significance of the diverse MLST within C. hominis in relation to geographical and temporal factors and clinical manifestations of disease warrants further investigations.

  18. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  19. The common structural architecture of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium type three secretion needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Demers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Type Three Secretion System (T3SS, or injectisome, is a macromolecular infection machinery present in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It consists of a basal body, anchored in both bacterial membranes, and a hollow needle through which effector proteins are delivered into the target host cell. Two different architectures of the T3SS needle have been previously proposed. First, an atomic model of the Salmonella typhimurium needle was generated from solid-state NMR data. The needle subunit protein, PrgI, comprises a rigid-extended N-terminal segment and a helix-loop-helix motif with the N-terminus located on the outside face of the needle. Second, a model of the Shigella flexneri needle was generated from a high-resolution 7.7-Å cryo-electron microscopy density map. The subunit protein, MxiH, contains an N-terminal α-helix, a loop, another α-helix, a 14-residue-long β-hairpin (Q51-Q64 and a C-terminal α-helix, with the N-terminus facing inward to the lumen of the needle. In the current study, we carried out solid-state NMR measurements of wild-type Shigella flexneri needles polymerized in vitro and identified the following secondary structure elements for MxiH: a rigid-extended N-terminal segment (S2-T11, an α-helix (L12-A38, a loop (E39-P44 and a C-terminal α-helix (Q45-R83. Using immunogold labeling in vitro and in vivo on functional needles, we located the N-terminus of MxiH subunits on the exterior of the assembly, consistent with evolutionary sequence conservation patterns and mutagenesis data. We generated a homology model of Shigella flexneri needles compatible with both experimental data: the MxiH solid-state NMR chemical shifts and the state-of-the-art cryoEM density map. These results corroborate the solid-state NMR structure previously solved for Salmonella typhimurium PrgI needles and establish that Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium subunit proteins adopt a conserved structure and orientation in their

  20. Four types of interference competition and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Andersen, Ken Haste; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how four types of interference competition - which alternatively affect foraging, metabolism, survival, and reproduction - impact the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations. Even though all four types of interference competition reduce population biomass, interference...... interference is strong. The evolutionary response to survival interference and reproductive interference is always larger maturation size. We also investigate how the four types of interference competition impact the evolutionary dynamics and resultant diversity and trophic structure of size......-structured communities. Like other types of trait-mediated competition, all four types of interference competition can induce disruptive selection and thus promote initial diversification. Even though foraging interference and reproductive interference are more potent in promoting initial diversification, they catalyze...

  1. Preparation and crystal structure of the Er1Si2-x(vacancy)x compound, derivative of the AlB2 type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetta, V.; Houssay, E.; Rouault, A.; Madar, R.; Lambert, B.

    1989-01-01

    The rare earth silicides are of great interest in applications to semiconductor technolgy and form the subject of studies aiming at a better understanding of their physical properties in relation with their structure and composition. A systematic study of the RSi 2-x compounds, which crystallize in three main structure types ThSi 2 , GdSi 2 , AlB 2 led us to find an orthorhombic superstructure of the hexagonal ErSi 2-x (AlB 2 -type) structure. This superstructure is caused by a particular arrangement of the vacancies in the silicon sub-lattice [fr

  2. Genetic-Structural relations in some types of spanish uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia Medina, M.

    1962-01-01

    On the spanish hercynian areas there are different types of uraniferous deposits, which may be classified in the following groups: Group I, high temperature magmatic deposits, Group II, low temperature veins and Group III supergenic deposits, generated by weathering of the former ones or by lixiviation of the intra granitic uranium. The deposits belonging to Group I are founding the hercynian ge anticlinal; those of Groups II and III, chiefly in the eugeosyncline. The explanation suggested for these genetic-structural relationships assumes that, in the ge anticlinal, uranium would migrate from the dioritic magmas to form and high temperature deposits. In the eugeosyncline, a large fraction of the uranium would migrate towards more differentiated granites, in which it might partially remain or from which it might have been finally concentrated in the epithermal veins or by later tectonic actions. The Group III deposits ar more frequent in the eugeosyncline, due to the greater abundance of more differentiated intrusive rocks. (Author) 16 refs

  3. Hypothetical planar and nanotubular crystalline structures with five interatomic bonds of Kepler nets type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey I. Kochaev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of metastable existence of planar and non-chiral nanotubular crystalline lattices in the form of Kepler nets of 34324, 3342, and 346 types (the notations are given in Schläfly symbols, using ab initio calculations, has researched. Atoms of P, As, Sb, Bi from 15th group and atoms of S, Se, Te from 16th group of the periodic table were taken into consideration. The lengths of interatomic bonds corresponding to the steadiest states for such were determined. We found that among these new composed structures crystals encountered strong elastic properties. Besides, some of them can possess pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Our results can be used for nanoelectronics and nanoelectromechanical devices designing.

  4. A new topological structure for the Langevin-type ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Hu, Junhui; Peng, Hanmin; Wang, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new topological structure for the Langevin-type ultrasonic transducer is proposed and investigated. The two cylindrical terminal blocks are conically shaped with four supporting plates each, and two cooling fins are disposed at the bottom of terminal blocks, adjacent to the piezoelectric rings. Experimental results show that it has larger vibration velocity, lower temperature rise and higher electroacoustic energy efficiency than the conventional Langevin transducer. The reasons for the phenomena can be well explained by the change of mass, heat dissipation surface and force factor of the transducer. The proposed design may effectively improve the performance of ultrasonic transducers, in terms of the working effect, energy consumption and working life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation on the structural characterization of pulsed p-type porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, N. H. Abd; Rahim, A. F. Abd; Mahmood, A.; Yusof, Y.

    2017-08-01

    P-type Porous silicon (PS) was sucessfully formed by using an electrochemical pulse etching (PC) and conventional direct current (DC) etching techniques. The PS was etched in the Hydrofluoric (HF) based solution at a current density of J = 10 mA/cm2 for 30 minutes from a crystalline silicon wafer with (100) orientation. For the PC process, the current was supplied through a pulse generator with 14 ms cycle time (T) with 10 ms on time (Ton) and pause time (Toff) of 4 ms respectively. FESEM, EDX, AFM, and XRD have been used to characterize the morphological properties of the PS. FESEM images showed that pulse PS (PPC) sample produces more uniform circular structures with estimated average pore sizes of 42.14 nm compared to DC porous (PDC) sample with estimated average size of 16.37nm respectively. The EDX spectrum for both samples showed higher Si content with minimal presence of oxide.

  6. An oxotantalate with network-type structure: Cs3Ta5O14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, M.; Hoppe, R.

    1982-01-01

    Cs 3 Ta 5 O 14 was obtained for the first time as colourless single crystals, orthorhombic, a = 26.235(2), b = 7.429(1), c = 7.388(1) A, Z = 4, space group Pbam. According to four-circle-diffractometer data (1521 hkl, F 0 > 1.5 σ(F 0 ), 3 0 0 , R = 10%) it crystallizes with a complicated network-type structure. Ta is partly in an octahedral (C.N.6), partly in a trigonal-bipyramidal (C.N.5) environment. The [Ta 5 O 14 ] network contains channels occupied by Cs. Effective Coordination Numbers, ECoN, and the Madelung Part of the Lattice Energy, MAPLE, have been calculated and are discussed. (author)

  7. Capacitance spectroscopy on n-type GaNAs/GaAs embedded quantum structure solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Danielle; Bollmann, Joachim; Elborg, Martin; Botha, J. R.; Venter, André

    2018-04-01

    In this study, both deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy (AS) have been used to study the properties of electrically active deep level centers present in GaNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) embedded in p-i-n solar cells. The structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In particular, the electrical properties of samples with Si (n-type) doping of the QWs were investigated. DLTS revealed four deep level centers in the material, whereas only three were detected by AS. NextNano++ simulation software was used to model the sample band-diagrams to provide reasoning for the origin of the signals produced by both techniques.

  8. Electronic Structure of the Pyrochlore-Type Ru Oxides through the Metal--Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.; Fujimori, S.I.; Okane, T.; Fujimori, A.; Abbate, M.; Yoshii, S.; Sato, M.

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structures of the pyrochlore-type Ru oxides Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 and Sm 2-x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 , which show metal-insulator transition with increasing Ca or Bi concentration, have been studied by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Spectral changes near the Fermi level are different but reflect the tendency of their transport properties in both systems. The Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 system shows an energy shift, which is expected from the increase of hole in the Ru 4d t 2g band and the Sm 2 - x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 system shows spectral weight transfer within the Ru 4d t 2g band, which is expected to be observed in bandwidth-control Mott-Hubbard system. (author)

  9. Multi-type sensor placement and response reconstruction for building structures: Experimental investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong-Pan; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Estimation of lateral displacement and acceleration responses is essential to assess safety and serviceability of high-rise buildings under dynamic loadings including earthquake excitations. However, the measurement information from the limited number of sensors installed in a building structure is often insufficient for the complete structural performance assessment. An integrated multi-type sensor placement and response reconstruction method has thus been proposed by the authors to tackle this problem. To validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, an experimental investigation using a cantilever beam with multi-type sensors is performed and reported in this paper. The experimental setup is first introduced. The finite element modelling and model updating of the cantilever beam are then performed. The optimal sensor placement for the best response reconstruction is determined by the proposed method based on the updated FE model of the beam. After the sensors are installed on the physical cantilever beam, a number of experiments are carried out. The responses at key locations are reconstructed and compared with the measured ones. The reconstructed responses achieve a good match with the measured ones, manifesting the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Besides, the proposed method is also examined for the cases of different excitations and unknown excitation, and the results prove the proposed method to be robust and effective. The superiority of the optimized sensor placement scheme is finally demonstrated through comparison with two other different sensor placement schemes: the accelerometer-only scheme and non-optimal sensor placement scheme. The proposed method can be applied to high-rise buildings for seismic performance assessment.

  10. Four types of interference competition and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai; Andersen, Ken H; Dieckmann, Ulf; Brännström, Åke

    2015-09-07

    We investigate how four types of interference competition - which alternatively affect foraging, metabolism, survival, and reproduction - impact the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations. Even though all four types of interference competition reduce population biomass, interference competition at intermediate intensity sometimes significantly increases the abundance of adult individuals and the population׳s reproduction rate. We find that foraging and metabolic interference evolutionarily favor smaller maturation size when interference is weak and larger maturation size when interference is strong. The evolutionary response to survival interference and reproductive interference is always larger maturation size. We also investigate how the four types of interference competition impact the evolutionary dynamics and resultant diversity and trophic structure of size-structured communities. Like other types of trait-mediated competition, all four types of interference competition can induce disruptive selection and thus promote initial diversification. Even though foraging interference and reproductive interference are more potent in promoting initial diversification, they catalyze the formation of diverse communities with complex trophic structure only at high levels of interference intensity. By contrast, survival interference does so already at intermediate levels, while reproductive interference can only support relatively smaller communities with simpler trophic structure. Taken together, our results show how the type and intensity of interference competition jointly affect coexistence patterns in structured population models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficiency of different forest types in carbon storage depends on their internal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana F. Gheorghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest vegetation is a key factor in the maintenance of global carbon cycle balance under the present climate change conditions. Forest ecosystems are both buffers against extreme climatic events accompanying climate change and carbon sinks diminishing the environmental impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigated the influence of stand structure and site characteristics on the productivity and carbon storage capacity of temperate forest types. Predictors of species productivity were parameters such as stand density, age, height, average diameter and wood density. Morus alba (L. was more productive than average both in terms of annual volume increment and annual biomass gain, while Quercus sessiliflora (Matt. Lieb. and Quercus frainetto (Ten. were significantly less productive than average. Differences in stand productivity were explained by stand density, age, height, altitude, type of regeneration and species composition. Statistically significant differences were measured between the productivity of stands dominated by different woody species, with low productive stands dominated by slow growing species with high wood density like Quercus or Fagus, and highly productive stands rich in fast growing species with low wood density like Populus or Salix. Stands with different plant communities in the underlying herbaceous layer also tended to have different levels of productivity.

  12. Structural myocardial involvement in adult patients with type 1 myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upinder K. Dhand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is the commonest muscular dystrophy in adults, affecting multiple organs in addition to skeletal muscles. Cardiac conduction system abnormalities are well recognized as an important component of DM1 phenotype; however, primary structural myocardial abnormalities, which may predispose these patients to congestive heart failure, are not as well characterized. We reviewed the retrospective analysis of the clinical and echocardiographic findings in adult patients with DM1. Among 27 patients (16 male; age 19-61 years with DM1, the echocardiogram (ECHO was abnormal in 10 (37% including one of 6 patients (16% with congenital myotonic dystrophy. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤50% was noted in 5, diastolic dysfunction in 4, left atrial dilatation in 3, left ventricular hypertrophy in 2, apical hypokinesia in 1 and mitral valve prolapse in 3 patients. One patient had paradoxical septal movement in the setting of left bundle branch block. Echocardiographic abnormalities significantly correlated with older age; however, patients with systolic dysfunction on echocardiogram ranged in age from 27 to 52 years including 2 patients aged 27 and 34 years. We can conclude that echocardiographic abnormalities are frequent in adult patients with DM1. The incidence is similar in the classical and congenital type of DM1. Overall, echocardiographic abnormalities in DM1 correlate with increasing age; however, reduced LVEF is observed even at young age. Cardiac assessment and monitoring in adult patients with DM1 should include evaluation for primary myocardial involvement.

  13. Structural characterization and immunostimulating activity of a levan-type fructan from Curcuma kwangsiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Jiao; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Gong; Zhou, Ying-Biao; Han, Xiao-Qiang; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Yuan-Xia

    2015-01-01

    A fructan designated as CKNP with apparent molecular weight of 5.3kD was isolated from the hot water extract of Curcuma kwangsiensis through a combination of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE 650M and gel filtration on Superdex G-200. CKNP was characterized by chemical derivatization as well as HPLC, GC, and GC-MS technologies. Structural studies revealed that CKNP is composed predominately of fructose (96.8%) and a small amount of glucose (3.2%) with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 30-31. It was deduced to be a levan-type fructan containing a backbone composed of (2→6)-linked β-d-Fruf residues and single β-d-Fruf residues as side chains branched at the O-1 position along the backbone. Preliminary in vitro bioactive tests on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells revealed that the levan-type fructan from C. kwangsiensis shows significant immunostimulating activity based on its ability to stimulate macrophage proliferation and enhance phagocytosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Overlapping and independent structural roles for human papillomavirus type 16 L2 conserved cysteines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael J; Alam, Samina; Christensen, Neil D; Meyers, Craig

    2009-10-25

    Cryoelectron microscopy images of HPV16 pseudovirions (PsV) depict that each pentamer of L1 can be occluded with a monomer of L2. Further research suggests that an N-terminal external loop of L2 exists, which is the target of neutralizing and cross-neutralizing antibodies. Here we show that N-terminal L2 cysteine residues, Cys22 and Cys28, have overlapping and independent structural roles, which affect both early- and late-stage assembly events. Substitution of either cysteine residue enhances infectivity markedly in comparison to wild-type HPV16. However, only Cys22Ser 20-day virions become nearly as stable as wild type. In addition, Cys22Ser, and Cys22,28Ser 20-day virions have lost their susceptibility to neutralization by anti-L2 antibodies, whereas Cys28Ser 20-day virions remain partially susceptible. These results suggest that Cys28 is necessary for late-stage stabilization of capsids, while Cys22 is necessary for proper display of L2 neutralizing epitopes.

  15. Structural insights into mechanisms for inhibiting amyloid β42 aggregation by non-catechol-type flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaki, Mizuho; Murakami, Kazuma; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Irie, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-15

    The prevention of 42-mer amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) aggregation is promising for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We previously described the site-specific inhibitory mechanism for Aβ42 aggregation by a catechol-type flavonoid, (+)-taxifolin, targeting Lys16,28 after its autoxidation. In contrast, non-catechol-type flavonoids (morin, datiscetin, and kaempferol) inhibited Aβ42 aggregation without targeting Lys16,28 with almost similar potencies to that of (+)-taxifolin. We herein provided structural insights into their mechanisms for inhibiting Aβ42 aggregation. Physicochemical analyses revealed that their inhibition did not require autoxidation. The (1)H-(15)N SOFAST-HMQC NMR of Aβ42 in the presence of morin and datiscetin revealed the significant perturbation of chemical shifts of His13,14 and Gln15, which were close to the intermolecular β-sheet region, Gln15-Ala21. His13,14 also played a role in radical formation at Tyr10, thereby inducing the oxidation of Met35, which has been implicated in Aβ42 aggregation. These results suggest the direct interaction of morin and datiscetin with the Aβ42 monomer. Although only kaempferol was oxidatively-degraded during incubation, its degradation products as well as kaempferol itself suppressed Aβ42 aggregation. However, neither kaempferol nor its decomposed products perturbed the chemical shifts of the Aβ42 monomer. Aggregation experiments using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol-treated Aβ42 demonstrated that kaempferol and its degradation products inhibited the elongation rather than nucleation phase, implying that they interacted with small aggregates of Aβ42, but not with the monomer. In contrast, morin and datiscetin inhibited both phases. The position and number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of non-catechol-type flavonoids could be important for their inhibitory potencies and mechanisms against Aβ42 aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and phase transformations in the low-temperature annealed amorphous “finemet”-type microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V., E-mail: vvch08@yandex.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Aleev, A.A. [SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Churyukanova, M.N.; Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Medvedeva, E.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Korchuganova, O.A. [SSC RF Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Zhukova, V. [Dpto. de Fns. Mater., UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Zhukov, A.P. [Dpto. de Fns. Mater., UPV/EHU, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Structure and magnetic properties evolution at heating of amorphous microwires was studied. • Relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increase in Curie temperature. • Curie temperature change can not be stabilized by a prolonged exposure at pre-crystallization temperatures. • Tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of α-Fe phase precipitations enriched in Si. -- Abstract: Finemet-type glass-coated microwires with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure have been investigated. The relaxation and crystallization processes at heating of amorphous alloy have been studied by DSC method. We observed that the relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increasing of the Curie temperature. Additionally a prolonged exposure of the samples below the crystallization temperatures does not stabilize the Curie temperature change. An investigation by the tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of precipitations, probably α-Fe phase, as a result of low-temperature annealing (400 °C, 5 min). We found that the observed nano-sized areas were enriched in silicon.

  17. Structural and phase transformations in the low-temperature annealed amorphous “finemet”-type microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Aleev, A.A.; Churyukanova, M.N.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Medvedeva, E.V.; Korchuganova, O.A.; Zhukova, V.; Zhukov, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Structure and magnetic properties evolution at heating of amorphous microwires was studied. • Relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increase in Curie temperature. • Curie temperature change can not be stabilized by a prolonged exposure at pre-crystallization temperatures. • Tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of α-Fe phase precipitations enriched in Si. -- Abstract: Finemet-type glass-coated microwires with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure have been investigated. The relaxation and crystallization processes at heating of amorphous alloy have been studied by DSC method. We observed that the relaxation processes in the amorphous phase correlate with an increasing of the Curie temperature. Additionally a prolonged exposure of the samples below the crystallization temperatures does not stabilize the Curie temperature change. An investigation by the tomographic atom probe microscopy supports the formation of precipitations, probably α-Fe phase, as a result of low-temperature annealing (400 °C, 5 min). We found that the observed nano-sized areas were enriched in silicon

  18. On the modular structure of the genus-one Type II superstring low energy expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Green, Michael B. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Vanhove, Pierre [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres,F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-08-11

    The analytic contribution to the low energy expansion of Type II string amplitudes at genus-one is a power series in space-time derivatives with coefficients that are determined by integrals of modular functions over the complex structure modulus of the world-sheet torus. These modular functions are associated with world-sheet vacuum Feynman diagrams and given by multiple sums over the discrete momenta on the torus. In this paper we exhibit exact differential and algebraic relations for a certain infinite class of such modular functions by showing that they satisfy Laplace eigenvalue equations with inhomogeneous terms that are polynomial in non-holomorphic Eisenstein series. Furthermore, we argue that the set of modular functions that contribute to the coefficients of interactions up to order D{sup 10}R{sup 4} are linear sums of functions in this class and quadratic polynomials in Eisenstein series and odd Riemann zeta values. Integration over the complex structure results in coefficients of the low energy expansion that are rational numbers multiplying monomials in odd Riemann zeta values.

  19. The Russian oil industry re-structuration: towards the emergence of western type enterprises?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-01-01

    The Russian oil industry has undergone fundamental changes since the collapse of the Soviet Empire and its bureaucratic administrative structure, dominated by its various Branch Ministries. The monopoly in the Soviet oil industry has now been replaced by a number of ''oil companies'', some of which are very powerful, the best known of them being Lukoil. These ''joint stock companies'' are the product of a reform aimed essentially at implanting, out of all the numerous organisational arrangements developed in the West, the model of the vertically integrated private firm. Beyond the legal reforms in the Russian oil industry sector, however, the nature of the organisational model that has actually emerged in Russia begs several questions. Many entities, which are complex and highly diversified, are involved in this industry. There are, of course, the many private structures in which the banks sometimes carry a considerable amount of weight. There are also some vertically integrated organisations, but the degree of integration is variable and their method of centralization is based on a specific form of economic logic. It should not be considered, however, that these actors are similar to capitalist-type private enterprises, whose behaviour is regulated by the demands of international competition. Reform of property rights has not been sufficient to create true private enterprise in Russia. (author)

  20. Prodrome of Paranoid Schizophrenia with Episodic Type of Course and Schizoaffective Structure of Manifest Episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prodrome of paranoid schizophrenia with the episodic type of course (F20.1 and F20.2 according to ICD-10 and the schizoaffective structure of the episode was retrospectively studied. The pronounced and persistent affect, in particular depression in conjunction with hallucinations and/or delusions throughout the whole episode, served as the basis for an episode qualification as the schizoaffective structure. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed by the extremely low socio-demographic indicators at the time of the manifest episode, by the presence of catatonic or catatono-oneiroid symptoms in more than half of the patients, as well as an incongruence of hallucination plot and/or delusions against the dominant affect. In most cases, the affective symptoms were detected in clinical presentation of a prodrome and significantly more often in the form of depression, in comparison with bipolar and mixed affective disorders. Different clinical manifestations of negative symptoms were revealed in significantly more than half of the patients. The study showed that there is a significant frequency of negative manifestations in conjugation with depression in the prodrome.

  1. On the modular structure of the genus-one Type II superstring low energy expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Green, Michael B.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The analytic contribution to the low energy expansion of Type II string amplitudes at genus-one is a power series in space-time derivatives with coefficients that are determined by integrals of modular functions over the complex structure modulus of the world-sheet torus. These modular functions are associated with world-sheet vacuum Feynman diagrams and given by multiple sums over the discrete momenta on the torus. In this paper we exhibit exact differential and algebraic relations for a certain infinite class of such modular functions by showing that they satisfy Laplace eigenvalue equations with inhomogeneous terms that are polynomial in non-holomorphic Eisenstein series. Furthermore, we argue that the set of modular functions that contribute to the coefficients of interactions up to order are linear sums of functions in this class and quadratic polynomials in Eisenstein series and odd Riemann zeta values. Integration over the complex structure results in coefficients of the low energy expansion that are rational numbers multiplying monomials in odd Riemann zeta values.

  2. Doping dependent crystal structures and optoelectronic properties of n-type CdSe:Ga nanowries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhizhong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Xie, Chao; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Bian, Liang; Wu, Yiming; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuping; Jie, Jiansheng

    2011-11-01

    Although CdSe nanostructures possess excellent electrical and optical properties, efforts to make nano-optoelectronic devices from CdSe nanostructures have been hampered by the lack of efficient methods to rationally control their structural and electrical characteristics. Here, we report CdSe nanowires (NWs) with doping dependent crystal structures and optoelectronic properties by using gallium (Ga) as the efficient n-type dopant via a simple thermal co-evaporation method. The phase change of CdSe NWs from wurtzite to zinc blende with increased doping level is observed. Systematical measurements on the transport properties of the CdSe:Ga NWs reveal that the NW conductivity could be tuned in a wide range of near nine orders of magnitude by adjusting the Ga doping level and a high electron concentration up to 4.5 × 10(19) cm(-3) is obtained. Moreover, high-performance top-gate field-effect transistors are constructed based on the individual CdSe:Ga NWs by using high-κ HfO(2) as the gate dielectric. The great potential of the CdSe:Ga NWs as high-sensitive photodetectors and nanoscale light emitters is also exploited, revealing the promising applications of the CdSe:Ga NWs in new-generation nano-optoelectronics.

  3. Structure and Dynamics of RNA Repeat Expansions That Cause Huntington's Disease and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan L; VanEtten, Damian M; Fountain, Matthew A; Yildirim, Ilyas; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-07-11

    RNA repeat expansions cause a host of incurable, genetically defined diseases. The most common class of RNA repeats consists of trinucleotide repeats. These long, repeating transcripts fold into hairpins containing 1 × 1 internal loops that can mediate disease via a variety of mechanism(s) in which RNA is the central player. Two of these disorders are Huntington's disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1, which are caused by r(CAG) and r(CUG) repeats, respectively. We report the structures of two RNA constructs containing three copies of a r(CAG) [r(3×CAG)] or r(CUG) [r(3×CUG)] motif that were modeled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and simulated annealing with restrained molecular dynamics. The 1 × 1 internal loops of r(3×CAG) are stabilized by one-hydrogen bond (cis Watson-Crick/Watson-Crick) AA pairs, while those of r(3×CUG) prefer one- or two-hydrogen bond (cis Watson-Crick/Watson-Crick) UU pairs. Assigned chemical shifts for the residues depended on the identity of neighbors or next nearest neighbors. Additional insights into the dynamics of these RNA constructs were gained by molecular dynamics simulations and a discrete path sampling method. Results indicate that the global structures of the RNA are A-form and that the loop regions are dynamic. The results will be useful for understanding the dynamic trajectory of these RNA repeats but also may aid in the development of therapeutics.

  4. Three-Dimensional Electronic Structure of the Type-II Weyl Semimetal WTe_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Domenico; Das, Pranab Kumar; Bigi, C; Ergönenc, Z; Gürtler, N; Krieger, J A; Schmitt, T; Ali, M N; Rossi, G; Thomale, R; Franchini, C; Picozzi, S; Fujii, J; Strocov, V N; Sangiovanni, G; Vobornik, I; Cava, R J; Panaccione, G

    2017-07-14

    By combining bulk sensitive soft-x-ray angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations we explored the bulk electron states of WTe_{2}, a candidate type-II Weyl semimetal featuring a large nonsaturating magnetoresistance. Despite the layered geometry suggesting a two-dimensional electronic structure, we directly observe a three-dimensional electronic dispersion. We report a band dispersion in the reciprocal direction perpendicular to the layers, implying that electrons can also travel coherently when crossing from one layer to the other. The measured Fermi surface is characterized by two well-separated electron and hole pockets at either side of the Γ point, differently from previous more surface sensitive angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments that additionally found a pronounced quasiparticle weight at the zone center. Moreover, we observe a significant sensitivity of the bulk electronic structure of WTe_{2} around the Fermi level to electronic correlations and renormalizations due to self-energy effects, previously neglected in first-principles descriptions.

  5. Numerical model for the analysis of unbounded prestressed structures using the hybrid type finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.A.; Gastal, F.P.S.L.; Filho, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Unbounded prestressed concrete has a growing importance all over the world and may be an useful technique for the structures involved in the construction of nuclear facilities. The absence of bonding means no strain compatibility so that equations developed for reinforced concrete are no longer valid. Practical estimates about the ultimate stress in the unbounded tendons may be obtained with empirical or numerical methods only. In order to contribute to the understanding on the behaviour of unbounded prestressed concrete members, a numerical model has been developed using a hybrid type finite element formulation for planar frame structures. Instead of short elements, as in the conventional finite element formulation, long elements may be used, improving computational efficiency. A further advantage is that the curvature variation within the element is obtained with higher accuracy if compared to the traditional formulation. This feature is important for unbounded tendons since its stresses depend on the whole member deformation. Second order effects in the planar frame are considered with either Updated or Partially Updated Lagrangian approaches. Instantaneous and time dependent behaviour as well as cyclic loads are considered too. Comparison with experimental results for prestressed concrete beams shows the adequacy of the proposed model. (authors)

  6. The Russian oil industry re-structuration: towards the emergence of western type enterprises?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian oil industry has undergone fundamental changes since the collapse of the Soviet Empire and its bureaucratic administrative structure, dominated by its various Branch Ministries. The monopoly in the Soviet oil industry has now been replaced by a number of ''oil companies'', some of which are very powerful, the best known of them being Lukoil. These ''joint stock companies'' are the product of a reform aimed essentially at implanting, out of all the numerous organisational arrangements developed in the West, the model of the vertically integrated private firm. Beyond the legal reforms in the Russian oil industry sector, however, the nature of the organisational model that has actually emerged in Russia begs several questions. Many entities, which are complex and highly diversified, are involved in this industry. There are, of course, the many private structures in which the banks sometimes carry a considerable amount of weight. There are also some vertically integrated organisations, but the degree of integration is variable and their method of centralization is based on a specific form of economic logic. It should not be considered, however, that these actors are similar to capitalist-type private enterprises, whose behaviour is regulated by the demands of international competition. Reform of property rights has not been sufficient to create true private enterprise in Russia. (author)

  7. Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting in CdSe/CdTe invert type-II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the atomistic tight-binding (TB) theory and configuration interaction (CI) description, it is showed that the Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting (FSS) in semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals are predominantly affected by the shell thickness and band profiles. CdSe/CdTe invert type-II and CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell ...

