WorldWideScience

Sample records for dyes

  1. [Tattooing dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Pierchalla, P

    1988-01-01

    Nine different tattoo dyes were analysed by various tests. Mixtures of organic dyes and inorganic filler were found; the inorganic filler consisted mainly of titanium dioxide (TiO2). Heavy metals, e.g. mercury, cadmium, or chrome as the common components of the traditional tattoo dyes, are capable of evoking unwanted skin reactions, but were not detected. Tattoo dyes are not officially controlled, and thus it is not known which substances-in addition to those identified by us-are presently used to produce ornamental tattoos. However, our results suggest that classic dyes have been superceded by newer, mainly synthetic dyes.

  2. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  3. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  4. Waterless Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; AVİNÇ, Osman Ozan; Arzu YAVAŞ

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO), having liquid-like densities, hereby provides hydrophobic dyes an advantage on dissolving. Their gas-like low viscosities and diffusion properties can lead to shorter dyeing durations compared to conventional water dyeing process. Supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing, a novel dyeing process, is an anhydrous dyeing and this process involves the use of less energy and chemicals than conventional water dyeing processes resulting in a potential of up to 50% low...

  5. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  6. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  7. Dyeing Properties of Basofil Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; DAI Jin-jin

    2002-01-01

    The structures and properties of Basofil fiber were studied using X- rays small angle diffraction analysis,differential- scanuing calorimeter and scanning electron microscopy. Disperse dyes, acid dyes and reactive dyes had been tried for dyeing Basefil fiber. It was shown disperse dyes were superior to other ones. The two series of high temperature dyes and low temperature dyes were compared for their suitability for Basofil fiber, and their dyeing behaviors were determined.

  8. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  9. Dyeing of Polypropylene Fibers with Vat Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hang; ETTERS J. Nolan; LEONAS Karen K

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene fibers have been extensively used in a variety of products, including carpets and upholstery, due to their non-absorbency, good weather resistance, good resistance to microorganisms and so on. Because of their hydrophobic and highly crystalline nature, those well-established conventional dyeing processes are difficult to apply to unmodified polypropylene. Colors of polypropylene fibers are primarily obtained by mass coloration which has the disadvantages of limited number of colors available and difficulties in inventory control due to the rapidly changing color needs of the market. In this paper, the use of vat dyes to dye polypropylene fabrics is investigated. Seventeen vat dyes were screened and factors influencing uptake of dyes by polypropylene fabrics were studied.

  10. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  11. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  12. Dyes as teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, S

    1992-01-01

    The main fats and problems of the role of dyes in prenatal pathology are reviewed. The first section deals with the practical aspects related to teratological screening of industrial dyes (including also the results obtained in this laboratory). In the second section, various aspects of azo-dye teratogenesis are largely discussed, including also the experimental contributions of this laboratory. Concluding remarks are made with respect to the importance and to the perspectives of this field of research.

  13. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  14. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo

  15. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also b

  16. Determining Compatibilities of Reactive Dyes in Pad Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠天民

    2001-01-01

    Compatibilities of reactive dyes were conventionally shown by exhausting curves. But the change of proportion of dyes in padding dyebath was difficult for pad dyeing to be described by these curves. In this paper, a kind of simulation of pad dyeing process was used to determine dyestuff compatibility in pad dyeing for ramie and linen fabrics. Seven reactive dyes were divided into three groups and tested., The group with Cibacron Yellow C - 2R, Red C - R, and Blue C - R showed very good compatibility both for ramie and linen,and the other two groups of dyes gave out correspondingly low compatibilities in the pad dyeing tests. The results of the method for determining the compatibility of dyes displayed good consistency with the actul pad dyeing process.

  17. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  18. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  19. Fong's: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong's Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong's National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong's Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  20. Diode-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukova, O. A.; Gorbunkov, M. V.; Petukhov, V. A.; Semenov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    This letter reports diode pumping for dye lasers. We offer a pulsed dye laser with an astigmatism-compensated three-mirror cavity and side pumping by blue laser diodes with 200 ns pulse duration. Eight dyes were tested. Four dyes provided a slope efficiency of more than 10% and the highest slope efficiency (18%) was obtained for laser dye Coumarin 540A in benzyl alcohol.

  1. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Uganda is a home of thousands of largely unknown and undocumented plants. ... Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the ... Asteraceae characterized by bitter leaves, traditionally used for treating fever.

  2. Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

    It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

  3. Croatian Traditional Herbal Dyes For Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Sutrlović, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Textiles, namely protein fibers, in continental part of central Europe have been traditionally dyed by natural dyes. In the process textile materials were pre or after treated by metal salts – mordants (usually: KAl(SO4)2•12H2O, SnCl2•2H2O, FeSO4•7H2O, CuSO4•5H2O). Most represented active substances in herbal extracts are flavonoid derivatives, which by complexing with metal ions constitute colored complexes. Depending on herb species and mordant applied, a wide palette of colors is available...

  4. Laser dye technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  5. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  7. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  8. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P.R.; Atkins, R.L.; Henry, R.A.; Fletcher, A.N.

    1978-07-25

    The invention provides a dye laser comprising a lasing solution of a 7-substituted azaquinolone-2 in which the aza nitrogen occupies at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions. The 7-substituent is hydroxy, alkoxy, amino or substituted amino. Substituents may be attached to other ring positions. The present lasing compounds are aza analogs of corresponding quinolone compounds and, hence, are named ''azaquinolone'' compounds. The dye lasers lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  9. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient.

  10. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cummings_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3362 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cummings_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DYE SOLAR CELL RESEARCH Franscious... Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2...

  11. Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Amit; Madamwar, Datta

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited by the dyes. Visible spectroscopy and TLC confirmed that color removal was due to degradation of the dyes.

  12. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  14. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  15. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  16. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  17. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  18. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  19. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Ušćumlić Gordana S.; Valentić Nataša V.; Marinković Aleksandar D.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments) have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were use...

  20. TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING JOURNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Optim is dyed with Lanasol CE series dyes by micro-suspension technology, and the dyeing result is compared with that by traditional process. The optimal micro-suspension dyeing process is determined as follows: formic acid 1.5% (owl), micro-suspension promoter WR1.0% (owf), micro-suspension promoter TS 0.5 % (owl), dyestuff 5% (owf). The results show that micro-suspension dyeing increases the dye uptake percentage and colour fixation rate significantly; improves the handle and bulkiness without damaging the colour fastness of the dyed fabric.

  1. Dye Aggregation in Ink Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Paul; Sarfraz Hussain

    2004-01-01

    Dye aggregation has long been recognised as a key factor in performance, and this is no less so in ink jet applications. The aggregation state was shown to be important in many different areas ranging from the use of dyes in photodynamic therapies all the way to colorants for dying of fabrics. Therefore different methods to investigate dye association qualitatively and quantitatively were developed. A simple procedure to study aggregation could be a useful tool to characterise dyes for ink jet printing. It is critically reviewed the methods used to study dye aggregation, and discussed some of the main conclusions. This will be illustrated by examples of ink jet dye aggregation and its study in aqueous and ink systems. The results are used to correlate the solution behaviour of dyes with their print performance.

  2. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李戎; 陈东辉

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes have been widely used these years.Because of the special optical performance, conventional CCM systems seem to be unable to predict the recipes of fabrics dyed with fluorescent dyes. In order to enhance the functions of CCM systems, the optical properties of fluorescent dyes in their absorption region were investigated. It has been found that there was a fixed maximum absorption wavelength for each fluorescent dyes whatever its concentration is. Both absorption region and maximum absorption wavelength of the dyes in solution are the same to those in fabric, and that the absorption is directly proportional to the concentration of the dye. So the optical properties obtained in solutions cna be applied for describing the optics performance of fluorescent dyes in fabrics.

  3. Are allergenic disperse dyes used for dyeing textiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marléne

    2012-09-01

    There are no data showing that disperse dyes, used to patch test patients, are currently being used for dyeing synthetic garments. It is unknown whether disperse dyes, which are currently routinely patch tested, are in fact present in synthetic textiles on the market. To determine whether eight disperse dyes, hitherto most widely cited as allergenic, are still used in textiles that are sold in various countries. Textiles from 13 countries in Europe, Asia and the United States were analysed. The procedure used for dye identification was thin-layer chromatography. When there were matching spots from the textile extract and reference dye, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Of 121 analysed items, three showed positive results for some of the investigated disperse dyes. Four dyes in these items could be detected and confirmed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. A pair of light brown ladies' tights manufactured and purchased in Italy contained Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Blue 124, and Disperse Blue 106, and a set of black bra and panties purchased in India contained Disperse Orange 1. The eight disperse dyes that are most frequently incriminated in textile dye dermatitis are very rarely used in textiles nowadays. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    by block number) Dye Lasers Laser Dyes Tunable Lasers Photodegradation Rhodamine Dyes 20. ABSTRACT (Continue n resld* it necesiry and Identify by block...limited usefulness as a portable military device because of the photodegradation of the dye solution. Although there have been state-of-the-art reviews...on laser dyes , 1𔃼 the photodegradation of laser dyes ,3 and dye lasers, 4- 6 only authors from, or funded by, military organizations have given strict

  5. Plantas Tintureiras Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma vasta bibliografia, até ao séc. XVIII, sobre plantas produtoras de corantes naturais, sendo que apenas um número limitado foi utilizado no tingimento de têxteis antigos, devido à capacidade de resistência à lavagem e ao desvanecimento. O cultivo de plantas ou a sua existência no mundo silvestre tiveram uma enorme importância sócio-económica para muitas comunidades espalhadas pelo mundo e pelas intensas trocas comerciais que geraram. A extracção dos corantes era feita a partir de diferentes partes de plantas ou árvores. Nalgumas plantas eram utilizadas as folhas, enquanto noutras se aproveitavam as flores, as raízes, os frutos, troncos ou sementes. Os corantes podiam ser extraídos através de processos complexos que envolviam diversas operações como maceração, destilação, fermentação, decantação, precipitação, filtração, etc. Neste âmbito, são apresentadas algumas das plantas cultivadas em Portugal e em muitos outros países europeus e que foram usadas em tinturaria. Este trabalho pretende ser um contributo para obstar à perda de conhecimentos das condições de cultivo e da forma como se maximizava a produção de corantes.A vast bibliography exists, until the 18th cen-tury, on natural dyes obtained from plants, but only one limited number was used in the dyeing of old textiles, due to capacity of resistance to wash and light fading. The culture of plants or its existence in the wild world had an enormous economical importance for many communities spread for the world, and the intense commercial exchanges that had generated. The extraction of dyes was done from different parts of plants or trees. In some plants was used the leaves, others, only the roots, the fruits, trunks or seeds. The dyes could be extracted through complex processes that involved various operations as maceration, distillation, fermentation, decantation, precipitation, filtration, etc. In this scope, some of the plants cultivated in

  6. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  7. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  8. Laser dye stability. Pt. 3. Bicyclic dyes in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, A.N. (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (USA). Research Dept.)

    1977-11-01

    A commercial coaxial xenon flashlamp has been used to evaluate the stability of a variety of coumarin and quinolone laser dyes. The lasing characteristics of over 30 dyes have been quantitatively evaluated as a function of the total excitation energy to which recirculating dye solution has been exposed. Degradation constants were determined an an evaluation was made of the effects of functional group variation upon the stability of the dyes. Comparison with the data of other workers revealed that exclusion of excitation energy below 220 nm does not change the stability of 4-methyl coumarins, but can increase the stability of other coumarins as much as 50 fold.

  9. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  10. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  11. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  12. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  13. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  14. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Wang; gang Chen; Aimin Tang; Hongwei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp.Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together with said liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  15. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  16. Effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle on dyes biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Laura; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Alves, M.M.; Gavrilescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the biodecolourisation of two dyes, a xanthene dye, Erythrosine B (Ery B) and an azo dye, Reactive Red 51 (RR120), was investigated colourdecolourisationunder batch anaerobic conditions by using non - acclimated anaerobic granular sludge. The effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle (FN) (as adsorbent or mediator) on dyes removal was experienced.

  17. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  18. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  19. Survery on Actual Conditions of Food Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤,ひろみ

    1981-01-01

    Many food dyes are widely used as food additives in Japan, and many investigations have been pointed the problems of safety of these food dyes used in Japanese food. There are two types of commercial food dyes, one is synthetic dyes and the other is natural dyes.Recently Japanese food is not stained so colourfully, but it is stained faintly in colour near to natural food by using of mixed synthetic dyes. On their hand, many consumers have a tendency to prefer natural food dyes because they ha...

  20. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2002-01-01

    for separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  1. Triplet losses in dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczynski, A.; Kossakowski, A.; Marszalek, T. (Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland). Instytut Fizyki)

    1977-01-01

    The expression for losses due to triplet states in dye laser considered as a six-level system is given. It is shown that triplet losses depend on pumping parameters and photon number. Depending on molecular and cavity parameters two differe types of behavior of dye lasers are expected. Physical conditions are discussed in which triplet losses as well as photon number undergo a jump at the threshold.

  2. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  3. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.

  4. Diffusion dynamics in microfluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  5. Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, R; Gaffer, H E

    2013-08-14

    Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric using a new antibacterial reactive dye having a modified chemical structure to the commercial reactive dye CI Reactive Red 198 were studied. This modification was carried out by replacing metanilic acid in the commercial dye with 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfadimidine). Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were achieved at 60 g/l sodium sulphate and 20 g/l sodium carbonate for both dyes. The modified dye exhibited higher substantivity, exhaustion and fixation efficiency compared to the commercial dye. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The cotton dyed with the modified dye shows higher antibacterial efficacy compared to the dyed cotton fabric using the commercial dye, especially on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. All the reactive dyeings also exhibited high fastness properties.

  6. Natural Dyes as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. El-Ghamri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled using Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles as a photoelectrode and natural dyes extracted from eight natural plants as photosensitizers. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were studied using XRD, SEM and TEM characterizations. Photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and overall conversion efficiency η for the fabricated cells were determined under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. It was found that the DSSC fabricated with the extracted safflower dye as a sensitizer showed the best performance. Also, its performance increased with increasing the sintering temperature of the semiconductor electrode with highest performance at 400 °C. Moreover, it was found that a semiconductor electrode of 7.5 μm thickness yielded the highest response.

  7. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  8. Laser dye toxicity, hazards, and recommended controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosovsky, J.A.

    1983-05-06

    Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated have been categorized according to their central chemical structures. These include the xanthenes (rhodamines and fluoresceins), polymethines (cyanines and carbocyanines), coumarins, and stilbenes. A few other miscellaneous dyes that do not fall into one of these categories have also been investigated. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -5/ molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

  9. Dye Sysentized Solar Cell (Dyssc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dileep,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Dye sensitized solar cell (DYSSC, which is called as future generation solar cell. It is a new class of green photovoltaic cell based on photosynthesis principle in nature. DYSSCs are fabricated using two different natural dyes as sensitizers, which extracted from the materials existing in nature and our life, such as flowers, leaves, fruits, traditional Chinese medicines, and beverages. The use of sensitizers having a broad absorption band in conjunction with oxide films of nanocrystalline morphology permits to harvest a large fraction of sunlight. There are good prospects to produce these cells at lower cost and much better efficiency than conventional semiconductor devices by introducing various chemical and natural dyes. DYSSC are implemented with simple and new technique to overcome the energy crisis and excess cost of semiconductor solar cells.

  10. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  11. and dyes metabolized to benzidine were

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAB

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... intermediate in the production of various dyes, color salts and naphthols. In the past ... liver, kidney, nervous system, and various other organs of human's body ..... dye reduction: status review with emphasis on direct UV.

  12. Textile dyeing by dyestuffs of natural origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the biggest industrial consumers of water especially dye houses which utilize synthetic dyes and other chemicals. Natural dyes are generally environmental friendly and have many advantages over synthetic dyes with respect to production and application. In recent years, there has been an interest in the application of these dyes due to their bio-degradability and higher compatibility with the environment. A review of previous work in the field of applying dyestuffs of natural source as possible textile dyes is given. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes by 'natural products' in textile dyeing may be feasible and may represent not only a strategy to reduce risks and pollutants, but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses which can develop from the inclusion of ecology in trade policy.

  13. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  14. Dye solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid is an alternative solvent for the water of the traditional dyeing. The solubility of dyestuff affects greatly the dyeing process. A theoretical model for predicting the dye solubility is proposed and verified experimentally. The paper concludes that the pressure has a greater impact on the dyestuff solubility than temperature, and an optimal dyeing condition is suggested for the highest distribution coefficient of dyestuff.

  15. Water in supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lai-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of water serving as entrainer on the dyeing of wool fabrics in supercritical carbon dioxide. Compared with previous supercritical dyeing methods, addition of water makes the dyeing process more effective under low temperature and low pressure. During dyeing process, dyestuff can be uniformly distributed on fabrics’s surface due to water interaction, as a result coloration is enhanced while color difference is decreased.

  16. Fong’s: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong’s Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong’s National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong’s Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  17. One-bath Dyeing of Polyester/Wool Blend with Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡翔; 宋心远

    2001-01-01

    The role of auxiliary LAB as vehicle in dyeing polyester/wool blends with disperse dyes is described. Dye exhaustion and bonding on polyester/wool samples are studied under different experimental conditions - the LAB amount, the temperature and pH value- to achieve optimum conditions. The results are compared with those obtained with and without conventional dyeing auxiliary products. Although dye exhaustion is higher in the presence of commercial carriers, the dye bonded increases markedly in the presence of auxiliary LAB in both fibers. The role played by auxiliary LAB in polyester/wool blend dyeing can provide a new method for this process.

  18. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  19. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women and indigo dye (fabric whitener are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+, fair (+, and poor (- and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  20. Synthesis and dyeing performance of a novel polycarboxylic acid azo dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Xu; Bing Tao Tang; Shu Fen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A novel reactive polycarboxylic acid dye was synthesized by the reaction of polymaleic anhydride (PMA) with 3-methyl-l-(4-sulfonylphenyl)-4-(4-aminophenylazo)-2-pyrazoline-5-one. The structure of the novel dye was characterized by FTIR, UV-vis and 13C NMR spectra. The dyeing properties of dye on cotton were tested, and the novel dye possessed high fixation and good fastness.

  1. Descoloration of industrial dyes and simulated textile effluents dyes by turnip peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Maria Cristina; Angelita D Corrêa; Torres, Juliana A.; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de

    2012-01-01

    The removal of important textile dyes by turnip peroxidase (TNP) was evaluated. The textile effluents besides the residual dyes contain also chemical auxiliaries such as salts, dispersing and wetting agents. The effect of these was evaluated in the removal of the dyes reactive blue 21 and reactive blue 19 by TNP in synthetic effluents. A decrease of the efficency decolorization was observed. The action of the enzyme on colour removal of dye mixture was equivalent to the dyes alone. The chemic...

  2. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Shahin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PET fabric was noticed to increase as a result of alkali treatment which may be attributed to the alteration in the hydrophobicity of polyester fibre. The most effective parameters that may affect the dye uptake of the natural dye on alkali-treated PET fabric and the final dyeing properties including dye bath pH, dyeing temperature and time were studied in details. The behaviour of the selected and used natural dye was found to be similar to that of disperse dyes. Addition of salicylic acid to the dye bath accelerated the rate of dyeing and subsequently higher colour strength was attained. Non- ionic dispersing agent was also used to ensure better dyeing uniformity and higher dispersion stability of dye liquor.

  3. Preparation of a Novel Chitosan Based Biopolymer Dye and Application in Wood Dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye possessing antibacterial properties was synthesized by reaction of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and Acid Red GR. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, degree of substitution (DS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, water solubility test, antibacterial property test, and dyeing performance, including dye uptake, color difference, and fastness. Results showed that the synthesized dye was combined by –NH3+ of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and the sulfonic group of Acid Red GR. According to the comprehensive analysis of XRD and water solubility, the introduction of the carboxymethyl group and acid dye molecule changed the structure of the chitosan from compact to loose, which improved the synthesized dye’s water solubility. However, the thermal stability of the synthesized dye was decreased. The antibacterial property of the poplar wood dyed with the synthesized dye was enhanced and its antibacterial rate, specifically against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, also increased to a rate of more than 99%. However, the dye uptake of the synthesized dye was lower than that of the original dye. Despite this, though, the dyeing effect of the synthesized dye demonstrated better water-fastness, and light-fastness than the original dye. Therefore, the novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye can be a promising product for wood dyeing.

  4. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Annals of Epidemiology 2014; 24(2),151–159. [PubMed ... in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. Cancer Science 2009; 100(6):1088-1091. [PubMed Abstract] Related ...

  5. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  6. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment s...

  7. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  8. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  9. Dyeing of Polyester Woven Fabric with Disperse Dye Using Conventional and Microwave Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric is generally dyed using high temperature dyeing technique and carrier. Both techniques require high energy consumption while few carriers are toxic in nature. In this study, 100% polyester woven fabric was dyed by microwave and conventional dyeing technique with disperse dye; Foron Blue RD GLN by an exhaust method for short dyeing cycle (15 and 30 min. The fabric samples were dyed using conventional high temperature dyeing technique using recommended recipe. Moreover, samples were also dyed using microwave technique with recommended recipe and by the addition of salt and urea, pre-treatment with caustic and organic solvent for improving the dye uptake value and fastness properties. The dyeing assessment; (K/S?max value by Datacolor spectrophotometer, dye uniformity by optical microscope and washing fastness by grey scale were measured. It has been observed that over conventional dyeing method, microwave irradiation dyed sample gives almost 70% high (K/S?max value and uniform dye penetration and good to very good washing fastness property. In addition, microwave dyeing gives excellent dyeing behavior at short dyeing cycle; 15 min; hence saves energy and sustainable dyeing process

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    OpenAIRE

    HINOJOSA Belén; MONTAVA Ignacio; BOU-BELDA Eva; Díaz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generate...

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  12. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  13. [Benzidine dyes and risk of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O

    1989-12-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benzidine and that the azo linkage of benzidine dyes is reduced by Escherichia coli and soil bacteria. These experimental findings were reported previously. In this report, we outline an approach to these studies. Many of the dyes used to color paper, textiles, lipstick, bait used by fishermen, as well as hair dyes, and dyes used in research, for pharmaceutical products, and by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents, have been shown to be potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. We review the literature on these dyes.

  14. Zeolite-dye micro lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing behavior of heterocyclic acid dyes and mordent acid dyes on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hitendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic acid and mordent acid dyes were synthesized by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2- butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoylbenzofuran. The resulting heterocyclic acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR spectral studies and UV- visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the heterocyclic acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

  16. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method.

  17. Dye Photodestruction in a Solid-State Dye Laser with a Polymeric Gain Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Sergei

    1998-09-01

    The process of dye photodestruction in a solid-state dye laser is studied, and implemented is a polymeric gain medium doped with a strongly concentrated dye. The behavior of the conversion efficiency in the polymeric gain medium pumped with different laser-pulse repetition rates and the process of dye photobleaching are analyzed. The contribution of the heating of the host material into the dye molecules deactivation is discussed. The negative effect of high dye concentration on the dye stability under a high pump repetition rate is reported and analyzed for the first time to my knowledge. A comparison of the present results with recently published data demonstrates the major role of photodestruction, rather than direct thermodestruction, in the dye stability of the solid-state gain medium. The role of additives with low molecular weights in the polymeric matrix, for increasing the stability of the gain material, is discussed.

  18. Laser dye stability. Pt. 4. Photodegradation relationships for bicyclic dyes in alcohol solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, A.N. (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (USA). Research Dept.)

    1978-05-01

    Changes in the absorption of a dye laser solution are examined after excitation with a xenon flashlamp. It is found that the rate of bleaching as a function of the total input energy of coumarin or quinolone dyes in ethanol increases in direct proportion to the dye concentration. This relationship suggests that the dye reacts with a photoproduct of the solvent rather than being directly decomposed by the xenon flash. We have measured the conversion of the dye to form products, P, absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Results correspond to the dye reacting with a precursor of P to form either insoluble products or ones not absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Thus larger total amounts of bleached dye do not proportionately increase P, and hence do not proportionately inhibit lasing. Furthermore, we find that P increases with the total input energy fairly independent of the rate of bleaching for a given bicyclic dye in an alcohol solution.

  19. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Techniques for Wool Dyeing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antighin Simona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of dyeing process on the quality of surface waters contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds, resulted after the wool dyeing process. In order to mark out this aspects an environment friendly method was proposed which involves dyeing wool fiber with new complex combinations derived from a new acid dyes which were complexed, using copper, iron, nickel and zinc salts at 2:1 combination ratio. In order to point out the environmental point of view of wastewaters an experimental protocol was tested by dyeing wool fiber at different pH. Evaluation of complexed combinations impact on the environment involve the following indicators: consumption degree of dyeing solution from the process bath, treatment degree related to the organic content expressed by COD indicator and treatment degree related to the heavy metal concentration respectively.

  1. Biological wastewater treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1988-09-01

    EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, undertook a study to determine the fate of specific water soluble azo dye compounds in the activated sludge process (ASP). The study was approached by dosing the feed to the pilot ASP systems with various water soluble azo dyes and by monitoring each dye compound through the system, analyzing both liquid and sludge samples. The fate of the parent dye compound was assessed via mass balance calculations. These data could determine if the compound was removed by adsorption, apparent biodegradation, or not removed at all. The paper presents results for 18 dye compounds tested from June 1985 through August 1987. The study was conducted at EPAs Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the ASP.

  2. Adsorptive Properties of Dyes to Cellulosic Sheet and Discoloration of Dye Solution by UV-ray Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yu; Iida Ikuho; Minato Kazuya; Kurosu Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorptive properties and selectivity of dyes and water molecules to cellulosic sheet, dependence of adsorptive properties of dyes on the concentration of dye solution, and discoloration of the dye solution due to the UV-ray irradiation were determined for 18 kinds of commercial dyes. The results are as follows: 1) the adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulose sheet differed greatly, but did not depend on the dye types such as acidic, basic and so on; 2) adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulosic sheet depended on the concentration of dye solution and were classified into 4 types: concentration-independent, increasing or decreasing with dye concentration, and having a maximum. This classification was irrelevant to the dye types; 3) the irradiation of UV-ray did not cause significant discoloration of dye solution itself, which suggested that wood components as well as dye molecules influence the discoloration of wood.

  3. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  4. 1983 Annual Report on Laser Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    absorption at the lasing wavelength due to the accumula- tion of reaction products from the photodegradation of a laser dye is analyzed thioretically...Laser Dyes O by A. N. Fletcher Research DopetMrnt APRIL 1984 NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE, CALIFORNIA 93555 Appoved for ftc qesege dt"" ba n ftsd...work presented in seven open literature publications on laser dyes . This work originated within the Chemistry Division and was performed and/or

  5. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  6. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Mahmood; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zilli Huma Nazli; Tariq Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of...

  7. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Shahin; Ahmed, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET) fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PE...

  8. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  9. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them.

  10. Tunable Optofluidic Third Order DFB Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present a low-threshold polymer-based nanofluidic dye laser. By employing a third order DFB laser resonator, we demonstrate a threshold fluence of ~7 muJ/mm2 and a tunability of 45 nm using a single laser dye......We present a low-threshold polymer-based nanofluidic dye laser. By employing a third order DFB laser resonator, we demonstrate a threshold fluence of ~7 muJ/mm2 and a tunability of 45 nm using a single laser dye...

  11. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  12. Release Control of Dye from Agar Ball

    OpenAIRE

    板屋, 智之; 山村, 俊貴; 唐澤, 有太朗

    2013-01-01

    Agar is a special product of Nagano prefecture. To utilize agar gel as adsorbing or releasing material of dyes or drugs, spherical agar gel “agar ball” was prepared by dropping aqueous agar solution into salad oil. And releasing behavior of a dye (rhodamine B) from agar ball was studied. The dye is released easily from agar ball, but the release can be controlled by hybiridazation of agar and galatin. In addition, it was found that agar ball could extract the dye from oil phase containing the...

  13. The microbial degradation of azo dyes: minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengalroyen, M D; Dabbs, E R

    2013-03-01

    The removal of dyes in wastewater treatment plants still involves physical or chemical processes. Yet numerous studies currently exist on degradation based on the use of microbes-which is a well-studied field. However progress in the use of biological methods to deal with this environmentally noxious waste is currently lacking. This review focuses on the largest dye class, that is azo dyes and their biodegradation. We summarize the bacteria identified thus far which have been implicated in dye decolorization and discuss the enzymes involved and mechanisms by which these colorants are broken down.

  14. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  15. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYEING EFFICIENCY AND RETENTION CAPACITY OF HERBAL HAIR DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingle R.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, attempts were made to make a powder herbal hair dye that gives dark brown to black colour to hair, resembling natural hair colour with better dyeing effect and greater retention capacity on comparison with marketed herbal hair dye formulation. Most of the marketed herbal hair dye formulations contain para-phenylenediamine at 20-25% concentrations which is the main ingredient of commercial synthetic dyes. It is known to trigger allergic skin reactions in many people. Ayurvedic powder hair dye devoid of any synthetic agent was prepared in present research work and evaluated for dyeing efficiency. Different combinations of powdered leaves, fruits of plants like Madayantika, Bhringraj, Amla and Nilini were evaluated as hair dyes. The polyherbal hair dye compositions containing large proportion of Nili, Mehendi and 5% Bhringraj and Amla, blended with 5% loha bhasma were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters like particle size, colour, pH, angle of repose and bulk density. Ayurvedic polyherbal powder hair dye of present investigation is semi-permanent in nature and exhibit better dyeing efficiency than marketed herbal hair dye.

  17. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  18. Dye lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    Studies on dye laser theory, design, components, optical systems, and frequency range are presented in approximately 96 citations. Abstracts on lasing dyes, pumping, tuning, excitation, molecular structure, and modulation are included. Studies on dye laser use in spectroscopy are covered.

  19. Preparation and Dyeing Performance of a Novel Crosslinking Polymeric Dye Containing Flavone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lijun; TANG Bingtao; ZHANG Shufen

    2011-01-01

    A yellow crosslinking polymeric dye was prepared by grafting the flavone moiety containing azo chromophore onto polyvinylamine backbone.The λ max of this polymeric dye in water is 382 nm.The polymeric dye is fixed to silk and cotton with a crosslinking agent,2-chloro-4,6-di(aminobenzene-4'-β-sulphatoethylsulphone)-1,3,5-s-triazine,which acts as a bridge between the fiber and dye molecules.The fixation of this polymeric dye reaches 99% and the dyed samples exhibit excellent rubbing and washing fastness.

  20. Synthesis of monoazo disperse dyes based on 2-aminoheterocycles and their dyeing performance on nylon fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITHAL SOMA PATEL

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel monoazo disperse dyes based on various 2-aminoheterocycles were prepared using N-methyl-N-(2-hydroxyethylaniline as the coupling component. All the dyes were applied as disperse dyes on nylon fabric. These dyes have been found to give a wide range of colour shades with very good depth, brightness and levelness on nylon fabric. The visible absorption spectra, elemental analysis and Rf values were investigated. The percentage dye bath exhaustion on fabric was found to be very good. The dyed fabric showed very good to excellent fastness to light, washing, rubbing and perspiration. The sublimation fastness was found to be excellent.