  8. Effects of mutations on the structure and function of silkworm type 1 acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B B; Li, F C; Xu, K Z; Ni, M; Hu, J S; Tian, J H; Li, Y Y; Shen, W D; Li, B

    2016-05-01

    AChE is the target of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides, and mutations in the gene can significantly reduce insects' sensitivity to these pesticides. Bombyx mori is highly sensitive to pesticides. To investigate the effects of mutations on AChE1 structure and function, we used a prokaryotic system to express B.mori wild type AChE1 (wAChE1) and mutant AChE1 (mAChE1) in this study. Active AChE1 proteins were obtained after refolding and purification, and wAChE1 and mAChE1 had similar activities. After incubation with 10(-6)M physostigmine and 10(-3)mg/mL phoxim, the remaining enzyme activity of mAChE1 was 4.42% and 8.86% higher than that of wAChE1's, respectively. Three-dimensional analysis of mutation AChE1 (mAChE1) revealed that the Ser and Ala side chains extended toward the central part of S285 with distances of just 2.80Å and 3.68Å, respectively, which changed the spatial structure of the active center and reduced its sensitivity to pesticides. These results indicated that the mutations altered the 3D structure of AChE1, which may affect the binding of physostigmine and phoxim to the serine residue at the active center, leading to reduced sensitivity. Our study helps understand the relationship between AChE1 mutations and pesticide resistance and provides a new direction for the cultivation of new pesticide-resistant varieties of B.mori. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal structure of the pilotin from the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli type II secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria contain several sophisticated macromolecular machineries responsible for translocating proteins across the cell envelope. One prominent example is the type II secretion system (T2SS), which contains a large outer membrane channel, called the secretin. These gated channels require specialized proteins, so-called pilotins, to reach and assemble in the outer membrane. Here we report the crystal structure of the pilotin GspS from the T2SS of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), an important pathogen that can cause severe disease in cases of food poisoning. In this four-helix protein, the straight helix α2, the curved helix α3 and the bent helix α4 surround the central N-terminal helix α1. The helices of GspS create a prominent groove, mainly formed by side chains of helices α1, α2 and α3. In the EHEC GspS structure this groove is occupied by extra electron density which is reminiscent of an α-helix and corresponds well with a binding site observed in a homologous pilotin. The residues forming the groove are well conserved among homologs, pointing to a key role of this groove in this class of T2SS pilotins. At the same time, T2SS pilotins in different species can be entirely different in structure, and the pilotins for secretins in non-T2SS machineries have yet again unrelated folds, despite a common function. It is striking that a common complex function, such as targeting and assembling an outer membrane multimeric channel, can be performed by proteins with entirely different folds. PMID:23458689

  10. A highly efficient type I β-turn mimetic simulating an Asx-Pro-turn-like structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Andrea; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Härterich, Steffen; Waibel, Reiner; Gmeiner, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Asx-Pro-turns have been identified with high frequency in protein structures nucleating type I β-turns. By bridging the amino acid side chain in position i with a nitrogen substituent in position i+2 by ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM), peptide mimetics of type 1 could be developed. NMR based conformational investigations indicated a stable intramolecular H-bond constraining a U-turn conformation that was predicted to simulate a type I β-turn.

  11. Molecular and Structural Analysis of the Helicobacter pylori cag Type IV Secretion System Core Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick-Cheng, Arwen E; Pyburn, Tasia M; Voss, Bradley J; McDonald, W Hayes; Ohi, Melanie D; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-01-12

    Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) can function to export or import DNA, and can deliver effector proteins into a wide range of target cells. Relatively little is known about the structural organization of T4SSs that secrete effector proteins. In this report, we describe the isolation and analysis of a membrane-spanning core complex from the Helicobacter pylori cag T4SS, which has an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. We show that this complex contains five H. pylori proteins, CagM, CagT, Cag3, CagX, and CagY, each of which is required for cag T4SS activity. CagX and CagY are orthologous to the VirB9 and VirB10 components of T4SSs in other bacterial species, and the other three Cag proteins are unique to H. pylori. Negative stain single-particle electron microscopy revealed complexes 41 nm in diameter, characterized by a 19-nm-diameter central ring linked to an outer ring by spoke-like linkers. Incomplete complexes formed by Δcag3 or ΔcagT mutants retain the 19-nm-diameter ring but lack an organized outer ring. Immunogold labeling studies confirm that Cag3 is a peripheral component of the complex. The cag T4SS core complex has an overall diameter and structural organization that differ considerably from the corresponding features of conjugative T4SSs. These results highlight specialized features of the H. pylori cag T4SS that are optimized for function in the human gastric mucosal environment. Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are versatile macromolecular machines that are present in many bacterial species. In this study, we investigated a T4SS found in the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori is an important cause of stomach cancer, and the H. pylori T4SS contributes to cancer pathogenesis by mediating entry of CagA (an effector protein regarded as a "bacterial oncoprotein") into gastric epithelial cells. We isolated and analyzed the membrane-spanning core complex of the H. pylori T4SS and showed that it contains unique proteins

  12. Monazite-type ceramics for conditioning of minor actinides. Structural characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babelot, Carole

    2013-07-01

    . Structural and morphological characteristics (using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)) combined with physical and thermal properties of samples (using thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and dilatometry) are realized in order to study the behavior of monazite-type powder and pellets. The access to short-range-order spectroscopy (time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)) permits to understand the structure of ceramic waste forms at the molecular level. La-monazite matrices being doped with Eu (III) (as a non-radioactive chemical homologue for Am (III)) and Cm (III), TRLFS is used to explore the local structural environment of Eu and Cm within the monazite crystal structure. Eu (III) and Cm (III) are substituted on the La site of LaPO{sub 4}. The single site of Cm (III) is found in four slightly different environments which is assumed to be due to a difference in the four La sites within a LaPO4 unit cell. Structural parameters of the Eu (III) species were also analyzed by EXAFS. The nearest neighbors of Eu (III) are modeled as 9.5 oxygen atoms (N{sub O1} = 4 at r(EuO1) = 2.37 Aa, N{sub O2} = 4 at r(Eu-O2) = 2.53 Aa, and N{sub O3} = 1.5 at r(Eu-O3) = 2.83 Aa). An essential parameter that describes the stability of the host phases is their dissolution rate obtained under conditions of relevance for final repositories. In this context, a set-up is developed and tested on crushed pellets. Normalized weight losses of lanthanumphosphates and europium-doped lanthanum-phosphates, measured in acidic media at 90 C, are interpreted and compared against the previous findings from the literature. The normalized dissolution rate for La and Eu within (La, Eu)PO{sub 4} is between 1.10{sup -5} and 1.10{sup -4} g.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}, whereas the rate of Na, Cs and Sr in phosphate glass at room temperature in deionized water is about 1.10{sup -2} g.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}. Another

  13. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkash-Amar, Shlomit; David, Yaara; Polten, Andreas; Hezroni, Hadas; Eldar, Yonina C; Meshorer, Eran; Yakhini, Zohar; Simon, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR). Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs) in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs) in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR). Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization), uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are associated with

  14. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    Full Text Available DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR. Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR. Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization, uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are

  15. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of chevron-type graphene, BN and BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, T.; Azevedo, S. [Departamento de Física/CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Kaschny, J.R. [Instituto Federal da Bahia-Campus Vitória da Conquista, Caixa Postal 3150, 45075-265 Vitória da Conquista, BA (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Graphene nanoribbons are predicted to be essential components in future nanoelectronics. The size, edge type, arrangement of atoms and width of nanoribbons drastically change their properties. Boronnitrogencarbon nanoribbons properties are not fully understood so far. In the present contribution it was investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of chevron-type carbon, boron nitride and BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons, using first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the structural stability is closely related to the discrepancies in the bond lengths, which can induce structural deformations and stress. Such nanoribbons present a wide range of electronic behaviors, depending on their composition and particularities of the atomic arrangement. A net magnetic moment is found for structures that present carbon atoms at the nanoribbon borders. Nevertheless, the calculated magnetic moment depends on the peculiarities of the symmetric arrangement of atoms and imbalance of carbon atoms between different sublattices. It was found that all structures which have a significant energy gap do not present magnetic moment, and vice-versa. Such result indicates the strong correlation between the electronic and magnetic properties of the chevron-type nanoribbons. - Highlights: • Small discrepancies between distinct bond lengths can influence the formation energy of the BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons. • The electronic behavior of the BC{sub 2}N chevron-type nanoribbons depends on the atomic arrangement and structural symmetries. • There is a strong correlation between the electronic and magnetic properties for the BC{sub 2}N structures.

  16. Structural analysis of a specialized type III secretion system peptidoglycan-cleaving enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkinshaw, Brianne J; Deng, Wanyin; Lameignère, Emilie; Wasney, Gregory A; Zhu, Haizhong; Worrall, Liam J; Finlay, B Brett; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2015-04-17

    The Gram-negative bacterium enteropathogenic Escherichia coli uses a syringe-like type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence or "effector" proteins into the cytoplasm of host intestinal epithelial cells. To assemble, the T3SS must traverse both bacterial membranes, as well as the peptidoglycan layer. Peptidoglycan is made of repeating N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharides cross-linked by pentapeptides to form a tight mesh barrier. Assembly of many macromolecular machines requires a dedicated peptidoglycan lytic enzyme (PG-lytic enzyme) to locally clear peptidoglycan. Here we have solved the first structure of a T3SS-associated PG-lytic enzyme, EtgA from enteropathogenic E. coli. Unexpectedly, the active site of EtgA has features in common with both lytic transglycosylases and hen egg white lysozyme. Most notably, the β-hairpin region resembles that of lysozyme and contains an aspartate that aligns with lysozyme Asp-52 (a residue critical for catalysis), a conservation not observed in other previously characterized lytic transglycosylase families to which the conserved T3SS enzymes had been presumed to belong. Mutation of the EtgA catalytic glutamate, Glu-42, conserved across lytic transglycosylases and hen egg white lysozyme, and this differentiating aspartate diminishes type III secretion in vivo, supporting its essential role in clearing the peptidoglycan for T3SS assembly. Finally, we show that EtgA forms a 1:1 complex with the building block of the polymerized T3SS inner rod component, EscI, and that this interaction enhances PG-lytic activity of EtgA in vitro, collectively providing the necessary strict localization and regulation of the lytic activity to prevent overall cell lysis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Structural Analysis of a Specialized Type III Secretion System Peptidoglycan-cleaving Enzyme*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkinshaw, Brianne J.; Deng, Wanyin; Lameignère, Emilie; Wasney, Gregory A.; Zhu, Haizhong; Worrall, Liam J.; Finlay, B. Brett; Strynadka, Natalie C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium enteropathogenic Escherichia coli uses a syringe-like type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence or “effector” proteins into the cytoplasm of host intestinal epithelial cells. To assemble, the T3SS must traverse both bacterial membranes, as well as the peptidoglycan layer. Peptidoglycan is made of repeating N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharides cross-linked by pentapeptides to form a tight mesh barrier. Assembly of many macromolecular machines requires a dedicated peptidoglycan lytic enzyme (PG-lytic enzyme) to locally clear peptidoglycan. Here we have solved the first structure of a T3SS-associated PG-lytic enzyme, EtgA from enteropathogenic E. coli. Unexpectedly, the active site of EtgA has features in common with both lytic transglycosylases and hen egg white lysozyme. Most notably, the β-hairpin region resembles that of lysozyme and contains an aspartate that aligns with lysozyme Asp-52 (a residue critical for catalysis), a conservation not observed in other previously characterized lytic transglycosylase families to which the conserved T3SS enzymes had been presumed to belong. Mutation of the EtgA catalytic glutamate, Glu-42, conserved across lytic transglycosylases and hen egg white lysozyme, and this differentiating aspartate diminishes type III secretion in vivo, supporting its essential role in clearing the peptidoglycan for T3SS assembly. Finally, we show that EtgA forms a 1:1 complex with the building block of the polymerized T3SS inner rod component, EscI, and that this interaction enhances PG-lytic activity of EtgA in vitro, collectively providing the necessary strict localization and regulation of the lytic activity to prevent overall cell lysis. PMID:25678709

  18. Multilocus typing and population structure of Cryptosporidium from children in Zaragoza, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Ana; Quílez, Joaquín; Vergara-Castiblanco, Claudia; Monteagudo, Luis; Del Cacho, Emilio; Clavel, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    A multilocus typing approach with eight variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the GP60 gene was used to analyze the inter- and intra-species variation of 44 Cryptosporidium isolates from pediatric patients in Zaragoza city (NE, Spain). Restriction and sequence analyses of the SSU rRNA gene revealed that Cryptosporidium transmission is mostly anthroponotic in this area, with the predominance of Cryptosporidium hominis (n: 41) over Cryptosporidium parvum (n: 3). GP60 subtyping showed limited genetic diversity and four subtypes were identified, including IbA10G2 (n: 35), IaA24R3 (n: 6), IIaA15G1R1 (n: 1) and IIaA15G2R1 (n: 2). Five out of eight VNTR loci showed a discriminatory power higher than the GP60 gene, although each locus had a predominant allele exhibited by more than 50% of isolates. All but four alleles were associated to either C. hominis or C. parvum and linked alleles at different loci were found. Multilocus typing substantially increased the discriminatory power (Hunter-Gaston index: 0.807, 95% CI, 0.683-0.926) and revealed that genetic diversity is much higher than that reported by GP60 sequencing, since 17 multilocus subtypes (MLTs) were identified. Nearly half of the specimens were allocated to a single major MLT. However, no more than three specimens were allocated to each of the remaining MLTs. Both phylogenetic and population analyses revealed a population clustering of C. hominis according to the GP60 subtype, which indicates the robustness of this marker to differentiate genetic subpopulations. Subpopulations had an overall clonal genetic structure, although traces of genetic flow between them were also observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biocompatible microemulsions of dicephalic aldonamide-type surfactants: formulation, structure and temperature influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kazimiera A; Zielińska, Katarzyna; Hamerska-Dudra, Agnieszka; Jezierski, Adam

    2009-06-01

    The temperature effects upon microemulsion systems composed of dicephalic N-dodecyl-N,N-bis[(3-D-aldonylamido)propyl]amines C12-DX (gluconyl GA or lactobionyl LA)/iso-butanol/hydrophilic (diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) or hydrophobic (iso-octane) oils/water were investigated by evaluating isotropic area magnitudes in the pseudoternary phase diagrams, as well as droplet characteristics by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) spectroscopies at 25, 40 and 55 degrees C. We concluded that in the examined systems a cosurfactant, such as middle-chain alcohol, was needed to obtain large mesophase isotropic areas. The phase behavior and structure of the examined systems were temperature insensitive but they were intimately determined by the nature of the C12-DX and the polarity of the oil phase. By adjusting the nature of the oil, as well as the surfactant hydrophilicity, the performed isotropic systems containing low amounts of nonaggressive surfactant could be formulated successfully. Interfacial properties and the dynamic structure of the surfactant/cosurfactant monolayer were studied by the spin probe technique using the 16-doxylstearic acid methyl ester (16-DSE) as the appropriate probe. The polarity of the interface was not affected by temperature but the interface rigidity was dependent upon the nature of the surfactant and oil as well as on temperature. The size of the dispersed domains, evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was found to be a function of temperature, surfactant content and type of additives. The investigated o/w microemulsions (i.e., ranging from 3.0 to 8.8 nm) constituted promising templates for a variety of syntheses of nanostructures with small size and high-capacity solubilizing media.

  20. The type I error rate for in vivo Comet assay data when the hierarchical structure is disregarded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær; Kulahci, Murat

    the type I error rate is greater than the nominal _ at 0.05. Closed-form expressions based on scaled F-distributions using the Welch-Satterthwaite approximation are provided to show how the type I error rate is aUected. With this study we hope to motivate researchers to be more precise regarding......, and this imposes considerable impact on the type I error rate. This study aims to demonstrate the implications that result from disregarding the hierarchical structure. DiUerent combinations of the factor levels as they appear in a literature study give type I error rates up to 0.51 and for all combinations...

  1. Wide-field kinematic structure of early-type galaxy halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jacob Antony

    2013-12-01

    The stellar halos of nearby galaxies bare the signatures of the mass-assembly processes that have driven galaxy evolution over the last ˜10 Gyr. Finding and interpreting these relict clues in galaxies within and beyond the local group offers one of the most promising avenues for understanding how galaxies accumulate their stars over time. To tackle this problem we have performed a systematic study of the wide-field kinematic structure of nearby (Dspectroscopy out to several effective radii (˜3 R e). The 22 galaxies presented here span a range of environments (field, group, and cluster), intrinsic luminosities (-22.4 infrared Calcium II triplet. For each spectrum, we parameterize the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) as a truncated Gauss-Hermite series convolved with an optimally weighted combination of stellar templates. These kinematic measurements (V, sigma, h3, and h4) are combined with literature values to construct spatially resolved maps of large-scale kinematic structure. A variety of kinematic behaviors are observed beyond ~1 Re, potentially reflecting the stochastic and chaotic assembly of stellar bulges and halos in early-type galaxies. Next, we describe a global analysis (out to 5 Re) of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs). Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly. At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically, while the characteristic GC metallicities also decrease with radius. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers. To test this hypothesis

  2. Structured exercise interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Strength of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ejas Hussain; MY Shereef; Unaise Abdul Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Exercise, along with medical nutrition therapy and pharmacological interventions, is an important component in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Current clinical guidelines on type 2 diabetes provide no detailed information on the modalities of effective exercise intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Both endurance and resistance types of exercise seem to be equally effective in improving metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Determining the ...

  3. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-05-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (Pstructure (Psoil nutrients (Ca [P= 0.002], Fe [P= 0.003], and P [P= 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P< 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Physical properties of new cerium palladium phosphide with C6Cr23-type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found that a cerium palladium phosphide crystallizes into a C6Cr23-type structure with atomic disorder. Prepared polycrystalline samples show a homogeneity range in the ternary Ce–Pd–P phase diagram. The physical properties of the highest-quality sample of Ce2.4Pd20.7P5.9 were investigated by measuring the magnetization, electrical resistivity and specific heat. No pronounced phase transition was observed down to 0.5 K. The Kondo screening of localized 4f electrons in metallic Ce2.4Pd20.7P5.9 appears to be weaker than that in the isostructural compounds of Ce3Pd20Si6 and Ce3Pd20Ge6. By a comparative study of Ce2.4Pd20.7P5.9 and Ce3Pd20X6 (X = Si, Ge, the competition between the Kondo temperature and ordering temperatures including the quadrupolar ordering temperature is briefly discussed.

  5. Finite Element Model for Thermal-Structural analysis of CLIC Lab Module type 0#2

    CERN Document Server

    Moilanen, Antti; Vamvakas, Alex; Vainola, Jukka Ilmari; Doebert, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Temperature changes lead to unwanted thermo-mechanical deformations in the components of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) module. There are several sources and sinks of heat around the CLIC two-beam module. Heat is generated in the components that produce, transfer, and extract radio frequency (RF) power. Excess heat is removed from the components by cooling water as well as dissipated to air by convection from the outer surfaces of the components. The ambient temperature might also vary along the tunnel during the operation of CLIC. Due to tight assembling and alignment tolerances, it is necessary to minimize the thermo-mechanical deformations in the components. In this paper, the steps of thermal-structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of CLIC lab module type 0#2 are described from geometry model simplification to setting up the simulation. The description is accompanied by useful hints for CATIA and ANSYS users performing similar modelling tasks. A reliable computer simulation is important for studying ...

  6. The structural and optical properties of type III human collagen biosynthetic corneal substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; Lewis, Phillip; Islam, M. Mirazul; Doutch, James; Sorensen, Thomas; White, Tomas; Griffith, May; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of clinically biocompatible, cell-free hydrogels comprised of synthetically cross-linked and moulded recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) with and without the incorporation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and refractometry. These findings were examined alongside similarly obtained data from 21 human donor corneas. TEM demonstrated the presence of loosely bundled aggregates of fine collagen filaments within both RHCIII and RHCIII-MPC implants, which X-ray scattering showed to lack D-banding and be preferentially aligned in a uniaxial orientation throughout. This arrangement differs from the predominantly biaxial alignment of collagen fibrils that exists in the human cornea. By virtue of their high water content (90%), very fine collagen filaments (2–9 nm) and lack of cells, the collagen hydrogels were found to transmit almost all incident light in the visible spectrum. They also transmitted a large proportion of UV light compared to the cornea which acts as an effective UV filter. Patients implanted with these hydrogels should be cautious about UV exposure prior to regrowth of the epithelium and in-growth of corneal cells into the implants. PMID:26159106

  7. Measuring the Growth Rate of Structure with Type IA Supernovae from LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Cullan; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the peculiar motions of galaxies up to z = 0.5 using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and predict the subsequent constraints on the growth rate of structure. We consider two cases. Our first is based on measurements of the volumetric SNe Ia rate and assumes we can obtain spectroscopic redshifts and light curves for varying fractions of objects that are detected pre-peak luminosity by LSST (some of which may be obtained by LSST itself, and others that would require additional follow-up observations). We find that these measurements could produce growth rate constraints at zIa rate as a function of stellar mass and star-formation rate to predict the number of LSST SNe IA whose host redshifts may already have been obtained with the Taipan+WALLABY surveys or with a future multi-object spectroscopic survey. We find ˜18,000 and ˜160,000 SNe Ia with host redshifts for these cases, respectively. While this is only a fraction of the total LSST-detected SNe Ia, they could be used to significantly augment and improve the growth rate constraints compared to only RSD. Ultimately, we find that combining LSST SNe Ia with large numbers of galaxy redshifts will provide the most powerful probe of large-scale gravity in the z< 0.5 regime over the coming decades.

  8. New trivalent ion conducting solid electrolyte with the NASICON type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Tamura, S.; Imanaka, N.; Adachi, G

    2004-10-06

    New trivalent ion conducting solid electrolytes with NASICON type structure, [(Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}){sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.9}]{sub 40/39}Nb(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, were successfully developed and their ion conducting behaviors were investigated. Among the [(Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}){sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.9}]{sub 40/39}Nb(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} series prepared, the highest ion conductivity was obtained for [(Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}){sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.9}]{sub 40/39}Nb(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (x=0.8). The trivalent ion conductivity was approximately four times higher than that of cerium (Ce{sup 3+}) ion conducting (Ce{sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.9}){sub 40/39}Nb(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and the values exceeded the region of the representative divalent oxide anion conductors such as yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and calcia stabilized zirconia (CSZ) at temperatures below 500 deg. C.

  9. The Interplay of Implicit Causality, Structural Heuristics, and Anaphor Type in Ambiguous Pronoun Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvikivi, Juhani; van Gompel, Roger P G; Hyönä, Jukka

    2017-06-01

    Two visual-world eye-tracking experiments investigating pronoun resolution in Finnish examined the time course of implicit causality information relative to both grammatical role and order-of-mention information. Experiment 1 showed an effect of implicit causality that appeared at the same time as the first-mention preference. Furthermore, when we counterbalanced the semantic roles of the verbs, we found no effect of grammatical role, suggesting the standard observed subject preference has a large semantic component. Experiment 2 showed that both the personal pronoun hän and the demonstrative tämä preferred the antecedent consistent with the implicit causality bias; tämä was not interpreted as referring to the semantically non-prominent entity. In contrast, structural prominence affected hän and tämä differently: we found a first-mention preference for hän, but a second-mention preference for tämä. The results suggest that semantic implicit causality information has an immediate effect on pronoun resolution and its use is not delayed relative to order-of-mention information. Furthermore, they show that order-of-mention differentially affects different types of anaphoric expressions, but semantic information has the same effect.

  10. Structure-activity relationship of a u-type antimicrobial microemulsion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available The structure-activity relationship of a U-type antimicrobial microemulsion system containing glycerol monolaurate and ethanol at a 1∶1 mass ratio as oil phase and Tween 20 as surfactant were investigated along a water dilution line at a ratio of 80∶20 mass% surfactant/oil phase, based on a pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The differential scanning calorimetry results showed that in the region of up to 33% water, all water molecules are confined to the hydrophilic core of the reverse micelles, leading to the formation of w/o microemulsion. As the water content increases, the water gains mobility, and transforms into bicontinuous in the region of 33-39% water, and finally the microemulsion become o/w in the region of above 39% water. The microstructure characterization was confirmed by the dynamic light scattering measurements and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscope observation. The antimicrobial activity assay using kinetics of killing analysis demonstrated that the microemulsions in w/o regions exhibited relatively high antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the antimicrobial oil phase as the continuous phase, while the antimicrobial activity started to decrease when the microemulsions entered the bicontinuous region, and decreased rapidly as the water content increased in the o/w region, as a result of the dilution of antimicrobial oil droplets in the aqueous continuous phase.

  11. Superconductivity in the PbO-type structure alpha-FeSe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fong-Chi; Luo, Jiu-Yong; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Ta-Kun; Huang, Tzu-Wen; Wu, Phillip M; Lee, Yong-Chi; Huang, Yi-Lin; Chu, Yan-Yi; Yan, Der-Chung; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2008-09-23

    The recent discovery of superconductivity with relatively high transition temperature (Tc) in the layered iron-based quaternary oxypnictides La[O(1-x)F(x)] FeAs by Kamihara et al. [Kamihara Y, Watanabe T, Hirano M, Hosono H (2008) Iron-based layered superconductor La[O1-xFx] FeAs (x = 0.05-0.12) with Tc = 26 K. J Am Chem Soc 130:3296-3297.] was a real surprise and has generated tremendous interest. Although superconductivity exists in alloy that contains the element Fe, LaOMPn (with M = Fe, Ni; and Pn = P and As) is the first system where Fe plays the key role to the occurrence of superconductivity. LaOMPn has a layered crystal structure with an Fe-based plane. It is quite natural to search whether there exists other Fe based planar compounds that exhibit superconductivity. Here, we report the observation of superconductivity with zero-resistance transition temperature at 8 K in the PbO-type alpha-FeSe compound. A key observation is that the clean superconducting phase exists only in those samples prepared with intentional Se deficiency. FeSe, compared with LaOFeAs, is less toxic and much easier to handle. What is truly striking is that this compound has the same, perhaps simpler, planar crystal sublattice as the layered oxypnictides. Therefore, this result provides an opportunity to better understand the underlying mechanism of superconductivity in this class of unconventional superconductors.

  12. Neutron scattering studies of domain structures in type-II superconductor niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Tommy; Schulz, Michael [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Physikdepartment E21, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Muehlbauer, Sebastian [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Gruenzweig, Christian [Paul-Scherrer-Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Boeni, Peter [Physikdepartment E21, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In the intermediate mixed state (IMS) of a type II superconductor (SC), the sample splits up into Meissner domains and Shubnikov domains which carry the vortex lattice (VL). A detailed investigation of these domain patterns offers the possibility to study general characteristics of domain nucleation and morphology as well as the physical properties of vortex-vortex and vortex-pinning interactions. In this talk we show that ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) can be used for the identification of VL properties. We have studied the VL domain morphology in a Nb single crystal disc that exhibit strong vortex pinning. USANS is sensitive to structures with sizes up to 20 microns and is therefore capable to probe IMS domains which is not possible with the commonly used small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Furthermore, USANS averages over the whole sample and hence probes the bulk of the material in contrast to magneto optical methods. Our investigation on the IMS of Nb reveals a preferred domain size with a strong dependence on magnetic field and sample thickness. Surprisingly, the average domain size is nearly independent of the temperature in a field cooled measurement giving some hint on the nature of field expulsion in the IMS of samples with significant pinning.

  13. Structural safety test and analysis of type IP-2 transport packages with bolted lid type and thick steel plate for radioactive waste drums in a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jeong Mook

    2007-01-01

    If a type IP-2 transport package were to be subjected to a free drop test and a penetration test under the normal conditions of transport, it should prevent a loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents and a more than 20% increase in the maximum radiation level at any external surface of the package. In this paper, we suggested the analytic method to evaluate the structural safety of a type IP-2 transport package using a thick steel plate for a structure part and a bolt for tying a bolt. Using an analysis a loss or disposal of the radioactive contents and a loss of shielding integrity were confirmed for two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages to transport radioactive waste drums from a waste facility to a temporary storage site in a nuclear power plant. Under the free drop condition the maximum average stress at the bolts and the maximum opening displacement of a lid were compared with the tensile stress of a bolt and the steps in a lid, which were made to avoid a streaming radiation in the shielding path, to evaluate a loss or dispersal of radioactive waste contents. Also a loss of shielding integrity was evaluated using the maximum decrease in a shielding thickness. To verify the impact dynamic analysis for free drop test condition and evaluate experimentally the safety of two kinds of type IP-2 transport packages, free drop tests were conducted with various drop directions

  14. Evaluation of Seismic Performance and Effectiveness of Multiple Slim-Type Damper System for Seismic Response Control of Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David; Sung, Eun Hee; Park, Kwan-Soon; Park, Jaegyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD) that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures. PMID:25301387

  15. Evaluation of Seismic Performance and Effectiveness of Multiple Slim-Type Damper System for Seismic Response Control of Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of a multiple slim-type damper system developed for the vibration control of earthquake excited buildings. The multiple slim-type damper (MSD that consists of several small slim-type dampers and linkage units can control damping capacity easily by changing the number of small dampers. To evaluate the performance of the MSD, dynamic loading tests are performed with three slim-type dampers manufactured at a real scale. Numerical simulations are also carried out by nonlinear time history analysis with a ten-story earthquake excited building structure. The seismic performance and cost-effectiveness of the MSD system are investigated according to the various installation configurations of the MSD system. From the results of numerical simulation and cost-effectiveness evaluation, it is shown that combinations of the MSD systems can effectively improve the seismic performance of earthquake excited building structures.