  1. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  2. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  3. Low Temperature Dyeing of Cashmere Fibers and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Shu-ying; ZHU Ping; CHEN Guo-hua; LI Ru-qin

    2005-01-01

    A special designed multi-functional dyeing auxiliary, SFR503, is adopted in mordant dyeing process for cashmere fibers, sliver and fabric. The results of decreasing dyeing temperature, shortening the dyeing period, reducing the fiber damage and improved quality of the cashmere have been obtained. The percentage of dyeing exhaustion and color fastness of final products were further improved in this regards. A suggested technique, bath ratio, dyeing process curve and dye recipe were raised in the paper. SFR-503s swelling, wetting, leveling, brightening effect for cashmere during dyeing process were discussed.

  4. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  5. The Influence of Cationization on the Dyeing Performance of Cotton Fabrics with Direct Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Shahin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cationic modification of cotton fabrics, using cationic agent (Chromatech 9414 on direct dyeing characteristics was studied in this work. Cationization of cotton fabric at different conditions (pH, cationic agent concentration, temperature and time was investigated and the optimum conditions were determined . Nitrogen content of cotton samples pretreated with cationic agent was indicated. The results showed that increasing cationic agent concentration lead to higher nitrogen content on cotton fabric . The cationized cotton fabrics were dyed with two direct dyes (C.I. Direct Yellow 142 - C.I. Direct red 224 and the results were compared to untreated cotton fabrics. The parameters which may affect the dyeing process such as dye concn., addition of salt, time and temperature of dyeing were studied. The dyeing results illustrate that cationization improves the fabric dyeability compared to the uncationized cotton and the magnitude of increase in colour depth depends on the nitrogen content of the cationized cotton fabric .The results also refer to possibility of dyeing cationized cotton fabric with direct dyes without addition of electrolytes to give colour strength higher than that achieved on uncationized cotton using conventional dyeing method .Another important advantage of cationic treatment is in the saving of dye concn., energy ,dyeing time , rinse water and subsequently saving of waste water treatment , and finally minimizes the environmental pollution . The changes in surface morphology of fibres after cationization were identified by various methods such as wettability and scanning with the electron microscope. Different fastness properties were evaluated.

  6. Steric and Solvent Effect in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Utilizing Phenothiazine-Based Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Kafafy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phenothiazine-based dyes have been prepared and utilized as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The effects of dye-adsorption solvent on the performances of dye-sensitized solar cells based on phenothiazine dyes were investigated in this study. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.78% was obtained using ethanol (EtOH and 2.53% for tetrahydrofuran (THF, respectively, as dye-adsorption solvents. Cell performance using EtOH as a dye-adsorption solvent showed relatively higher performance than that using THF. Electrochemical and photochemical tests of phenothiazine dyes in solution and adsorbed on the TiO2 surface showed less dye loading and coverage on the TiO2 surface during adsorption in the case of THF, which decreased the solar cell performance of the DSSC using THF as adsorption solvent compared with using EtOH as adsorption solvent. Meanwhile, the steric effect of phenothiazine-based (PT1–3 dyes was also investigated. Dye with longer and branched aliphatic chain in the order of PT1, PT2, and PT3 showed an increased resistance of the recombination reaction and electron lifetime, thereby increasing Voc and enhancing the overall cell performance because of the sterically hindered conformation of the phenothiazines.

  7. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  8. Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Lidén, Carola; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2017-08-09

    The high risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers, caused by skin exposure to irritants and sensitizers, such as hair dye substances, is of great concern. The aim of the present study was to assess how the various tasks involved in hair dyeing contribute to hairdressers' exposure to hair dye, in order to enable the formulation of well-founded recommendations on working routines that will reduce exposure and prevent occupational disease. Skin exposure to hair dye was measured for 20 hairdressers applying highlights and all-over hair colour with the hand rinsing technique. Resorcinol was used as a proxy for hair dye exposure. Applying hair dye and cutting the newly dyed hair were the tasks that contributed most to exposure in treatments for highlights. After cutting all-over-coloured hair, all hairdressers had measurable amounts of hair dyes on both hands. Hairdressers are exposed to hair dye ingredients during all steps of the hair dyeing procedure. Cutting newly dyed hair contributes significantly to exposure. As initial steps for the prevention of occupational disease resulting from hair dye exposure, we suggest cutting hair before dyeing it, and wearing gloves during all other work tasks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Study on Application of Natural Plant Dye Gardenia on Cotton Coloration and the Dyeing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lan; SHAO Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the structure and properties of gardenia, the gardenia was extracted in neutral bath. The mordant dyeing of cotton, including pre-mordant, one-bath and post-mordant were studied, and the dyeing properties such as dye K/S value and color fastness were investigated.According to the structure and property of mordants including alum, copper sulfate, iron sulfate and rare earth,the interaction mechanisms among gardenia, mordant and cotton fibers were analyzed and the processing factors affecting the mordant dyeing were discussed. As a result,gardenia showed favorable dyeing performance on cotton.The soaping color fastness and crocking fastness were improved by 0.5 - 1 grade after fixation process with the selected dye-fixing agent and optimized process conditions.The dyeing process and fixation process were optimized.

  11. Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

    2011-07-01

    Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

  12. Dyeing of UV irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics with multifunctional reactive and disperse dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dyeing behaviour of UV irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics using multifunctional reactive and disperse dyes has been investigated. The plain, woven, mercerized, bleached, cotton and polyester fabrics were exposed to UV radiation (180 w, 254 nm for 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Dyeing was performed using irradiated fabric with a dye solution of un-irradiated reactive and disperse/azo dyes. The dyeing parameters such as, temperature, time, pH and salt concentration have been optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics in CIE Lab systems using spectra flash SF600. Finally ISO standard methods were employed to observe the effect of UV radiation on fastness properties. It was found that UV radiation has a potential to improve the colour strength values of cotton and polyester fabrics by using reactive and disperse dyes.

  13. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  14. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  15. Hair Dye Poisoning in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Chandran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality.

  16. Supramolecular assemblies based on glycoconjugated dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes can be tailored with properties that make them attractive for use in biomedical applications. For example, when assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes are displaying carbohydrates on their periphery in a polyvalent manner, these assemblies can be used to

  17. Use of slag for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, K.R.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-09-01

    Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the present study investigates dye removal characteristics of slag from colored waters. Aqueous solutions prepared from commercial grade acid, basic, and disperse dyes were used in this study, and batch pH, kinetic, and isotherm studies were undertaken on a laboratory scale. The data were evaluated for applicability to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherm models, and the removal capacity of slag was compared with that of granular activated carbon. Results indicated approximately 94% removal of the disperse dye by slag, compared with a removal of approximately 49% achieved by activated carbon. Removal of acid dyes (dyes containing anionic groups) was reasonably good (approximately 47 and 74%), though not as good as obtained using activated carbon (approximately 100%). Column studies were conducted with a disperse dye (nonionic, slightly soluble in water), and analysis of data showed a sorption capacity of 1.3 mg of disperse dye per gram of slag. However, effluent dye concentrations were found to be higher than the permissible levels for discharge to receiving waters.

  18. Degradation of anthraquinone dyes by ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The decolorization of three kinds of anthraquinone dyes by ozone was investigated and the residues in the degradation solution were analyzed. The results indicate that the decolorizing effects are obvious with the decolorization efficiency of dyes all above 96% in 40 min. The pH value and TOC concentration decline while the conductivity increases with the lapse of reaction time.The complicated dye molecules are decomposed to simple compounds with -SO3H, -Cl in the dye molecules transformed into SO4 2-, Cl-, and nitrogen partially degrades into NO3- according to the bases of different groups. The organic acids are found in the degradation solutions and dyes with larger relative molecular mass are decomposed into substances with larger relative molecular mass.

  19. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S. Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  20. Molecular engineering of simple phenothiazine-based dyes to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration in highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong; Chang, Shuai; He, Jian; Zhang, Caishun; Zhao, Jianzhang; Chen, Tao; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Zhu, Xunjin

    2014-05-19

    A series of simple phenothiazine-based dyes, namely, TP, EP, TTP, ETP, and EEP have been developed, in which the thiophene (T), ethylenedioxythiophene (E), their dimers, and mixtures are present to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Devices sensitized by the dyes TP and TTP display high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.07 (Jsc = 15.2 mA cm(-2), Voc =0.783 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.679) and 7.87 % (Jsc = 16.1 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.717 V, FF = 0.681), respectively; these were measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight in conjunction with the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. By replacing the T group with the E unit, EP-based DSSCs had a slightly lower PCE of 7.98 % with a higher short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 16.7 mA cm(-2). The dye ETP, with a mixture of E and T, had an even lower PCE of 5.62 %. Specifically, the cell based on the dye EEP, with a dimer of E, had inferior Jsc and Voc values and corresponded to the lowest PCE of 2.24 %. The results indicate that the photovoltaic performance can be finely modulated through structural engineering of the dyes. The selection of T analogues as donors can not only modulate light absorption and energy levels, but also have an impact on dye aggregation and interfacial charge recombination of electrons at the interface of titania, electrolytes, and/or oxidized dye molecules; this was demonstrated through DFT calculations, electrochemical impedance analysis, and transient photovoltage studies.

  1. Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Harima, Yutaka

    2012-12-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on oxide semiconductor electrodes, such as TiO(2), ZnO, or NiO, which have emerged as a new generation of sustainable photovoltaic devices, have attracted much attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers because of enormous scientific interest in not only their construction and operational principles, but also in their high incident-solar-light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low cost of production. To develop high-performance DSSCs, it is important to create efficient organic dye sensitizers, which should be optimized for the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dyes themselves, with molecular structures that provide good light-harvesting features, good electron communication between the dye and semiconductor electrode and between the dye and electrolyte, and to control the molecular orientation and arrangement of the dyes on a semiconductor surface. The aim of this Review is not to make a list of a number of organic dye sensitizers developed so far, but to provide a new direction in the epoch-making molecular design of organic dyes for high photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of DSSCs, based on the accumulated knowledge of their photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of the organic dye sensitizers developed so far.

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  3. Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Adesina Adegoke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is a visible pollutant and the presence of even minute amounts of coloring substance makes it undesirable due to its appearance. The removal of color from dye-bearing effluents is a major problem due to the difficulty in treating such wastewaters by conventional treatment methods. The most commonly used methods for color removal are biological oxidation and chemical precipitation. However, these processes are effective and economic only in the case where the solute concentrations are relatively high. Most industries use dyes and pigments to color their products. The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to its adverse effect on various forms of life. The discharge of dyes in the environment is a matter of concern for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. It is evident from a literature survey of about 283 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for dye removal and the optimal equilibrium time of various dyes with different charcoal adsorbents from agricultural residues is between 4 and 5 h. Maximum adsorptions of acidic dyes were obtained from the solutions with pH 8–10. The challenges and future prospects are discussed to provide a better framework for a safer and cleaner environment.

  4. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    M) for 10:hsp sp="0.25" min Fenton treatment at pH 3, resulting in reduced chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies; only acetate was detected as a stable dye oxidation end product. During anaerobic digestion, 100, 29% and no inhibition in methane production was observed...... for the untreated blue, red and orange dyes, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blue reactive dye on methane production was ∼21% after Fenton treatment. Neither untreated nor treated dyes exhibited an inhibitory effect on denitrification. Aerobic glucose degradation was inhibited by 23-29% by untreated dyes......The effect of untreated and Fenton-treated acid dyes (C.I. Acid Red 183 and C.I. Acid Orange 51) and a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 4) on aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic processes was investigated. The optimum Fe2+:H2O2 molar ratio was selected as 1:5 (4:hsp sp="0.25" mM:20:hsp sp="0.25"m...

  5. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye.

  6. Dyeing Performance of Soybean Fiber Treated with Low Temperature Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ming; SHEN Yong; DING Ying; ZHANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    The soybean fiber was treated with low temperature plasma and the dyeing performance of the treated soybean fiber was also researched. The results show that the speed of dyeing and the percentages of balance dyeing have a sharp increase after being treated. So the dyeing temperature and the dosage of acid can be reduced without damaging the bulk fiber structure.

  7. Bleaching and diffusion dynamics in optofluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    The authors have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in optofluidic dye lasers where the liquid laser dye in a microfluidic channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. They find that for microfluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules...... pumping devices. ©2007 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  9. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  10. Production of Textile Reddish Brown Dyes by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. Mabrouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal strains were tested for their ability to produce brown and reddish brown textile dyes using H-acid (1-naphthol-8-amino-3, 6-disulfonic acid as a dye precursor in the fermentation medium. All tested fungal strains exhibited high ability to produce dyes varying in both dye color (brown to reddish brown and fastness properties to washing, perspiration and UV light. The produced dyes were subjected to further analysis for quantitative determination of dye components for investigation of their inter-relations as well as their role in dye color and stability.

  11. Decolourisation of Red 5 MB dye by microbes isolated from textile dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, P; Hiranmaiyadav, R; Premalatha, M S

    2010-07-01

    One of the major environmental problems is the presence of dye materials in textile wastewater, which need to be removed before releasing into the environment. Some dyes are toxic and carcinogenic in nature. The discharge of the textile effluent into rivers and lakes leads to higher BOD causing threat to aquatic life. Development of efficient dye degradation requires suitable strain and its use under favorable condition to realize the degradation potential. In this study, three microorganisms were isolated from the Red 5 MB dye containing textile wastewater. They were identified and tested for the dye decolourisation provided with different sugars as carbon source. The percentage of dye decolorized by Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus were found to be about 40%, 75% and 53.8% respectively.

  12. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(π-spacer)-acceptor(D-π-A) organic dyes,containing different groups(triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized.Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes.It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-π-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes.Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance:a short-circuit photocurrent density(Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage(Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor(FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency(η) of 6.72%.

  13. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DaXi; ZHAO Bin; SHEN Ping; HUANG Hui; LIU LiMing; TAN SongTing

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(TT-spacer)-acceptor (D-tt-A) organic dyes,containing different groups (triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized. Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes. It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-tt-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance: a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor (FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (77) of 6.72%.

  14. Dye ingredients and energy conversion efficiency at natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbay Karakuş, Mücella; Koca, İrfan; Er, Orhan; Çetin, Hidayet

    2017-04-01

    In this work, natural dyes extracted from the same genus but different species flowers were used as sensitizer in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). To clearly show dye ingredients effect on electrical characteristics, the same genus flowers were selected. The dye ingredients were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The dyes were modified by a procedure that includes refluxing in acetone. All results indicate a relationship between gallic acid quantity in dyes and solar cell efficiency. To gain further insight, the solar cell parameters were obtained by using the single-diode and double-diode models and they were compared to each other. It was observed that the applied process causes a decrease in series resistance. How the modification process and gallic acid affect energy conversion efficiency were argued in detail in the frame of results that were obtained from solar cell models.

  15. Natural Dye Extracted from Vitex negundo as a Potential Alternative to Synthetic Dyes for Dyeing of Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Swamy, Venkataramanappa; Gowda, Kurikempanadoddi Ninge; Sudhakar, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Since the last decade, the application of natural dyes on textile material has been gaining popularity all over the world, possibly because of the increasing awareness of issues concerning the environment, ecology and pollution control. The present paper investigates extraction of natural dye from leaves of the plant Vitex negundo, which is an abundant, cheap, and readily available agricultural by-product. Water extracts from V. negundo was used to dye silk fabrics. Optimum extraction conditions included pH 9, duration 120 min, and temperature 90 °C. Optimum dyeing conditions included dyeing pH 5 and duration of 60 min. Potash alum, tannic and tartaric acid were used as mordants, all of which are benign to human health and the environment. Color strength and color coordinates in terms of L*, a*, b*, C, and h were examined. A range of shades were obtained when fabrics were dyed with different mordants and mordanting techniques. The extracted dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were found to be lower than the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The dyed silk fabrics showed acceptable fastness properties and were also found to possess antibacterial activity. It can be concluded that the abundantly available agricultural by-product V. negundo has great potential to be effectively utilized as a natural dye for silk.