  16. Three types of dermal grafts in rats: the importance of mechanical property and structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chuangang; Wang, Xingang; Zheng, Yurong; Han, Chunmao

    2013-12-04

    To determine how the mechanical property and micro structure affect tissue regeneration and angiogenesis, three types of scaffolds were studied. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM), produced from human skin by removing the epidermis and cells, has been widely used in wound healing because of its high mechanical strength. Collagen scaffolds (CS) incorporated with poly(glycolide-co-L-lactide) (PLGA) mesh forms a well-supported hybrid dermal equivalent poly(glycolide-co-L-lactide) mesh/collagen scaffolds (PMCS). We designed this scaffold to enhance the CS mechanical property. These three different dermal substitutes-ADM, CS and PMCSs are different in the tensile properties and microstructure. Several basic physical characteristics of dermal substitutes were investigated in vitro. To characterize the angiogenesis and tissue regeneration, the materials were embedded subcutaneously in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. At weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 post-surgery, the tissue specimens were harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In vitro studies demonstrated ADM had a higher Young's modulus (6.94 MPa) rather than CS (0.19 MPa) and PMCS (3.33 MPa) groups in the wet state. Compared with ADMs and CSs, PMCSs with three-dimensional porous structures resembling skin and moderate mechanical properties can promote tissue ingrowth more quickly after implantation. In addition, the vascularization of the PMCS group is more obvious than that of the other two groups. The incorporation of a PLGA knitted mesh in CSs can improve the mechanical properties with little influence on the three-dimensional porous microstructure. After implantation, PMCSs can resist the contraction and promote cell infiltration, neotissue formation and blood vessel ingrowth, especially from the mesh side. Although ADM has high mechanical strength, its vascularization is poor because the pore size is too small. In conclusion, the mechanical properties of scaffolds are important for

  17. Exploring the water-binding pocket of the type II dehydroquinase enzyme in the structure-based design of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Beatriz; Sedes, Antía; Peón, Antonio; Otero, José M; van Raaij, Mark J; Thompson, Paul; Hawkins, Alastair R; González-Bello, Concepción

    2014-04-24

    Structural and computational studies to explore the WAT1 binding pocket in the structure-based design of inhibitors against the type II dehydroquinase (DHQ2) enzyme are reported. The crystal structures of DHQ2 from M. tuberculosis in complex with four of the reported compounds are described. The electrostatic interaction observed between the guanidinium group of the essential arginine and the carboxylate group of one of the inhibitors in the reported crystal structures supports the recently suggested role of this arginine as the residue that triggers the release of the product from the active site. The results of the structural and molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed that the inhibitory potency is favored by promoting interactions with WAT1 and the residues located within this pocket and, more importantly, by avoiding situations where the ligands occupy the WAT1 binding pocket. The new insights can be used to advantage in the structure-based design of inhibitors.

  18. Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting in CdSe / CdTe invert type-II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Worasak Sukkabot

    2018-01-09

    Jan 9, 2018 ... that the Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting (FSS) in semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals are predominantly affected by the shell thickness and band profiles. CdSe/CdTe invert type-II and CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell nanocrystals are used as the simulated candidates in order to obtain the different ...

  19. Riemann type algebraic structures and their differential-algebraic integrability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prykarpatsky A.K.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differential-algebraic approach to studying the Lax type integrability of generalized Riemann type equations is devised. The differentiations and the associated invariant differential ideals are analyzed in detail. The approach is also applied to studying the Lax type integrability of the well known Korteweg-de Vries dynamical system.

  20. Stereotypic and complex phrase types provide structural evidence for a multi-message display in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anita; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; Goldizen, Anne W

    2018-02-01

    Male humpback whales produce a mating display called "song." Behavioral studies indicate song has inter- and/or intra-sexual functionality, suggesting song may be a multi-message display. Multi-message displays often include stereotypic components that convey group membership for mate attraction and/or male-male interactions, and complex components that convey individual quality for courtship. Humpback whale song contains sounds ("units") arranged into sequences ("phrases"). Repetitions of a specific phrase create a "theme." Within a theme, imperfect phrase repetitions ("phrase variants") create variability among phrases of the same type ("phrase type"). The hypothesis that song contains stereotypic and complex phrase types, structural characteristics consistent with a multi-message display, is investigated using recordings of 17 east Australian males (8:2004, 9:2011). Phrase types are categorized as stereotypic or complex using number of unit types, number of phrase variants, and the proportion of phrases that is unique to an individual versus shared amongst males. Unit types are determined using self-organizing maps. Phrase variants are determined by Levenshtein distances between phrases. Stereotypic phrase types have smaller numbers of unit types and shared phrase variants. Complex phrase types have larger numbers of unit types and unique phrase variants. This study supports the hypothesis that song could be a multi-message display.

  1. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1  30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2.

  2. Identification of promising chemical systems for the synthesis of new materials structure types: An ab initio minimization data mining approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Zagorac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research we performed data exploring for binary compounds with elements from groups V, IV-VI, and III-VII, with the goal to identify chemical systems where the recently proposed “5-5” structure type might be experimentally accessible. Among others, TlF, SnO, SnS, SnSe, GeS, GeSe, PbO, PbS, ZnO and ZnS, were chosen for the study. For each of these systems, a local optimization on ab initio level with the LDA functional was performed for the 5-5 structure type, plus other experimentally observed and theoretically proposed structure types, for comparison. Afterwards, the results were combined with earlier theoretical work involving the 5-5 structure in the earth alkaline metal oxides and the alkali metal halides. As a result, we suggest the GeSe and the ZnO systems as the most suitable ones for synthesizing the 5-5 structure type.

  3. Structural model for dihydropyridine binding to L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S

    2009-07-10

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) constitute a major class of ligands for L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC). The DHPs have a boat-like, six-membered ring with an NH group at the stern, an aromatic moiety at the bow, and substituents at the port and starboard sides. Various DHPs exhibit antagonistic or agonistic activities, which were previously explained as stabilization or destabilization, respectively, of the closed activation gate by the portside substituents. Here we report a novel structural model in which agonist and antagonist activities are determined by different parts of the DHP molecule and have different mechanisms. In our model, which is based on Monte Carlo minimizations of DHP-LTCC complexes, the DHP moieties at the stern, bow, and starboard form H-bonds with side chains of the key DHP-sensing residues Tyr_IIIS6, Tyr_IVS6, and Gln_IIIS5, respectively. We propose that these H-bonds, which are common for agonists and antagonists, stabilize the LTCC conformation with the open activation gate. This explains why both agonists and antagonists increase probability of the long lasting channel openings and why even partial disruption of the contacts eliminates the agonistic action. In our model, the portside approaches the selectivity filter. Hydrophobic portside of antagonists may induce long lasting channel closings by destabilizing Ca(2+) binding to the selectivity filter glutamates. Agonists have either hydrophilic substituents or a hydrogen atom at their portside, and thus lack this destabilizing effect. The predicted orientation of the DHP core allows accommodation of long substituents in the domain interface or in the inner pore. Our model may be useful for developing novel clinically relevant LTCC blockers.

  4. Structural Model for Dihydropyridine Binding to L-type Calcium Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis B.; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2009-01-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) constitute a major class of ligands for L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC). The DHPs have a boat-like, six-membered ring with an NH group at the stern, an aromatic moiety at the bow, and substituents at the port and starboard sides. Various DHPs exhibit antagonistic or agonistic activities, which were previously explained as stabilization or destabilization, respectively, of the closed activation gate by the portside substituents. Here we report a novel structural model in which agonist and antagonist activities are determined by different parts of the DHP molecule and have different mechanisms. In our model, which is based on Monte Carlo minimizations of DHP-LTCC complexes, the DHP moieties at the stern, bow, and starboard form H-bonds with side chains of the key DHP-sensing residues Tyr_IIIS6, Tyr_IVS6, and Gln_IIIS5, respectively. We propose that these H-bonds, which are common for agonists and antagonists, stabilize the LTCC conformation with the open activation gate. This explains why both agonists and antagonists increase probability of the long lasting channel openings and why even partial disruption of the contacts eliminates the agonistic action. In our model, the portside approaches the selectivity filter. Hydrophobic portside of antagonists may induce long lasting channel closings by destabilizing Ca2+ binding to the selectivity filter glutamates. Agonists have either hydrophilic substituents or a hydrogen atom at their portside, and thus lack this destabilizing effect. The predicted orientation of the DHP core allows accommodation of long substituents in the domain interface or in the inner pore. Our model may be useful for developing novel clinically relevant LTCC blockers. PMID:19416978

  5. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihui [Lakeshore, CA; Shi, Xun [Troy, MI; Bai, Shengqiang [Shanghai, CN; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai, CN; Chen, Lidong [Shanghai, CN; Yang, Jiong [Shanghai, CN

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  6. Crystal structure of two new bifunctional nonsubstrate type thrombin inhibitors complexed with human alpha-thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féthière, J; Tsuda, Y; Coulombe, R; Konishi, Y; Cygler, M

    1996-06-01

    The crystal structures of two new thrombin inhibitors, P498 and P500, complexed with human alpha-thrombin have been determined at 2.0 A resolution and refined to crystallographic R-factors of 0.170 and 0.169, respectively. These compounds, with picomolar binding constants, belong to a family of potent bifunctional inhibitors that bind thrombin at two remote sites: the active site and the fibrinogen recognition exosite (FRE). The inhibitors incorporate a nonsubstrate type active site binding fragment: Dansyl-Arg-(D)Pipecolic acid (Dns-Arg-(D)Pip), reminiscent of the active-site directed inhibitors MD-805 and MQPA, rendering them resistant to thrombin-induced hydrolysis. The FRE binding fragment of these inhibitors corresponds to the hirudin55-65 sequence. They differ in the chemical nature of the nonpeptidyl linker bridging these two functional activities. In both cases, the active site binding fragment is well defined in the electron density. The DnsH1, ArgH2, and (D)PipH3 groups occupy the S3, S1, and S2 subsites of thrombin, respectively, in a way similar to that observed in the thrombin-MQPA complexes. Binding in the active site of thrombin is characterized by numerous van der Waals contacts and ring-ring system interactions. Unlike in the substrate-like inhibitors, ArgH2 enters the S1 specificity pocket from the P2 position and adopts a bent conformation to make an hydrogen bond to the carboxylate of Asp189. In this noncanonical position, its carbonyl points away from the oxyanion hole, which is now occupied by well-ordered solvent molecules. The linkers fit in the groove extending from the active site to the FRE. The C-terminal fragments of both inhibitors bind in the same way as analogous FRE binding elements in previously described complexes.

  7. Structural Basis of Chaperone Recognition of Type III Secretion System Minor Translocator Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Viviana; Matteï, Pierre-Jean; Lemaire, David; Attree, Ina; Dessen, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex nanomachine employed by many Gram-negative pathogens, including the nosocomial agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. A key component of all T3SS is the translocon, a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the target membrane, which allows passage of toxins into target cells. In most bacterial species, two distinct membrane proteins (the “translocators”) are involved in translocon formation, whereas in the bacterial cytoplasm, however, they remain associated to a common chaperone. To date, the strategy employed by a single chaperone to recognize two distinct translocators is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between the Pseudomonas translocator chaperone PcrH and a short region from the minor translocator PopD. PcrH displays a 7-helical tetratricopeptide repeat fold that harbors the PopD peptide within its concave region, originally believed to be involved in recognition of the major translocator, PopB. Point mutations introduced into the PcrH-interacting region of PopD impede translocator-chaperone recognition in vitro and lead to impairment of bacterial cytotoxicity toward macrophages in vivo. These results indicate that T3SS translocator chaperones form binary complexes with their partner molecules, and the stability of their interaction regions must be strictly maintained to guarantee bacterial infectivity. The PcrH-PopD complex displays homologs among a number of pathogenic strains and could represent a novel, potential target for antibiotic development. PMID:20385547

  8. Crystallographic and spectroscopic investigations on nine metal-rare-earth silicates with the apatite structure type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Maria; Goeckeritz, Martin; Kolitsch, Uwe; Lenz, Christoph; Giester, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Nine silicates with the apatite structure type (space group P6 3 /m) containing both rare-earth elements (REEs: Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Ho and Er) and various metals (K, Sr, Ba and Cd) were synthesised by high-temperature flux-growth techniques and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced photoluminescence spectroscopy. In all of the compounds, the 6h Wyckoff position is predominantly or solely occupied by REE 3+ cations, whereas the cations shows a mixed occupancy at the larger, nine-coordinate 4f site with 55-75 % of REE 3+ cations and 45-25 % of other metal cations. The O4 (''free'' oxygen) site is fully occupied by O 2- anions, except for a Ba-Pr member with full occupancy by F - anions. The refined formulas are Cd 2 Er 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Cd 2 Tb 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KHo 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KTb 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , KSm 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Sr 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Ba 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , Ba 2 Sm 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 and Ba 4 Pr 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 F 2 . Changes in the metaprism twist angle (φ) and correlations between the unit-cell parameters, average cationic radii (of M + /M 2+ -REE 3+ pairs) and the chemistry of both the synthesised M + /M 2+ -REE 3+ silicate apatites and those reported previously are evaluated. Photoluminescence measurements of undoped samples yielded emission bands in the visible region from green to red; therefore, these compounds are potential candidates for luminescent materials. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Severity of clinical presentation in youth with type 1 diabetes is associated with differences in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Alejandro F; Lugar, Heather; Rutlin, Jerrel; Koller, Jonathan M; Semenkovich, Katherine; White, Neil H; Arbelaez, Ana Maria; Shimony, Joshua; Hershey, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Differences in cognition and brain structure have been found in youth with type 1 diabetes compared with controls, even after relatively short disease duration. To determine whether severity of clinical presentation contributes to these differences, we obtained structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in youth ages 7-17 who were either newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (presentation was measured by the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and degree of hyperglycemia exposure [hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)] at diagnosis. MRI were obtained using T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and diffusion-weighted sequences. Within the group with type 1 diabetes, 12 subjects presented in DKA and 34 did not. After controlling for age, sex, and multiple comparisons, the type 1 diabetes group had lower volume in the left temporal-parietal-occipital cortex compared with controls. Within the type 1 diabetes group, DKA at presentation was associated with lower radial, axial, and mean diffusivity (MD) throughout major white matter tracts and higher HbA1c was associated with lower hippocampal, thalamic, and cerebellar white matter volumes, lower right posterior parietal cortical thickness, and greater right occipital cortical thickness. These data suggest that severity of clinical presentation is an important factor in predicting brain structural differences in youth with type 1 diabetes approximately 3 months after diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR structural assignments for a group of four goyazensolide-type furanoheliangolides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Silva, Aline Nazare; Matos, Priscilla Mendonca; Silva, Eder Henrique da; Heleno, Vladimir Constantino Gomes [Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Lopes, Joao Luis Callegari [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCFRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica; Sass, Daiane Cristina, E-mail: vheleno_05@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Four goyazensolide-type sesquiterpene lactones - lychnofolide, centratherin, goyazensolide and goyazensolide acetate - were thoroughly studied by NMR experimental techniques. {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, J-res. and NOE experiments were performed to provide the needed structural information. Complete and unequivocal assignment, including the determination of all multiplicities, was obtained for each structure and the data collections are presented in tables (author)

  11. Crystal structure of Legionella DotD: insights into the relationship between type IVB and type II/III secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Nakano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS is a pivotal determinant of Legionella pneumophila pathogenesis. L. pneumophila translocate more than 100 effector proteins into host cytoplasm using Dot/Icm T4BSS, modulating host cellular functions to establish a replicative niche within host cells. The T4BSS core complex spanning the inner and outer membranes is thought to be made up of at least five proteins: DotC, DotD, DotF, DotG and DotH. DotH is the outer membrane protein; its targeting depends on lipoproteins DotC and DotD. However, the core complex structure and assembly mechanism are still unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of DotD at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of DotD is distinct from that of VirB7, the outer membrane lipoprotein of the type IVA secretion system. In contrast, the C-terminal domain of DotD is remarkably similar to the N-terminal subdomain of secretins, the integral outer membrane proteins that form substrate conduits for the type II and the type III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS. A short β-segment in the otherwise disordered N-terminal region, located on the hydrophobic cleft of the C-terminal domain, is essential for outer membrane targeting of DotH and Dot/Icm T4BSS core complex formation. These findings uncover an intriguing link between T4BSS and T2SS/T3SS.

  12. Three Types of Flower Structures in a Divergent-Wrench Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang

    2017-12-01

    Flower structures are typical features of wrench fault zones. In conventional studies, two distinct kinds of flower structures have been identified based on differences in their internal structural architecture: (1) negative flower structures characterized by synforms and normal separations and (2) positive flower structures characterized by antiforms and reverse separations. In addition to negative and positive flower structures, in this study, a third kind of flower structure was identified in a divergent-wrench fault zone, a hybrid characterized by both antiforms and normal separations. Negative flower structures widely occur in divergent-wrench fault zones, and their presence indicates the combined effects of extensional and strike-slip motion. In contrast, positive and hybrid flower structures occur only in fault restraining bends and step overs. A hybrid flower structure can be considered as product of a kind of structural deformation typical of divergent-wrench zones; it is the result of the combined effects of extensional, compressional, and strike-slip strains under a locally appropriate compressional environment. The strain situation in it represents the transition stage that in between positive and negative flower structures. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the hybrid flower structures indicate the salient features of structural deformation in restraining bends and step overs along divergent-wrench faults, including the coexistence of three kinds of strains (i.e., compression, extension, and strike-slip) and synchronous presence of compressional (i.e., typical fault-bend fold) and extensional (normal faults) deformation in the same place. Hybrid flower structures are also favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons because of their special structural configuration in divergent-wrench fault zones.

  13. The Differential-Algebraic Analysis of Symplectic and Lax Structures Related with New Riemann-Type Hydrodynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykarpatsky, Yarema A.; Artemovych, Orest D.; Pavlov, Maxim V.; Prykarpatski, Anatolij K.

    2013-06-01

    A differential-algebraic approach to studying the Lax-type integrability of the generalized Riemann-type hydrodynamic hierarchy, proposed recently by O. D. Artemovych, M. V. Pavlov, Z. Popowicz and A. K. Prykarpatski, is developed. In addition to the Lax-type representation, found before by Z. Popowicz, a closely related representation is constructed in exact form by means of a new differential-functional technique. The bi-Hamiltonian integrability and compatible Poisson structures of the generalized Riemann type hierarchy are analyzed by means of the symplectic and gradient-holonomic methods. An application of the devised differential-algebraic approach to other Riemann and Vakhnenko type hydrodynamic systems is presented.

  14. Analysis of Side-Wall Structure of Grown-in Twin-Type Octahedral Defects in Czochralski Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Takemi; Itsumi, Manabu; Takeda, Tadao

    1998-04-01

    We analyzed the side-wall structure of grown-in octahedral defects in Czochralski silicon standard wafers for large-scale integrated circuits. There are two types of twin octahedral defects: an overlapping type and an adjacent type. In the twin octahedral defects of the overlapping type, a hole is formed in the connection part. The side-wall layer in the hole part is formed continually and is the same thickness as the side-wall layers of both octahedrons. In the twin octahedral defects of the adjacent type, a partition layer is formed in the connection part. Our electron energy-loss spectroscopy analyses identified that the side-wall layer includes SiO2.

  15. Development Directions for Various Types of the Light Wood-Framed Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesza, J.; Baszeń, M.; Miedziałowski, Cz

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents current trends in the development of the wood-framed structures. Authors describe the evolution of the technology of implementation, the production process of precast elements of buildings as well as selected realization on the site of these kinds of structures. The attention has been paid to the effect of implementation phases on construction and erecting technology of the wood-framed structures. The paper draws attention to the importance and enhancement of structural analysis of structures in individual phases of building realization.

  16. Response Analyses of Tuned Mass Dampers to Structures Exposed to Vortex Loading of Simiu-Scanlan Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Birch, N. W.; Hansen, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Vortex-induced loads on slender one-dimensional structures vibrating at lock-in conditions consist of a self-induced part in phase with the velocity of the structure in addition to an additive, almost harmonially varying component representing the same type of load as the vortex-induced force...... on a fixed cylinder. Simiu and Scanlan (1996 Wind Effects on Structures. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.) have proposed a widely used model for the self-induced part of the load based on a van der Pol oscillator. The aim of this paper is to investigate the optimal design of tuned mass dampers...

  17. Vortices and magnetic structures of the target type in two-dimensional ferromagnetics with the anisotropic exchange interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, A B; Mikushina, N A; Moskvin, A S

    2002-01-01

    One investigated into structure of vortices and of other topological defects in two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet. Paper contains basic data derived from microscopic theory of spin anisotropy in 3d- and 4f-element base systems. One studied effect of parameters of anisotropic exchange and single-ionic anisotropy on vortex structure. One studied magnetization vortices in freely plane ferromagnetic with anisotropic exchange and local anisotropy. One predicted and analyzed structure of a new class of static leading centre (target) type vortex configurations in anisotropic ferromagnet

  18. Synthesis and crystal structure of Sr(2)AlH(7): a new structural type of alkaline earth aluminum hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Nakamura, Yumiko; Oikawa, Ken-ich; Kamiyama, Takashi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2002-12-16

    The title hydride and its deuteride were successfully synthesized. The heavy atom structure and hydrogen positions were determined respectively by X-ray powder diffraction and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction. They crystallize with a new monoclinic structure in space group I2 (No. 5); cell parameters: a = 12.575(1) A, b = 9.799(1) A, c = 7.9911(8) A, beta = 100.270(4) degrees (hydride), a = 12.552(1) A, b = 9.7826(8) A, c = 7.9816(7) A, beta = 100.286(4) degrees (deuteride), Z = 8. Sr(2)AlH(7) is the first example that consists of isolated [AlH(6)] units and infinite one-dimensional twisted chains of edge-sharing [HSr(4)] tetrahedra along the crystallographic c axis.

  19. Ruminant globin gene structures suggest an evolutionary role for Alu-type repeats.

    OpenAIRE

    Schimenti, J C; Duncan, C H

    1984-01-01

    Bovine fetal and adult globin genes were cloned and subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Both of these genes contained insertions of Alu-type repetitive DNA within their introns. Comparison of cow and goat beta-type globin genes indicates that intragenic DNA insertions played a role in their evolution. These data support the theory that Alu-type repeats maintain genetic diversity by inhibiting gene conversion.

  20. Structured exercise interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Strength of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ejas Hussain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise, along with medical nutrition therapy and pharmacological interventions, is an important component in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Current clinical guidelines on type 2 diabetes provide no detailed information on the modalities of effective exercise intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Both endurance and resistance types of exercise seem to be equally effective in improving metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Determining the best method of providing exercise is clinically relevant to this population. This paper reviews the epidemiology of diabetes and problems of physical function associated with type 2 diabetes and discuss the benefits of exercise therapy on the parameters of glycemic control and function in type 2 diabetes patients, with special reference to Asian Indians. Based on the currently available literature, it is concluded that type 2 diabetes patients should be encouraged to participate in specifically designed exercise intervention programs. Attention should be paid to the avoidance of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. More clinical research is warranted to establish the efficacy of different dosages of exercise intervention in a holistic approach for type 2 diabetes subpopulations within different stages of the disease and various levels of co-morbidity.

  1. The effect of fabric structural parameters and fiber type on the comfort-related properties of commercial apparel fabrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stoffberg, ME

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fabric structural parameters and fiber type on the comfort-related properties, namely water vapor resistance and thermal resistance, of commercial apparel (suiting) fabrics, containing both natural and man-made fibers have been studied...

  2. The Lenses Structure and Dynamics Survey: luminous and dark matter in high redshift early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, T.; Koopmans, L.

    2003-01-01

    I will present the latest results from the Lenses Structure and Dynamics (LSD) Survey. Using ESI on the Keck Telescope, we have measured spatially resolved stellar kinematics for a sample of 11 early-type galaxies (E/S0s) in the range z=0.1-1, selected as gravitational lenses. By combining lensing

  3. Analysis of the Shear Behavior of Stubby Y-Type Perfobond Rib Shear Connectors for a Composite Frame Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Kim, Kun-Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seung; Han, Oneil

    2017-11-22

    Shear connectors are used in steel beam-concrete slabs of composite frame and bridge structures to transfer shear force according to design loads. The existing Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are designed for girder slabs of composite bridges. Therefore, the rib and transverse rebars of the conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are extremely large for the composite frames of building structures. Thus, this paper proposes stubby Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors, redefining the existing connectors, for composite frames of building structures; these were used to perform push-out tests. These shear connectors have relatively small ribs compared to the conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors. To confirm the shear resistance of these stubby shear connectors, we performed an experiment by using transverse rebars D13 and D16. The results indicate that these shear connectors have suitable shear strength and ductility for application in composite frame structures. The shear strengths obtained using D13 and D16 were not significantly different. However, the ductility of the shear connectors with D16 was 45.1% higher than that of the shear connectors with D13.

  4. Call types of Bigg's killer whales (Orcinus orca) in western Alaska: Using vocal dialects to assess population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Deborah Lynn

    Apex predators are important indicators of ecosystem health, but little is known about the population structure of Bigg's killer whales ( Orcinus orca; i.e. 'transient' ecotype) in western Alaska. Currently, all Bigg's killer whales in western Alaska are ascribed to a single broad stock for management under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, recent nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that this stock is likely comprised of genetically distinct sub-populations. In accordance with what is known about killer whale vocal dialects in other locations, I sought to evaluate Bigg's killer whale population structure by examining the spatial distribution of group-specific call types in western Alaska. Digital audio recordings were collected from 33 encounters with Bigg's killer whales throughout the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the summers of 2001-2007 and 2009-2010. Recorded calls were perceptually classified into discrete types and then quantitatively described using 12 structural and time-frequency measures. Resulting call categories were objectively validated using a random forest approach. A total of 36 call types and subtypes were identified across the entire study area, and regional patterns of call type usage revealed three distinct dialects, each of which corresponding to proposed genetic delineations. I suggest that at least three acoustically and genetically distinct subpopulations are present in western Alaska, and put forth an initial catalog for this area describing the regional vocal repertoires of Bigg's killer whale call types.

  5. Structural Basis of Polydopamine Film Formation: Probing 5,6-Dihydroxyindole-Based Eumelanin Type Units and the Porphyrin Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Maria L; Micillo, Raffaella; Panzella, Lucia; Crescenzi, Orlando; Oscurato, Stefano L; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Napolitano, Alessandra; Ball, Vincent; d'Ischia, Marco

    2018-03-07

    The role of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI)-based oligomers, including porphyrin-like tetramers, in polydopamine (PDA) film formation was addressed by a comparative structural investigation against model polymers from DHI and its 2,7'-dimer. MALDI-MS data showed that (a) PDA is structurally different from DHI melanin and does not contain species compatible with DHI-based oligomers as primary building blocks; (b) PDA films and precipitate display a single main peak at m/ z 402 in common; (c) no species matching the range of m/ z values expected for cyclic porphyrin-type tetramers was detected in DHI melanin produced in the presence or in the absence of folic acid (FA) as templating agent, nor by oxidation of the 2,7'-dimer of DHI as putative precursor. 15 N NMR resonances and Raman spectra predicted by extensive DFT calculations on porphyrin-type structures at various oxidation levels did not match spectral data for PDA or DHI melanin. Notably, unlike PDA, which gave structurally homogeneous films on quartz on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy, DHI melanin did not form any adhesive deposit after as long as 24 h. It is concluded that PDA film deposition involves structural components unrelated to DHI-based oligomers or porphyrin-type tetramers, which, on mechanism-based analysis, may arise by quinone-amine conjugation leading to polycyclic systems with extensive chain breakdown.

  6. Influence of Boundary Conditions on the Simulation of a Diamond-Type Lattice Structure: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Terriault

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent additive manufacturing processes allow the use of metallic porous structures in various industrial applications. Because these structures comprise a large number of ordered unit cells, their design using conventional modeling approaches, such as finite elements, becomes a real challenge. A homogenization technique, in which the lattice structure is simulated as a fully dense volume having equivalent material properties, can then be employed. To determine these equivalent material properties, numerical simulations can be performed on a single unit cell of the lattice structure. However, a critical aspect to consider is the boundary conditions applied to the external faces of the unit cell. In the literature, different types of boundary conditions are used, but a comparative study is definitely lacking. In this publication, a diamond-type unit cell is studied in compression by applying different boundary conditions. If the porous structure’s boundaries are free to deform, then the periodic boundary condition is found to be the most representative, but constraint equations must be introduced in the model. If, instead, the porous structure is inserted in a rigid enclosure, it is then better to use frictionless boundary conditions. These preliminary results remain to be validated for other types of unit cells loaded beyond the yield limit of the material.

  7. Computer generated structures of grain boundaries in Li2-type ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHosson, J.Th.M.; Pestman, B.J.; Schapink, F.W.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the influence of the establishment of long-range order in cubic alloys on the structure of grain boundaries in Li 2 alloys has been considered. Thus, for example, for the Σ = 5 (310) tilt boundary the various possible structures have been investigated that are generated upon ordering, starting from plausible structures in the disordered state. However, apart from some rough energy estimates based upon nearest neighbor interactions, no reliable energy calculations have been performed of these different possible structures. In this paper, computer calculations based upon interatomic pair potentials constructed in such a way that the Li 2 structure is stable with respect to disordering, are reported for the Σ = 5 (310) boundary. The relative stability of various possible structures, with associated different boundary compositions, has been investigated

  8. The tertiary structure of an i-type lysozyme isolated from the common orient clam (Meretrix lusoria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yuko; Yoneda, Kazunari; Kawaguchi, Yuya; Araki, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the structure-function relationships of invertebrate lysozymes, a new invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozyme was isolated from the common orient clam (Meretrix lusoria) and the tertiary structure of this enzyme was determined. Comparison of the tertiary structure of this enzyme with those of chicken and Venerupi philippinarum lysozymes revealed that the location of the side chain of the second catalytic residue, an aspartic acid, and the N-acetylglucosamine trimer bound at subsites A-C were different. Furthermore, the amino acid electrostatically interacting with Asp30 in V. philippinarum lysozyme, Lys108, was substituted by Gly in M. lusoria lysozyme and no other possible amino acid that could contribute to this interaction was found in M. lusoria lysozyme. It therefore seems that the substitutions of the amino acids at the interface of the V. philippinarum lysozyme dimer are likely to change the oligomeric state of the M. lusoria lysozyme.