  16. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH MONASCUS PURPUREUS DYE

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Basant*, Shahnaz Jahan

    2016-01-01

    Textile industry is one of the most significant contributor to world economy and a major consumer of dyes. The nature provides rich and diverse source of dyes all the while being environmentally safe,   Nowadays, with the increasing awareness about health, wellness as well as environment among the general populace, there has been a renewed interest in natural sources of pigments for dyes. This is because naturally produced colors are not toxic nor carcinogenic to humans and are more e...

  17. The Removal of Composite Reactive Dye from Dyeing Unit Effluent Using Sewage Sludge Derived Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY, Sajjala SREEDHAR

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from dried municipal sewage sludge and batch mode adsorption experiments were conducted to study its potential to remove composite reactive dye from dyeing unit effluent. Adsorption parameters for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined and the effects of effluent pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. The toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP) was used to assess the acceptability of sewage ...

  18. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over tw

  19. Effect of Solvent, Dye-Loading Time, and Dye Choice on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd M. Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase titania films with a thickness of up to 20 μm and deposited over a fluorine-doped tin-oxide substrate are impregnated with ruthenium dyes N-719 and N-749 using Dip and supercritical-fluid methods for the purpose of fabricating dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The dyes are dissolved in different solvent mixtures, including supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as combinations of more traditional solvents including mixtures of acetonitrile, and t-butanol. Analytical studies included thin-film analyzing and scanning electron microscopy to measure titania film thickness and porosity, UV-Vis spectroscopy to quantify dye concentration, and current-voltage device characterizations to assess energy conversion efficiency, as well as open-circuit voltage decay measurements and quantum efficiency to examine electron collection efficiency. A significant result is that using the dye N-749 in a solvent that includes supercritical carbon dioxide leads to energy conversion efficiencies that are higher for devices with a thick 20 μm semiconductor film than for the case of devices with thinner films, including the 10 μm film thickness that is traditionally considered an upper threshold. The supercritical-fluid method for the N-719 dye also enabled shorter impregnation duration than more conventional classical Dip Methods.

  20. Simulation of Na channel inactivation by thiazine dyes

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Some dyes of the methylene blue family serve as artificial inactivators of the sodium channels when present inside squid axons at a concentration of approximately 0.1 mM. The dyes restore a semblance of inactivation after normal inactivation has been destroyed by pronase. In fibers that inactivate normally, the dyes hasten the decay of sodium current. Many dye-blocked channels conduct transiently on exit of the dye molecule after repolarization to the holding potential. In contrast, normally ...

  1. USE OF A NATURAL DYE FROM SERRATIA MARCESCENS SUBSPECIES MARCESCENS IN DYEING OF TEXTILE FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Adivarekar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Serratia marcescens subspecies marcescens capable of producing a novel rose red pigment with a mass of 112 Da has been isolated from Mahim Mangroove soil. Studies regarding the growth conditions of bacteria, partial characterization of the produced pigment and use of this rose red pigment to dye natural fabrics has been studied and described. Dyeing of wool, cotton and silk fabrics with this rose red microbial pigment as natural dye indicated that the colour strength values and the dye uptake were high with satisfactory fastness properties of the dyed fabric.

  2. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  3. Synthesis of Plant Phenol-derived Polymeric Dyes for Direct or Mordant-based Hair Dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Min; Jeon, Jong-Rok

    2016-12-01

    Effective hair dyeing through in situ incubation of keratin hair with the products of fungal laccase-catalyzed polymerization of plant phenols has been previously demonstrated. However, the dyeing process takes a long time to complete compared to commercial hair-dyeing products. To overcome this bottleneck, pre-synthesized polymeric products of the oxidative reaction of Trametes versicolor laccase on catechin and catechol, either with or without mordant agents (e.g., FeSO4), were here employed to achieve permanent keratin hair dyeing in various colors and shades. The laccase action in acidic sodium acetate buffer led to a deep black coloration after coupling reactions between the plant phenols. The colored dye products were then desalted and concentrated with ultrafiltration. The dyes, with or without mordant agents, caused a significant increase in ΔE values (i.e., color difference value) in gray human hair within 2.5 hours. In addition, different keratin colors and shades were induced depending upon the mordanting and pH changes. The dyed hair also exhibited a strong resistance to detergent treatments, indicating that our methods can give rise to permanent hair dyeing. Overall, our work has provided novel insight into developing eco-friendly hair-dyeing methods as alternatives to commercial toxic diamine-based dyes.

  4. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dyeing of Organic Cotton Fabric using Conventional and Ultrasonic Exhaust Dyeing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research dyeing behavior of organic cotton woven fabric using ultrasonic technique and conventional dyeing method has been compared. The fabric samples were dyed with reactive dyes Drimarene Red Cl-5B and Drimarene Blue Cl-BR (0.5% owf using exhaust dyeing method. The samples were ultrasonically dyed at varied temperature (60, 50 and 40oC for 60, 50, 40 and 30 minutes and for conventional method at varied temperature but at recommended time, 60 minutes. For optimizing the dyeing behavior, the samples were causticized by pad-batch method and then dyed with ultrasonic technique at varied temperature and time. It has been observed organic cotton fabric dyed using ultrasonic exhaust method at 60oC for 50 minutes gives highest (K/S?max value, excellent fastness property, deeper dye diffusion and less surface deterioration compared to the conventional dyeing method. Moreover, causticized and dyed sample with ultrasonic technique at 60oC for 30 minutes gives colour strength value almost equal to the conventional recommended dyeing method. Hence, dyeing of organic material using ultrasonic exhaust method saves energy and time

  6. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Rani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85% followed by Nigrosin (77.47%, Malachite green (72.77% and dye mixture (33.08% under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15% followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%, Malachite green (83.25% and mixture (78.4%. The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  7. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  8. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  10. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  11. Preparation and Application of Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 陈水林

    2001-01-01

    Microcapsules containing disperse dyes were prepared by means of in-situ polymerization. Polyester fabrics were multiple-transfer printed and color-mix printed using those microencapsulated dyes under different process conditions. By color measurement instrument, it can be seen that the times of multiple-transfer printing are up to ten while under appropriate conditions, especially when the transfer printing time is 50 seconds and the transfer printing temperature is 180°C. On the other hand, the K/S value of each transfer printing can keep almost constant. Meanwhile, the visual effect of color- mix printing with microencapsulated disperse dyes is special in the varicolored exhibiting if compared with conventional disperse dyes.

  12. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  13. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  14. Mode coupling in organic dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, A.

    1973-10-25

    Saturable dye triggering is discussed together with relaxation time and pulse duration. The influence of stimulated emission is detailed. Experimental results of mode coupling with cyanines and xanthines, flash excited and not, are reported.

  15. On-chip tunable optofluidic dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zengyan; Shen, Zhenhua; Liu, Haigang; Yue, Huan; Zou, Yun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a chip-scale tunable optofluidic dye laser with Au-coated fibers as microcavity. The chip is fabricated by soft lithography. When the active region is pumped, a relatively low threshold of 6.7 μJ/mm2 is realized with multimode emission due to good confinement of the cavity mirrors, long active region, as well as total reflectivity. It is easy to tune the lasing emission wavelength by changing the solvent of laser dye. In addition, the various intensity ratios of multicolor lasing can be achieved by controlling flow rates of two fluid streams carried with different dye molecules. Furthermore, the convenience in fabrication and directional lasing emission outcoupled by the fiber make the tunable optofluidic dye laser a promising underlying coherent light source in the integrated optofluidic systems.

  16. Dye laser chain for laser isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doizi, Denis; Jaraudias, Jean; Pochon, E.; Salvetat, G.

    1993-05-01

    Uranium enrichment by laser isotope separation uses a three step operation which requires four visible wavelengths to boost an individual U235 isotope from a low lying atomic energy level to an autoionizing state. The visible wavelengths are delivered by dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers (CVL). In this particular talk, a single dye chain consisting of a master oscillator and amplifier stages will be described and some of its performance given.

  17. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  18. Kinetics of Dyes Adsorbed by Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; CHEN Dong-hui; GAO Liang

    2002-01-01

    A study on adsorption of Acidic Blue RAWL and Cationic Blue X-GRRL dyes by chitosan have been conducted.The adsorption kinetic parameters including adsorption rate K and effective diffusing coefficient D'i under the optimal pH ranges have been determined. Analysis through the enthalpy calculation reveals a substantial thermodynamic difference between the adsorption processes of the two dyes, which helps to understand the adsorption mechanism by chitosan.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of synthetic dye under sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are widely used in the textile industry. Dye pollutants from the textile industry are an important source of environmental contamination. The majority of these dyes are toxic, mostly non-biodegradable and also resistant to decomposition by physico-chemical methods. Among new oxidation methods or "advanced oxidation processes", heterogeneous photocatalysis appears as an emerging destructive technology leading to the total mineralization of many organic pollutants. CI Basic Yellow 28 (BY28, commonly used as a textile dye, could be photocatalytically degraded using TiU2 as catalyst under sunlight. The effect of some parameters such as the initial catalyst concentration, initial dye concentration, initial NaCl and Na2CO3 concentrations, pH, H2O2 and type of catalyst on the degradation rate of BY28 was examined in details. The presence of NaCl and Na2CO3 led to inhibition of the photodegradation process. The highest photodegradation rate was observed at high pH, while the rate was the lowest at low pH. Increase of the initial H2O2 concentration increased the initial BY28 photodegradation efficiency. ZnO was a better catalyst than TiO2 at low dye concentrations.

  20. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Dellamatrice

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black, and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.

  1. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamatrice, Priscila Maria; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Chitosan derivatives as biosorbents for basic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Nikolaos K; Kyzas, George Z; Vassiliou, Alexandros A; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2007-07-03

    The scope of this study was to prepare and evaluate chitosan derivatives as biosorbents for basic dyes. This was achieved by grafting poly (acrylic acid) and poly (acrylamide) through persulfate induced free radical initiated polymerization processes and covalent cross-linking of the prepared materials. Remacryl Red TGL was used as the cationic dye. Equilibrium sorption experiments were carried out at different pH and initial dye concentration values. The experimental equilibrium data for each adsorbent-dye system were successfully fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and pH-dependent Langmuir-Freundlich sorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees, and DeltaS degrees were calculated. The negative values of free energy reflected the spontaneous nature of adsorption. The typical dependence of dye uptake on temperature and the kinetics of adsorption indicated the process to be chemisorption. The grafting modifications greatly enhanced the adsorption performance of the biosorbents, especially in the case of powdered cross-linked chitosan grafted with acrylic acid, which exhibited a maximum adsorption capacity equal to 1.068 mmol/g. Kinetic studies also revealed a significant improvement of sorption rates by the modifications. Diffusion coefficients of the dye molecule were determined to be of the order 10(-13) - 10(-12) m2/s. Furthermore, desorption experiments affirmed the regenerative capability of the loaded material.

  3. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively.

  4. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: Implications for a commercial azo dye mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchi, Francine Inforcato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil); Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Zocolo, Guilherme Juliao; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Umbuzeiro, Gisela, E-mail: giselau@ft.unicamp.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous solutions of Disperse Red 1 were treated with chlorine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorination products of Disperse Red 1 were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daphnia and Salmonella/microsome were employed for eco/genotoxicity testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorinated dye was more mutagenic

  5. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  6. Nucleophilic addition of reactive dyes on amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S E

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% of of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  7. Sorption of dyes from aqueous solutions onto fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janos, Pavel; Buchtová, Hana; Rýznarová, Milena

    2003-12-01

    Brown coal fly ashes were tested as potentially low-cost sorbents for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters. It was shown that both basic (cationic) as well as acid (anionic) dyes can be sorbed onto the fly ash. The adsorption can be described by the multi-site Langmuir isotherm. The sorption capacities were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-3)mmol/g and did not differ significantly for basic and acid dyes. The dye sorption decreased in the presence of organic solvents (methanol, acetone). The presence of oppositely charged surfactants exhibited a pronounced effect on the dye sorption-low concentrations of the surfactant enhanced sorption, whereas high concentrations solubilized the dyes and kept them in solution. Inorganic salts exhibited only a minor effect on the dye sorption. The sorption of basic dyes increased at high pH values, whereas the opposite was true for acid dyes.

  8. DYEING COTTON WITH EISENIA BICYCLIS AS NATURAL DYE USING DIFFERENT BIOMORDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Mª Ángeles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are known for their use in coloring of food substrate, leather as well as natural protein fibers like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Nowadays, there has been revival of the growing interest on the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Some researchers focus their studies on the improvement of these dyes using mordants. Most works use metallic mordants like aluminum or iron are used, but some of them are hazardous. In this work we used a biomordant to solve environmental problems caused by metallic mordants. The effects of chitosan weight molecular in mordanting on the dyeing characteristics and the UV protection property were examined in this study. Chitosan mordanted Eisenia Bicyclis dyed cotton showed better dyeing characteristic and higher UV protection property compared with undyed cotton fabric. To analyze the differences of the dyeing, reflection spectrophotometer was used, evaluating the results of CIELAB color difference values and the strength color (in terms of K/S value. We conclude that the type of chitosan used affect the dyeing efficiency and the UV protection, showing different behavior between dye sample using chitosan with low or medium molecular weight.

  9. Enzymatic decolorization of spent textile dyeing baths composed by mixtures of synthetic dyes and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Gullotto, Antonella; Tilli, Silvia; Sannia, Giovanni; Basosi, Riccardo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2012-10-01

    The effects of different components of real dyeing bath formulations, such as the equalizing and fixing additives-acids, salts, and surfactants-on the decolorization catalyzed by Funalia trogii enzymatic extracts, were investigated to understand their influence on the recalcitrance to biodegradation of this type of wastewater. The decolorization of selected dyes and dye mixtures after tissue dyeing was performed in the presence/absence of auxiliary compounds. All spent dyeing baths were enzymatically decolorized to different extents, by the addition of extracts containing laccase only or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Whereas surfactant auxiliaries, in some instances, inhibit the decolorization of spent dyeing baths, in several occurrences the acid/salt additives favor the enzymatic process. In general, the complete spent dyeing formulations are better degraded than those containing the dyes only. The comparison of extracellular extracts obtained from spent straws from the commercial growth of Pleurotus sp. mushrooms with those from F. trogii reveals similar decolorization extents thus allowing to further reduce the costs of bioremediation.

  10. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  11. Synthesis and dyeing properties of new disazo disperse dyes for polyester and nylon fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarulata B. Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diazotized aryl amines were coupled with two stenhouse salt namely, N-(5-phenylamino-penta-4-ol-2,4-diene-1-ylideneanilines hydrochloride [S1 (RH or S2 (ROH] to furnish two series of disazo disperse dyes (S1D1–10 and S2D1–10. The structure of all the dyes was established by estimating number of azo groups, elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR, UV/Visible. The structure–property relationship was discussed by using electronic absorption spectra of the dyes. These dyes were applied to polyester and nylon fabrics as disperse dyes by using temperature exhaust dyeing method. The relevant dyeing characteristics, such as dyeability on fabrics, wash-fastness and light-fastness were evaluated. Fabrics dyed with these dyes furnished generally deep and bright intense hues ranging from light yellow to orange to reddish brown. The color fastness of the dyed fabric was assessed by determining wash-fastness and light-fastness properties.

  12. Molecular design and photovoltaic performance of organic dyes containing phenothiazine for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyo Jeong; Nam, Jung Eun; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jae Hong; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel organic photosensitizers based on fluorine-substituted phenothiazine with thiophene bridge units in the chromophore for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Furthermore, organic dyes with different acceptors exhibited higher molar extinction coefficients, and better light absorption at longer wavelengths. The photovoltaic properties of organic dyes composed of different acceptors in their chromophores were measured to identify their effects on the DSSC performance. The organic dye, PFSCN2 containing multi-cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor, showed a power conversion efficiency of 4.67% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). The retarded recombination kinetics from TiO2 electrode to electrolyte enhanced the electron life time of the organic dye, PFSCN2 in the photoanode of the DSSC. This was confirmed with impedance analysis.

  13. Ethoxy-substituted Oligo-phenylenevinylene-Bridged Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单益凡; 汤杰; 赖华; 谭宏伟; 刘晓峰; 杨帆; 房强

    2012-01-01

    Organic dyes with ethoxy-substituted oligo-phenylenevinylene as chromophores were synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the detailed relationships between the dye structures, photophysical properties, electrochemical properties, and performances of DSSCs were described. The dye S3O showed broad IPCE spectra in the spectral range of 350--750 nm, and the dye S1P showed solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (1/) of up to 4.23% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2) in comparison with the reference Ru-complex (N719 dye) with an r/value of 5.90% under similar experimental conditions.

  14. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37 ± 4.48, 1.15 ± 0.13 and 565 ± 4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94 ± 0.05 to 166 ± 3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166 ± 3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field.

  15. Reactive dye extraction utilizing regenerated bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite bleaching earth is utilized for purifying used motor oil through a recovery process in order to improve the quality and stability of the final product. Indeed, spent bleaching earth is generated due to adsorbing oil impurities. Polluted spent bleaching earth contains 20-40% (w/w oil and is flammable. Its disposal without pre-treatment leads to loss of oil along with environmental impacts. Accordingly, similar studies have been conducted since 1979 until now. This research was a laboratory study on reactive dye adsorption. Cleaning bleaching clay, thermal remediation and acid washing activation methods were utilized. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments and determine the optimal parameters in order to run the dye adsorption process. The main experimental parameters have been concluded as temperature (200-800 °C, acid solution concentration (0.1-3 M, dye solution concentration (1-35 ppm, and ratio of activated earth to dye solution (0.1-2 %, w/w. Results revealed that dye adsorption process along with oil removal at a temperature of 650 °C, acid solution concentration of 0.83 M, dye solution concentration of 11.75 ppm and ratio of activated earth to dye solution of 1.52 % (w/w results in an adsorption efficiency of 68.57%. This removal efficiency is a bit higher than activated virgin bleaching earth and much higher than virgin bleaching earth, which has adsorption capacities of 66.75% and 51.56%, respectively. Considering this recycling process, the purified material is quite acceptable technically, environmentally and economically.

  16. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  18. Preparation of P(St-BA-VBT)/dye Colored Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-mei; FANG Kuan-jun

    2015-01-01

    P (St-BA-VBT)/dye colored nanoparticles were prepared by staining P (Styrene-Butyl Acrylate-VinylBenzyl Trimethylammonium chloride) nanoparticles synthesized by soap free cationic emulsion polymerization with reactive dyes. The effects of reactive dyes dosage, dyeing temperature and time on amounts of dyes adsorbed on the nanoparticles were analysed. Results showed that when Reactive Red 195 dosage was 5.25%, the adsorption amounts of dyes on the nanoparticles reached a maximum value of 18.64 mg/g at 65℃for 90 min.

  19. ADSORPTION OF DYES ON ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenShuixia; WuChangqing; 等

    1998-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of dyes on a variety of sisal based activated carbon fibers (SACF) has been studied in this paper. The results show that this kind of ACF has excellent adsorption capacities for some organic (dye) molecules.SACF can remove nearly all methylene blue,crystal violet,bromophenol blue and Eriochrome blue black R from water after static adsorption for 24h. at 30℃. The adsorption amounts can reach more than 400mg/g when adding 50 mg SACF into 50 ml dye solution.Under the same conditions,the adsorption amounts of xylenol orange fluorescein and Eriochrome black T wree lower.On the other hand,the adsorption amounts change along with the characteristics of adsorbents.The SACFs activated above 840℃,which have higher specific surface areas and wider pore radii,have higher adsorption amounts for the dyes.The researching results also show that the adsorption rates of dyes onto SACFs decrease by the order of methylene blue,Eriochrome blue black R and crystal violet.

  20. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  1. Dyes and Materials for Sensitised Electrochemical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnasr, M.; Brooks, K. G.; McEvoy, A. J.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Pechy, P.; Thampi, K. R.; Grätzel, M.

    2001-11-01

    The present concepts evolved in the context of research and development of artificial photosynthetic systems. Our biosphere depends totally on the action of a porphyrin dye, chlorophyll, for its continued existance, since all food resources find their origin in photosynthesis. Equally, for much of our energy resources we rely on the same process, present or past, as stored in fossil fuels. Naturally, therefore, when it comes to the molecular design of dyes for solar photochemical applications the reference to the porphyrins and similar organometallic complexes based on nitrogen ring structures as prototypes is obvious. However, although nature confines itself to magnesium and iron for its principal pigments, chlorophyll and haemoglobin respectively, the synthetic chemist can access the whole range of metallic elements. The use of ruthenium pyridyl complexes has almost thirty years of development history, and although other compounds have been assessed, such as zinc porphyrins and even prussian-blue analogues, the most suitable dyes today are still modifications of the ruthenium-based pyridyl complexes. The molecular engineering of dyes extends the visible spectrum response, enhances stability and promotes chemisorption to oxide semiconductor substrates while maintaining the energetics and kinetics for efficient charge transfer to function in sensitised electrochemical photovoltaic devices. There is also an overview of the present status of the technology, the materials incorporated in current devices, and their reliability in practical applications especially in situations of thermal stress. The conclusion will present the case for ongoing development of dye-sensitised systems in photovoltaic technology.

  2. Chromed Leather Dyeing Peculiarities when Deliming with Peracetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis BELEŠKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of deliming with peracetic acid on leather dyeing kinetics. Hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 and hydrophilic C.I. Acid Red 423 dyes were used. Sorption of dye depends on hydrophobicity/hydrophility of dye and dyeing temperature. Equilibrium of process is reached faster using hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 at 45 ºC. However, both control and experimental leather fibres adsorb more hydrophilic dye C.I. Acid Red 423 and this fact does not depend on temperature. The diffusion coefficient of dye C.I. Acid Red 423 calculated according to Weisz model is higher when dyeing conventional leather. The change of deliming method has influence on chromed leather dyeing but this influence is not significant. The adsorption ability of control leather fibres at 30 ºC and 45 ºC is higher using both dyes as compared to the dyeing the experimental one. The increase of dyeing temperature increases the adsorption ability independently on the sort of leather fibres. Such dependence of the adsorption ability on the temperature shows that hydrophobic action and van der Waals forces prevail between dye and fibres during dyeing process. The Gibbs energy changes show that adsorption of both dyes by leather fibres independently on their sort is a spontaneous process. The affinity of both dyes to conventional leather fibres is higher comparing with experimental one. The change of enthalpy is positive in all cases, and it means that the driving force of the dyeing is the change of entropy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4431

  3. Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye Effluents Using Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, R; Ranjitsingh, A J A; Mosae Selvakumar, P; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of the chemical dye AZO and dye effluents in different time duration has been investigated using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Dye industry effluents and AZO dye undergo degradation to form harmless intermediate and colourless products following irradiation by UV and solar light in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. The degree of degradation was tested under the experimental conditions such as P(H), temperature, and absorbance of the dye in UV and solar light was measured. The degradation was higher in the UV light source than in the solar light source. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the UV light source were found to expedite the dye degradation process.

  4. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD-dye

  5. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Awais Khatri; Mazhar Hussain Peerzada

    2012-01-01

    Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used...

  6. π-Spacer effect in dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Gou, Faliang; Zhao, Dongning; Shi, Jian; Gao, Hong; Zhu, Zhenping; Jing, Huanwang

    2016-08-01

    New dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes have been devised and prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells. Various π-spacers have been successfully introduced into the skeleton of dithiafulvenyl and phenothiazine unit to generate novel D-π-D-A dyes (DPP-1 ∼ 4). All dyes have been characterized with NMR, HRMS, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, and taken into cyclic voltammetry measurements. The devices of new dyes have been determined by photoelectrochemical experiments (IV, IPCE and EIS), in which, solar cell of DPP-4 with biphenyl ring π-spacer enhances obviously its photoelectric conversion efficiency to 7.66% reaching 94% of N719-based standard cell and displays good long-term stability with quasi-solid-state electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of new dyes provide further insight into the molecular geometries and the impacts of the torsion angles on their photovoltaic performance. Large dihedral angles in DPP dyes induce good charge separation for efficient unidirectional flow of electron from donor to acceptor.

  7. In-situ Decolorization of Residual Dye Effluent in Textile Jet Dyeing Machine by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea of decolourization was investigated in which residual dyeing effluent from textile dyeing process was treated using O3 in the same machine where it was generated. The novelty comes from the idea of doing dyeing and treatment simultaneously. At the completion of dyeing process, O3 gas was injected directly into the machine to remove colour and COD from the wastewater. To evaluate the effectiveness of new method, pilot-scale studies were performed, and decolourization of residual dyeing effluents containing C.I. Reactive Orange 7, C.I. Reactive Blue 19, and C.I. Reactive Black 5 was carried out in specially built textile jet dyeing machine. The results showed that almost 100% colour removal and 90% COD reduction were achieved when process conditions such as pH, dye concentration (mg/L, ozone production rate (g/hr, and temperature were optimized. The study concludes that new method has a great potential to eliminate the need of a separate end-of-the-pipe wastewater treatment system, thus offering an on-site and cost-effective solution.

  8. Pad ultrasonic batch dyeing of causticized lyocell fabric with reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Aijaz Ahmed; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Jhatial, Abdul Khalique; Bughio, Noor-Ul-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, cellulosic fabric dyed with reactive dyes requires significant amount of salt. However, the dyeing of a solvent spun regenerated cellulosic fiber is a critical process. This paper presents the dyeing results of lyocell fabrics dyed with conventional pad batch (CPB) and pad ultrasonic batch (PUB) processes. The dyeing of lyocell fabrics was carried out with two commercial dyes namely Drimarine Blue CL-BR and Ramazol Blue RGB. Dyeing parameters including concentration of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dwell time were compared for the two processes. The outcomes show that PUB dyed samples offered reasonably higher color yield and dye fixation than CPB dyed samples. A remarkable reduction of 12h in batching time, 18ml/l in NaOH and 05g/l in Na2CO3 quantity was observed for PUB processed samples producing similar results compared to CPB process, making PUB a more economical, productive and an environment friendly process. Color fastness examination witnessed identical results for both PUB and CPB methods. No significant change in surface morphology of PUB processed samples was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  9. Improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells' performance through introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao; Pan, Hao; Ju, Xue-Hai; Ji, Ya-Jun; Qin, Ling; Zheng, He-Gen; Zhou, Xing-Fu

    2012-02-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are currently under intense academic and industrial investigation, owing to their great potential to serve as a low-cost alternative to existing photovoltaic technologies. This paper puts forward a method, which adopts heterocyclic substituted triarylamine units as electronic donor moieties, to design triarylamine dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Three novel triarylamine dyes named TTC101, TTC102 and TTC103, were synthesized economically through modification of the structure of a simple triarylamine dye (TC105) using three kinds of heterocyclic groups (4-pyridyl, 2-thienyl and 1-pyrazolyl). The crystal structure of TTC103 indicates that the heterocyclic groups would partly delocalize the positive charge after photooxidation. The overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 4.92% and 5.21% respectively under AM1.5G irradiation, reaching ∼82.3% and ∼77.7% of a N719-based reference cell under the same conditions. Besides, the energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 1.29 and 1.37 times the efficiency of TC105 respectively. All of the results above demonstrate that photovoltaic performance can be improved by introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes. A series of properties were investigated to explain the results, with a special emphasis on the geometric structures, energetics, and charge transfer processes at the dye/titania/electrolyte interface.

  10. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  11. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer.

  12. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2014-07-15

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  13. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  14. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  15. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-22

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  16. Novel Tunable Dye Laser for Lidar Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tunable dye laser for Lidar detection will be fabricated based on the innovative dye-doped Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (HPDLC) technology. The...

  17. Antimicrobial effect of natural dyes on some pathogenic bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, natural dyes, textile. INTRODUCTION ... To prepare aqueous dye solutions of these plants, 10 g of each of the powders .... antibacterial treatments to repeated laundering, Text Chem Color.

  18. Spectral characteristics and nonlinear studies of crystal violet dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, V. Sindhu; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-03-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this paper, the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye crystal violet are studied. The spectral characteristics of crystal violet dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique, by exciting with He-Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye crystal violet show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  19. Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

  20. The Ideal Solvent for Paper Chromatography of Food Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markow, Peter G.

    1988-01-01

    Uses paper chromatography with food dyes to provide a simple and inexpensive basis for teaching chromatography. Provides experimental methodology and tabled results. Includes a solvent system comparison (Rf) for seven dyes and twenty-two solvents. (MVL)

  1. Decolourisation of chemically different dyes by enzymes from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Key words: Synthetic dye decolourisation, spent mushroom compost, Pleurotus sajor-caju, dye kinetics. ... photocatalysis or ozonation are effective but rather costly ... organic matter, balance pH, add beneficial micro-.

  2. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  3. optimization of crystal violet dye removal from aqueous solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maje malamiyo

    ... Atika M. Ibrahim. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria ... dyes (Crini, 2006). Dyes are basically chemical compounds that ..... American-Eurasian J. ... Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... immobilized marine and freshwater microalgal beads ... Discharge of textile wastewater containing toxic dyes can adversely affect aquatic organisms and human health. .... the bioavailability of pollutants like metals, dye.

  5. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica stems ash. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Abstract. Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk.

  6. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and application of new azo dyes derived from uracil for polyester fibre dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Mohamad-reza; Abbasnia, Masoumeh; Sheykhan, Mehdi; Ma'mani, Leila

    2010-08-01

    Some novel uracil derived azo compounds were synthesized by diazotization of substituted aromatic amines, amidine- and guanidine-like amines such as 2-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine, ortho-hydroxy aniline and ortho-hydroxy naphthyl amines and coupling reaction with 6-amino-1,3-dimethyluracil. Structures of the dyes were fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, CHN and IR). The dyes were applied to polyester, affording orange-yellow shades and the wash fastness of the dyeings was excellent.

  8. Erythema multiforme following application of hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankha Koley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction with varying degrees of blistering and ulceration. Common causes of EM are herpes simplex virus infection, mycoplasma infection, drug hypersensitivity, vaccination and drug-virus interaction. EM induced by contact dermatitis is rare. Paraphenylene diamine, a common ingredient in many hair dyes, is well known to produce allergic contact dermatitis. We report a 35-year-old lady presenting with EM following severe contact dermatitis to hair dye. So far as we know, this is the first report from India describing EM following contact dermatitis.

  9. Tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback (DFB) dye lasers. The lasers rely on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels constitutes a third order Bragg grating DFB laser resonator with a central phase-shift. The lasers...... are operated by filling the DFB laser resonator with a dye solution by capillary action and optical pumping with a frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser. The low reflection order of the DFB laser resonator yields low out-of-plane scattering losses as well as a large free spectral range (FSR), and low threshold...