  9. Structural and Molecular Properties of Insect Type II Motor Axon Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Stocker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between the axon terminals of octopaminergic efferent dorsal or ventral unpaired median neurons in either desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria or fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster across skeletal muscles reveals many similarities. In both species the octopaminergic axon forms beaded fibers where the boutons or varicosities form type II terminals in contrast to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ or type I terminals. These type II terminals are immunopositive for both tyramine and octopamine and, in contrast to the type I terminals, which possess clear synaptic vesicles, only contain dense core vesicles. These dense core vesicles contain octopamine as shown by immunogold methods. With respect to the cytomatrix and active zone peptides the type II terminals exhibit active zone-like accumulations of the scaffold protein Bruchpilot (BRP only sparsely in contrast to the many accumulations of BRP identifying active zones of NMJ type I terminals. In the fruit fly larva marked dynamic changes of octopaminergic fibers have been reported after short starvation which not only affects the formation of new branches (“synaptopods” but also affects the type I terminals or NMJs via octopamine-signaling (Koon et al., 2011. Our starvation experiments of Drosophila-larvae revealed a time-dependency of the formation of additional branches. Whereas after 2 h of starvation we find a decrease in “synaptopods”, the increase is significant after 6 h of starvation. In addition, we provide evidence that the release of octopamine from dendritic and/or axonal type II terminals uses a similar synaptic machinery to glutamate release from type I terminals of excitatory motor neurons. Indeed, blocking this canonical synaptic release machinery via RNAi induced downregulation of BRP in neurons with type II terminals leads to flight performance deficits similar to those observed for octopamine mutants or flies lacking this class of neurons (Brembs et al., 2007.

  10. Crystal structures and luminescent properties of lanthanide nitrate coordination polymers with structurally related amide type bridging podands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yan, Xuhuan; Zhang, Hongrui; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu; Tan, Minyu

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional linear chain coordination polymer [ErL I(NO 3) 3(CH 3CO 2Et)] n (L I=1,2-bis{[(2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl}benzene) and a one-dimensional zig-zag coordination polymer {[TbL II(NO 3) 3(H 2O)]·(H 2O)} n (L II=1,2-bis{[2'-(2-pyridylmethylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl}benzene) were assembled by two structurally related bridging podands L I and L II which have uniform skeleton and different terminal groups. In {[TbL II(NO 3) 3(H 2O)]·(H 2O)} n, the neutral chains were linked by the hydrogen bonding interactions between the free and coordinated water molecules from two different directions to interpenetrate into a 3D supramolecular structure. At the same time, the luminescent properties of the solid Tb(III) nitrate complexes of these podands were investigated at room temperature. The lowest triplet state energy levels T 1 of the podands L I and L II indicate that the triplet state energy levels of the antennae are both above the lowest excited resonance level of 5D 4 of Tb 3+ ion. Thus the absorbed energy could be transferred from ligands to the central Tb 3+ ions. And the influence of the hydrogen bonding on the luminescence efficiencies of the coordination polymers was also discussed.

  11. Application of high-throughput technologies to a structural proteomics-type analysis of Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, K.; Folkers, G.E.; Kaptein, R.

    2006-01-01

    A collaborative project between two Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) partner laboratories, York and Oxford, aimed at high-throughput (HTP) structure determination of proteins from Bacillus anthracis, the aetiological agent of anthrax and a biomedically important target, is described. Based

  12. Evaluating response modification factor (R for some types of steel structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralba Valencia Restrepo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Response modification factor (R, tabulated in the Colombian Design Code as NSR-98, is used in this paper for eva-luating internal member forces produced by design earthquake action on steel structures and the inconsistencies pre-sent when designing structures when 1% drift limits must be complied with. The article presents the design of 45 frames corresponding to the seismic resistance system of 5 buildings: 15 special moment frames (SMF, 15 special concentrically-braced frames (CBF and 15 eccentrically-braced frames (EBF. External loads and their combination were used in estimating internal loads and rigidity demands (1% drift were evaluated in line with NSR-98 requi-rements. Member strength requirements were evaluated by using the AISC-2005 seismic provisions for steel structu-red buildings. Modal pushover analysis was used for evaluating the response modification factor for the 45 given frames at different structural performance levels. It was found that this factor was not constant for any of the three structural systems (SMF, CBF and EBF suggested by NSR-98 and that the values of the response modification factor found in the present investigation were smaller than those tabulated in this design code governing everyday structural design. This would lead to significant errors being made in evaluating design forces, not only in the structures but in the support elements (base-plates, foundations, shear walls and any structures attached to buildings constructed in line with the seismic resistance system.

  13. The crystal structure of SDR-type pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase of Mesorhizobium loti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huy Nhat; Kobayashi, Jun; Mikami, Bunzo; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of pyridoxal to 4-pyridoxolactone and is involved in degradation pathway I of pyridoxine, a vitamin B(6) compound. Its crystal structure was elucidated for the first time. Molecular replacement with (S)-1-phenylthanol dehydrogenase (PDB code 2EW8) was adopted to determine the tertiary structure of the NAD(+)-bound enzyme.

  14. Multi-virulence-locus sequence typing of Staphylococcus lugdunensis generates results consistent with a clonal population structure and is reliable for epidemiological typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didi, Jennifer; Lemée, Ludovic; Gibert, Laure; Pons, Jean-Louis; Pestel-Caron, Martine

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an emergent virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus responsible for severe infections similar to those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To understand its potentially pathogenic capacity and have further detailed knowledge of the molecular traits of this organism, 93 isolates from various geographic origins were analyzed by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST), targeting seven known or putative virulence-associated loci (atlLR2, atlLR3, hlb, isdJ, SLUG_09050, SLUG_16930, and vwbl). The polymorphisms of the putative virulence-associated loci were moderate and comparable to those of the housekeeping genes analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). However, the MVLST scheme generated 43 virulence types (VTs) compared to 20 sequence types (STs) based on MLST, indicating that MVLST was significantly more discriminating (Simpson's index [D], 0.943). No hypervirulent lineage or cluster specific to carriage strains was defined. The results of multilocus sequence analysis of known and putative virulence-associated loci are consistent with a clonal population structure for S. lugdunensis, suggesting a coevolution of these genes with housekeeping genes. Indeed, the nonsynonymous to synonymous evolutionary substitutions (dN/dS) ratio, the Tajima's D test, and Single-likelihood ancestor counting (SLAC) analysis suggest that all virulence-associated loci were under negative selection, even atlLR2 (AtlL protein) and SLUG_16930 (FbpA homologue), for which the dN/dS ratios were higher. In addition, this analysis of virulence-associated loci allowed us to propose a trilocus sequence typing scheme based on the intragenic regions of atlLR3, isdJ, and SLUG_16930, which is more discriminant than MLST for studying short-term epidemiology and further characterizing the lineages of the rare but highly pathogenic S. lugdunensis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Chemical composition, crystal structure, and their relationships with the intrinsic properties of spinel-type crystals based on bond valences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Lavina, Barbara; Tu, Bingtian; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2014-06-16

    Spinel-type crystals may possess complex and versatile chemical composition and crystal structure, which leads to difficulty in constructing relationships among the chemical composition, crystal structure, and intrinsic properties. In this work, we develop new empirical methods based on bond valences to estimate the intrinsic properties, namely, compressibility and thermal expansion of complex spinel-type crystals. The composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra is derived as a function of the composition-weighted average of bond valences, which can be calculated according to the experimental chemical composition and crystal structural parameters. We discuss the coupled effects of tetrahedral and octahedral frameworks on the aforementioned intrinsic properties. The bulk modulus could be quantitatively calculated from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra. In contrast, a quantitative estimation of the thermal expansion coefficient could be obtained from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in octahedral coordination polyhedra. These empirical methods have been validated by the results obtained for a new complex quaternary spinel-type oxynitride Mg0.268Al2.577O3.733N0.267 as well as MgAl2O4 and Al2.85O3.45N0.55 from the literature. Further, these empirical methods have the potential to be extensively applied in other types of complex crystals.

  16. Structure-activity relationships of lanostane-type triterpenoids from Ganoderma lingzhi as α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Sri; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2013-11-01

    A series of lanostane-type triterpenoids, identified as ganoderma alcohols and ganoderma acids, were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lingzhi. Some of these compounds were confirmed as active inhibitors of the in vitro human recombinant aldose reductase. This paper aims to explain the structural requirement for α-glucosidase inhibition. Our structure-activity studies of ganoderma alcohols showed that the OH substituent at C-3 and the double-bond moiety at C-24 and C-25 are necessary to increase α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The structure-activity relationships of ganoderma acids revealed that the OH substituent at C-11 is an important feature and that the carboxylic group in the side chain is essential for the recognition of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Moreover, the double-bond moiety at C-20 and C-22 in the side chain and the OH substituent at C-3 of ganoderma acids improve α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results provide an approach with which to consider the structural requirements of lanostane-type triterpenoids from G. lingzhi. An understanding of these requirements is considered necessary in order to improve a new type of α-glucosidase inhibitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MWW-type titanosilicate synthesis, structural modification and catalytic applications to green oxidations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Le; Liu, Yueming; He, Mingyuan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of a new generation of selective oxidation titanosilicate catalysts with the MWW topology (Ti-MWW) based on the research achievements of the past 12 years. It gives an overview of the synthesis, structure modification and catalytic properties of Ti-MWW. Ti-MWW can readily be prepared by means of direct hydrothermal synthesis with crystallization-supporting agents, using dual-structure-directing agents and a dry-gel conversion technique. It also can be post-synthesized through unique reversible structure transformation and liquid-phase isomorphous subst

  18. Tunable band (pass and stop) filters based on plasmonic structures using Kerr-type nonlinear rectangular nanocavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianfard, Hamed; Khajeheian, Bahareh; Ghayour, Rahim

    2017-12-01

    We have proposed and numerically investigated two plasmonic structures for bandpass and band-stop filters. The bandpass filter is composed of two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a nonlinear rectangular nanocavity. The band-stop filter consists of an MIM waveguide side coupled to a Kerr-type nonlinear rectangular nanocavity. The optical filtering effect is verified by two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. It is demonstrated that based on optical nonlinearity we can easily make the proposed filters tunable by properly adjusting the intensity of incident light without changing the dimensions of the structures. The simulation results revealed that within the transmission spectrum, the selected central wavelength and the bandwidth of the filter can be tuned by the input signal intensity. The proposed structures are suitable to be used as highly dense integrated optical circuits, where limitations on the dimensions of the filter structure are vital.

  19. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial community structure along different management types in German forest and grassland soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Nacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land

  20. Aquatic insects of lowland rainforest in Papua New Guinea: assemblage structure in relation to habitat type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 12 (2015), s. 1621-1630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : community structure * biodiversity * aquatic insects Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015

  1. Metacommunity structuring in stream networks: roles of dispersal mode, distance type, and regional environmental context

    OpenAIRE

    Gronroos, Mira; Heino, Jani; Siqueira, Tadeu [UNESP; Landeiro, Victor L.; Kotanen, Juho; Bini, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Within a metacommunity, both environmental and spatial processes regulate variation in local community structure. The strength of these processes may vary depending on species traits (e.g., dispersal mode) or the characteristics of the regions studied (e.g., spatial extent, environmental heterogeneity). We studied the metacommunity structuring of three groups of stream macroinvertebrates differing in their overland dispersal mode (passive dispersers with aquatic adults; passive dispersers wit...

  2. Evaluating response modification factor (R) for some types of steel structure

    OpenAIRE

    Doralba Valencia Restrepo; Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2008-01-01

    Response modification factor (R), tabulated in the Colombian Design Code as NSR-98, is used in this paper for eva-luating internal member forces produced by design earthquake action on steel structures and the inconsistencies pre-sent when designing structures when 1% drift limits must be complied with. The article presents the design of 45 frames corresponding to the seismic resistance system of 5 buildings: 15 special moment frames (SMF), 15 special concentrically-braced frames (CBF) and 15...

  3. Prediction of unknown uranyl oxide hydrate structure types: Comparison of calculated and measured XRD powder patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, R.J.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The accurate identification of uranium-bearing corrosion products from spent fuel leaching studies is often difficult because the XRD powder patterns for many U(VI) phases are closely similar. Standard pattern-matching techniques commonly used for phase identification (e.g., JCPDS) make confident phase identification difficult and can oversimplify complex mixtures of UOHs. Refinement methods that fit the full XRD powder pattern, such as Rietveld, may be the only methods for accurate UOH identification, especially for data from sample mixtures. Rietveld refinement of XRD powder data for uranium oxides can be accomplished for phases whose structures are well defined. Unfortunately, many of the uranyl oxide hydrates are still ill-defined, both structurally and compositionally. The uranyl oxide hydrates have large unit cells and relatively low symmetries, as well as close structural similarities, all of which complicates the simultaneous refinement of mixed UOH phases. Modeling peak shape profiles can also hamper refinements of mixed-UOH samples due to extreme peak overlap. Because of these difficulties, Rietveld structure determination for UOHs from sample mixtures remains intractable, although structure determination may be possible for fine-grained, single-phase samples. Nonetheless, Rietveld refinement is the most promising method for accurately identifying the component phases in a mixture, but the unknown UOH structures must be determined before this technique can be applied successfully

  4. Determining workspace parameters for a new type of 6RSS parallel manipulator based on structural and geometric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Lucian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Workspace geometric modelling of a new type of 6RSS parallel manipulator is described below. In the beginning, the researches undertaken in this area by other authors are highlighted and then a definition of this type of mechanisms is provided. The structural model of the 6RSS manipulator is briefly described. Inverse geometric model and translation subspace methods are used in order to determine the dimensions that define the workspace volume of the parallel manipulator. The reachable workspace is defined as a subset of the whole workspace in relation with the positions achieved by the characteristic point.

  5. Structure of a novel c7-type three-heme cytochrome domain from a multidomain cytochrome c polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Pokkuluri, P. Raj; Londer, Yuri Y.; Duke, Norma E.C.; Erickson, Jill; Pessanha, Miguel; Salgueiro, Carlos A.; Schiffer, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The structure of a novel c7-type cytochrome domain that has two bishistidine coordinated hemes and one heme with histidine, methionine coordination (where the sixth ligand is a methionine residue) was determined at 1.7 Å resolution. This domain is a representative of domains that form three polymers encoded by the Geobacter sulfurreducens genome. Two of these polymers consist of four and one protein of nine c7-type domains with a total of 12 and 27 hemes, respectively. Four individual domains...

  6. Class of diatomic ferroelectrics with multifunctional properties: IV-VI compounds in the distorted NiAs-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Deng, Bei; Wang, Wei-Chao; Shi, Xing-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Ferroelectrics have attracted a great deal of attention, but diatomic ferroelectrics are less common. Here we establish a class of diatomic ferroelectrics in the distorted NiAs-type structure based on state-of-the-art first-principles calculations. These compounds, with giant Rashba effect, possess rich phases, ranging from ferroelectric semiconductors to ferroelectric semimetals. Topological surface states and type-II bulk Dirac fermions are found in the undistorted phases. This class of multifunctional materials has potential applications in spin-orbitronics.

  7. Cytotoxic lanostane-type triterpenoids from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum and their structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaodan; Li, Xiangmin; Yong, Tianqiao; Wang, Zhanggen; Su, Jiyan; Jiao, Chunwei; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B

    2017-02-07

    We conducted a study of Ganoderma lucidum metabolites and isolated 35 lanostane-type triterpenoids, including 5 new ganoderols (1-5). By spectroscopy, we compared the structures of these compounds with known related compounds in this group. All of the isolated compounds were assayed for their effect against the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Corresponding three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were built and analyzed using Discovery Studio. These results provide further evidence for anti-cancer constituents within Ganoderma lucidum, and may provide a theoretical foundation for designing novel therapeutic compounds.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  9. Insertion sequence element single nucleotide polymorphism typing provides insights into the population structure and evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelannoote, Koen; Jordaens, Kurt; Bomans, Pieter; Leirs, Herwig; Durnez, Lies; Affolabi, Dissou; Sopoh, Ghislain; Aguiar, Julia; Phanzu, Delphin Mavinga; Kibadi, Kapay; Eyangoh, Sara; Manou, Louis Bayonne; Phillips, Richard Odame; Adjei, Ohene; Ablordey, Anthony; Rigouts, Leen; Portaels, Françoise; Eddyani, Miriam; de Jong, Bouke C

    2014-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is an indolent, slowly progressing necrotizing disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. In the present study, we applied a redesigned technique to a vast panel of M. ulcerans disease isolates and clinical samples originating from multiple African disease foci in order to (i) gain fundamental insights into the population structure and evolutionary history of the pathogen and (ii) disentangle the phylogeographic relationships within the genetically conserved cluster of African M. ulcerans. Our analyses identified 23 different African insertion sequence element single nucleotide polymorphism (ISE-SNP) types that dominate in different areas where Buruli ulcer is endemic. These ISE-SNP types appear to be the initial stages of clonal diversification from a common, possibly ancestral ISE-SNP type. ISE-SNP types were found unevenly distributed over the greater West African hydrological drainage basins. Our findings suggest that geographical barriers bordering the basins to some extent prevented bacterial gene flow between basins and that this resulted in independent focal transmission clusters associated with the hydrological drainage areas. Different phylogenetic methods yielded two well-supported sister clades within the African ISE-SNP types. The ISE-SNP types from the "pan-African clade" were found to be widespread throughout Africa, while the ISE-SNP types of the "Gabonese/Cameroonian clade" were much rarer and found in a more restricted area, which suggested that the latter clade evolved more recently. Additionally, the Gabonese/Cameroonian clade was found to form a strongly supported monophyletic group with Papua New Guinean ISE-SNP type 8, which is unrelated to other Southeast Asian ISE-SNP types.

  10. X-ray inspection of composite materials for aircraft structures using detectors of Medipix type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandejsek, I; Jakubek, J; Jakubek, M; Krejci, F; Soukup, P; Turecek, D; Vavrik, D; Zemlicka, J; Prucha, P

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an overview of promising X-ray imaging techniques employed for non-destructive defectoscopy inspections of composite materials intended for the Aircraft industry. The major emphasis is placed on non-tomographic imaging techniques which do not require demanding spatial and time measurement conditions. Imaging methods for defects visualisation, delamination detection and porosity measurement of various composite materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymers and honeycomb sendwiches are proposed. We make use of the new large area WidePix X-ray imaging camera assembled from up to 100 edgeless Medipix type detectors which is highly suitable for this type of measurements

  11. Structural consistency analysis of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-Ling; Sun, Li-Hua; Liu, Li; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Mei, Qi-Bing; He, Jian-Hua; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) is potential alternatives for human serum albumin (HSA) which may ease severe shortage of HSA worldwide. In theory, rHSA and HSA are the same. Structure decides function. Therefore, the 3D structural consistency analysis of rHSA and HSA is outmost importance, which is the base of their function consistency. In this paper, the crystal structures of rHSA at resolution limit of 2.22 Å and HSA at 2.30 Å were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession codes 4G03 (rHSA) and 4G04 (HSA). The differences between rHSA and HSA were systematically analyzed from the crystallization behavior, diffraction data and three-dimensional (3D) structure. The superimposed contrasted analysis indicated that rHSA and HSA achieved a structural similarity of 99% with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.397 Å for the corresponding overall Cα atoms. In addition, the number of α-helices in the rHSA or HSA molecule was verified to be 30. As a result, rHSA can potentially replace HSA. The study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the clinical and additional applications of rHSA. Meanwhile, it is also a good example for applications of genetic engineering.

  12. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psocial influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  13. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, I.A., E-mail: igor_sar@li.ru; Vadivasova, T.E., E-mail: vadivasovate@yandex.ru; Bukh, A.V., E-mail: buh.andrey@yandex.ru; Strelkova, G.I., E-mail: strelkovagi@info.sgu.ru; Anishchenko, V.S., E-mail: wadim@info.sgu.ru

    2017-04-25

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied. - Highlights: • Dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime is studied. • A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network. • The region of existence of new structures has been explored when varying the coupling parameters.

  14. Localized ''pseudofracture'' type of pathologic reconstruction of costal bone structure following surgical and radiation treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, G.; Dobrev, D.; Syrmadzhieva, S.; Todorov, J.

    1978-01-01

    In a study of the X-ray images of the thorax of 469 women, who had undergone operative treatment and postoperative radiation therapy of breast cancer, the authors detected in 11 patients the localized ''pseudofracture'' type of pathologic reconstruction of the costal bone structure. In 10 patients the changes were localized in the anterior part of the second ribs, and in one - in the anterior part of the 5th rib. They were detected on X-ray examination 11 to 15 months after the onset of radiation treatment and clinically ran a symptomless course. Roentgenographically the changes consisted in: transverse rarefication strips with perifocal streaky densities; transverse rarefication strips and fine pseudocystic reconstruction of the adjacent bone structure; transverse rarefication strips with a gradual reconstruction of the adjacent lateral segment of the rib, till its complete roentgenologic disappearance. There was no periosteal reaction. The second and the third type of X-ray changes resembled metastasis. (author)

  15. Application of the new LDA+GTB method for the band structure calculation of n-type cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, M.M.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.; Gavrichkov, V.A.; Nekrasov, I.A.; Pchelkina, Z.V.; Anisimov, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    A novel hybrid scheme is proposed and applied for band structure calculations of undoped n-type cuprate Nd 2 CuO 4 . The ab initio LDA calculation is used to obtain single electron and Coulomb parameters of the multiband Hubbard-type model. In strong correlation regime the electronic structure within this model is calculated by the generalized tight-binding (GTB) method, that combines the exact diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian for a small cluster with perturbation treatment of the intercluster hopping and interactions. For Nd 2 CuO 4 , this scheme results in charge transfer insulator with value of the gap and band dispersion in agreement to the experimental data

  16. Structure and electronic properties of MoVO type mixed-metal oxides - a combined view by experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Vogt, Thomas; Zhao, Lili; Genest, Alexander; Rösch, Notker

    2015-08-21

    In this review we address recent efforts from experimental and theoretical side to study MoVO-type mixed metal oxides (MMOs) and their properties. We illustrate how structures of MMOs have been evaluated using a large variety of experimental techniques, such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, we discuss the current view on structure-catalysis correlations, derived from recent experiments. In a second part, we examine useful tools of theoretical chemistry for exploring MoVO-type systems. We discuss the need for using hybrid DFT methods and we analyze how, in the context of MMOs studies, semi-local DFT approximations can encounter problems due to a notable self-interaction error when describing oxidic species and reactions on them. In addition, we discuss various aspects of the model that are important when attempting to map complex MMO systems.

  17. Structure design and motion simulation of the pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer with ring-plate-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongjie; Li, Lijun; Tao, Junyi

    2017-06-01

    The pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer with ring-plate-type is a new type of reducers. It has high transmission ratio range and high efficiency. In this paper the working principle of pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer is discussed, and the structure of the reducer is designed. Especially for the complexity and the difficulty in modelling of the cycloid gear tooth profile, the parametric design module of cycloid gear is developed to solve the cycloid gear modelling problem through the second development of Solid Works. At last, the speed schemes of the input shaft and output shaft of the reducer are obtained by the motion simulation. Through the analysis of the simulation curves, the rationality of the structure design is proved, which provides a theoretical basis for the design and manufacture of the reducer.

  18. Quantification of age-related changes in the structure model type and trabecular thickness of human tibial cancellous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I

    2000-01-01

    Structure model type and trabecular thickness are important characteristics in describing cancellous bone architecture. It has been qualitatively observed that a radical change of trabeculae from plate-like to rod-like occurs in aging, bone remodeling, and osteoporosis. Thickness of trabeculae has......) cancellous bone. In this study, 160 human proximal tibial cancellous bone specimens from 40 normal donors, aged 16 to 85 years, were collected. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned, then the micro-CT images were segmented using optimal thresholds. From accurate 3-D data sets...... model. Our results showed that structure model type changed towards more rod-like in the elderly, and that trabecular thickness declined significantly with age. These changes become significant after 80 years of age for human tibial cancellous bone, whereas both properties seem to remain relatively...

  19. Dynamic structural analysis of a head assembly for a large loop-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is presented on the dynamic structural response of the primary vessel's head closure to slug impact loadings generated from a 1000 MJ source term. The reference reactor considered was designed in a loop configuration. The head structure consisted of a deck and a triple rotatable plug assembly. Two designs were considered for the deck structure: a reference design and an alternate design. The reference deck was designed as a single flat annular plate. For the alternate design, the deck plate was reinforced by adding an extender cylinder with a flange and flanged webs between the deck-plate and cylinder. The investigation showed that the reference design cannot maintain containment integrity when subjected to slug loading generated by a 1000 MJ source term. It was determined that the head deformed excessively

  20. On Sequence Lengths of Some Special External Exclusive OR Type LFSR Structures – Study and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the length of pseudo-random binary sequences generated by Linear- Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs plays an important role in the design approaches of built-in selftest, cryptosystems, and other applications. However, certain LFSR structures might not be appropriate in some situations. Given that determining the length of generated pseudo-random binary sequence is a complex task, therefore, before using an LFSR structure, it is essential to investigate the length and the properties of the sequence. This paper investigates some conditions and LFSR’s structures, which restrict the pseudo-random binary sequences’ generation to a certain fixed length. The outcomes of this paper are presented in the form of theorems, simulations, and analyses. We believe that these outcomes are of great importance to the designers of built-in self-test equipment, cryptosystems, and other applications such as radar, CDMA, error correction, and Monte Carlo simulation.

  1. Design of an Improved Type Rotary Inductive Coupling Structure for Rotatable Contactless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the rotary inductive coupling structure of contactless rotary transformer. The main feature of the proposed rotatable contactless power transfer system is which winding is coaxial-interlayered for improving the magnetic coupling capability. There is no ferrite core used in the secondary-side of the rotary inductive coupling structure, this helps to ease the exerted force that is stress by the secondary-side on spindle. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed contactless power transfer system for rotary applications, an inductive powered rotary machinery and the control system have been integrated. The experimental results show that the maximum power transfer efficiency of the proposed rotary inductive coupling structure is about 94.8%. The maximum output power received in the load end is 1030 W with transmission efficiency of 88%.

  2. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Bukh, A. V.; Strelkova, G. I.; Anishchenko, V. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied.

  3. Reduction of structured population models to threshold-type delay equations and functional differential equations: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States))

    1993-01-01

    It is shown by way of a simple example that certain structured population models lead naturally to differential delay equations of the threshold type and that these equations can be transformed in a natural way to functional differential equations. The model examined can be viewed as a model of competition between adults and juveniles of a single population. The results indicate the possibility that this competition leads to instability. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  5. Psychological Type, Decision-Making Style, and Reactions to Structured Career Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Tinsley, Diane J.; Rushing, James

    2002-01-01

    An intervention for 50 career-undecided women helped them identify decision-making barriers, consider vocational interests, and formulate provisional major and career choices. Women who were introverted and whose decision-making style was rational reported greater benefits from the intervention than those whose personality type was perceiving and…

  6. Structure-cytotoxicity relationships of some helenanolide-type sesquiterpene lactones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, AC; Woerdenbag, HJ; vanUden, W; Pras, N; Konings, AWT; Wikstrom, HV; Schmidt, TJ

    This study deals with the cytotoxicity of helenanolide-type (10 alpha-methylpseudoguaianolide) sesquiterpene lactones. We determined the influence of substitution patterns on the toxicity of 21 helenanolides to a cloned Ehrlich ascites tumor cell line, EN2. Within a series of helenalin esters, the

  7. Examining Culturally Structured Learning Environments with Different Types of Music-Linked Movement Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Juanita M.; Boykin, A. Wade

    2008-01-01

    This study describes two experiments that extended earlier work on the Afrocultural theme Movement Expression. The impact of various learning conditions characterized by different types of music-linked movement on story recall performance was examined. African American children were randomly assigned to a learning condition, presented a story, and…

  8. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15

  9. Structure of the C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain of human tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Nielsen, B B; Rasmussen, H

    1998-01-01

    Tetranectin (TN) is a C-type lectin involved in fibrinolysis, being the only endogenous ligand known to bind specifically to the kringle 4 domain of plasminogen. TN was originally isolated from plasma, but shows a wide tissue distribution. Furthermore, TN has been found in the extracellular matrix...

  10. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    O-GalNAc-glycosylation is one of the main types of glycosylation in mammalian cells. No consensus recognition sequence for the O-glycosyltransferases is known, making prediction methods necessary to bridge the gap between the large number of known protein sequences and the small number of protein...

  11. How can structured self-management patient education improve outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvis, J.; Skinner, T. C.; Carey, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a long-term chronic condition that is complex to manage, with the majority of management being done by the person with diabetes outside of the clinical setting. Because of its complexities, effective self-management requires skills, confidence and the ability to make...

  12. The structure of dark and luminous matter in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we explore new techniques to study the dark and luminous matter in the outskirts of galaxies. To determine the mass and shape of the dark matter halo around the early-type galaxy NGC 2974, we measure the kinematics of its large neutral gas ring. We combine these large-scale kinematics

  13. The structure of galactic disks - Studying late-type spiral galaxies using SDSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Trujillo, I.

    Using imaging data from the SDSS survey, we present the g' and r' radial stellar light distribution of a complete sample of similar to 90 face-on to intermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies. The surface brightness profiles are reliable (1s uncertainty less than 0.2 mag) down

  14. Lymphocyte activation receptors:new structural paradigms in group V of C-type animal lectins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, J.; Kavan, Daniel; Pompach, Petr; Novák, Petr; Lukšan, Ondřej; Bezouška, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2004), s. 1124-1126 ISSN 0300-5127 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lectin-type receptor * ligand identification * lymphocyte Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.267, year: 2004

  15. Structural and mechanistic insights into ABC-type ECF transporters for vitamin uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosz-Majsnerowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Dit proefschrift gaat over de relatie tussen de structuur en het mechanisme van ABC-type ECF transporters voor vitamines, uit de bacterie Lactococcus lactis. Energy-Coupling Factor (ECF) transporters vormen een subgroep van de ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters en zijn betrokken bij de opname

  16. Type-assisted automatic garbage collection for lock-free data structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Albert Mingkun; Wrigstad, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    We introduce Isolde, an automatic garbage collection scheme designed specifically for managing memory in lock-free data structures, such as stacks, lists, maps and queues. Isolde exists as a plug-in memory manager, designed to sit on-top of another memory manager, and use it's allocator and reclaimer (if exists). Isolde treats a lock-free data structure as a logical heap, isolated from the rest of the program. This allows garbage collection outside of Isolde to take place without affecting th...