  10. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment systems. Eighty-five percent of tie-dye entrepreneurs agreed that there must be wastewater treatment before release into the environment. From group discussions, it was found that the entrepreneurs realized the wastewater problem and wanted to carry out environment friendly tie-dyeing. Our study demonstrated that the average value of the colour density, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solids (TDS and pH of the wastewater characteristics were 170 SU (space units, 1584 mg/l, 2487 mg/l and 8, respectively. For the upflow anaerobic filter, 5 sets of experiments, with 24 hours retention time, were designed, with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % of cow’s feces ferment, respectively (sets 1st-5th. The result showed decreasing colour densities from 170 SU to 160 SU (dark colour, 60 SU (very light colour, 12 SU (no colour, 10 SU (no colour and 10 SU (no colour, respectively. We conclude that the upflow anaerobic filter, containing 2% cow’s feces ferment is an efficient way to reduce colour density of the wastewater. Mixing cow’s feces ferment with tie-dye wastewater increased COD and TDS in wastewater. Mean COD was increased by residual organic matter from 1584 mg/l (before treatment to (after-treatment, sets 2nd- 5th 1600 mg/l, 1680 mg/l, 1710 mg/l and 1750 mg/l, respectively. COD aftertreatment was higher than the industrial effluence standard (400 mg/l. Further treatment COD might include wetland procedures. TDS was increased by some residual organic matter

  11. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -state-dye-sensitized photovoltaics with an amphiphilic Ruthenium-dye. Appl. Physics Letters 86, 013504-1-013504-3 (2005) 2. A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, Light-induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems. Chem. Rev. 95 (1995) 49-68 XRD (Pure anatase) SEM of anatase film Two... (Artificial photosynthesis) L LE ROUX, C ARENDSE, S HIETKAMP CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa Email: lleroux@csir.co.za ABSTRACT As our fuel sources become depleted, we will increasingly turn to alternative...

  12. Preparation of some new coumarin dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Series of coumarins containing heterocyclic substituent in 3-position were prepared.Sulfonyl chloride, a reactive group, was drawn into the heterocycle, and further condensed withamines to give series of new compounds that contain N-alkyl sulfamide. The spectral propertiesand dyeing character of these new dyes are discussed. A bathochromic shift (10 nm), enhancedfastness in light and sublimation (1-2 grade) and larger molar extinction coefficient (increase 104L ·mol-1 ·cm-1) are apparent with these new compounds. In the meantime, larger solubility appearswith these new compounds.

  13. Optofluidic third order distributed feedback dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This letter describes the design and operation of a polymer-based third order distributed feedback (DFB) microfluidic dye laser. The device relies on light confinement in a nanostructured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution...... which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order DFB grating, formed by the array of nanofluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straightforward to integrate on lab-on-a-chip microsystems where coherent, tunable light...

  14. Study on Dyeing Behavior of Modified Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lai-jiu; LI Hong; LIU Jian-yu

    2004-01-01

    The study of dyeability of the modified flax that uses dye-uptake to reflect its modifying effect is reported in this paper. The optimal technological condition is that the concentration of the modifying agent is 4g/l, and NaOH is 6g/l at liquor ratio of 1:30 for 60 min. at 85℃.Dyeability include uptake rate and color fastness. Dye-uptake of the modified flax is twice more than that of the unmodified. And their color fastness doesn't fall and some of them raise 0.5-1 level.

  15. Observations and modeling of a tidal inlet dye tracer plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, Falk; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Guza, R. T.; Winters, D.; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2016-10-01

    A 9 km long tracer plume was created by continuously releasing Rhodamine WT dye for 2.2 h during ebb tide within the southern edge of the main tidal channel at New River Inlet, NC on 7 May 2012, with highly obliquely incident waves and alongshore winds. Over 6 h from release, COAWST (coupled ROMS and SWAN, including wave, wind, and tidal forcing) modeled dye compares well with (aerial hyperspectral and in situ) observed dye concentration. Dye first was transported rapidly seaward along the main channel and partially advected across the ebb-tidal shoal until reaching the offshore edge of the shoal. Dye did not eject offshore in an ebb-tidal jet because the obliquely incident breaking waves retarded the inlet-mouth ebb-tidal flow and forced currents along the ebb shoal. The dye plume largely was confined to <4 m depth. Dye was then transported downcoast in the narrow (few 100 m wide) surfzone of the beach bordering the inlet at 0.3 m s-1 driven by wave breaking. Over 6 h, the dye plume is not significantly affected by buoyancy. Observed dye mass balances close indicating all released dye is accounted for. Modeled and observed dye behaviors are qualitatively similar. The model simulates well the evolution of the dye center of mass, lateral spreading, surface area, and maximum concentration, as well as regional ("inlet" and "ocean") dye mass balances. This indicates that the model represents well the dynamics of the ebb-tidal dye plume. Details of the dye transport pathways across the ebb shoal are modeled poorly perhaps owing to low-resolution and smoothed model bathymetry. Wave forcing effects have a large impact on the dye transport.

  16. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophi...

  17. Removal of textile dyes with biopolymers xanthan and alginic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Alvarez, J.; Jauregui-Rincon, J.; Mendoza-Diaz, G.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, G.; Frausto-Reyes, C.

    2009-07-01

    Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)

  18. Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester Fluorescent Dye for Cell Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi WANG; Xiu-Mei DUAN; Li-Hua LIU; Yan-Qiu FANG; Yan TAN

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study the properties of the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) and the methodology of cell labeling using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. First, we analyzed the kinetics of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye intensity over time. Second, we determined the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling. Third, we tested the toxicity of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye on labeled cells. Finally, we determined the optimal staining time of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling.The results show that the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling varies according to different cell types. CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is non-toxic to cells as the cell death rate caused by CFDASE labeling is below 5%. The optimal cell labeling time was determined to be 8 min of incubation with CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. We concluded that the advantages of using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling are as follows: (1) the binding of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye to cells is stable; (2) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is not toxic and does not modify the viability of labeled cells; and (3) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is a suitable fluorochrome for cell labeling.

  19. Fluorescence of dyes adsorbed on highly organized nanostructured gold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Stefano A.; Mourran, Ahmed; Spatz, Joachim P.; Veggel, van Frank C.J.M.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Möller, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that fluorescent dyes can be adsorbed selectively on gold nanoparticles which are immobilized on a glass substrate and that the fluorescence originating from the adsorbed dyes exhibits significantly less quenching when compared to dyes adsorbed on bulk gold. Self-assembled monolayers of

  20. Functional Dyes, and Some Hi-Tech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the recent developments in functional dyes, which are useful for hi-tech applications for those based on optoelectronics, such as dye sensitized solar cells, photochromic dyes and biomedical applications, such as photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer and fluorescent sensors is presented.

  1. Integrated sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of azo dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Azo dyes constitute a major class of environmental pollutants accounting for 60 to 70% of all dyes and pigments used. These compounds are characterized by aromatic moieties linked together with azo groups (-N=N-). The release of azo dyes into the environment is a concern due to coloration of natural

  2. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and...

  3. Integrated and sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of azo dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Azo dyes constitute a major class of environmental pollutants accounting for 60 to 70% of all dyes and pigments used. These compounds are characterized by aromatic moieties linked together with azo groups (-N=N-). The release of azo dyes into the environment is a concern due to coloration o

  4. Can silicon substituted metal-free organic dyes achieve better efficiency compared to silicon free organic dyes? A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abul Kalam; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2015-12-14

    The power conversion efficiency of metal-free organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is now comparable to ruthenium-based polypyridyl and zinc-based porphyrin dyes. We have computationally investigated the structural, electronic and optical properties of a series of metal free organic dyes and their corresponding silicon substituted dyes. The DFT and TD-DFT calculations revealed that silicon substituted organic dyes have higher efficiency than the corresponding silicon free organic dyes. The computational results showed that the presence of silole units as a spacer group can significantly affect the performance of DSSCs compared to typically using thiophene as a spacer unit. These results corroborate the experimental observations reported in the literature. The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations performed at the CPCM–CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory showed better agreement with the experimental absorption spectra of some reported metal free organic dyes having silole in the spacer group compared to other functionals and are employed in this study. Indoline donor based dye 5 showed a much shorter absorption spectrum (absorption peak at 425 nm) and smaller electron injection driving force (ΔGinjection = -1.77 eV) than the corresponding dye 8 containing silicon substituted indoline as a donor and a silole group as a spacer unit. λmax = 502 nm and ΔGinjection = -1.82 eV calculated for dye 8 are much larger than the corresponding silicon free dye 5. The silicon based dye 8 helps in achieving a much lower ΔGregeneration value than 5, which can facilitate the faster electron injection rate from the dye to the semiconductor TiO2. Dye 8 should also have a higher Voc value compared to other dyes (5-7) due to favourable interaction with the electrolyte (I(-)/I3(-)). The higher planarity and better conjugation in dye 8 facilitate the transfer of electrons from the dye molecules to the semiconductor TiO2. The calculations performed

  5. Two dye combinations suitable for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography for ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Andreas; Stephan, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents two dye combinations suitable for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography for ethanol. Besides the temperature dependency of the fluorescence, the influences of laser fluence, dye concentration, pressure, dissolved air, and photobleaching are also discussed. The experimental data are compared with models and data available in literature. Based on this, parameter ranges for two-color/two-dye laser-induced fluorescence thermography applications can be determined.

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  7. Dye linked conjugated homopolymers: using conjugated polymer electroluminescence to optically pump porphyrin-dye emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.T.; Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2004-01-01

    . Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue......Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were......-green emission and the zinc-porphyrin linked homopolymers emit near-infrared/infrared light. This was demonstrated to be due to electroluminescence pumping of the zinc-porphyrin moieties that were covalently linked to homopolymer material. When only one zinc-porphyrin dye was incorporated into the backbone...

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  9. A model for recombination in Type II dye-sensitized solar cells: Catechol-thiophene dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells with direct injection is cast as internal conversion in the dye-Ti(OH) 2 complex. For catechol-thiophene dyes with 1, 2, or 3 thiophene units, the complex reproduces the previously observed dye-to-semiconductor bands. We compare the decomposition of the internal conversion rate by vibrational mode and predict a trend in recombination with the extension of conjugation, which offers an explanation for the trend in DSSC efficiency. We employ a simple model for the vibrational factors and show that they are only important in the presence of vibrational modes with ℏω⩽kT and strong electronic factors, as is the case here.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei City 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Jwo, C.S. [Department of Energy and Air-Conditioning Refrigeration Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lo, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-16

    This study used spinach extract, ipomoea leaf extract and their mixed extracts as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Spinach and ipomoea leaves were first placed separately in ethanol and the chlorophyll of these two kinds of plants was extracted to serve as the natural dyes for using in DSSCs. In addition, the self-developed nanofluid synthesis system prepared a TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 50 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to let the TiO{sub 2} deposit nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11.61 {mu}m. This TiO{sub 2} thin film underwent sintering at 450 {sup o}C to enhance the compactness of thin film. Finally, the sintered TiO{sub 2} thin film was immersed in the natural dye solutions extracted from spinach and ipomoea leaves, completing the production of the anode of DSSC. This study then further inspected the fill factor, photoelectric conversion efficiency and incident photon current efficiency of the encapsulated DSSC. According to the experimental results of current-voltage curve, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by natural dyes from ipomoea leaf extract is 0.318% under extraction temperature of 50 {sup o}C and pH value of extraction fluid at 1.0. This paper also investigated the influence of the temperature in the extraction process of this kind of natural dye and the influence of pH value of the dye solution on the UV-VIS patterns absorption spectra of the prepared natural dye solutions, and the influence of these two factors on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  11. Investigation on Effluent Characteristics of Organic Cotton Fabric Dyeing With Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan; Md. Mazedul Islam; Elias Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is the major concern in the age of modern world. For textile and apparel sector, this has been a burning issue for many related concerned bodies. The pretreatment and dyeing process of greige fabrics results in large volume of effluents that has harmful effect on environment. In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluents obtained from scouring and dyeing of 100% organic cotton single jersey knitted fabrics with environmentally low impact Remazol ser...

  12. Expeditious, mechanochemical synthesis of BODIPY dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie P. Jameson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BODIPY dyes have been synthesized under solvent-free or essentially solvent-free conditions, within about 5 minutes in an open-to-air setup by using a pestle and mortar, with yields that are comparable to those obtained via traditional routes that typically require reaction times of several hours to days.

  13. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  14. Novel Fluorescent Dyes Based on Coumarin System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Seven novel fluorescent coumarin derivatives were synthesized from 7-diethylamino-4-chloro-3-formyl coumarin. The spectra of absorption, excitation and emission were dependent not only on the structures and also on the concentration of dyes. The PPP-MO predictions can only be consistent with the spectra in dilute solutions.

  15. Removal of triphenylmethane dyes by bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  16. Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kristensen, Anders; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with polymer based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the average pumping power...

  17. Optofluidic dye laser in a foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Mappes, Timo;

    2010-01-01

    First order distributed feedback optofluidic dye lasers embedded in a 350 mu m thick TOPAS (R) foil are demonstrated. They are designed in order to give high output pulse energies. Microfluidic channels and first order distributed feedback gratings are fabricated in parallel by thermal nanoimprin...

  18. Expeditious, mechanochemical synthesis of BODIPY dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Laramie P; Dzyuba, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    BODIPY dyes have been synthesized under solvent-free or essentially solvent-free conditions, within about 5 minutes in an open-to-air setup by using a pestle and mortar, with yields that are comparable to those obtained via traditional routes that typically require reaction times of several hours to days.

  19. Degradation of various dyes using Laccase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaarani, S; Priya, A K; Rajan, T Vel; Kartic, D Navamani

    2012-10-01

    Disposal of untreated dyeing effluent in water bodies, from textile industries, cause serious environmental and health hazards. The chemical structures of dye molecules are designed to resist fading on exposure to light or chemical attack, and they prove to be quite resistant towards microbial degradation. Therefore, current conventional biological processes may not be able to meet wastewater discharge criteria and reuse. An enzymatic treatment undergoes oxidative cleavage avoiding formation of toxic amines. Laccase is a multi-copper containing protein that catalyzes the oxidation of a wide range of aromatic substrates concomitantly with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. UV visible spectral analysis of various synthetic dyes was performed in the study and wavelengths of maximum absorbance determined. Laccase enzyme was obtained from the fungi Pleorotus ostreatus. The enzyme showed high efficiency against Malachite Green, Basic Red and Acid Majanta with decolorization capacities of 97%, 94% and 94% respectively. Further, these dyes can be used for optimization of degradation parameters and analysis of degradation products.

  20. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane Cheriaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila-(CM-4 was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L and malachite green (50 mg/L dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  1. Dyeing and Printing Sector Develops Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the rapid growth of the economy,the dyeing and printing sector in China developed considerably in 2006. Highlights of the year include a rapid increase of output levels, considerable growth of profits, a reduction of imports and an expansion of exports.

  2. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  3. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-11-01

    A bacterial consortium (consortium GR) consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 could rapidly decolorize and degrade commonly-used sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD and many other reactive dyes. Consortium GR shows markedly higher decolorization activity than that of the individual strains. The preferable physicochemical parameters were identified to achieve higher dye degradation and decolorization efficiency. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of consortium GR. Extent of mineralization was determined with TOC and COD measurements, showing nearly complete mineralization of Green HE4BD by consortium GR (up to 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 24 h. Oxidoreductive enzymes seemed to be involved in fast decolorization/degradation process with the evidence of enzymes induction in the bacterial consortium. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of Green HE4BD by consortium GR are non-toxic. Consortium GR also shows significant biodegradation and decolorization activities for mixture of reactive dyes as well as the effluent from actual dye manufacturing industry. This confers the possibility of applying consortium GR for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  4. Mediator-assisted decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes/dye mixture by Cyathus bulleri laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Meenu; Mishra, Saroj; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2008-12-01

    Laccase from basidiomycete fungus Cyathus bulleri was evaluated for its ability to decolorize a number of reactive and acidic dyes in the presence of natural and synthetic mediators. The extent of decolorization was monitored at different mediator/dye concentrations and incubation time. Among the synthetic mediators, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was effective at low mediator/dye ratios and resulted in 80-95% decolorization at rates that varied from 226 +/- 4 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for Reactive Orange 1 to 1,333 +/- 15 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for Reactive Red 198. Other synthetic mediators like 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and violuric acid showed both concentration- and time-dependent increases in percent decolorization. Natural mediators like vanillin, on the other hand, were found to be less effective on all the dyes except Reactive Orange 1. Computed rates of decolorization were about twofold lower than that with ABTS. The laccase-ABTS system also led to nearly 80% decolorization for the simulated dye mixture. No clear correlation between laccase activity on the mediator and its ability to decolorize dyes was found, but pH had a significant effect: Optimum pH for decolorization coincided with the optimum pH for mediator oxidation. The treated samples were also evaluated for toxicity in model microbial systems. The laccase-mediator system appears promising for treatment of textile wastewaters.

  5. Triphenylamine based organic dyes for dye sensitized solar cells: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohankumar, V.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    The geometry, electronic structure and absorption spectra for newly designed triphenylamine based organic dyes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-parr(B3LYP) functional, where the 6-31G(d,p) basis set was employed. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 09 software package. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum was simulated by TD-DFT in gas phase. The calculation shows that all of the dyes can potentially be good sensitizers for DSSC. The LUMOs are just above the conduction band of TiO2 and their HOMOs are under the reduction potential energy of the electrolytes (I-/I3-) which can facilitate electron transfer from the excited dye to TiO2 and charge regeneration process after photo oxidation respectively. The simulated absorption spectrum of dyes match with solar spectrum. Frontier molecular orbital results show that among all the three dyes, the "dye 3" can be used as potential sensitizer for DSSC.

  6. The Influence of Hydrophobicity Factor on Wool Fibre Dyeing With Anionic Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa TREIGIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study two alkylphenolethoxylates with different ethoxylation degree c.a. EO 9 (Lanasan LT as NPE-1 and EO 40 (Disponil AA P43 as NPE-2 were selected with the purpose to evaluate the influence of hydrophobicity of nonionic surfactants on wool dyeing efficiency. Anionic C.I. Acid Orange 7 dye was used to carry out an experiment in dyeing of wool fibre at 30 °C or 60 °C temperature using wool fabric which was prepared for dyeing by extraction of the lipid materials soluble in chloroform and methanol mixture. The surfactant with a shorter hydrophilic chain (NPE-1 intensified the adsorption of the dye. This fact allowed to presume that the dye diffusion into wool fibre might be influenced by hydrophobic interaction between the surfactant and hydrophobic sites of wool fibre. The results of surfactants adsorption showed that the interaction of NPE-2 with the fibre was weak as compared to that of NPE-1. The results of the investigation suggest that the ethoxylated nonylphenol of a lower hydrophility index might interact with the active sites of wool fibre more intensively than that of a higher index of hydrophility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.596

  7. Controlled-release Properties of Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yan; LI Chun-yan; CHEN Shui-lin

    2002-01-01

    Some disperse dyes were microencapsulated by means of in- situ polymerization. These microencapsulated disperse dyes was extracted respectively by ethanol under certain conditions. The controlled-release properties of disperse dyes through the shell of microcapsules were measured by spectrophotometer. According to the results, it was drawn that the type of disperse dyes, the auxiliaries contained in disperse dyes, the quantity of system controlling medium used and the core/shell ratio of microcapsules play important roles in controlling the release properties of microcapsules. The different controlled- release properties of microcapsules, which were prepared under given conditions, however, would in turn influence the performance of microcapsules in multiple-transfer printing.

  8. Quantum Efficiency of Fluorescent Dyes and Color Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rong; CHEN Dong-hui

    2002-01-01

    Because of the special optical characters, the color matching of fluorescent dyes is quite complicated. In order to find the algorithm of the color matching of fluorescent dyes, some experiments and measurements of one kind of fluorescent dye were carried out. An elementary probe into the method of color matching of fluorescent dyes has been made through the expression deduced by James S. Bonham and standard KubelkaMunk theory. The results prove that the method has a great applicability for the color matching of fabric dyed with only one kind of fluorescent dye.

  9. Colorimetric studies of some newly synthesized bisazo reactive dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A series of cold brand bisazo reactive dyes (4a–h) were obtained by the coupling of tetrazotised 4,4′-methylene-bis(2-methyl-5-nitro aniline) (2) with various cyanurated coupling components (3a–h) in good yield. Their dyeing performances as reactive dyes have been assessed on silk, wool and cotton fabrics. These dyes were characterized by UV–Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques elemental analysis. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on different fibers were found to be very ...

  10. Organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdyukova, I. V.; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A.

    2012-03-01

    Data on various types of organic dyes based on fluorene and its derivatives, including polymethine, styryl, triphenylmethane, spiran, merocyanine, porphyrin and polymeric dyes, as well as azo dyes and donor-acceptor polyenes, are described systematically. The key methods for their synthesis are considered. The properties of the dyes are analyzed and summarized. The principles of development of modern functional materials based on these dyes are outlined. The use of these materials in advanced fields of science and technology such as photovoltaics, electroluminescence, nonlinear optics, holography, sensing photodynamic therapy are considered. The bibliography includes 476 references.

  11. Improving the Spectral Response of Black Dye by Cosensitization with a Simple Indoline Based Dye in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akhtaruzzaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoline dye D-1 was successfully applied as a cosensitizer for improving the spectral response of black dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. It was observed that D-1 effectively increases the short-circuit photocurrent by offsetting the competitive light absorption by I/I3- electrolyte in the wavelength region 350–500 nm when adsorbed on the TiO2 nanocrystaline films in a mix dye system. The DSCs containing the D-1 and black dye achieved a power conversion efficiency of 9.80% with higher short-circuit photocurrent of 19.54 mA/cm2 compared to the system of black dye without cosensitization under standard AM 1.5 sunlight.

  12. Photodegradation in multiple-dye luminescent solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Alex M.; Warner, Kathryn E. [School of Science, Pennsylvania State University: Erie, The Behrend College, 4205 College Drive, Erie, PA 16563-0203 (United States); Fontecchio, Paul J. [School of Engineering, Pennsylvania State University: Erie, The Behrend College, 5101 Jordan Road, Erie, PA 16563-1701 (United States); Zhang, Yu-Zhong [Life Technologies Corp., 29851 Willow Creek Road, Eugene, OR 97402 (United States); Wittmershaus, Bruce P., E-mail: bpw2@psu.edu [School of Science, Pennsylvania State University: Erie, The Behrend College, 4205 College Drive, Erie, PA 16563-0203 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Combining multiple organic dyes to form a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) network is a useful strategy for extending the spectral range of sunlight absorbed by a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). Excitation transfer out of the higher energy level dyes in the transfer series competes effectively with their photodegradation rates. Improvements in photostability up to a factor of 18 are observed for the first dye in the FRET series. FRET networks are shown to be a viable means of decreasing the rate of photodegradation of organic dyes used in LSCs. This comes at the expense of the final dye in the network; the depository of most of the excitations created by absorbing sunlight. The photostability and performance of an efficient FRET LSC rest heavily on the photostability and fluorescence quantum yield of the final dye. -- Highlights: • Photodegradation kinetics of multiple-dye FRET LSCs are reported. • The FRET network decreased the first dye's photodegradation rate by a factor of 18. • The final dye in the FRET LSC protects other dyes at its own expense. • The final dye must have excellent photostability and fluorescence quantum yield.

  13. Novel method for evaluation of natural dyes in DSSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, M.; Kavitha, S. [Department of Physics, Mercy College, Calicut University, Palakkad, 687006, Kerala (India); Paul, Mercyleena [Department of Chemistry, Mercy College, Calicut University, Palakkad, 687006, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Dye sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is presently centered on Ruthenium based dyes. Recent research is diverted to explore the potential of natural dyes in replacing the conventional dyes. In this work we have chosen few natural dyes, which when coated on TiO{sub 2} leads to increase in absorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}. Co-relation of absorption and electrochemical properties of natural dyes gives a scientific insight of the probable performance of a dye, even without fabricating a cell. We have tried to compare this predictions based on HOMO-LUMO energy levels with the real cell performance. Measurements of cell parameters suggest that there is scope for further research in this area.

  14. Decolorization of textile dyes by Alishewanella sp. KMK6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Yogesh M; Kodam, Kisan M

    2012-07-01

    Alishewanella sp. strain KMK6 was isolated from textile dye-contaminated soil. The strain was able to decolorize and degrade different azo dyes and displayed high dye degradation ability and tolerance. The bacterium could completely degrade 2.5 g l(-1) dye, Reactive Blue 59 within 6 h. The induction in the level of cytochrome P-450 and activities of azoreductase and NADH-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase were observed in the cells after dye decolorization indicating the role of these enzymes. The intermediates of Reactive Blue 59 degradation were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ecotoxicity has been evaluated for dye and its metabolites by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (a yellow tetrazole) and comet assay, and it revealed that the dye degradation products were nontoxic.

  15. Properties of nucleic acid staining dyes used in gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Alicia M; Tobe, Shanan S; Kobus, Hilton J; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid staining dyes are used for detecting nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. Historically, the most common dye used for gel staining is ethidium bromide, however due to its toxicity and mutagenicity other dyes that are safer to the user and the environment are preferred. This Short Communication details the properties of dyes now available and their sensitivity for detection of DNA and their ability to permeate the cell membrane. It was found that GelRed™ was the most sensitive and safest dye to use with UV light excitation, and both GelGreen™ and Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye were sensitive and the safer dyes using blue light excitation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Halogen Bonding Promotes Higher Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photovoltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Swords, Wesley B; Kellett, Cameron W; Du, Chuan; Lam, Brian; Dean, Rebecca K; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-08-24

    We report here an enhancement in photovoltage for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) where halogen-bonding interactions exist between a nucleophilic electrolyte species (I(-)) and a photo-oxidized dye immobilized on a TiO2 surface. The triarylamine-based dyes under investigation showed larger rate constants for dye regeneration (kreg) by the nucleophilic electrolyte species when heavier halogen substituents were positioned on the dye. The open-circuit voltages (VOC) tracked these kreg values. This analysis of a homologous series of dyes that differ only in the identity of two halogen substituents provides compelling evidence that the DSSC photovoltage is sensitive to kreg. This study also provides the first direct evidence that halogen-bonding interactions between the dye and the electrolyte can bolster DSSC performance.

  17. Chemical Modification on Reactive Dye Adsorption Capacity of Castor Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dharmalingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The roles played by four major functional groups (amine, carboxyl, azo, hydroxyl groups in the biomass of castor seeds in adsorption of seven dyes were investigated. These functional groups in castor seeds were chemically modified individually to determine their contribution to the adsorption of ionic dyes. The dyes used were remazol red B, procino yellow, fast green FCF, brilliant cresyl blue, methylene blue, neutral red, red-141. It was found that hydroxyl group inhibited the adsorption of anionic dyes but it was major functional group in the adsorption of cationic dyes, hydroxyl group was important functional group in the adsorption of all seven dyes and the effect of methylation of amino group was not significant on the adsorption of seven dyes.

  18. Enhanced Photostability of Genetically Encodable Fluoromodules Based on Fluorogenic Cyanine Dyes and a Promiscuous Protein Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Shank, Nathaniel I.; Zanotti, Kimberly J.; Lanni, Frederick; Berget, Peter B.; Armitage, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Fluoromodules are discrete complexes of biomolecules and fluorogenic dyes. Binding of the dyes to their cognate biomolecule partners results in enhanced dye fluorescence. We exploited a previously reported promiscuous binding interaction between a single chain, variable fragment antibody protein and a family of cyanine dyes to create new protein-dye fluoromodules that exhibit enhanced photostability while retaining high affinity protein-dye binding. Modifications to the dye structure included...

  19. Screening π-conjugated bridges of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells with panchromatic visible light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Chunmeng; Shao, Changjin; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-07-01

    Developing highly efficient organic dyes with panchromatic visible light harvesting for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is still one of the most important scientific challenges. Here, we design a series of phenothiazine derivative organic dyes with donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) structure using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) based on experimentally synthesized typical SH-6 organic dyes. Results indicate that the newly designed BUCT13 - BUCT30 dyes show smaller HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, higher molar extinction coefficients and obvious redshifts compared to the SH-6 dye, and the maximum absorption peaks of eight dyes are greater than 650 nm among the newly designed dyes. In particular, BUCT27 exhibits a 234 nm redshift and the maximum molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 80% compared to the SH-6 dye. BUCT19 exhibits not only a 269 nm redshift and higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 50% compared to the SH-6 dye, but the extremely broad absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range up to the near-IR region of 1200 nm. It is expected that this work can provide a new strategy and guidance for the investigation of these dye-sensitized devices.

  20. Simultaneous adsorption of Remazol brilliant blue and Disperse orange dyes on red mud and isotherms for the mixed dye system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadigayya Mavinkattimath, Ratnamala; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Govindan, Srinikethan

    2017-06-27

    The paper presents the adsorption of Remazol brilliant blue (RBB) and Disperse orange 25 (DO25) dyes from aqueous solution of the mixture of dyes onto concentrated sulphuric acid-treated red mud (ATRM). First-order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the analysis of RBB and DO25 in mixed dye aqueous solution to overcome the limitations arising due to interference in the zero-order spectral method. The optimum conditions to maximize RBB adsorption favoured the adsorption of RBB, and those for DO25 favoured DO25 adsorption from the mixed dye aqueous solutions. Presence of a second dye always inhibited the adsorption of a target dye. The uptake and percentage adsorption of each of the dyes onto ATRM from the aqueous solution of the mixture of dyes decreased considerably with increasing concentrations of the other dye showing the antagonistic effect. Monocomponent Langmuir isotherm fitted the mixed dye adsorption equilibrium data better than the monocomponent Freundlich isotherm. However, monocomponent models are suitable for the fixed concentration of the other dye. Modified Langmuir isotherm model adequately predicted the multi-component adsorption equilibrium data for RBB-DO25-ATRM adsorption system with a good accuracy and is more generic from the application point of view.

  1. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs) From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs) have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. W...

  2. Towards Rational Designing of Efficient Sensitizers Based on Thiophene and Infrared Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometries, electronic properties, and absorption spectra of the dyes which are a combination of thiophene based dye (THPD and IR dyes (covering IR region; TIRBD1-TIRBD3 were performed using density functional theory (DFT and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT, respectively. Different electron donating groups, electron withdrawing groups, and IR dyes have been substituted on THPD to enhance the efficiency. The bond lengths of new designed dyes are almost the same. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of designed dyes are above the conduction band of TiO2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energies are below the redox couple revealing that TIRBD1-TIRBD3 would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The broad spectra and low energy gap also showed that designed materials would be efficient sensitizers.

  3. Effect of dye-metal complexation on photocatalytic decomposition of the dyes on TiO2 under visible irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHMOOD Tariq; CHEN Chuncheng; LIU Lili; ZHAO Dan; MA Wanghong; LIN Jun; ZHAO Jincai

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of dyes (Acid Chrome Blue K (ACBK) and Alizarin Red (AR)) with strong complexation ability was investigated in the presence of metal ions under visible light irradiation.It was found that, at low dye-metal ratio, the photodegradation of ACBK was markedly inhibited by the addition of high oxidative potential Cu2+.However, at high dye-metal ratio, the presence of Cu2+ enhanced the photodegradation of ACBK.The negtive effect of Cu2+ on the photodegradation of AR was observed for all dye-metal ratios.The relative chemical inert Zn2+ tended to enhance the photodegradation of both anionic dyes.The mechanism underlying the different effect of Cu2+ is discussed from the different roles of surface-adsorbed and dye-coordinated Cu2+ in the photodegradation of dyes.

  4. The Structure-property Relationships of D-π-A BODIPY Dyes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Song, Qin-Hua

    2016-04-01

    BODIPY dyes have attracted considerable attention as potential photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their excellent optical properties and facile structural modification. This account focuses on recent advances in the molecular design of D-π-A BODIPY dyes for applications in DSSCs. Special attention has been paid to the structure-property relationships of D-π-A BODIPY dyes for DSSCs. The developmental process in the modified position at the BODIPY core with a donor/acceptor is described. The devices based on 2,6-modified BODIPY dyes exhibit better photovoltaic performance over other modified BODIPY dyes. Meanwhile, the research reveals the correlation of molecular structures (various donor chromophores, extended units, molecular frameworks, and long alkyl groups) with their photophysical and electrochemical properties and relates it to their performance in DSSCs. The structure-property relationships give valuable information and guidelines for designing new D-π-A BODIPY dyes for DSSCs.