  17. A New Type of In-Pipe Inspection Minirobot with Adaptable Structure (IPMR-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Pop

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pipe damages and imperfections led to a start in researching ways of inspecting and maintaining the pipelines. An attractive solution is using mobile robots for this matter. This paper presents the development process of a wheeled in-pipe minirobot with adaptable structure called IPMR-3. IPMR-3has three articulated mechanisms placed at 120° angles around its central axis. The actuation is done with three DC motors. IPMR-3 can adapt its structure to pipe diameters ranged between 220 and 380 mm. The end of the paper presents the image capturing method, achieved with a C910 wireless video camera, and images from the testing process.

  18. Structural Dimensions, Fabrication, Materials, and Operational History for Types I and II Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive waste is confined in 48 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste will eventually be processed and transferred to other site facilities for stabilization. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks, including those with flaws and/or defects, will be required to be in service for another 15 to 20 years. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a leak-tight barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis event which include loading from both normal service and abnormal conditions

  19. Land use types influenced avian assemblage structure in a forest-agriculture landscape in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus Precious; Kwafo, Richard; Konadu, Vida Asieduwaa

    2017-11-01

    The conservation of biodiversity within tropical forest regions does not lie only in the maintenance of natural forest areas, but on conservation strategies directed toward agricultural land types within which they are embedded. This study investigated variations in bird assemblages of different functional groups of forest-dependent birds in three agricultural land types, relative to distance from the interior of 34 tropical forest patches of varying sizes. Point counts were used to sample birds at each study site visited. Data from counts were used to estimate species richness, species evenness, and Simpson's diversity of birds. Mean species richness, evenness, and diversity were modeled as responses and as a function of agricultural land type, distance from the forest interior and three site-scale vegetation covariates (density of large trees, fruiting trees, and patch size) using generalized linear mixed-effect models. Mean observed species richness of birds varied significantly within habitat types. Mean observed species richness was highest in forest interior sites while sites located in farm centers recorded the lowest mean species richness. Species richness of forest specialists was strongly influenced by the type of agricultural land use. Fallow lands, density of large trees, and patch size strongly positively influenced forest specialists. Insectivorous and frugivorous birds were more species-rich in fallow lands while monoculture plantations favored nectarivorous birds. Our results suggest that poor agricultural practices can lead to population declines of forest-dependent birds particularly specialist species. Conservation actions should include proper land use management that ensures heterogeneity through retention of native tree species on farms in tropical forest-agriculture landscapes.

  20. Enhancement of structural and magnetic properties of M-type hexaferrite permanent magnet based on synthesis temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Safia; Sehar, Fatima; Mustafa, Zeeshan; Awan, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this research work is to develop the single domain magnetic particles of M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) using oxide precursors employing conventional powder metallurgy technique. The phase formation and magnetic performance of the powders and magnets will be optimized by adjusting calcination and sintering temperatures. The synthesis of M-type barium hexaferrite was carried out in two sections. A series of four samples have been prepared by initial wet mixed powders calcined at different temperatures, i.e., 750, 850, 950 and 1050 °C. On the basis of structural analysis, the sample calcined at 950 °C has been selected and further divided into four parts to sintered them at 1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250 °C. The structural measurements depict the confirmation of M-type barium hexaferrite structure. SEM micrographs show the hexagonal-shaped grains. The abrupt decrease in coercivity for the sample sintered at 1250 °C has been seen which may be due to high sintering temperature, at which the particles have multi-domain properties.

  1. Structure of the VipA/B Type VI Secretion Complex Suggests a Contraction-State-Specific Recycling Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kube

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial type VI secretion system is a multicomponent molecular machine directed against eukaryotic host cells and competing bacteria. An intracellular contractile tubular structure that bears functional homology with bacteriophage tails is pivotal for ejection of pathogenic effectors. Here, we present the 6 Å cryoelectron microscopy structure of the contracted Vibrio cholerae tubule consisting of the proteins VipA and VipB. We localized VipA and VipB in the protomer and identified structural homology between the C-terminal segment of VipB and the tail-sheath protein of T4 phages. We propose that homologous segments in VipB and T4 phages mediate tubule contraction. We show that in type VI secretion, contraction leads to exposure of the ClpV recognition motif, which is embedded in the type VI-specific four-helix-bundle N-domain of VipB. Disaggregation of the tubules by the AAA+ protein ClpV and recycling of the VipA/B subunits are thereby limited to the contracted state.

  2. The structure of Serratia marcescens Lip, a membrane-bound component of the type VI secretion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Vincenzo A.; Shepherd, Sharon M.; English, Grant; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N.

    2011-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of S. marcescens Lip reveals a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Lip, a core component of the type VI secretion apparatus, is localized to the outer membrane and is positioned to interact with other proteins forming this complex system. Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29–176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded β-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein–protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners

  3. The structure of Serratia marcescens Lip, a membrane-bound component of the type VI secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Vincenzo A.; Shepherd, Sharon M.; English, Grant; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of S. marcescens Lip reveals a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Lip, a core component of the type VI secretion apparatus, is localized to the outer membrane and is positioned to interact with other proteins forming this complex system. Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29–176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded β-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein–protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners.

  4. Primary volcanic structures from a type section of Deccan Trap flows ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Field investigations of the Deccan Trap lava sequence along a 70km traverse in the Narsingpur–. Harrai–Amarwara area of central India indicate twenty lava flows comprising a total thickness of around 480 m. Primary volcanic structures like vesicles and cooling joints are conspicuous in this volcanic succession and are ...

  5. Resolution of multiple sheet-type structures in self-potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the main units for uranium mineralization (Katti et al. 2010; Sen et al. 2010). The PD and PG measurements have been per- formed on the same profile to see whether there is any difference in the resolution for different sub- surface structures (figure 13a and c). The data were acquired at 10 m interval. A Gradient Resisti-.

  6. Rondorfite-type structure — XPS and UV–vis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulski, M.; Bilewska, K.; Wojtyniak, M.; Szade, J.; Kusz, J.; Nowak, A.; Wrzalik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural and spectroscopic characterization of chlorosilicate mineral, rondorfite. • Characterization of main photoemission lines and valence band spectra. • The study of color origin’s using UV–vis spectroscopy. • Analysis of structural changes in context of origin of natural fluorescence. • Discussion of a new application possibilities of analyzed mineral - Abstract: This paper focuses on X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron and UV–vis spectroscopy of two different (green, orange) rondorfite samples. The differences in the sample color originate from various O/Cl ratios. The orange color was found to be related either to the isomorphic substitution of Fe 3+ /Al 3+ for Mg 2+ , the presence of atypical [MgO 4 ] tetrahedrons in crystal structure or electronegativity of the sample. The tetrahedron is known to be very prone to accumulation of impurities and substitute atoms. Moreover, the XPS data showed tetrahedrally coordinated Mg 2+ and isomorphic substitution of Al 3+ /Fe 3+ for Mg 2+ , which influences local disordering and the point defects density and distribution. Non-equilibrium chlorine positions inside the crystal cages as well as Ca-Cl bonds have also been found. The XPS measurements as a function of temperature indicate occurrence of a structural transformation at about 770 K which is accompanied by a rotation of silicate tetrahedra within magnesiosilicate pentamer and luminescence disappearance

  7. Structural, magnetic, and Mössbauer spectroscopy of Cu substituted M-type hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awadallah, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadmoh@yahoo.co [Physics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Mahmood, Sami H., E-mail: s.mahmood@ju.edu.jo [Physics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Maswadeh, Yazan, E-mail: nawabra251@gmail.com [Physics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Bsoul, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahimbsoul@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq 13040 (Jordan); Awawdeh, Mufeed, E-mail: amufeed@yu.edu.jo [Physics Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan); Mohaidat, Qassem I., E-mail: q.muhaidat@yu.edu.jo [Physics Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan); Juwhari, Hassan, E-mail: h.juwhari@ju.edu.jo [Physics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Single BaM hexaferrite structural phases with Cu substations were prepared. • The magnetocrystalline anisotropy decreased with Cu substitution. • The coercivity was significantly modified while the magnetization remained high. • Hexaferrites with 0.2–0.4 Cu possess properties suitable for magnetic recording. • Ionic distributions from structural refinement agreed with Mössbauer spectroscopy. - Abstract: BaFe{sub 12−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 19} hexaferrites were prepared using ball milling and sintering at 1100 °C. Refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was carried out to determine the structural parameters and the ionic distribution over the crystallographic sites. The preferential site occupation and valence state of Cu was consistent with the results obtained from the analysis of Mössbauer spectra. Further, the magnetic parameters of the samples were discussed in light of the structural and Mössbauer analyses. The magnetic phase transition temperature was found to decrease with the level of Cu substitution, in accordance with the reduction of the superexchange interactions. Further, the magnetic softening of the hexaferrite and the significant reduction in magnetocrystalline anisotropy with Cu substitution was consistent with the ionic distribution in the lattice. This study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of using a simple method to fabricate hexaferrites with a modified coercivity, while maintain the saturation magnetization high enough for practical applications.

  8. New insights into structure and function of the different types of fatty acid-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Augusta Wilhelmina

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins with virtually identical backbone structures that facilitate the solubility and intracellular transport of fatty acids. They may also modulate the effect of fatty acids on various metabolic enzymes and receptors and on cellular

  9. In and out of the cation pumps: P-type ATPase structure revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, Maike; Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben

    2010-01-01

    be compared directly. Mechanisms for ion gating, charge neutralization and backflow prevention are starting to emerge from comparative structural analysis; and in combination with functional studies of mutated pumps this provides a framework for speculating on how the ions are bound and released as well...

  10. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... 1997). The bitter gourd seed lectin (BGSL) from Momordica charantia, the structure and interactions of which are presented here, is also a four-chain protein. The isolation, purification and physicochemical studies of BGSL have already been reported (Das et al. 1981; Khan et al. 1981; Mazumder et al. 1981 ...

  11. Sequence analyses and 3D structure prediction of two Type III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... the usefulness of protein structure models for molecular replacement. Bioinformatics, 21(2): 72-76. Gomez JM, Loir M, Le Gac F (1998). Growth hormone receptors in testis and liver during the spermatogenetic cycle in rainbow trout. (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Biol. Reprod. 58: 483-491. Harvey S, Scanes CG.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and charge-distribution validation of β-Na4Cu(MoO43 adopting the alluadite structure-type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Dridi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of a new variety of tetrasodium copper(II tris[molybdate(VI], Na4Cu(MoO43, have been synthesized by solid-state reactions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This alluaudite structure-type is characterized by the presence of infinite layers of composition (Cu/Na2Mo3O14 parallel to the (100 plane, which are linked by MoO4 tetrahedra, forming a three-dimensional framework containing two types of hexagonal channels in which Na+ cations reside. The Cu2+ and Na2+ cations are located at the same general site with occupancies of 0.5. All atoms are on general positions except for one Mo, two Na (site symmetry 2 and another Na (site symmetry -1 atom. One O atom is split into two separate positions with occupancies of 0.5. The title compound is isotypic with Na5Sc(MoO44 and Na3In2As3O12. The structure model is supported by bond-valence-sum (BVS and charge-distribution CHARDI methods. β-Na4Cu(MoO43 is compared and discussed with the K4Cu(MoO43 and α-Na4Cu(MoO43 structures.

  13. Thermoelectric characteristics of Pt-silicide/silicon multi-layer structured p-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonchul; Jun, Dongseok; Kim, Soojung; Shin, Mincheol; Jang, Moongyu

    2015-01-01

    Electric and thermoelectric properties of silicide/silicon multi-layer structured devices were investigated with the variation of silicide/silicon heterojunction numbers from 3 to 12 layers. For the fabrication of silicide/silicon multi-layered structure, platinum and silicon layers are repeatedly sputtered on the (100) silicon bulk substrate and rapid thermal annealing is carried out for the silicidation. The manufactured devices show ohmic current–voltage (I–V) characteristics. The Seebeck coefficient of bulk Si is evaluated as 195.8 ± 15.3 μV/K at 300 K, whereas the 12 layered silicide/silicon multi-layer structured device is evaluated as 201.8 ± 9.1 μV/K. As the temperature increases to 400 K, the Seebeck coefficient increases to 237.2 ± 4.7 μV/K and 277.0 ± 1.1 μV/K for bulk and 12 layered devices, respectively. The increase of Seebeck coefficient in multi-layered structure is mainly attributed to the electron filtering effect due to the Schottky barrier at Pt-silicide/silicon interface. At 400 K, the thermal conductivity is reduced by about half of magnitude compared to bulk in multi-layered device which shows the efficient suppression of phonon propagation by using Pt-silicide/silicon hetero-junctions. - Highlights: • Silicide/silicon multi-layer structured is proposed for thermoelectric devices. • Electric and thermoelectric properties with the number of layer are investigated. • An increase of Seebeck coefficient is mainly attributed the Schottky barrier. • Phonon propagation is suppressed with the existence of Schottky barrier. • Thermal conductivity is reduced due to the suppression of phonon propagation

  14. Crystal structure of the Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex in the type III-A CRISPR-Cas interference complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomoyuki; Inanaga, Hideko; Sato, Chikara; Osawa, Takuo

    2015-01-30

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci play a pivotal role in the prokaryotic host defense system against invading genetic materials. The CRISPR loci are transcribed to produce CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), which form interference complexes with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The interference complex of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system is composed of five Cas proteins (Csm1-Csm5) and a crRNA, and targets invading DNA. Here, we show that the Csm1, Csm3, and Csm4 proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii form a stable subcomplex. We also report the crystal structure of the M. jannaschii Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex at 3.1Å resolution. The complex structure revealed the presence of a basic concave surface around their interface, suggesting the RNA and/or DNA binding ability of the complex. A gel retardation analysis showed that the Csm3-Csm4 complex binds single-stranded RNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Csm4 structurally resembles Cmr3, a component of the type III-B CRISPR-Cas interference complex. Based on bioinformatics, we constructed a model structure of the Csm1-Csm4-Csm3 ternary complex, which provides insights into its role in the Csm interference complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In situ environment rather than substrate type dictates microbial community structure of biofilms in a cold seep system

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O.O.

    2014-01-08

    Using microscopic and molecular techniques combined with computational analysis, this study examined the structure and composition of microbial communities in biofilms that formed on different artificial substrates in a brine pool and on a seep vent of a cold seep in the Red Sea to test our hypothesis that initiation of the biofilm formation and spreading mode of microbial structures differs between the cold seep and the other aquatic environments. Biofilms on different substrates at two deployment sites differed morphologically, with the vent biofilms having higher microbial abundance and better structural features than the pool biofilms. Microbes in the pool biofilms were more taxonomically diverse and mainly composed of various sulfate-reducing bacteria whereas the vent biofilms were exclusively dominated by sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira. These results suggest that the redox environments at the deployment sites might have exerted a strong selection on microbes in the biofilms at two sites whereas the types of substrates had limited effects on the biofilm development.

  16. Structure of the C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain of human Tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen; Nielsen, Bettina Bryde; Rasmussen, Hanne B.

    1998-01-01

    Tetranectin (TN) is a C-type lectin involved in fibrinolysis, being the only endogenous ligand known to bind specifically to the kringle 4 domain of plasminogen. TN was originally isolated from plasma, but shows a wide tissue distribution. Furthermore, TN has been found in the extracellular matri...... molecules. One sulfate ion has been located at the surface of TN3, forming contacts to Glu120, Lys148, Asn106 of a symmetry-related molecule, and to an ethanol molecule....

  17. Unveiling the structure of the progenitors of type-IIP Supernovae through multi-waveband observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutaria, F. K.; Ray, Alak; Bose, Subhash; Kumar, Brijesh

    2017-02-01

    Observational evidence from archival, pre-explosion images, suggests that progenitors of type-IIP SNe (SNe-IIP) have 8 mass range, the stellar evolutionary paths, the ensuing mass loss, and the eventual interaction of the supernova shock with the resulting CSM can show considerable diversity. Here we present the results from our program on multi-waveband (mainly optical) observations of SNe-IIP. Mass loss in their progenitors, with a massive and extended H-envelopes, is seen to occur via both strong stellar winds, or episodic mass ejections. Moreover, some type-IIP SNe also show unusually steep decline, characteristic of type-IIL (e.g. SN-IIP 2013ej). Our early and late-time spectrophotometry of these events shows CSM- shock interaction to varying degree among progenitors of comparable mass. Combined with X-ray data, our findings suggest that SNe-IIP progenitors can lose mass via strong stellar winds (e.g. SN2013ej, and SN2014cx), have episodic mass loss (SN2011ja), or have negligible mass loss (SN2012aw, SN2013ab).

  18. Global population structure of Aspergillus terreus inferred by ISSR typing reveals geographical subclustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens David A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus terreus causes invasive aspergillosis (IA in immunocompromised individuals and can be the leading cause of IA in certain medical centers. We examined a large isolate collection (n = 117 for the presence of cryptic A. terreus species and employed a genome scanning method, Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR PCR to determine A. terreus population structure. Results Comparative sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus revealed the presence of the recently recognized species A. alabamensis (n = 4 in this collection. Maximum parsimony, Neighbor joining, and Bayesian clustering of the ISSR data from the 113 sequence-confirmed A. terreus isolates demonstrated that one clade was composed exclusively of isolates from Europe and another clade was enriched for isolates from the US. Conclusions This study provides evidence of a population structure linked to geographical origin in A. terreus.

  19. DG-FEM solution for nonlinear wave-structure interaction using Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan; Bingham, Harry B.

    2008-01-01

    equations in complex and curvilinear geometries which amends the application range of previous numerical models that have been based on structured Cartesian grids. The Boussinesq method provides the basis for the accurate description of fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves in both shallow and deep...... and absorbed in the interior of the computational domain using a flexible relaxation technique applied on the free surface variables....

  20. Structure of the macrozoobenthos as an indicator of different types of pollution in running waters

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Vladica M.; Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrobiological research on streams with different dominant forms of pollution (anthropogenic eutrophication, organic pollution, toxic pollution, trans-saprobic pollution) in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula (territory of Serbia and Montenegro) indicates that these different forms of pollution can be detected on the basis of structure of the macrozoobenthos community and individual indicator taxa. It is established from the obtained results that the greatest community diversity occurs...

  1. Community structure of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) along elevational gradients in Brazilian Atlantic forest reflects vegetation type rather than altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Fiedler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Species turnover across elevational gradients has matured into an important paradigm of community ecology. Here, we tested whether ecological and phylogenetic structure of skipper butterfly assemblages is more strongly structured according to altitude or vegetation type along three elevation gradients of moderate extent in Serra do Mar, Southern Brazil. Skippers were surveyed along three different mountain transects, and data on altitude and vegetation type of every collection site were recorded. NMDS ordination plots were used to assess community turnover and the influence of phylogenetic distance between species on apparent community patterns. Ordinations based on ecological similarity (Bray-Curtis index) were compared to those based on phylogenetic distance measures (MPD and MNTD) derived from a supertree. In the absence of a well-resolved phylogeny, various branch length transformation methods were applied together with four different null models, aiming to assess if results were confounded by low-resolution trees. Species composition as well as phylogenetic community structure of skipper butterflies were more prominently related to vegetation type instead of altitude per se. Phylogenetic distances reflected spatial community patterns less clearly than species composition, but revealed a more distinct fauna of monocot feeders associated with grassland habitats, implying that historical factors have played a fundamental role in shaping species composition across elevation gradients. Phylogenetic structure of community turned out to be a relevant additional tool which was even superior to identify faunal contrasts between forest and grassland habitats related to deep evolutionary splits. Since endemic skippers tend to occur in grassland habitats in the Serra do Mar, inclusion of phylogenetic diversity may also be important for conservation decisions.

  2. Community structure of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae along elevational gradients in Brazilian Atlantic forest reflects vegetation type rather than altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carneiro

    Full Text Available Species turnover across elevational gradients has matured into an important paradigm of community ecology. Here, we tested whether ecological and phylogenetic structure of skipper butterfly assemblages is more strongly structured according to altitude or vegetation type along three elevation gradients of moderate extent in Serra do Mar, Southern Brazil. Skippers were surveyed along three different mountain transects, and data on altitude and vegetation type of every collection site were recorded. NMDS ordination plots were used to assess community turnover and the influence of phylogenetic distance between species on apparent community patterns. Ordinations based on ecological similarity (Bray-Curtis index were compared to those based on phylogenetic distance measures (MPD and MNTD derived from a supertree. In the absence of a well-resolved phylogeny, various branch length transformation methods were applied together with four different null models, aiming to assess if results were confounded by low-resolution trees. Species composition as well as phylogenetic community structure of skipper butterflies were more prominently related to vegetation type instead of altitude per se. Phylogenetic distances reflected spatial community patterns less clearly than species composition, but revealed a more distinct fauna of monocot feeders associated with grassland habitats, implying that historical factors have played a fundamental role in shaping species composition across elevation gradients. Phylogenetic structure of community turned out to be a relevant additional tool which was even superior to identify faunal contrasts between forest and grassland habitats related to deep evolutionary splits. Since endemic skippers tend to occur in grassland habitats in the Serra do Mar, inclusion of phylogenetic diversity may also be important for conservation decisions.

  3. Community Structure of Skipper Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) along Elevational Gradients in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Reflects Vegetation Type Rather than Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Fiedler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Species turnover across elevational gradients has matured into an important paradigm of community ecology. Here, we tested whether ecological and phylogenetic structure of skipper butterfly assemblages is more strongly structured according to altitude or vegetation type along three elevation gradients of moderate extent in Serra do Mar, Southern Brazil. Skippers were surveyed along three different mountain transects, and data on altitude and vegetation type of every collection site were recorded. NMDS ordination plots were used to assess community turnover and the influence of phylogenetic distance between species on apparent community patterns. Ordinations based on ecological similarity (Bray-Curtis index) were compared to those based on phylogenetic distance measures (MPD and MNTD) derived from a supertree. In the absence of a well-resolved phylogeny, various branch length transformation methods were applied together with four different null models, aiming to assess if results were confounded by low-resolution trees. Species composition as well as phylogenetic community structure of skipper butterflies were more prominently related to vegetation type instead of altitude per se. Phylogenetic distances reflected spatial community patterns less clearly than species composition, but revealed a more distinct fauna of monocot feeders associated with grassland habitats, implying that historical factors have played a fundamental role in shaping species composition across elevation gradients. Phylogenetic structure of community turned out to be a relevant additional tool which was even superior to identify faunal contrasts between forest and grassland habitats related to deep evolutionary splits. Since endemic skippers tend to occur in grassland habitats in the Serra do Mar, inclusion of phylogenetic diversity may also be important for conservation decisions. PMID:25272004

  4. Impact of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on myocardial structure and microvasculature of men with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii Michael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are associated with impaired diastolic function and increased heart failure risk. Animal models and autopsy studies of diabetic patients implicate myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, altered myocardial microvascular structure and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are associated with altered myocardial structure, microvasculature, and expression of AGEs and receptor for AGEs (RAGE in men with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed histological analysis of left ventricular biopsies from 13 control, 10 diabetic and 23 metabolic syndrome men undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery who did not have heart failure or atrial fibrillation, had not received loop diuretic therapy, and did not have evidence of previous myocardial infarction. Results All three patient groups had similar extent of coronary artery disease and clinical characteristics, apart from differences in metabolic parameters. Diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients had higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure than controls, and diabetic patients had reduced mitral diastolic peak velocity of the septal mitral annulus (E', consistent with impaired diastolic function. Neither diabetic nor metabolic syndrome patients had increased myocardial interstitial fibrosis (picrosirius red, or increased immunostaining for collagen I and III, the AGE Nε-(carboxymethyllysine, or RAGE. Cardiomyocyte width, capillary length density, diffusion radius, and arteriolar dimensions did not differ between the three patient groups, whereas diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients had reduced perivascular fibrosis. Conclusions Impaired diastolic function of type 2 diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients was not dependent on increased myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, alteration of the

  5. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  6. Substorm Occurrence and Intensity Associated With Three Types of Solar Wind Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kan; Sotirelis, Thomas; Richardson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the characteristics of substorms that occurred during three distinct types of solar wind: coronal mass ejection (CME) associated, high-speed streams (HSS), and slow solar wind (SSW). A total number of 53,468 geomagnetic substorm onsets from 1983 to 2009 is used and sorted by the three solar wind types. It is found that the probability density function (PDF) of the intersubstorm time can be fitted by the combination of a dominant power law with an exponential cutoff component and a minor lognormal component, implying that substorms are associated with two distinctly different dynamical processes corresponding, perhaps, to the "externally driven" and "internally driven" processes, respectively. We compare substorm frequency and intensity associated with the three types of solar wind. It is found that the intersubstorm time is the longest during SSW and shortest during CME intervals. The averaged intersubstorm time for the internally driven substorms is 3.13, 3.15, and 7.96 h for CME, HSS, and SSW, respectively. The substorm intensity PDFs, as represented by the peak value of |SML| (the generalization of AL), can be fitted by two lognormal distribution functions. The averaged substorm intensity for either component is largest for CME (292 and 674 nT) and smallest for SSW (265 and 434 nT). We argue that the externally driven substorms are more intense than those driven internally. We conclude that the dynamical process of substorms is controlled mainly by the direct solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, whereas the internally driven process only plays a very modest minor role.

  7. Analysis of risk-structured vaccination model for the dynamics of oncogenic and warts-causing HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Aliya A; Gumel, Abba B

    2014-07-01

    A new deterministic model is designed and used to assess the community-wide impact of mass vaccination of new sexually active individuals on the dynamics of the oncogenic and warts-causing HPV types. Rigorous qualitative analyses of the model, which incorporates the two currently available anti-HPV vaccines, reveal that it undergoes competitive exclusion when the reproduction of one HPV risk type (low/high) exceeds unity, while that of the other HPV risk type is less than unity. For the case when the reproduction numbers of the two HPV risk types (low/high) exceed unity, the two risk types co-exist. It is shown that the sub-model with the low-risk HPV types only has at least one endemic equilibrium whenever the associated reproduction threshold exceeds unity. Furthermore, this sub-model undergoes a re-infection-induced backward bifurcation under certain conditions. In the absence of the re-infection of recovered individuals and cancer-induced mortality in males, the associated disease-free equilibrium of the full (risk-structured) model is shown to be globally asymptotically stable whenever the reproduction number of the model is less than unity (that is, the full model does not undergo backward bifurcation under this setting). It is shown, via numerical simulations, that the use of the Gardasil vaccine could lead to the effective control of HPV in the community if the coverage rate is in the range of 73-95 % (84 %). If 70 % of the new sexually active susceptible females are vaccinated with the Gardasil vaccine, additionally vaccinating 34-56 % (45 %) of the new sexually active susceptible males can lead to the effective community-wide control (or elimination) of the HPV types.

  8. Structural requirements of the major protective antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Juul, L; Svejgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    Protective antibodies to the important childhood pathogen Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are directed against the capsular polysaccharide (HibCP). Most of the antibody is encoded by a well-defined set of ("canonical") immunoglobulin genes, including the Vkappa A2 gene, and expresses...... by the A2c gene but not by the highly homologous sister gene, A18b, corresponding to the demonstrated usage of A2c but not of A18b in vivo. Similarly, only Jkappa1 and Jkappa3, which predominate in the response in vivo, were able to facilitate binding in vitro. These findings suggest that the restricted...

  9. Nanometric solid solutions of the fluorite and perovskite type crystal structures: Synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Bošković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a short review of our results on the synthesis of nanosized CeO2, CaMnO3 and BaCeO3 solid solutions are presented. The nanopowders were prepared by two innovative methods: self propagating room temperature synthesis (SPRT and modified glycine/nitrate procedure (MGNP. Different types of solid solutions with rare earth dopants in concentrations ranging from 0–0.25 mol% were synthesized. The reactions forming solid solutions were studied. In addition, the characteristics of prepared nanopowders, phenomena during sintering and the properties of sintered samples are discussed.

  10. Structural and regulatory mutations in Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion systems display variable effects on virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, Thomas; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Attah, Victoria; Klimko, John; Fernandez, Jessie; Salomon, Dor; Krachler, Anne-Marie; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is a major cause of sea-food-derived food poisoning throughout the world. The pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus is attributed to several virulence factors, including two type III secretion systems (T3SS), T3SS1 and T3SS2. Herein, we compare the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus POR strains, which harbor a mutation in the T3SS needle apparatus of either system, to V. parahaemolyticus CAB strains, which harbor mutations in positive transcr...

  11. LHD type proton-boron reactor and the control of its peripheral potential structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yutaka; Nagaura, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Oikawa, Shun-ichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Watanabe, Tsuguhiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    An advanced Large Helical Device (LHD) type proton-boron reactor, in which the minority protons are heated by ICRF, is proposed. The ratio of the fusion power to the RF input power is evaluated. Numerical computation of particle orbits shows that the ICRF of LHD can accelerate protons in the p{sup -11} B fusion relevant energy. Numerical results also show that the LHD magnetic configuration can confine the high energy {sup 4}He well. An active peripheral potential control method and an active {sup 4}He ash exhaust scheme are discussed. (author)

  12. Magneto structural transition in the DySi CrB- and micro-structural changes in the FeB-type compounds by XRPD and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobinger-Papamantellos, P.; Brunelli, M.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Ritter, C.; Gramm, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present the magnetic temperature phase diagrams of the CrB- and FeB-type orthorhombic phases of the DySi compound, determined from high-quality powder XRPD and neutron diffraction, as well as the sample microstructure as determined by HRTEM. Both phase diagrams comprise a HT (T c1 , T c2 -T N ) and a LT range (5 K-T c1 , T c2 ) separated by a monoclinic phase transition at T c1 =T c2 =23.5 K well below the second-order Neel transition (T N =40 K). The transition paths are for CrB-type Cmcm (HT) T c1 →C2/m11 (LT), and for FeB Pnma (HT) T c2 →P2 1 /n11 (LT). The transitions are related to non-monotonous changes of the lattice and structural parameters displaying anomalies at T c1 , T c2 and slight volume changes. For the CrB-type the monoclinic angle decreases smoothly from T c1 down to 5 K and the maximum strain experienced by the crystal lattice in the (0 2 1) direction was found at T c1 . In the FeB-type, in addition to the magneto-elastic transition at T c2 =23.5 K, minor anomalies are found at 13.5 K in the temperature dependence of the monoclinic angle and the maximum strain along (0 1 1). Both temperatures mark the sequence of changes in the magnetic domain microstructure observed in FeB: below T 2 =23.5 K the incommensurate HT magnetic phase with q 3 ∼(01/2 1/7 ) disproportionates into two LT phases q 3 ∼(01/2 1/(11) )T 2 and q 2 ∼(01/2 1/6 ) coexisting in the form of domains with portions varying with T going from T 2 down to 13.5 K (q 2 increasing at the cost of q 3 ). This behaviour could be related to structural inhomogeneities below the first-order magneto-elastic transition T c2 , if one assumes a broad two phase range, where the HT (Pnma) phase coexists with (P2 1 /n) as a metastable phase at LT in the form of domains with different magnetic behaviour. - Research highlights: → Unusual magneto structural transition in dimorphic DySi (FeB- and CrB-type, T N =40 K) at T 2 =23.5 K. → Electron microscopy shows no intergrowth domains of the

  13. The Structure of the Poxvirus A33 Protein Reveals a Dimer of Unique C-Type Lectin-Like Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Singh, Kavita; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Garboczi, David N. (NIH)

    2010-11-03

    The current vaccine against smallpox is an infectious form of vaccinia virus that has significant side effects. Alternative vaccine approaches using recombinant viral proteins are being developed. A target of subunit vaccine strategies is the poxvirus protein A33, a conserved protein in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of Poxviridae that is expressed on the outer viral envelope. Here we have determined the structure of the A33 ectodomain of vaccinia virus. The structure revealed C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs) that occur as dimers in A33 crystals with five different crystal lattices. Comparison of the A33 dimer models shows that the A33 monomers have a degree of flexibility in position within the dimer. Structural comparisons show that the A33 monomer is a close match to the Link module class of CTLDs but that the A33 dimer is most similar to the natural killer (NK)-cell receptor class of CTLDs. Structural data on Link modules and NK-cell receptor-ligand complexes suggest a surface of A33 that could interact with viral or host ligands. The dimer interface is well conserved in all known A33 sequences, indicating an important role for the A33 dimer. The structure indicates how previously described A33 mutations disrupt protein folding and locates the positions of N-linked glycosylations and the epitope of a protective antibody.

  14. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing (UAH); (Fujian); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  15. Antiferromagnetic bipolar semiconductor LaMnPO with ZrCuSiAs-type structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takumi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of a layered compound LaMnPO are examined in relation to a newly discovered iso-structural superconductor LaFeAs(P)O. Neutron diffraction measurements, together with temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, clarify that LaMnPO is an antiferromagnet at least up to 375 K. The spin moment of a Mn ion is determined to be 2.26  µB at room temperature, and the spin configuration is antiparallel in the Mn–P plane and parallel between the Mn–P planes, which is...

  16. The structural characterization of some biomaterials, type AISI 310, used in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciuna, M. G.; Vizureanu, P.; Hanganu, C.; Achitei, D. C.; Popescu, D. C.; Focsaneanu, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    Orthopedics biomaterials are intended for implantation in the human body and substituted or help to repair of bones, cartilage or organ transplant, and tendons. At the end of the 20th century, the availability of materials for the manufacture implants used in medicine has been the same as for other industrial applications. The most used metals for manufacturing the orthopedics implants are: stainless steels, cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloys, titanium and his alloys. The structural researches which are made in this paper, offer a complete analysis of AISI310 stainless steels, using: optical spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy.

  17. A new type of artificial structure to achieve broadband omnidirectional acoustic absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yang Zheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a design for a two-dimensional omnidirectional acoustic absorber that can achieve 98.6% absorption of acoustic waves in water, forming an effective acoustic black hole. This artificial black hole consists of an absorptive core coated with layers of periodically distributed polymer cylinders embedded in water. Effective medium theory describes the response of the coating layers to the acoustic waves. The polymer parameters can be adjusted, allowing practical fabrication of the absorber. Since the proposed structure does not rely on resonances, it is applicable to broad bandwidths. The design might be extended to a variety of applications.

  18. A new type of artificial structure to achieve broadband omnidirectional acoustic absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, L.-Y.

    2013-10-18

    We present a design for a two-dimensional omnidirectional acoustic absorber that can achieve 98.6% absorption of acoustic waves in water, forming an effective acoustic black hole. This artificial black hole consists of an absorptive core coated with layers of periodically distributed polymer cylinders embedded in water. Effective medium theory describes the response of the coating layers to the acoustic waves. The polymer parameters can be adjusted, allowing practical fabrication of the absorber. Since the proposed structure does not rely on resonances, it is applicable to broad bandwidths. The design might be extended to a variety of applications.

  19. Investigation into possible geometrical configurations for scissor-type deployable structures using expandable bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Jia, Wenwen; Cai, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The current paper describes a spin-off investigation from the initially published international research project [1] [2] , which is looking into the design and development of single-meridian grid deployable structure. As a part of the collaborative international project between South Korea (Project...... Engineering in Southeast University in China. The construction of the expandable bar, including the material choice, assembly method, and the construction procedure are described in this paper. The paper describes the relationship between the number of the expandable bars in scissor system and resultant...

  20. Energetics and crystal chemistry of Ruddlesden-Popper type structures in high T(sub c) ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Cormack, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of Ruddlesden-Popper type layers (alternating slabs of rocksalt and perovskite structures) is seen in these oxides which is similar in many respects to what is seen in the system Sr-Ti-O. However, it was observed that there are some significant differences, for example the rocksalt and perovskite blocks in new superconducting compounds are not necessarily electrically, unlike in Sr-Ti-O systems. This will certainly render an additional coulombic bonding energy between two different types of blocks and may well lead to significant differences in their structural chemistry. In the higher order members of the various homologous series, additional Cu-O planes are inserted in the perovskite blocks. In order for the unit cell to electrically neutral the net positive charge on rocksalt block (which remains constant throughout the homologous series) should be balanced by an equal negative charge on perovskite block. It, thus becomes necessary to create oxygen vacancies in the basic perovskite structure, when width of the perovskite slab changes on addition of extra Cu-O planes. Results of atomistic simulations suggest that these missing oxygen ions allow the Cu-O planes to buckle in these compounds. This is also supported by the absence of buckling in the first member of Bi-containing compounds in which there are no missing oxygen ions and the Sr-Ti-O series of compounds. Additional results are presented on the phase stability of polytypoid structures in these crystal chemically complex systems. The studies will focus on the determination of the location of Cu(3+) in the structures of higher order members of the La-Cu-O system and whether Cu(3+) ions or oxygen vacancies are energetically more favorable charge compensating mechanism.

  1. The Structures of Coiled-Coil Domains from Type III Secretion System Translocators Reveal Homology to Pore-Forming Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Keightley, Andrew; Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2012-03-26

    Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to alter the normal functions of target cells. Shigella flexneri uses its T3SS to invade human intestinal cells to cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) that is responsible for over one million deaths per year. The Shigella type III secretion apparatus is composed of a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and an exposed oligomeric needle. Host altering effectors are secreted through this energized unidirectional conduit to promote bacterial invasion. The active needle tip complex of S. flexneri is composed of a tip protein, IpaD, and two pore-forming translocators, IpaB and IpaC. While the atomic structure of IpaD has been elucidated and studied, structural data on the hydrophobic translocators from the T3SS family remain elusive. We present here the crystal structures of a protease-stable fragment identified within the N-terminal regions of IpaB from S. flexneri and SipB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium determined at 2.1 {angstrom} and 2.8 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively. These newly identified domains are composed of extended-length (114 {angstrom} in IpaB and 71 {angstrom} in SipB) coiled-coil motifs that display a high degree of structural homology to one another despite the fact that they share only 21% sequence identity. Further structural comparisons also reveal substantial similarity to the coiled-coil regions of pore-forming proteins from other Gram-negative pathogens, notably, colicin Ia. This suggests that these mechanistically separate and functionally distinct membrane-targeting proteins may have diverged from a common ancestor during the course of pathogen-specific evolutionary events.

  2. Structure of the mycobacterial ESX-5 type VII secretion system membrane complex by single-particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Katherine S H; Ciccarelli, Luciano; Bunduc, Catalin M; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Ummels, Roy; Lugmayr, Wolfgang; Mayr, Julia; Rettel, Mandy; Savitski, Mikhail M; Svergun, Dmitri I; Bitter, Wilbert; Wilmanns, Matthias; Marlovits, Thomas C; Parret, Annabel H A; Houben, Edith N G

    2017-04-10

    Mycobacteria are characterized by their impermeable outer membrane, which is rich in mycolic acids 1 . To transport substrates across this complex cell envelope, mycobacteria rely on type VII (also known as ESX) secretion systems 2 . In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these ESX systems are essential for growth and full virulence and therefore represent an attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs 3 . However, the molecular details underlying type VII secretion are largely unknown, due to a lack of structural information. Here, we report the molecular architecture of the ESX-5 membrane complex from Mycobacterium xenopi determined at 13 Å resolution by electron microscopy. The four core proteins of the ESX-5 complex (EccB 5 , EccC 5 , EccD 5 and EccE 5 ) assemble with equimolar stoichiometry into an oligomeric assembly that displays six-fold symmetry. This membrane-associated complex seems to be embedded exclusively in the inner membrane, which indicates that additional components are required to translocate substrates across the mycobacterial outer membrane. Furthermore, the extended cytosolic domains of the EccC ATPase, which interact with secretion effectors, are highly flexible, suggesting an as yet unseen mode of substrate interaction. Comparison of our results with known structures of other bacterial secretion systems demonstrates that the architecture of type VII secretion system is fundamentally different, suggesting an alternative secretion mechanism.

  3. A worldwide analysis of within-canopy variations in leaf structural, chemical and physiological traits across plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Keenan, Trevor F; Hallik, Lea

    2015-02-01

    Extensive within-canopy light gradients importantly affect the photosynthetic productivity of leaves in different canopy positions and lead to light-dependent increases in foliage photosynthetic capacity per area (AA). However, the controls on AA variations by changes in underlying traits are poorly known. We constructed an unprecedented worldwide database including 831 within-canopy gradients with standardized light estimates for 304 species belonging to major vascular plant functional types, and analyzed within-canopy variations in 12 key foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits by quantitative separation of the contributions of different traits to photosynthetic acclimation. Although the light-dependent increase in AA is surprisingly similar in different plant functional types, they differ fundamentally in the share of the controls on AA by constituent traits. Species with high rates of canopy development and leaf turnover, exhibiting highly dynamic light environments, actively change AA by nitrogen reallocation among and partitioning within leaves. By contrast, species with slow leaf turnover exhibit a passive AA acclimation response, primarily determined by the acclimation of leaf structure to growth light. This review emphasizes that different combinations of traits are responsible for within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation in different plant functional types, and solves an old enigma of the role of mass- vs area-based traits in vegetation acclimation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis on structure-affinity relationship in the interactions of different oleanane-type triterpenoids with bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia; Wang, Zhenzhong; Yue, Ying; Li, Qian; Shao, Shijun

    2015-09-01

    Oleanane-type triterpenoids serve as an important group of plant secondary metabolites with a variety of biological activities and the C-3 position substitution pattern is a significant structural feature for their biological activities. Three selected oleanane-type triterpenoids (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, and carbenoxolone) bearing different substituents (glucuronic acid dimer, hydroxyl, and succinyl groups) at the C-3 position were studied for their affinities to bind bovine serum albumin (BSA) by steady-state fluorescence, synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra. The binding mechanism of the triterpenoids to BSA is due to the formation of the triterpenoids-BSA complex and the binding affinity is strongest for carbenoxolone and ranked in the order carbenoxolone > glycyrrhetinic acid > glycyrrhizin. The thermodynamic parameters calculated at different temperatures showed that triterpenoids binding to BSA primarily depended on hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding. The distance between the bound triterpenoid and BSA was determined on the basis of the Förster's energy transfer theory. Displacement experiments using phenylbutazone and ibuprofen showed the binding site of triterpenoids on BSA at subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I). The effect of triterpenoids on BSA conformation was analyzed by UV-vis absorption, and synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. These results revealed that the C-3 position substitution pattern significantly affects the structure-affinity relationships of oleanane-type triterpenoid binding to BSA and further affects the bioavailability of triterpenoids in the blood circulatory system. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Immunogenicity of Structurally Perturbed Hen Egg Lysozyme Adsorbed to Silicone Oil Microdroplets in Wild-Type and Transgenic Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Carly F; Soucie, Kaitlin R; Song, Jane S; Strauch, Pamela; Torres, Raul M; Carpenter, John F; Ragheb, Jack A; Randolph, Theodore W

    2017-06-01

    Silicone oil microdroplets may act as adjuvants, promoting unwanted immune responses against both foreign and self-proteins. Proteins often unfold upon adsorption to silicone oil microdroplets, but it is unclear how such unfolding might affect the immune response. In this study, we found that hen egg lysozyme (HEL) readily adsorbed to silicone oil microdroplets and perturbed the conformation of HEL. We compared the immune response to injections of HEL formulated in the presence and absence of silicone oil microdroplets in both wild-type mice and transgenic littermates that express a soluble form of HEL (sHEL), thus rendering them immunologically tolerant to this nominal self-antigen. Following 2 subcutaneous injections of a HEL formulation containing silicone oil microdroplets, wild-type mice exhibited a stronger IgG1 antibody response against HEL compared to the response in wild-type mice that administered an oil-free HEL formulation. However, when HEL was subcutaneously administered to sHEL-transgenic mice, immunological tolerance to sHEL was not broken in the presence of silicone oil microdroplets. Thus, although structural perturbations in proteins adsorbed to silicone oil microdroplets may augment the immune response, in the case of endogenously expressed proteins, such structural perturbations may not be sufficient to result in a breach of immunological tolerance. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of structural and economic factors on hospitalization costs, inpatient mortality, and treatment type of traumatic hip fractures in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Tarun; Moos, Rudolf M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Bopp, Matthias; Senn, Oliver; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Neuhaus, Valentin; Ciritsis, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of structural and potentially economic factors determining cost, treatment type, and inpatient mortality of traumatic hip fractures are important health policy issues. We showed that insurance status and treatment in university hospitals were significantly associated with treatment type (i.e., primary hip replacement), cost, and lower inpatient mortality respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the structural level of hospital care and patient insurance type on treatment, hospitalization cost, and inpatient mortality in cases with traumatic hip fractures in Switzerland. The Swiss national medical statistic 2011-2012 was screened for adults with hip fracture as primary diagnosis. Gender, age, insurance type, year of discharge, hospital infrastructure level, length-of-stay, case weight, reason for discharge, and all coded diagnoses and procedures were extracted. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression with treatment by primary hip replacement as well as inpatient mortality as dependent variables were performed. We obtained 24,678 inpatient case records from the medical statistic. Hospitalization costs were calculated from a second dataset, the Swiss national cost statistic (7528 cases with hip fractures, discharged in 2012). Average inpatient costs per case were the highest for discharges from university hospitals (US$21,471, SD US$17,015) and the lowest in basic coverage hospitals (US$18,291, SD US$12,635). Controlling for other variables, higher costs for hip fracture treatment at university hospitals were significant in multivariate regression (p < 0.001). University hospitals had a lower inpatient mortality rate than full and basic care providers (2.8% vs. both 4.0%); results confirmed in our multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.434, 95% CI 1.127-1.824 and OR 1.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.139-1.870 for full and basic coverage hospitals vs. university hospitals

  7. Hiss and snort call types of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis: acoustic structure and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, Elena V; Volodin, Ilya A; Chelysheva, Elena V; Frey, Roland

    2018-01-09

    Vocalization as part of vigilance behaviour is widespread across animal taxa, including ruminants. Calls of wild-living giraffes have never been recorded and spectrographically investigated. This study reports the acoustic structure of vigilance-related hiss and snort calls of wild-living giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis. The hiss and snort calls were emitted during five recording sessions produced by nine individual giraffes (8 adults and 1 subadult) in their natural environment in Namibia (3 individuals) and Kenya (6 individuals). These calls attended vigilance behaviour toward humans in hides or in vehicles and cheetahs as natural predators of giraffe young. This study provides spectrographic analyses of 22 hiss and 20 snort calls. The giraffe hisses were broadband vocalizations of an average duration of 0.72 s (from 0.24 to 1.04 s) and a peak frequency of 0.69 kHz. The giraffe snorts were broadband pulsed calls of an average duration of 0.28 s (from 0.13 to 0.55 s), a peak frequency at 0.20 kHz and comprised a prominent low-frequency pulsation of 23.7 pulses/s. The acoustic structure of giraffe hisses is reminiscent of vigilance-related hisses of musk deer Moschus moschiferus. Giraffe snorts differ from snorts of other ruminants by their prominent pulsed pattern.

  8. Structure and function of a novel type of ATP-dependent Clp protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik I; Tryggvesson, Anders; Sharon, Michal; Diemand, Alexander V; Classen, Mirjam; Best, Christoph; Schmidt, Ronny; Schelin, Jenny; Stanne, Tara M; Bukau, Bernd; Robinson, Carol V; Witt, Susanne; Mogk, Axel; Clarke, Adrian K

    2009-05-15

    The Clp protease is conserved among eubacteria and most eukaryotes, and uses ATP to drive protein substrate unfolding and translocation into a chamber of sequestered proteolytic active sites. The main constitutive Clp protease in photosynthetic organisms has evolved into a functionally essential and structurally intricate enzyme. The model Clp protease from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus consists of the HSP100 molecular chaperone ClpC and a mixed proteolytic core comprised of two distinct subunits, ClpP3 and ClpR. We have purified the ClpP3/R complex, the first for a Clp proteolytic core comprised of heterologous subunits. The ClpP3/R complex has unique functional and structural features, consisting of twin heptameric rings each with an identical ClpP3(3)ClpR(4) configuration. As predicted by its lack of an obvious catalytic triad, the ClpR subunit is shown to be proteolytically inactive. Interestingly, extensive modification to ClpR to restore proteolytic activity to this subunit showed that its presence in the core complex is not rate-limiting for the overall proteolytic activity of the ClpCP3/R protease. Altogether, the ClpP3/R complex shows remarkable similarities to the 20 S core of the proteasome, revealing a far greater degree of convergent evolution than previously thought between the development of the Clp protease in photosynthetic organisms and that of the eukaryotic 26 S proteasome.

  9. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  10. The structuring role of microhabitat type in coral degradation zones: a case study with marine nematodes from Kenya and Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, M.; de Troch, M.; Ndaro, S. G. M.; Muthumbi, A.; Guilini, K.; Vanreusel, A.

    2007-03-01

    Nematode genus assemblages were identified from four locations in coral degradation zones (CDZs) along the African east coast: Watamu and Tiwi Beach (Kenya) and Matemwe and Makunduchi (Zanzibar). Three microhabitat types were distinguished: coralline sediment, coral gravel and coral fragments. Nematode community composition was comparable to that of other studies dealing with the same habitat. The presence of a common genus pool in CDZs was reflected in the considerable similarities between samples. The addition of coral fragments as a habitat for nematodes resulted in an increased importance of taxa typical for coarse sediments and large substrata. Local and regional turnover were of the same order of magnitude. The structuring effect of microhabitat type clearly overrode the effect on a local and regional scale. Differences in sediment characteristics were more important in structuring the nematode assemblages than differences between the coralline sediment and coral fragments. No effect related to the three-dimensional structure of coral fragments was found. Differences between nematode assemblages in the coralline sediment and on coral fragments were attributed to the exposed nature of the latter habitat, its large surface area and its microbial or algal cover. Differences in available food sources were reflected in nematode trophic composition.

  11. Structural analysis of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type D as a platform for the development of targeted secretion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Davies, Jonathan R; Moore, Kevin; Chaddock, John A; Ravi Acharya, K

    2015-09-01

    The botulinum neurotoxin type D is one of seven highly potent toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum which inhibit neurotransmission at cholinergic nerve terminals. A functional fragment derived from the toxin, LHn, consisting of the catalytic and translocation domains, has been heralded as a platform for the development of targeted secretion inhibitors. These secretion inhibitors are aimed at retargeting the toxin towards a specific cell type to inhibit vesicular secretion. Here we report crystal structures of LHn from serotype D at 2.3 Å, and that of SXN101959 at 3.1 Å resolution. SXN101959, a derivative that combines LHn from serotype D with a fragment of the growth hormone releasing hormone, has previously revealed promising results in inhibiting growth hormone release in pituitary somatotrophs. These structures offer for the first time insights into the translocation domain interaction with the catalytic domain in serotype D. Furthermore, structural information from small-angle X-ray scattering of LHn/D is compared among serotypes A, B, and D. Taken together, these results demonstrate the robustness of the 'LHn fold' across serotypes and its use in engineering additional polypeptide components with added functionality. Our study demonstrates the suitability of botulinum neurotoxin, and serotype D in particular, as a basis for engineering novel secretion inhibitors.

  12. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Bublitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport of e.g. ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  13. The cartilage-derived, C-type lectin (CLECSF1): structure of the gene and chromosomal location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, P J; Tapp, H; Grimm, D R

    1999-09-03

    Cartilage is a tissue that is primarily extracellular matrix, the bulk of which consists of proteoglycan aggregates constrained within a collagen framework. Candidate components that organize the extracellular assembly of the matrix consist of collagens, proteoglycans and multimeric glycoproteins. We describe the human gene structure of a potential organizing factor, a cartilage-derived member of the C-type lectin superfamily (CLECSF1; C-type lectin superfamily) related to the serum protein, tetranectin. We show by Northern analysis that this protein is restricted to cartilage and locate the gene on chromosome 16q23. We have characterized 10.9 kb of sequence upstream of the first exon. Similarly to human tetranectin, there are three exons. The residues that are conserved between CLECSF1 and tetranectin suggest that the cartilage-derived protein forms a trimeric structure similar to that of tetranectin, with three N-terminal alpha-helical domains aggregating through hydrophobic faces. The globular, C-terminal domain that has been shown to bind carbohydrate in some members of the family and plasminogen in tetranectin, is likely to have a similar overall structure to that of tetranectin.

  14. Structure and RNA-binding properties of the type III-A CRISPR-associated protein Csm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrle, Ajla; Su, Andreas A H; Ebert, Judith; Benda, Christian; Randau, Lennart; Conti, Elena

    2013-11-01

    The prokaryotic adaptive immune system is based on the incorporation of genome fragments of invading viral genetic elements into clusters of regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The CRISPR loci are transcribed and processed into crRNAs, which are then used to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The large family of CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins mediates this interference response. We have characterized Methanopyrus kandleri Csm3, a protein of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas complex. The 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure shows an elaborate four-domain fold organized around a core RRM-like domain. The overall architecture highlights the structural homology to Cas7, the Cas protein that forms the backbone of type I interference complexes. Csm3 binds unstructured RNAs in a sequence non-specific manner, suggesting that it interacts with the variable spacer sequence of the crRNA. The structural and biochemical data provide insights into the similarities and differences in this group of Cas proteins.

  15. Application of cubane-type structures to hydro-treatment catalysis; Application des structures d'architecture cubane a la catalyse d'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, K.

    2003-11-01

    [Mo{sub 3}S{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 9}]{sup 4+} has been prepared and supported on zeolites H-USY and NaY. Using this cluster as a precursor for HDT catalysts has many advantages: it is cationic, already in a sulfided form, and a promoter such as a second metal M' such as Cu, Ni or Pd can be incorporated to form Mo{sub 3}M'S{sub 4}{sup 4+}. The cubane structure was found unchanged after loading in the case of NaY (EXAFS, XPS) and although TEM showed that Mo was mainly on the outer surface of the zeolite crystals, DRX confirmed that a modification of the counter ion also occurred, and an isotherm was obtained with NaY zeolite. A thermal stability study was led under N{sub 2} and a mixture of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S to optimize the pretreatment of the catalysts. Those were subsequently pre-sulfided and tested in toluene hydrogenation and their activities with both types of zeolites turned out to be the same or even better than that of catalysts prepared by the classical route. An application to mixed cubane-type structures is also reported. (author)

  16. The structure and composition of metal particles in two type 6 ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland-Duffield, C. E.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.

    1991-01-01

    The microstructure and composition of taenite particles were examined in two type-6 ordinary chondrites, Kernouve (H6) and Saint Severin (LL6), using reflected light microscopy and a combination of electron optical instruments. It was found that, in both meteorites, the taenite particles consisted of a narrow rim of high-Ni taenite and a central region of cloudy zone similar to those present in iron meteorites. The microstructure of the cloudy zone in Saint Severin was coarser than that in Kernouve , due to the higher Ni content and slower cooling rate of the former. Three microstructural zones were observed in the outer taenite rim of both meteorites, the origin of which is considered likely to be due to the presence of ordered domain boundaries or to the presence of two phases FeNi and FeNi3 in the high-Ni region of the outer taenite rim.

  17. Flux Growth and Crystal Structure Refinement of Calcite Type Borate GaBO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A single crystal of gallium borate, GaBO3, 4 × 4 × 0.2 mm3 in size has been grown by spontaneous crystallization with a molten flux based on a Bi2O3-3B2O3 solvent. From single crystal X-ray diffraction measurement, GaBO3 was found to crystallize in the trigonal calcite type, space group R-3c, with cell dimensions a = 4.56590(10 and c = 14.1764(4 Å, Z = 6. Layers of distorted [GaO6] octahedra are interleaved by layers of triangular planar [BO3] unites. The transmission spectrum on a single crystal indicated that the band gap of GaBO3 is 3.62 eV.

  18. Place Of Hunting Tourism In The Structure Of Modern Tourism Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available From an economic and socialpoint of view, hunting tourism has two sub-categories: resident hunting andtourism hunting (for the travellers who travel long distances to participate inhunting. Tourism hunting covers six types of tourism: subsistence indigenoushunting, traditional hunting, commercial hunting, recreational-sport hunting,integrated hunting, and optimum level game maintenance hunting. Huntingtourists should be classified into three distinct categories: large gamehunting tourists (for whom what matters is adventure and trophies, small gamehunting tourists (interested in the hunting experience, and experiencedhunting tourists (characterised by the use of frontal charge guns or arrowshooting. Hunting tourism can be considered a sub-category of nature tourismbecause it contributes to the preservation of area biodiversity, of culturaltourism as educational, cultural activity, and of sustainable tourism inprotected areas (ecotourism whose hunting tourism sub-category is trophyhunting

  19. Seismic Experimental Study on New-Type Composite Exterior Wallboard with Integrated Structural Function and Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the seismic performance of new-type composite exterior wallboard, a total of six exterior and interior wallboards were incorporated in the experiment of seismic performance. Seismic performance such as the stress process, damage mode, hysteresis and skeleton curve, load-carrying and ductility coefficient, damping and energy dissipation, stiffness degradation as well as material strain of the exterior wallboards were analyzed with emphasis and compared with interior wallboards. Results of the experiment and analysis showed that both interior and exterior wallboards exhibited outstanding seismic performance. Due to the existence of insulation layer and externally bonded single gypsum board, the capacity of elastoplastic deformation and seismic energy dissipation of the exterior wallboards was improved and each seismic performance indicator of the exterior wallboards outperformed the interior wallboards.

  20. Structural, electrical and magnetic study of Nd–Ni substituted W-type Hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Imran [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Sadiq, Imran [Center for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab Lahore (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Rana, Mazhar-Ud-Din, E-mail: mazaharrana@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Shah, Afzal [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia); Naeem Ashiq, Muhammad, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-01

    A series of Nd–Ni substituted W-type hexaferrites with composition Sr{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}Co{sub 2}Ni{sub y}Fe{sub 16−y}O{sub 27} (where x=0.0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.1 and y=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) has been prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method. The effect of rare earth Nd substitution at strontium site while Ni at iron site on microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties has been investigated. All the XRD patterns of the synthesized materials show single W-type hexagonal phase without any other intermediate phases. SEM images show that the particles are homogeneous and hexagonal platelet-like shape. DC electrical resistivity measurements were carried out in temperature range of 298–673 K showing metal-to-semiconductor transition when doped with Nd–Ni. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, remanence, squareness ratio and coercivity were calculated from hysteresis loops and were observed to increase with the increase in Nd–Ni concentration up to a certain substitution level which is beneficial for high density recording media. - Highlights: • The simple method has been used to obtain the single hexagonal phase. • The particles are found to be in hexagonal plate like shape. • The saturation magnetization and remanence has been improved. • The synthesized materials can be used for applications in recording media.

  1. Structure and properties of natural humic substances of the oxyhumolite type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesela, L.; Kubal, M.; Kozler, J.; Innemanova, P. [Dekonta Co., Prague (Czech Republic). Division for Remedial & Environmental Projects

    2005-07-01

    Humic substances are naturally occurring organic compounds formed by decomposition of organic matter and by synthetic activities of microorganisms. Humic acids, fulvic acids and humin are major components of humic substances. Oxyhumolite (oxidised young lignite) is a natural, inert and non-toxic material, which can contain up to 90% of biochemically active humic substances. One of the top-quality oxyhumolites is in the Czech Republic. Some of the North-Bohemian oxyhumolites contain more than 80% of humic acids with low contents of bitumen (< 0.1 %) and inorganics. Due to their structure and suitable properties, these substances appear to be applicable in detoxication of contaminants present in the environment. Natural humic substances are suitable for sorption, ion exchange and biodegradation processes.

  2. A method for acoustic source location in plate-type structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, Amir; Davoodi, Saman

    2017-09-01

    In this study an algorithm based on Shannon entropy, cross-time frequency spectrum (CTFS) and frequency varying velocities was proposed for structure health monitoring in two-layer plate. A linear array of two sensors is applied to capture the signals. By reducing the number of sensors we used a secondary pattern to get enough information for source locating. For this purpose a pattern for secondary points based on Shannon entropy and cost function was developed. Then to estimate the time delay of signals, cross-time frequency spectrum function was taken from captured signals. The time delay was calculated when CTFS function reached the maximum value. By taking short time Fourier transform of cross correlation function of captures signals and using dispersive curves, time delay and corresponding frequency dependent velocity are estimated. The experiments were carried out and the results showed high precision of presented algorithm.

  3. Performance of a novel type of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell with honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Morales, Juan Carlos; Savvin, Stanislav N.; Nunez, Pedro [Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, David [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, Juan; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Energias Renovables-Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Roa, Joan Josep; Segarra, Merce [DIOPMA, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    A novel design, alternative to the conventional electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. In this new design, a honeycomb-electrolyte is fabricated from hexagonal cells, providing high mechanical strength to the whole structure and supporting the thin layer used as electrolyte of a SOFC. This new design allows a reduction of {proportional_to}70% of the electrolyte material and it renders modest performances over 320 mW cm{sup -2} but high volumetric power densities, i.e. 1.22 W cm{sup -3} under pure CH{sub 4} at 900 C, with a high OCV of 1.13 V, using the standard Ni-YSZ cermet as anode, Pt as cathode material and air as the oxidant gas. (author)

  4. Equipment installation structure of roof slab for tank type FBR and method of equipment installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takao; Yamakawa, Masanori; Otsuka, Masaya; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce equipment thermal stress and deformation by eliminating uneven temperature distribution caused at the equipment through section of the roof slab for the tank FBR, and at the same time, simplify the structure installation. Method: Multiple number of vertical fin projects are fit on the equipment through-section inside wall for the roof slab and the cylindrical equipment peripheral wall, and with these projected fins, the ring space of the through section is vertically divided into multiple sections in the circumferential direction. The vertical fins on the through-section inside wall and the fins on the equipment peripheral wall are contacted with each other by revolving them in the lateral direction. As a result, the natural convection caused by the difference of temperatures in the vertical direction of the ring space becomes a convection within each sector divided, and never generates circumferential circulation, which reduce uneven temperature distribution caused at the equipment through section. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. New types of wheat chromosomal structural variations in derivatives of wheat-rye hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zongxiang; Li, Meng; Chen, Lei; Wang, Yangyang; Ren, Zhenglong; Fu, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements induced by wheat-rye hybridization is a very well investigated research topic. However, the structural alterations of wheat chromosomes in wheat-rye hybrids are seldom reported. Octoploid triticale lines were derived from common wheat Triticum. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'. Some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' and common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Chuannong27' followed by self-fertilization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 and rye genomic DNA as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A, 6A, 1B, 2B, 6B, 7B, 1D, 3D and 7D were observed. 5AL arm carrying intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 or both Oligo-pSc119.2-1 and Oligo-pTa535-1 signals, 6AS, 1BS and 1DL arms containing terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 6BS and 3DS arms without terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 7BS without subtelomeric Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal and 7DL with intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal have been observed. However, these changed wheat chromosomes have not been detected in 'Mianyang11' and Chuannong 27. The altered 5A, 6A, 7B and 7D chromosomes in this study have not been reported and represent several new karyotype structures of common wheat chromosomes. These rearranged wheat chromosomes in the present study afford some new genetic variations for wheat breeding program and are valuable materials for studying the biological function of tandem repetitive DNA sequences.

  6. An integrated study to analyze soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential in two forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (P<0.05 at natural secondary forest site. The regression analysis showed that a strong positive (P<0.05 correlation was existed between the soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (P<0.05 to the relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback

  7. An integrated study to analyze soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential in two forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2014-01-01

    Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (PThe regression analysis showed that a strong positive (Pthe soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (Pthe relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback responses of the terrestrial ecosystem to environmental changes.

  8. NMR structure of a biologically active peptide containing the RNA-binding domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, A; Bishop, K; Peterlin, B M; Turck, C; Parslow, T G; James, T L

    1994-01-01

    The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances transcription by binding to a specific RNA element on nascent viral transcripts. Binding is mediated by a 10-amino acid basic domain that is rich in arginines and lysines. Here we report the three-dimensional peptide backbone structure of a biologically active 25-mer peptide that contains the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat basic domain linked to the core regulatory domain of another lentiviral Tat--i.e., that from equine infectious anemia virus. Circular dichroism and two-dimensional proton NMR studies of this hybrid peptide indicate that the Tat basic domain forms a stable alpha-helix, whereas the adjacent regulatory sequence is mostly in extended form. These findings suggest that the tendency to form stable alpha-helices may be a common property of arginine- and lysine-rich RNA-binding domains. Images PMID:8058789

  9. Structure of the human beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase from the mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct ways of organizing fatty acid biosynthesis exist: the multifunctional type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) of mammals, fungi, and lower eukaryotes with activities residing on one or two polypeptides; and the dissociated type II FAS of prokaryotes, plastids, and mitochondria with individual...... activities encoded by discrete genes. The beta-ketoacyl [ACP] synthase (KAS) moiety of the mitochondrial FAS (mtKAS) is targeted by the antibiotic cerulenin and possibly by the other antibiotics inhibiting prokaryotic KASes: thiolactomycin, platensimycin, and the alpha-methylene butyrolactone, C75. The high...... degree of structural similarity between mitochondrial and prokaryotic KASes complicates development of novel antibiotics targeting prokaryotic KAS without affecting KAS domains of cytoplasmic FAS. KASes catalyze the C(2) fatty acid elongation reaction using either a Cys-His-His or Cys-His-Asn catalytic...

  10. Genome-scale multilocus microsatellite typing of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing unit I reveals phylogeographic structure and specific genotypes linked to human infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Llewellyn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the most important parasitic infection in Latin America and is also genetically highly diverse, with at least six discrete typing units (DTUs reported: Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, and IIe. However, the current six-genotype classification is likely to be a poor reflection of the total genetic diversity present in this undeniably ancient parasite. To determine whether epidemiologically important information is "hidden" at the sub-DTU level, we developed a 48-marker panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate population structure among 135 samples from across the geographic distribution of TcI. This DTU is the major cause of resurgent human disease in northern South America but also occurs in silvatic triatomine vectors and mammalian reservoir hosts throughout the continent. Based on a total dataset of 12,329 alleles, we demonstrate that silvatic TcI populations are extraordinarily genetically diverse, show spatial structuring on a continental scale, and have undergone recent biogeographic expansion into the southern United States of America. Conversely, the majority of human strains sampled are restricted to two distinct groups characterised by a considerable reduction in genetic diversity with respect to isolates from silvatic sources. In Venezuela, most human isolates showed little identity with known local silvatic strains, despite frequent invasion of the domestic setting by infected adult vectors. Multilocus linkage indices indicate predominantly clonal parasite propagation among all populations. However, excess homozygosity among silvatic strains and raised heterozygosity among domestic populations suggest that some level of genetic recombination cannot be ruled out. The epidemiological significance of these findings is discussed.

  11. Effect of Correlation Structure in Generalized Estimating Equation and Quasi Least Square: An Application in Type 2 Diabetes Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip C Nath

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Quasi-Least Squares (QLS is useful for different correlation structure with attachment of Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE. The purpose of this work is to compare the regression parameter in the presence of different correlation structure with respect to GEE and QLS method. The comparison of estimated regression parameter has been performed in clinical trial data set; studying the effect of drug treatment (metformin with pioglitazone Vs (gliclazide with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients. In case of QLS, the correlation coefficient of post-parandinal blood sugar (PPBS under tridiagonal correlation is 0.008 while it failed to produce by GEE. It has been found that the combination of metformin with pioglitazone is more effective as compared to the combination of gliclazide with pioglitazone.

  12. Effect of Correlation Structure in Generalized Estimating Equation and Quasi Least Square: An Application in Type 2 Diabetes Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip C Nath

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quasi-Least Squares (QLS is useful for different correlation structure with attachment of Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE. The purpose of this work is to compare the regression parameter in the presence of different correlation structure with respect to GEE and QLS method. The comparison of estimated regression parameter has been performed in clinical trial data set; studying the effect of drug treatment (metformin with pioglitazone Vs (gliclazide with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients. In case of QLS, the correlation coefficient of post-parandinal blood sugar (PPBS under tridiagonal correlation is 0.008 while it failed to produce by GEE. It has been found that the combination of metformin with pioglitazone is more effective as compared to the combination of gliclazide with pioglitazone.

  13. Wind Load Design of Hangar-Type Closed Steel Structures with Different Roof Pitches Using Abaqus CAE Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybike Özyüksel Çiftçioğlu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structures convert the kinetic energy available in the air into potential energy which is in the form of pressure and suction forces reducing or fully stopping its motion. The potential impact of the wind depends on the geometric properties and pertinacity of a building, the angle of the wind flow, its strength and velocity. Design gains importance for tall buildings against the impact of the resonance along with the force based on pressure. Relevant calculations are made in Turkey based on the TS 498 Wind Load Velocity Criterion and this standard is currently being updated. This study develops the wind load design of hangar-type closed steel structures with different roof pitches using Abaqus CAE software.

  14. Influence of the external heating type in the morphological and structural characteristics of alumina powder prepared by combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, V.V.; Freitas, N.L.; Viana, K.M.S.; Dias, G.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Lira, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of the external heating in the morphological and structural characteristics of the alumina powder prepared by combustion reaction. It was evaluated different types of external heating: muffle oven, microwave oven and ceramic plate with electrical spiral resistance. The powders were prepared according to the propellants and explosives theory, using urea in the stoichiometric proportion (Φe = 1). During the synthesis parameters such as flame combustion time and temperature were measured. The structural and morphological characteristics of the powders were evaluate by XRD, particle size distribution, SEM and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The results showed the production of a-alumina as unique phase and formed by agglomerates with irregular plate shape of thin particles for all studied conditions. The powders prepared by electrical oven presented small particle size, with narrow agglomerates size distribution. (author)

  15. High quantum efficiency N-structure type-II superlattice mid-wavelength infrared detector with resonant cavity enhanced design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoyue; Xu, Yun; Li, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Bai, Lin; Yu, Hailong; Fu, Dong; Zhu, Haijun; Song, Guofeng

    2017-05-01

    We propose a resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) N-structure type-II superlattice (T2SL) mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) photodetector which can be used for the detection of methane gas at 3.3 μm. The theoretical analysis of quantum efficiency (QE) shows that the peak QE can be enhanced from 0.45 to 0.80 at 3.3 μm after 12 period AlAs0.09Sb0.91/GaSb DBR is introduced to the N-structure T2SL detector and QE exhibits the narrow bandwidth characteristic near the target wavelength. By analyzing the refractive indices of different materials and the reflectance of different DBRs, we also discuss how to determine the component materials of quarter-wavelength DBR reflectors.

  16. Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Thermal Behaviors of Two Supramolecular Salamo-Type Cobalt(II and Zinc(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the syntheses of two new complexes, [Co(L1(H2O2] (1 and [{Zn(L2(μ-OAcZn(n-PrOH}2] (2, from asymmetric halogen-substituted Salamo-type ligands H2L1 and H3L2, respectively. Investigation of the crystal structure of complex 1 reveals that the complex includes one Co(II ion, one (L12− unit and two coordinated water molecules. Complex 1 shows slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry, forming an infinite 2D supramolecular structure by intermolecular hydrogen bond and π–π stacking interactions. Complex 2 contains four Zn(IIions, two completely deprotonated (L23− moieties, two coordinated μ-OAc− ions and n-propanol molecules. The Zn(II ions in complex 2 display slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal or square pyramidal geometries.

  17. An area-efficient topology for VLSI implementation of Viterbi decoders and other shuffle-exchange type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik Nordtorp; Paaske, Erik

    1991-01-01

    A topology for single-chip implementation of computing structures based on shuffle-exchange (SE)-type interconnection networks is presented. The topology is suited for structures with a small number of processing elements (i.e. 32-128) whose area cannot be neglected compared to the area required....... The topology has been used in a VLSI implementation of the add-compare-select (ACS) module of a fully parallel K=7, R=1/2 Viterbi decoder. Both the floor-planning issues and some of the important algorithm and circuit-level aspects of this design are discussed. The chip has been designed and fabricated in a 2....... The interconnection network occupies 32% of the area.>...

  18. The Deep-Sea Polyextremophile Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21 Rough-Type LPS: Structure and Inhibitory Activity towards Toxic LPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Palmigiano, Angelo; Paciello, Ida; Pallach, Mateusz; Garozzo, Domenico; Bernardini, Maria-Lina; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M.; Molinaro, Antonio; Silipo, Alba

    2017-01-01

    The structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from extremophiles has important implications in several biomedical and therapeutic applications. The polyextremophile Gram-negative bacterium Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21, isolated from one of the most extreme habitats on our planet, the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin Thetis, represents a fascinating microorganism to investigate in terms of its LPS component. Here we report the elucidation of the full structure of the R-type LPS isolated from H. lacunaris TB21 that was attained through a multi-technique approach comprising chemical analyses, NMR spectroscopy, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cellular immunology studies were executed on the pure R-LPS revealing a very interesting effect on human innate immunity as an inhibitor of the toxic Escherichia coli LPS. PMID:28653982

  19. Population Genetic Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Strains as Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henri, Clémentine; Félix, Benjamin; Guillier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium that may cause the foodborne illness listeriosis. Only a small amount of data about the population genetic structure of strains isolated from food is available. This study aimed to provide an accurate view of the L. monocytogenes food strain....... The distribution of sequence types (STs) was compared between food and clinical strains on a panel of 675 strains. High congruence between PFGE and MLST was found. Out of 73 PFGE clusters, the two most prevalent corresponded to ST9 and ST121. Using original statistical analysis, we demonstrated that (i....... This observation may be directly relevant for refining risk analysis models for the better management of food safety. This study showed a very useful backward compatibility between PFGE and MLST for surveillance. The results enabled better understanding of the population structure of L. monocytogenes strains...

  20. Low-temperature structural transformation and magnetic properties of GaMo4S8-type defect spinel compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamraj, V.F.; Lejtus, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Crystal structure and physical properties of GaMo 4 S 8 and GaM x Mo 4 S 8 (M=C, Si, Ge) phases, referring to magnetic semiconductors were investiagted at room and low temperatures. All investigated compounds in the range T p =30-45 K experience phase transformations. Theoretical group analysis of possible symmetry changes, supposing that observed crystal-phase transformation is the first-kind transformation, close to the second-kind one, is carried out. It is shown, that crystal-phase transformation is syfficient in forming magnetic properties of ''defect spinel'' type structural phases (Curie temperature T M ≅ 20 K). Superexchange interactions between magnetic moments, localized on molybdenum ions, are responsible for magnetic order

  1. Lack of immunogenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC12 preparation administered by the oral route to human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, R W R; Cooper, K J; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Before a novel protein can be used in foods, its potential allergenicity must be assessed. In this study, healthy volunteers consumed ice structuring protein (ISP) Type III preparation or a control material 5 days a week for a total of 8 weeks. General measures of health were recorded during...... background against which to interpret the results. Nevertheless, the absence of an immune response using a protocol which could have been expected to result in a response with a strongly immunogenic protein, confirms the conclusions of earlier published work, and attests to the lack of allergenicity of ISP...

  2. Experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spiral structures by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, Masahiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Yukio

    2017-10-16

    We report on experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spirals in Mn thin films on a W(110) substrate using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) with a double-axis superconducting vector magnet. From SP-STM images using Fe-coated W tips magnetized to the out-of-plane and [001] directions, we found that both Mn mono- and double-layers exhibit cycloidal rotation whose spins rotate in the planes normal to the propagating directions. Our results agree with the theoretical prediction based on the symmetry of the system, supporting that the magnetic structures are driven by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  3. Structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharide(s) from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-10-18

    Lipopolysaccharide was obtained by phenol-water extraction from dried bacterial cells of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in a polysaccharide mixture, which was studied by composition and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following polysaccharide structures were established, where italics indicate a non-stoichiometric (∼40%) 2-O-methylation of l-rhamnose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pierce-type dispersion relation for an intense relativistic electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Pierce-type dispersion relation is derived for the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a cylindrical slow-wave structure of arbitrary corrugation depth. It is shown that near a resonance, the Pierce parameter can be expressed in terms of the vacuum dispersion function and the beam current. The dispersion relation is valid in both the low-current (Compton) regime and the high-current (Raman) regime. The dispersion characteristics of the interaction, such as the linear instability growth rate and bandwidth, are analyzed for both regimes

  5. Effect of the edge type and strain on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the BNRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Swastibrata; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Singhl, Abhishek K

    2012-03-01

    We present the effect of edge structures on the edge energy and stress of BN nanoribbons. Ab initio density functional calculations show that the armchair edge is lower in energy than the zigzag edge by 0.43 eV/angstrom. Both types of the edges are under the compressive stress. The zigzag edges are mechanically more stable than the armchair edges. Based on the calculated edge energies, the equilibrium shape of the BN flakes are found to be regular hexagonal, and dominated by the armchair edges. The zigzag ribbons are found to be half-metallic, whereas the armchair ribbons are semiconducting.

  6. Structures and efficiency areas of object control systems with various types of recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Tsyryapkina, A. V.; Burkov, V. N.; Ivushkin, K. A.

    2017-09-01

    The work is devoted to the study of automatic control systems (ACS) of objects with various types of recycling. The characteristic feature of such objects is the presence of a delay element in the coordinates. It is known that only with the help of recycling the use of raw materials and energy resources can be maximized. However, little attention has been paid to the control of such objects in the well-known publications, which gives the study a particular importance. The paper describes a classification of objects with recycling proposed by the authors with the identification of four classes of objects: recycling “by concentration”, “by mass”, “by parameters”, combined recycling. ACS are synthesized for the first three classes of objects. The task of comparative analysis of the systems effectiveness with a model control law and the proposed synthesized systems is set, as well as the task of determination of areas of systems effective operation depending on the variable value of the ratio of the delay time in the recycling chain and in the direct circuit, the conclusions are drawn.

  7. Hyperglycemia induced reactive species trigger structural changes in human serum albumin of type 1 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zarina; Neelofar, Km; Arfat, Mir Yasir; Zaman, Asif; Tarannum, Akhlas; Parveen, Iffat; Ahmad, Shafeeque; Khan, Md Adnan; Badar, Asim; Islam, Shireen Naaz

    2018-02-01

    Chronic oxidative stress fuels pathogenesis of a large set of diseases. Oxidative stress is the cause and consequence of numerous diseases including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), in which there is selective destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. Studies have documented that hyperglycemia produces profound stress. In vivo production of numerous reactive oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine species and lipid/sugar oxidation products in T1DM patients may be the result of persistent hyperglycemia. Post-translational modifications by reactive species may create new antigenic epitopes and play a role in the development of autoimmune response. In this paper our main focus was to establish the effect of existing hyperglycemia induced oxido-nitrosative stress in T1DM patients on the integrity of human serum albumin. Raised nitric oxide, carbonyl, RBC hemolysis, lowered ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), thiol and deformed RBC in T1DM are all highly suggestive of persistent oxido-nitrosative stress. Hyperglycemia induced generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) was established by LCMS. Chronic oxido-nitrosative stress can modify HSA in T1DM patients, producing immunologically active albumin. Therefore, it is speculated that the aberrant HSA may play a role in the initiation/progression of T1DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in the structural and biochemical composition of the arterial wall in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone

    nedbrydningen. Flere studier har vist, at rygning påvirker den arterielle stivhed, mens andre studier peger mod, at cystein proteasen calpian-1 øger mængden af matrix metalloproteinasen 2 (MMP-2), som nedbryder bl.a. elastin. Vores hypotese i studie III gik både ud på, at calpain-1 kunne være forøget hos...... patienter med type 2 diabetes, hvorved den vil føre til forøget kollagen indhold, forøget MMP-2 og reduceret elastin i arterierne, og at rygning kunne have en indvirkning på mængden af disse molekyler. Niveauet af MMP-2, calpain-1 og actin α smooth muscle blev målt ved hjælp af western blotting i mammaria...... ikke påvirkede mængden af calpain-1, MMP-2, desmosine og hydroxyproline i den human arterie væg, mens mængden af desmosine var nedsat i arterier fra ryger og tidligere rygere sammenlignet med ikke rygere. Et andet protein der ligeledes er involveret i den strukturelle sammensætning af arterievæggen er...

  9. Strategic hospital alliances: do the type and market structure of strategic hospital alliances matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Clement, J P; Luke, R D

    1999-10-01

    Throughout the 1990s, hospitals formed local alliances to defend against increasingly powerful hospital rivals and to improve their market positions relative to aggressive and consolidating managed-care organizations. An important consequence of hospitals combining or aligning horizontally at the local level is a significant consolidation of hospital markets. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the type of the local strategic hospital alliances (SHAs), market, environment, and operational factors with financial performance. The study is a cross-sectional analysis of the financial performance across SHAs in all metropolitan statistical areas in 1995. SHAs with dominant or dominant for-profit (FP) hospitals are not more financially successful than other SHAs. SHAs in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) or SHA penetration have lower revenues per case-mix adjusted discharge. The operational characteristics, proportion of teaching members in the SHA, and SHA bed size, result in higher revenues and expenses, whereas greater SHA technical efficiency results in lower costs. Health care organizations are centralizing their operations and governance. This study shows that this trend has not added financial value to hospital collectives, at least at this point in their development.

  10. Structural brain abnormalities in patients with type I bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Dante G G; Neves, Maila de Castro L; Albuquerque, Maicon R; Turecki, Gustavo; Ding, Yang; de Souza-Duran, Fabio Luis; Busatto, Geraldo; Correa, Humberto

    2017-07-30

    Some studies have identified brain morphological changes in the frontolimbic network (FLN) in bipolar subjects who attempt suicide (SA). The present study investigated neuroanatomical abnormalities in the FLN to find a possible neural signature for suicidal behavior in patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I). We used voxel-based morphometry to compare euthymic patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide (n=20), who had not attempted suicide (n=19) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=20). We also assessed the highest medical lethality of their previous SA. Compared to the participants who had not attempted suicide, the patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide exhibited significantly increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which was more pronounced and extended further to the left ACC in the high-lethality subgroup (p<0.05, with family-wise error (FWE) correction for multiple comparisons using small-volume correction). GMV in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex was also related to suicide lethality (p<0.05, FWE-corrected). The current findings suggest that morphological changes in the FLN could be a signature of previous etiopathogenic processes affecting regions related to suicidality and its severity in BD-I patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of strain on local structure and lithium ionic conduction in garnet-type solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Ito, Tomoko; Hongahally Basappa, Rajendra; Bekarevich, Raman; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka

    2017-11-01

    All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have various problems associated with their usage that are normally not encountered in conventional lithium-ion batteries. Stress on interfaces between solid electrolytes and active materials is one of the key issues because the active materials change their volume during charging/discharging. In this work, first, we reveal that garnet-type solid electrolytes, Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 (LLZT), prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique, exhibit a residual tensile stress of more than 100 MPa in the direction of the SPS pressure. Then, the influence of the strain on ionic conduction is investigated in detail. It is demonstrated that the strain causes no change in the bulk resistance, while the grain boundary resistance increases in both the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy. The results suggest the importance of the strength of grain boundaries (including interfaces) for the practical application of ASSBs.

  12. Giant negative thermal expansion in bonded MnCoGe-based compounds with Ni2In-type hexagonal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Ying; Hu, Feng-Xia; Bao, Li-Fu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qing-Zhen; Wu, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yao; Shen, Fei-Ran; Kuang, Hao; Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Wen-Liang; Zheng, Xin-Qi; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2015-02-11

    MnCoGe-based compounds undergo a giant negative thermal expansion (NTE) during the martensitic structural transition from Ni2In-type hexagonal to TiNiSi-type orthorhombic structure. High-resolution neutron diffraction experiments revealed that the expansion of unit cell volume can be as large as ΔV/V ∼ 3.9%. The optimized compositions with concurrent magnetic and structural transitions have been studied for magnetocaloric effect. However, these materials have not been considered as NTE materials partially due to the limited temperature window of phase transition. The as-prepared MnCoGe-based compounds are quite brittle and naturally collapse into powders. By using a few percents (3-4%) of epoxy to bond the powders, we introduced residual stress in the bonded samples and thus realized the broadening of structural transition by utilizing the specific characteristics of lattice softening enforced by the stress. As a result, giant NTE (not only the linear NTE coefficient α but also the operation-temperature window) has been achieved. For example, the average α̅ as much as -51.5 × 10(-6)/K with an operating temperature window as wide as 210 K from 122 to 332 K has been observed in a bonded MnCo0.98Cr0.02Ge compound. Moreover, in the region between 250 and 305 K near room temperature, the α value (-119 × 10(-6)/K) remains nearly independent of temperature. Such an excellent performance exceeds that of most other materials reported previously, suggesting it can potentially be used as a NTE material, particularly for compensating the materials with large positive thermal expansions.

  13. Influence of Electron Donor Type and Concentration on Microbial Population Structure During Uranium Reduction and Remobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, R. A.; Brodie, E. L.; Kim, Y.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T.; Desantis, T. Z.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Firestone, M. K.

    2007-12-01

    Enhanced reductive precipitation of U(VI) through stimulation of indigenous microorganisms is an attractive, low- cost strategy for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwaters and sediments. The rate of organic carbon (OC) supply determines not only the amount of electron donor available for bioreduction of U(VI), but also affects the resulting concentration of aqueous (bi)carbonate generated by microbial respiration. Increased (bi)carbonate concentrations drive aqueous U(VI) concentrations to higher levels and make U(IV) oxidation under reducing conditions favorable. We designed a long-term column study to investigate the effects of different OC forms and supply rates on the stability of bioreduced U and on the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities. OC was supplied as acetate or lactate at four different concentrations and columns were sampled at three time points. In the columns receiving high OC supply the time points correspond to a phases of net U-reduction, U(IV) reoxidation and U(VI) remobilization, and stable levels of U mobilization. DNA was extracted from column sediments, 16S rRNA genes were amplified and the communities analyzed using a high-density phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip). Lactate and acetate supplied at equivalent rates had a similar impact on uranium mobility with higher OC resulting in re-oxidation of U(IV) after an initial period of U(VI) reduction. Similarly, organic carbon (OC) supply rate, not OC form, had the largest impact on microbial community structure. The diversity (richness) of bacterial and archaeal communities increased over time with those receiving lactate having higher initial richness. Known U-reducing bacteria were present in all columns and time points, however the dynamics of these organisms varied with both organic carbon supply rate and form. This data demonstrates that the initial rate of electron donor supply during heavy metal remediation strongly impacts microbial community development

  14. Structures, microfabrics and textures of the Cordilleran-type Rechnitz metamorphic core complex, Eastern Alps☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Liu, Junlai; Genser, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Rechnitz window group represents a Cordilleran-style metamorphic core complex, which is almost entirely located within nearly contemporaneous Neogene sediments at the transition zone between the Eastern Alps and the Neogene Pannonian basin. Two tectonic units are distinguished within the Rechnitz metamorphic core complex (RMCC): (1) a lower unit mainly composed of Mesozoic metasediments, and (2) an upper unit mainly composed of ophiolite remnants. Both units are metamorphosed within greenschist facies conditions during earliest Miocene followed by exhumation and cooling. The internal structure of the RMCC is characterized by the following succession of structure-forming events: (1) blueschist relics of Paleocene/Eocene age formed as a result of subduction (D1), (2) ductile nappe stacking (D2) of an ophiolite nappe over a distant passive margin succession (ca. E–W to WNW–ESE oriented stretching lineation), (3) greenschist facies-grade metamorphism annealing dominant in the lower unit, and (4) ductile low-angle normal faulting (D3) (with mainly NE–SW oriented stretching lineation), and (5) ca. E to NE-vergent folding (D4). The microfabrics are related to mostly ductile nappe stacking to ductile low-angle normal faulting. Paleopiezometry in conjunction with P–T estimates yield high strain rates of 10− 11 to 10− 13 s− 1, depending on the temperature (400–350 °C) and choice of piezometer and flow law calibration. Progressive microstructures and texture analysis indicate an overprint of the high-temperature fabrics (D2) by the low-temperature deformation (D3). Phengitic mica from the Paleocene/Eocene high-pressure metamorphism remained stable during D2 ductile deformation as well as preserved within late stages of final sub-greenschist facies shearing. Chlorite geothermometry yields two temperature groups, 376–328 °C, and 306–132 °C. Chlorite is seemingly accessible to late-stage resetting. The RMCC underwent an earlier large-scale coaxial

  15. An Active Heater Control Concept to Meet IXO Type Mirror Module Thermal-Structural Distortion Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Flight mirror assemblies (FMAs) of large telescopes, such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), have very stringent thermal-structural distortion requirements. The spatial temperature gradient requirement within a FMA could be as small as 0.05 C. Con ventionally, heaters and thermistors are attached to the stray light baffle (SLB), and centralized heater controllers (i.e., heater controller boards located in a large electronics box) are used. Due to the large number of heater harnesses, accommodating and routing them is extremely difficult. The total harness length/mass is very large. This innovation uses a thermally conductive pre-collimator to accommodate heaters and a distributed heater controller approach. It minimizes the harness length and mass, and reduces the problem of routing and accommodating them. Heaters and thermistors are attached to a short (4.67 cm) aluminum portion of the pre-collimator, which is thermally coupled to the SLB. Heaters, which have a very small heater power density, and thermistors are attached to the exterior of all the mirror module walls. The major portion (23.4 cm) of the pre-collimator for the middle and outer modules is made of thin, non-conductive material. It minimizes the view factors from the FMA and heated portion of the precollimator to space. It also minimizes heat conduction from one end of the FMA to the other. Small and multi-channel heater controllers, which have adjustable set points and internal redundancy, are used. They are mounted to the mechanical support structure members adjacent to each module. The IXO FMA, which is 3.3 m in diameter, is an example of a large telescope. If the heater controller boards are centralized, routing and accommodating heater harnesses is extremely difficult. This innovation has the following advantages. It minimizes the length/mass of the heater harness between the heater controllers and heater circuits. It reduces the problem of routing and accommodating the harness on the

  16. Crystal Structure of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Binding Domain: Insight into Cell Surface Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmark, Pål; Dong, Min; Dupuy, Jérôme; Chapman, Edwin R.; Stevens, Raymond C. (Scripps); (UW)

    2011-11-02

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) typically bind the neuronal cell surface via dual interactions with both protein receptors and gangliosides. We present here the 1.9-{angstrom} X-ray structure of the BoNT serotype G (BoNT/G) receptor binding domain (residues 868-1297) and a detailed view of protein receptor and ganglioside binding regions. The ganglioside binding motif (SxWY) has a conserved structure compared to the corresponding regions in BoNT serotype A and BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), but several features of interactions with the hydrophilic face of the ganglioside are absent at the opposite side of the motif in the BoNT/G ganglioside binding cleft. This may significantly reduce the affinity between BoNT/G and gangliosides. BoNT/G and BoNT/B share the protein receptor synaptotagmin (Syt) I/II. The Syt binding site has a conserved hydrophobic plateau located centrally in the proposed protein receptor binding interface (Tyr1189, Phe1202, Ala1204, Pro1205, and Phe1212). Interestingly, only 5 of 14 residues that are important for binding between Syt-II and BoNT/B are conserved in BoNT/G, suggesting that the means by which BoNT/G and BoNT/B bind Syt diverges more than previously appreciated. Indeed, substitution of Syt-II Phe47 and Phe55 with alanine residues had little effect on the binding of BoNT/G, but strongly reduced the binding of BoNT/B. Furthermore, an extended solvent-exposed hydrophobic loop, located between the Syt binding site and the ganglioside binding cleft, may serve as a third membrane association and binding element to contribute to high-affinity binding to the neuronal membrane. While BoNT/G and BoNT/B are homologous to each other and both utilize Syt-I/Syt-II as their protein receptor, the precise means by which these two toxin serotypes bind to Syt appears surprisingly divergent.

  17. Identification, structure, and function of a novel type VI secretion peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector-immunity pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John C; Chou, Seemay; Russell, Alistair B; Biboy, Jacob; Gardiner, Taylor E; Ferrin, Michael A; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D

    2013-09-13

    Bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to facilitate interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the widespread identification of T6SSs among Gram-negative bacteria, the number of experimentally validated substrate effector proteins mediating these interactions remains small. Here, employing an informatics approach, we define novel families of T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effectors. Consistent with the known intercellular self-intoxication exhibited by the T6S pathway, we observe that each effector gene is located adjacent to a hypothetical open reading frame encoding a putative periplasmically localized immunity determinant. To validate our sequence-based approach, we functionally investigate a representative family member from the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas protegens. We demonstrate that this protein is secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and that it confers a fitness advantage in growth competition assays with Pseudomonas putida. In addition, we determined the 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of this effector in complex with its cognate immunity protein. The structure reveals the effector shares highest overall structural similarity to a glycoside hydrolase family associated with peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, suggesting that T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector families may comprise significant enzymatic diversity. Our structural analyses also demonstrate that self-intoxication is prevented by the immunity protein through direct occlusion of the effector active site. This work significantly expands our current understanding of T6S effector diversity.

  18. Identification, Structure, and Function of a Novel Type VI Secretion Peptidoglycan Glycoside Hydrolase Effector-Immunity Pair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John C.; Chou, Seemay; Russell, Alistair B.; Biboy, Jacob; Gardiner, Taylor E.; Ferrin, Michael A.; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to facilitate interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the widespread identification of T6SSs among Gram-negative bacteria, the number of experimentally validated substrate effector proteins mediating these interactions remains small. Here, employing an informatics approach, we define novel families of T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effectors. Consistent with the known intercellular self-intoxication exhibited by the T6S pathway, we observe that each effector gene is located adjacent to a hypothetical open reading frame encoding a putative periplasmically localized immunity determinant. To validate our sequence-based approach, we functionally investigate a representative family member from the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas protegens. We demonstrate that this protein is secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and that it confers a fitness advantage in growth competition assays with Pseudomonas putida. In addition, we determined the 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of this effector in complex with its cognate immunity protein. The structure reveals the effector shares highest overall structural similarity to a glycoside hydrolase family associated with peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, suggesting that T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector families may comprise significant enzymatic diversity. Our structural analyses also demonstrate that self-intoxication is prevented by the immunity protein through direct occlusion of the effector active site. This work significantly expands our current understanding of T6S effector diversity. PMID:23878199

  19. Organosilane with gemini-type structure as the mesoporogen for synthesis of hierarchical porous ZSM-5 zeolite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2016-02-08

    A new kind of organosilane (1,6-bis (diethyl(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium) hexane bromide) with a gemini-type structure was prepared and used as a mesoporogen for the synthesis of hierarchical porous ZSM-5 zeolite. There are two quaternary ammonium centers along with double hydrolysable -RSi(OMe)3 fragments in the organosilane, which results in a strong interaction between this mesoporogen and silica-alumina gel. The organosilane can be easily incorporated into ZSM-5 zeolite structure during the crystallization process, and it was finally removed by calcination leading to secondary pores in ZSM-5. The synthesized ZSM-5 has been systematically studied by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM, TEM, TG and solid-state one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, which reveals information on its detailed structure. It has a hierarchical porosity system, which combines the intrinsic micropores coming from the crystalline structure and irregular mesopores created by the organosilane template. Moreover, the mesoposity including pore size and volume within ZSM-5 can be systematically tuned by changing the organosilane/TEOS ratios, which confirms this organosilane has high flexibility of using as template for the synthesis of hierarchical porous zeolite.

  20. Perovskite-type SrTi1-xNbx(O,N)3 compounds: Synthesis, crystal structure and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maegli, Alexandra; Yoon, Songhak; Otal, Eugenio; Karvonen, Lassi; Mandaliev, Peter; Weidenkaff, Anke

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure, thermal stability and absorbance spectra of perovskite-type oxynitrides with the general formula SrTi 1-x Nb x (O,N) 3 (x=0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50, 0.80, 0.90, 0.95) have been investigated. Oxide samples were prepared by a polymerized complex synthesis route and post-treated under ammonia at 850 o C for 24 h to substitute nitrogen for oxygen. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) evidenced that the mixed oxide phases were all transformed into oxynitrides with perovskite-type structure during a thermal ammonolysis. SrTi 1-x Nb x (O,N) 3 with compositions x≤0.80 crystallized in a cubic and samples with x≥0.90 in a tetragonal structure. The Rietveld refinement indicated a continuous enlargement of the lattice parameters towards higher niobium content of the samples. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and hotgas extraction revealed the dependence of the nitrogen incorporation upon the degree of niobium substitution. It showed that more nitrogen was detected in the samples with higher niobium content. Furthermore, TGA disclosed stability for all oxynitrides at T≤400 o C. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated a continuous decrease of the band gap's width from 3.24 eV (SrTi 0.95 Nb 0.05 (O,N) 3 ) to 1.82 eV (SrTi 0.05 Nb 0.95 (O,N) 3 ) caused by the increasing amount of nitrogen towards the latter composition. -- Graphical Abstract: The system SrTi 1-x Nb x (O,N) 3 is described and the changes in crystal structure, nitrogen content and width of the band gap are discussed. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Synthesis of SrTi 1-x Nb x (O,N) 3 perovskite-type oxynitrides via thermal ammonolysis. → Co-substitution of Nb 5+ enabled to adjust the amount nitrogen insertion. → Tuning of the optical band gap through nitrogen.→ Changes of crystal structure from cubic to tetragonal with increasing niobium content.

  1. Development of New Type Seawater Resistant Steel and the Research of Its Structure and Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoliang; Yin, Shaojiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Yunge; Yu, Hao; Li, Haixu; Zhou, Tao

    This paper investigated two kinds of corrosion resistant low alloy steels depending on the environment of the North China see (Steel S) and South China sea (Steel N), respectively. The mechanical and corrosion properties of the two steels were analyzed in this paper. Tin was added into both steels to improve the corrosion resistance. Structure and mechanical properties of the two steels were detected, and the results revealed that the microstructures of both steels were ferrite and little divorced pearlite. The yield strength and impact toughness at -40°C of the steel S are 423MPa and 98 J, respectively. The yield strength and impact toughness at -40°C of the steel N are 437 MPa and 70 J, respectively. The properties mentioned above met or even exceeded the requirement (yield strength 355 MPa, toughness 34 J) in these areas. The corrosion resistant properties of the two steels were also investigated via the means of immersion test and electrochemical experiment. The immersion test indicated that the corrosion rate of steel S and steel N was 0.00938 mg/h·cm2 and 0.00838 mg/h·cm2, respectively, when completely immersed for 168 hours, and the corrosion rate was much lower than that of E36. The Electrochemical experiments showed that the corrosion potential (Ecorr) of both steels was higher in contrast to E36, which indicated a lower corrosion trend.

  2. Structure of the macrozoobenthos as an indicator of different types of pollution in running waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladica M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrobiological research on streams with different dominant forms of pollution (anthropogenic eutrophication, organic pollution, toxic pollution, trans-saprobic pollution in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula (territory of Serbia and Montenegro indicates that these different forms of pollution can be detected on the basis of structure of the macrozoobenthos community and individual indicator taxa. It is established from the obtained results that the greatest community diversity occurs in the case of anthropogenic eutrophication or weak organic pollution as a dominant process, where phytophilous and/or detritophagic forms (Cloeon, Polypedilum, Asellus, Stylaria, Erpobdella, Gammarus are dominant in the community. In the cases of very strong organic pollution, the macrozoobenthos community is characterized by mass development of certain taxa of the group Oligochaeta (Tubificidae and Chironomidae larvae {Chironomus gr. thummi. Depending on the strength and contribution of organic, toxic, and/or transsaprobic components, toxic pollution and mixed pollution arc characterized by a more or less heterogeneous and nonspecific population. However, a common feature is the presence of a small number of taxa with populations of a relatively low density, or the occurrence of individual specimens belonging to different groups of animals.

  3. Nanoscale Hollow Spheres: Microemulsion-Based Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Container-Type Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Roming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of nanoscale hollow spheres can be obtained via a microemulsion approach. This includes oxides (e.g., ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, AlO(OH, La(OH3, sulfides (e.g., Cu2S, CuS as well as elemental metals (e.g., Ag, Au. All hollow spheres are realized with outer diameters of 10-60 nm, an inner cavity size of 2-30 nm and a wall thickness of 2-15 nm. The microemulsion approach allows modification of the composition of the hollow spheres, fine-tuning their diameter and encapsulation of various ingredients inside the resulting “nanocontainers”. This review summarizes the experimental conditions of synthesis and compares them to other methods of preparing hollow spheres. Moreover, the structural characterization and selected properties of the as-prepared hollow spheres are discussed. The latter is especially focused on container-functionalities with the encapsulation of inorganic salts (e.g., KSCN, K2S2O8, KF, biomolecules/bioactive molecules (e.g., phenylalanine, quercetin, nicotinic acid and fluorescent dyes (e.g., rhodamine, riboflavin as representative examples.

  4. Structural and magnetic behaviour of soft magnetic Finemet-type ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriza, N; Fernández, L; Chizhik, A; Vara, G; Pierna, A R; del Val, J J

    2008-06-01

    Different kinds of magnetic anisotropies have been induced during the nanocrystallization process of Co- and Ni-rich amorphous ferromagnetic (Finemet) ribbons by the application of a constant stress or an axial magnetic field during the annealing process. Magnetization measurements have evidenced the presence od macroscopic anisotropy in the treated samples. The main goal of this work has been, after a careful DSC study, the structural analysis of the treated ribbons using X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), detecting substantial differences in the crystallization state and grain size of the samples depending on the thermal treatment that was carried out. Moreover, AFM measurements revealed in all the treated samples a strong nanocrystallisation of the surface without evidences of amorphous matrix, which contrast with XRD measurements that have shown a high content of amorphous phase in the bulk of the ribbons. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements have been performed with the aim to elucidate the complex magnetic behaviour that is expected for the surface of the ribbons, measuring surface hysteresis loops that showed much higher coercive field values than that obtained in the bulk material.

  5. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity. PMID:29515875

  6. Brain Type or Sex Differences? A structural equation model of the relation between brain type, sex, and motivation to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Albert; Bölsterli, Katrin; Brovelli, Dorothee; Odermatt, Freia

    2012-03-01

    Sex is considered to be one of the most significant factors influencing attitudes towards science. However, the so-called brain type approach from cognitive science suggests that the difference in motivation to learn science does not primarily differentiate the girls from the boys, but rather the so-called systemisers from the empathizers. The present study investigates this hypothesis by using structural equation modelling on a sex-stratified sample of 500 male and female students of secondary II level. The results show, that the motivation to learn science is directly influenced by the systemizing quotient SQ, but not by sex. The impact of sex on the motivation to learn science, measured by five key concepts, only works indirectly, namely through the influence of sex on the SQ. The empathizing quotient (EQ) has no impact on the motivation to learn science. The SQ explains between 13 and 23 percent of the variation of the five key constructs. In female students, the impact of the SQ is very similar for all key concepts. In male students, it is highest for self-efficacy and lowest for assessment anxiety. The motivation to learn science is significantly larger for male students in all involved SMQ key concepts, but the difference is small. The interpretation of these findings and conclusions for science teaching and further research are discussed.

  7. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  8. Granular flows on erodible layers: type and evolution of flow and deposit structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; De Blasio, F.; De Caro, M.; Volpi, G.; Frattini, P.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of a fast moving landslide mass with the basal layer over which movement takes place has been discussed in previous contributions. Nevertheless, the evolution of the structures within the moving mass and the erodible layer are still to be described in detail (Hungr and Evans, 2004; Crosta et al., 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011; Dufresne et al., 2010; Mangeney et al., 2010) and modeling results (Crosta et al., 2006, 2009, 2011; Mangeney et al., 2010). We present some of the results from a campaign of laboratory experiments aimed at studying the evolution of a granular flow at the impact with and during the successive spreading over a cohesionless erodible layer. We performed these test to study the processes and to collect data and evidences to compare them with the results of numerical simulations and to verify capabilities of numerical codes. The laboratory setup consists of an inclined slope and an horizontal sector where release and transport, and deposition take place, respectively. Materials used for the tests are: a uniform rounded siliceous sand (Hostun sand; 0.125-0.5 mm) commonly adopted in lab tests because free of scale effects, and a gravel made of angular elements (12 mm in ave. size). Both the materials have been tested in dry conditions. Different slope angles have been tested (40, 45, 50, 55, 50, 66°) as well as different thicknesses of the erodible layer (0, 0.5, 1, 2 cm) and volumes of the released material (1.5, 3, 5, 9.6 liters). Tests have been monitored by means of a high speed camera and the pre- and post-failure geometries have been surveyed by means of a laser scanner. Deposit description allowed also the computation of volumes and the characterization of the different structures developed and frozen into the deposit. Experiments allowed us to observe the extreme processes occurring during the movement and the mise en place of the deposits. In particular, we observe the formation of a clear wave-like feature developing during the

  9. Structural, microstructural and electrochemical properties of dispersed-type polymer nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Free-standing solid polymer nanocomposite (PEO-PVC)  +  LiPF6-TiO2 films have been prepared through a standard solution-cast technique. The improvement in structural, microstructural and electrochemical properties has been observed on the dispersion of nanofiller in polymer salt complex. X-ray diffraction studies clearly reflect the formation of complex formation, as no corresponding salt peak appeared in the diffractograms. The Fourier transform infrared analysis suggested clear and convincing evidence of polymer-ion, ion-ion and polymer-ion-nanofiller interaction. The highest ionic conductivity of the prepared solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films is ~5  ×  10-5 S cm-1 for 7 wt.% TiO2. The linear sweep voltammetry provides the electrochemical stability window of the prepared SPE films, about ~3.5 V. The ion transference number has been estimated, t ion  =  0.99 through the DC polarization technique. Dielectric spectroscopic studies were performed to understand the ion transport process in polymer electrolytes. All solid polymer electrolytes possess good thermal stability up to 300 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirms the decrease of the melting temperature and signal of glass transition temperature with the addition of nanofiller, which indicates the decrease of crystallinity of the polymer matrix. An absolute correlation between diffusion coefficient (D), ion mobility (µ), number density (n), double-layer capacitance (C dl), glass transition temperature, melting temperature (T m), free ion area (%) and conductivity (σ) has been observed. A convincing model to study the role of nanofiller in a polymer salt complex has been proposed, which supports the experimental findings. The prepared polymer electrolyte system with significant ionic conductivity, high ionic transference number, and good thermal and voltage stability could be suggested as a potential candidate as electrolyte cum separator for the fabrication of a

  10. Structural effect of monomer type on properties of copolyimides and copolyimide-silica hybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilkaya Canan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of two different diamine monomers, containing phosphine oxide, on thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of copolyimides and their hybrid materials was investigated. Gas separation properties of the synthesized copolyimides were also analysed. Two different diamine monomers with phosphine oxide were bis(3-aminophenyl phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO and bis(3-aminophenoxy-4-phenyl phenylphosphine oxide (m-BAPPO. In the synthesis of copolyimides 3,3’-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS was also used as the diamine, as well as 2,2’-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenylhexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA. Copolyimide films were prepared by thermal imidization. Hybrid materials containing 5 % SiO2 were synthesised further by sol-gel technique. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR confirmed the expected structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA demonstrated that m-BAPPO based copolyimides had lower glass transition temperatures (Tg than BAPPO based copolyimides. m-BAPPO containing copolyimide without silica shifted the thermal decomposition temperature to a higher value. The moduli and strength values of BAPPO diamine containing copolyimide and its hybrid were higher than those of m-BAPPO containing materials. The contact angle measurements showed the hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis exhibited the silica particles dispersion in the copolyimides. These copolyimides may be used in the coating industry. The CO2 permeability and the permselectivity were the highest among the other values in this study, when m-BAPPO containing copolyimide in the absence of silica was used. The gas permeabilities obtained from this work were in this decreasing order: PCO2 > PO2 > PN2.

  11. Statistical aspects of discerning indel-type structural variation via DNA sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Richard K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural variations in the form of DNA insertions and deletions are an important aspect of human genetics and especially relevant to medical disorders. Investigations have shown that such events can be detected via tell-tale discrepancies in the aligned lengths of paired-end DNA sequencing reads. Quantitative aspects underlying this method remain poorly understood, despite its importance and conceptual simplicity. We report the statistical theory characterizing the length-discrepancy scheme for Gaussian libraries, including coverage-related effects that preceding models are unable to account for. Results Deletion and insertion statistics both depend heavily on physical coverage, but otherwise differ dramatically, refuting a commonly held doctrine of symmetry. Specifically, coverage restrictions render insertions much more difficult to capture. Increased read length has the counterintuitive effect of worsening insertion detection characteristics of short inserts. Variance in library insert length is also a critical factor here and should be minimized to the greatest degree possible. Conversely, no significant improvement would be realized in lowering fosmid variances beyond current levels. Detection power is examined under a straightforward alternative hypothesis and found to be generally acceptable. We also consider the proposition of characterizing variation over the entire spectrum of variant sizes under constant risk of false-positive errors. At 1% risk, many designs will leave a significant gap in the 100 to 200 bp neighborhood, requiring unacceptably high redundancies to compensate. We show that a few modifications largely close this gap and we give a few examples of feasible spectrum-covering designs. Conclusion The theory resolves several outstanding issues and furnishes a general methodology for designing future projects from the standpoint of a spectrum-wide constant risk.

  12. Effect of ball milling on structures and properties of dispersed-type dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey; Chen, Fred Ying-Yi; Chiang, Hui-Ju; Ju, Chien-Ping

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ball milling on the initial mercury vapor release rate and mechanical properties such as compressive strength, diametral tensile strength and creep value, of the dispersed-type dental amalgam, and comparison was made with respect to two commercial amalgam alloys. Ball milling was employed to modify the configuration of the originally spherical-shaped Ag-Cu-Pd dispersant alloy particles. Improvement in mechanical properties while maintaining a low early-stage mercury vapor release rate of the amalgam is attempted. The experimental results show that the amalgam (AmB10) which was made from Ag-Cu-Pd dispersant alloy particles that were ball-milled for 10 min and heat-treated at 300 °C for 2 days exhibited a low initial mercury vapor release rate of 69 pg/mm(2)/s, which was comparable with that of commercial amalgam alloy Tytin (68 pg/mm(2)/s), and was lower than that of Dispersalloy (73 pg/mm(2)/s). As for mechanical properties, amalgam AmB10 exhibited the highest 1h compressive strength (228 MPa), which was higher than that of commercial amalgam alloy Dispersalloy by 72%; while its 24h diametral tensile strength was also the highest (177 MPa), and was higher than that of Dispersalloy by 55%. Furthermore, the creep value of the amalgams made from Ag-Cu-Pd alloy particles with 10 min ball-milling and heat treatment at 300 °C for 2 days was measured to be 0.12%, which was about 20% that of Dispersalloy. It is found that ball milling of the dispersant Ag-Cu-Pd alloy particles for 10 min was able to modify the configuration of the alloy particles into irregular-shapes. Subsequently, heat treatment at 300 °C significantly lowered the initial mercury vapor release rate, increased its 1h compressive strength and 1h diametral tensile strength, and lowered its creep value. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A new type of coil structure called pan-shaped coil of wireless charging system based on magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Z. K.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Liang, L. H.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    The problem that misalignment between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil significantly impairs the transmission power and efficiency of the system has been attached more and more attention. In order to improve the uniformity of the magnetic field between the two coils to solve this problem, a new type of coil called pan-shaped coil is proposed. Three-dimension simulation models of the planar-core coil and the pan-shaped coil are established using Ansoft Maxwell software. The coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is obtained by simulating the magnetic field with the receiving coil misalignment or not. And the maximum percentage difference strength along the radial direction which is defined as the magnetic field uniformity factor is calculated. According to the simulation results of the two kinds of coil structures, it is found that the new type of coil structure can obviously improve the uniformity of the magnetic field, coupling coefficient and power transmission properties between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil.

  14. Resonant electronic transport through a triple quantum-dot with Λ-type level structure under dual radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Chun; Xing, Yunhui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui

    2014-01-01

    Due to quantum interference, light can transmit through dense atomic media, a phenomenon known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We propose that EIT is not limited to light transmission and there is an electronic analog where resonant transparency in charge transport in an opaque structure can be induced by electromagnetic radiation. A triple-quantum-dots system with Λ-type level structure is generally opaque due to the level in the center dot being significantly higher and therefore hopping from the left dot to the center dot is almost forbidden. We demonstrate that an electromagnetically induced electron transparency (EIET) in charge of transport can indeed occur in the Λ-type system. The direct evidence of EIET is that an electron can travel from the left dot to the right dot, while the center dot apparently becomes invisible. We analyze EIET and the related shot noise in both the zero and strong Coulomb blockade regimes. It is found that the EIET (position, height, and symmetry) can be tuned by several controllable parameters of the radiation fields, such as the Rabi frequencies and detuning frequencies. The result offers a transparency/opaque tuning technique in charge transport using interfering radiation fields

  15. Implementing the LIM code: the structural basis for cell type-specific assembly of LIM-homeodomain complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Mugdha; Lee, Christopher; Nancarrow, Amy L.; Lee, Mihwa; Craig, Vanessa J.; Bach, Ingolf; Guss, J. Mitchell; Mackay, Joel P.; Matthews, Jacqueline M. (UMASS, MED); (Sydney)

    2008-09-03

    LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors form a combinatorial 'LIM code' that contributes to the specification of cell types. In the ventral spinal cord, the binary LIM homeobox protein 3 (Lhx3)/LIM domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) complex specifies the formation of V2 interneurons. The additional expression of islet-1 (Isl1) in adjacent cells instead specifies the formation of motor neurons through assembly of a ternary complex in which Isl1 contacts both Lhx3 and Ldb1, displacing Lhx3 as the binding partner of Ldb1. However, little is known about how this molecular switch occurs. Here, we have identified the 30-residue Lhx3-binding domain on Isl1 (Isl1{sub LBD}). Although the LIM interaction domain of Ldb1 (Ldb1{sub LID}) and Isl1{sub LBD} share low levels of sequence homology, X-ray and NMR structures reveal that they bind Lhx3 in an identical manner, that is, Isl1{sub LBD} mimics Ldb1{sub LID}. These data provide a structural basis for the formation of cell type-specific protein-protein interactions in which unstructured linear motifs with diverse sequences compete to bind protein partners. The resulting alternate protein complexes can target different genes to regulate key biological events.

  16. Exploring why young people with Type 1 diabetes decline structured education with a view to overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, V E; Horigan, G; Davies, M; Davies, M T

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors that influence lack of engagement of young adults with Type 1 diabetes (aged 13-21 years) with structured diabetes education (SDE) to inform and broaden the reach of future SDE. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 227 young people with Type 1 diabetes drawn from 11 health trusts across Northern Ireland and England, deemed to be representative of the wider population. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire exploring non-attendance, along with the Diabetes Care Profile, the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (Short Form), the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Demographic, health and diabetes-specific variables including HbA 1c were also collected. The five most commonly cited reasons for non-attendance were 'Had other things to do' (68.3%), 'No time' (62.2%), 'Could not get time off school/college or work' (60.8%), 'Learnt about diabetes from other sources' (55.5%) and 'Feel able to cope on own' (52.9%). Greater emphasis is required on communication with young people about the benefits of SDE. In addition, efforts need to be directed to making diabetes education more accessible without losing the quality of structured programmes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  17. MIn(HAsO42 (M = K, Rb, Cs: three new hydrogenarsenates adopting two different structure types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Schwendtner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potassium indium bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], KIn(HAsO42, rubidium indium bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], RbIn(HAsO42, and caesium indium bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], CsIn(HAsO42, were grown under mild hydrothermal conditions (T = 493 K, 7–8 d. KIn(HAsO42 adopts the KSc(HAsO42 structure type (space group C2/c, while RbIn(HAsO42 and CsIn(HAsO42 crystallize in the space group R-3c and are the first arsenate representatives of the RbFe(HPO42 structure type. All three compounds have tetrahedral–octahedral framework topologies. The M+ cations, located in voids of the respective framework, are slightly disordered in RbIn(HAsO42. In KIn(HAsO42, there is a second K-atom position with a very low occupancy, which may suggest that the K atom can easily move in the channels extending along [101].

  18. Determination of kinetics and the crystal structure of a novel type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate: dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyck, Jerome; Janczak, Matthew W; Neti, Syam Sundar; Rothman, Steven C; Schubert, Heidi L; Cornish, Rita M; Matagne, Andre; Wouters, Johan; Poulter, C Dale

    2014-07-07

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) is a key enzyme in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and is required for all organisms that synthesize isoprenoid metabolites from mevalonate. Type 1 IDI (IDI-1) is a metalloprotein that is found in eukaryotes, whereas the type 2 isoform (IDI-2) is a flavoenzyme found in bacteria that is completely absent from human. IDI-2 from the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. Steady-state kinetic studies of the enzyme indicated that FMNH2 (KM =0.3 μM) bound before isopentenyl diphosphate (KM =40 μM) in an ordered binding mechanism. An X-ray crystal structure at 1.4 Å resolution was obtained for the holoenzyme in the closed conformation with a reduced flavin cofactor and two sulfate ions in the active site. These results helped to further approach the enzymatic mechanism of IDI-2 and, thus, open new possibilities for the rational design of antibacterial compounds against sequence-similar and structure-related pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Effects of three types of veneering porcelain on bending strength of KAVO(TM) Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-ting; Yi, Yuan-fu; Shao, Long-quan; Tian, Jie-mo; Hou, Kang-lin; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wen, Ning; Deng, Bin

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of three types of veneering porcelain on the bending strength of KAVO Y-TZP/porcelain layered structure. KAVO zirconia ceramics were used as the substructure. To form Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure, a leucite-based veneering porcelain was fired on the zirconia substructures by slip-casting technique with dentin washbake, and two nano-fluorapatite-based veneering porcelains were fired on the zirconia substructures by either slip-casting or pressed-on technique with or without liner coverage. The bending strength was tested according to ISO 6872 standard, and the veneered surfaces of the fracture samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For covering KAVO zirconia core material, the conventional veneering slurry-porcelain combined with liner or wash firing had significant higher bending strength than pressed-on porcelain. SEM showed that the main failure type at the interface was adhesive failure. Thin layer sintering using washbake program or liner on KAVO zirconia surface increases the surface wettability, and this procedure may be indispensable when veneering on the surface of dental zirconia.

  20. Structural studies of n-type nc-Si-QD thin films for nc-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Kar, Debjit

    2017-12-01

    A wide optical gap nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) dielectric material is a basic requirement at the n-type window layer of nc-Si solar cells in thin film n-i-p structure on glass substrates. Taking advantage of the high atomic-H density inherent to the planar inductively coupled low-pressure (SiH4 + CH4)-plasma, development of an analogous material in P-doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC:H network has been tried. Incorporation of C in the Si-network extracted from the CH4 widens the optical band gap; however, at enhanced PH3-dilution of the plasma spontaneous miniaturization of the nc-Si-QDs below the dimension of Bohr radius (∼4.5 nm) further enhances the band gap by virtue of the quantum size effect. At increased flow rate of PH3, dopant induced continuous amorphization of the intrinsic crystalline network is counterbalanced by the further crystallization promoted by the supplementary atomic-H extracted from PH3 (1% in H2) in the plasma, eventually holding a moderately high degree of crystallinity. The n-type wide band gap (∼1.93 eV) window layer with nc-Si-QDs in adequate volume fraction (∼52%) could furthermore be instrumental as an effective seed layer for advancing sequential crystallization in the i-layer of nc-Si solar cells with n-i-p structure in superstrate configuration.