  5. Effect of mercerization and gamma irradiation on the dyeing behaviour of cotton using stilbene based direct dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Adeel, Shahid; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Irshad, Misbah; Abbas, Muhammad

    2012-07-01

    The dyeing behaviour of mercerized and gamma irradiated cotton fabric using stilbene based direct dye has been investigated. The fabric was treated with different concentrations of alkali to optimize the mercerization. The optimum mercerized cotton fabric was irradiated to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature, time of dyeing, pH of dyeing solutions and salt concentration were optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It was found that mercerized and irradiated cotton have not only improved the colour strength but enhanced the rating of fastness properties also.

  6. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Azo dyes account for >70% of the global industrial demand (∼9 million tons). Owing to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential, the annual disposal of ∼4,500,000 tons of dyes and/or degraded products is an environmental and socio-economic concern. In comparison to physico-chemical methods, microbe-mediated dye degradation is considered to be low-input, cost-effective and environmentally-safe. However, under different environmental conditions, interactions of chemically diverse dyes with metabolically diverse microbes produce metabolites of varying toxicity. In addition, majority of studies on microbial dye-degradation focus on decolorization with least attention towards detoxification. Therefore, the environmental significance of microbial dye detoxification research of past >3 decades is critically evaluated with reference to dye structure and the possible influence of microbial interactions in different environments. In the absence of ecosystem-based studies, the results of laboratory-based studies on dye degradation, metabolite production and their genotoxic impact on model organisms are used to predict the possible fate and consequences of azo dyes/metabolites in the environment. In such studies, the predominance of fewer numbers of toxicological assays that too at lower levels of biological organization (molecular/cellular/organismic) suggests its limited ecological significance. Based on critical evaluation of these studies the recommendations on inclusion of multilevel approach (assessment at multiple levels of biological organization), multispecies microcosm approach and native species approach in conjunction with identification of dye metabolites have been made for future studies. Such studies will bridge the gap between the fundamental knowledge on dye-microbe-environment interactions and its application to combat dye-induced environmental toxicity. Thus an environmental perspective on dye toxicity in the background of dye structure and effects of

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Parimalam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers′ and fabric printers′ knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (΁10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

  8. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  9. Photophysical properties of pyronin dyes in reverse micelles of AOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktutan, Tuğba; Meral, Kadem; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-01-15

    The photophysical properties of pyronin B (PyB) and pyronin Y (PyY) in reverse micelles formed with water/sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane were investigated by UV–vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. This study was carried out a wide range of reverse micelle sizes, with hydrodynamic radii ranging from 1.85 to 9.38 nm. Significant photophysical parameters as band shifts, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined to understand how photophysical and spectroscopic features of the dye compounds were affected by the variation of reverse micelle sizes. In this regard, control of reverse micelle size by changing W{sub 0}, the molar ratio of water to surfactant, allowed tuning the photophysical properties of the dyes in organic solvent via reverse micelle. Non-fluorescent H-aggregates of pyronin dyes were observed for the smaller reverse micelles whereas an increase in the reverse micelle size induced an increment in the amount of dye monomers instead of dye aggregates. Thus, the fluorescence intensities of the dyes were improved by increasing W{sub 0} due to the predomination of the fluorescent dye monomers. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yields also increased. The fluorescence lifetimes of the dyes in the reverse micelles were determined by the time-resolved fluorescence decay studies. Evaluation of the fluorescence lifetimes calculated for pyronin dyes in the reverse micelles showed that the size of reverse micelle affected the fluorescence lifetimes of pyronin dyes. -- Highlights: • The photophysical properties of pyronin dyes were examined by spectroscopic techniques. • Optical properties of the dyes were tuned by changing of W{sub 0} values. • The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield values of the dyes in reverse micelles were discussed.

  10. Nanoimprinted polymer photonic crystal dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron; Buss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optically pumped polymer photonic crystal band-edge dye lasers are presented. The photonic crystal is a rectangular lattice providing laser feedback as well as an optical resonance for the pump light. The lasers are defined in a thin film of photodefinable Ormocore hybrid polymer, doped...... with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. A compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (352 nm, 5 ns pulses) is used to pump the lasers from above the chip. The laser devices are 450 nm thick slab waveguides with a rectangular lattice of 100 nm deep air holes imprinted into the surface. The 2-dimensional rectangular...... lattice is described by two orthogonal unit vectors of length a and b, defining the P and X directions. The frequency of the laser can be tuned via the lattice constant a (187 nm - 215 nm) while pump light is resonantly coupled into the laser from an angle () depending on the lattice constant b (355 nm...

  11. Optoelectronic properties of natural cyanin dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, A; Varsano, D; Ruini, A; Catellani, A; Tel-Vered, R; Yildiz, H B; Ovits, O; Willner, I

    2009-07-30

    An integrated theoretical/experimental study of the natural cyanin dye is presented in terms of its structural and optoelectronic properties for different gas-phase and prototypical device configurations. Our microscopic analysis reveals the impact of hydration and hydroxylation reactions, as well as of the attached sugar, on ground and optically excited states, and it illustrates the visible-light harvesting capability of the dye. Our optical experiments at different and controlled pH concentrations allow for a direct comparison with theoretical results. We analyze the many different contributions to photocurrent of the various portions of a prototypical device and, as a proof of principle, we propose the addition of specific ligands to control the increase of the photocurrent yield in the cyanin-based electrochemical device.

  12. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely

  13. Effects of reduction products of ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangfei [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Jing, E-mail: wangjingbio@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Lu Hong; Jin Ruofei; Zhou Jiti; Zhang Long [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The mediated effects of reduction products of some ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of reduction products could effectively accelerate dye decolorization by Shigella sp. QRZ-1. The best accelerating effect was obtained with the addition of reduction products of Acid Red 14 (AR14), resulting in an over 3-fold increase in decolorization efficiency of many azo dyes. In sequencing batch reactor experiments, the accelerating effect of reduction products of AR14 was more obvious (1.5-fold) during the startup of the system. When the dye concentration was increased to 500 mg L{sup -1}, the accelerated decolorization efficiency was still maintained around 95%. The presence of AR14 in the feed enhanced the decolorization performance of anaerobic sludge, indicating that the strategy may be beneficial for practical application. 1-Naphthol-2-amino-4-sulfonic acid, which is one of the reduction products of AR14, may function as redox mediator to speed up azo dye biodecolorization.

  14. Time dependent – density functional theory characterization of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hilal, Rifaat

    2017-06-19

    We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations are utilized to study the geometry, electronic structure, electrostatic potential (ESP) and absorption spectrum, for a representative donor-π bridge-acceptor (D–π–A) dye for DSSC. The coplanar geometry of the dye (D1) facilitates strong conjugation and considerable delocalization originating the π CT interaction from donor to acceptor orbitals and the hyper-conjugative interactions involving Rydberg states. A model simulating the adsorption of the dye on the TiO surface is utilized to estimate binding energies. The effect of fluorine substituents in the π-spacer on the quantum efficiency of DSSCs was investigated. Gibb’s free energy values, redox potentials, excited state lifetime, non-linear optical properties (NLO) and driving forces for D1 and its fluorinated derivatives were computed.

  15. Molecular modification of coumarin dyes for more efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-de-Armas, Rocio; San-Miguel, Miguel A.; Oviedo, Jaime; Sanz, Javier Fdez. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2012-05-21

    In this work, new coumarin based dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been designed by introducing several substituent groups in different positions of the NKX-2311 structure. Two types of substitutions have been considered: the introduction of three electron-donating groups (-OH, -NH{sub 2}, and -OCH{sub 3}) and two different substituents with steric effect: -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- and -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH-. The electronic absorption spectra (position and width of the first band and absorption threshold) and the position of the LUMO level related to the conduction band have been used as theoretical criteria to evaluate the efficiency of the new dyes. The introduction of a -NH{sub 2} group produces a redshift of the absorption maximum position and the absorption threshold, which could improve the cell efficiency. In contrast, the introduction of -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- does not modify significantly the electronic structure of NKX-2311, but it might prevent aggregation. Finally, -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH- produces important changes both in the electronic spectrum and in the electronic structure of the dye, and it would be expected as an improvement of cell efficiency for these dyes.

  16. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltan, Gözde Murat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Dinçalp, Haluk, E-mail: haluk.dincalp@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Erbaş, Seçil Çelik [Celal Bayar University, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO{sub 2}-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation.

  17. Dyeing of Snow Surfaces to Observe Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    of freezeup problems important to obtain a clear visual perspective and with water. We found that both coloring agents to obtain good photographic...a dye of methanol coloring in with floodlights, whereas Figure 7b is a view of the water. Freezeup at the sprayer nozzle was one same area lighted...from behind, problem and the snow surface had a blemished appearance because of the addition of the water, which then froze. Freezeup may not be a

  18. Dye Fluorescence Analysis from Bacterial Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    M were reported for the cell-free extracts of the cultured mouse lymphoma cells mentioned above and an in vitAo solution of porcine pancreas lipase ...fluorescence Fluorescent product Diacetyl fluorescein Lipase Bacterial metabolism 20. ABTRACT fCauhw a o de dif rNooeel md ~Id1)fp by block number) A...nonfluorescing dye is metabolized intracel- lularly by an organism through an enzyme-specific reaction . This produces a fluorescent product which when

  19. Indanthrone dye revisited after sixty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwica, Kamil; Bujak, Piotr; Wamil, Damian; Materna, Mariusz; Skorka, Lukasz; Gunka, Piotr A; Nowakowski, Robert; Golec, Barbara; Luszczynska, Beata; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam

    2014-10-09

    Indanthrone, an old, insoluble dye can be converted into a solution processable, self-assembling and electroluminescent organic semiconductor, namely tetraoctyloxydinaptho[2,3-a:2',3'-h]phenazine (P-C8), in a simple one-pot process consisting of the reduction of the carbonyl group by sodium dithionite followed by the substitution with solubility inducing groups under phase transfer catalysis conditions.

  20. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  1. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaopingWang; gangChen; AiminTang; HongweiZhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp. Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together withsaid liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  2. Detection of Red Dye in Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Varughese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sensitive and effective instrument for detecting the presence of red dye in diesel fuel is very advantageous for governments in preventing tax loss by controlling illegal use of the diesel fuel. The objective of this work has been to investigate and develop an instrument to detect red dye in diesel, based on the principle of absorption. The peaks of absorption in red and pure diesel fuel were measured with the help of UV-spectrometer (Lambda 6/ PECSS. Optical interference filters of wavelengths 405 nm and 616 nm were used to modify the spectral transmittance of an optical system with appropriate spectral absorption characteristics. Two simultaneous light beams of two different colors were sent into the diesel fuel and the transmitted light from the fuel censored by a silicon photo detector. The signal from the detector was then amplified with the help of three operational amplifiers (OP-177 and sent to an analog device (AD 538 which can perform division operation. The voltage produced when the violet light passes through the medium was divided when the red light passes through the medium in the one quadrant division unit (AD 538. The output voltage from the analog device was measured with the help of a digital multi-meter. The results show that the output voltages decreases with the increase in percentage of red dye in diesel fuel.

  3. Decolorization of azo dyes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yang; Rabaey, Korneel; Rozendal, René A; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg

    2009-07-01

    Azo dyes are ubiquitously used in the textile industry. These dyes need to be removed from the effluent prior to discharge to sewage due to their intense color and toxicity. In this study we investigated the use of a bioelectrochemical system (BES) to abioticlly cathodic decolorization of a model azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7), where the process was driven by microbial oxidation of acetate atthe anode. Effective decolorization of AO7 at rates up to 264 +/- 0.03 mol m(-3) NCC d(-1) (net cathodic compartment, NCC) was achieved at the cathode, with concomitant energy recovery. The AO7 decolorization rate was significantly enhanced when the BES was supplied with power, reaching 13.18 +/- 0.05 mol m(-3) NCC d(-1) at an energy consumption 0.012 +/- 0.001 kWh mol(-1) AO7 (at a controlled cathode potential of -400 mV vs SHE). Compared with conventional anaerobic biological methods, the required dosage of organic cosubstrate was significantly reduced in the BES. A possible cathodic reaction mechanism for the decolorization of AO7 is suggested based on the decolorization products identified: the azo bond of AO7 was cleaved at the cathode, resulting in the formation of the colorless sulfanilic acid and 1-amino-2-naphthol.

  4. Plastic encapsulated, dye sensitised photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.J.; Otley, L.C.; Durrant, J.R.; Haque, S.; Xu, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Holmes, A.B.; Park, T.; Schulte, N. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The report presents the results of a collaborative project that aimed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a plastic-encapsulated, solid state, dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) with an energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of at least 3%. DSSCs offer a possible 'step change' in photovoltaic technology resulting in lower costs compared with existing technologies. The project involved a series of eight main tasks: the development of first and second generation HTM electrolytes; the development of polymer-supported electrolytes; the development of low temperature electrode coating procedures; dye development; cell assembly and testing; component integration; and overall process development. A wide range of innovative HTMs have been synthesised, including materials incorporating both hole-transporting and ion-chelating functional groups. The ruthenium-based dye, N3, remained the preferred sensitising component. The project has produced a system that can routinely achieve over 5% ECE at 0.1 Sun illumination on 1 cm{sup 2} cells using polymer-supported electrolytes.

  5. Dye-enhanced laser tissue welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck, R S; Oz, M C; Delohery, T M; Johnson, J P; Bass, L S; Nowygrod, R; Treat, M R

    1989-01-01

    For vascular anastomosis, use of topical photosensitizing dye enhances selective delivery of laser energy to target tissue, thus reducing the amount of collateral thermal injury and threshold power required for welding. For fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)--stained rabbit aorta in vitro, the threshold for tissue blanching was 15 seconds of 100 mW exposure of cw argon ion laser compared with 15 seconds at 300 mW for unstained tissue. The threshold power density needed for argon laser welding of abdominal aortotomies in rabbits in vivo was 3.8 W/cm2 with FITC and 7.6 W/cm2 without the dye. However, bursting pressures for the two groups (164 mm Hg with FITC, 147 mm Hg without FITC) were not significantly different. Histology revealed decreased collateral thermal damage in FITC-enhanced welds. Use of photosensitizing dyes for tissue welding is feasible and may allow arterial welding with lower power laser systems and cause less thermal trauma by lowering threshold power levels.

  6. Electrochemical removal of dyes from textile wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrich, K.D. (Andco Environmental Processes, Inc., Amherst, NY (USA))

    1988-09-01

    There are many technologies available for treating wastewater from the textile industry. Included are (1) biological treatment, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) carbon absorption, (4) ultrafiltration, and (5) oxidation with ozone. The main drawback of these technologies is that they generally lack the broad scope of treatment efficiency required to reduce all types of pollutants present in textile wastewater. However, when one approach does look promising, its capital costs or operating costs often become prohibitive when applied to the large water needs common to this industry. It has recently been shown that an electrochemical technology developed in the 1970s by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. effectively removes many of the contaminants including toxic dye species and heavy metals along with significant BOD and COD reduction across many types of textile wastewater and dye species. The removal of dyes and other pollutants in textile wastewater can be accomplished very efficiently with the electrochemical process. Actual operating data, along with actual water samples, will be presented along with economics and operating characteristics of this type of a system. Additional considerations such as removal of other components such as BOD and COD, theoretical interpretations, and the possibility of water reuse will also be discussed.

  7. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths.The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap ...

  8. Dyes and Redox Couples with Matched Energy Levels: Elimination of the Dye-Regeneration Energy Loss in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dianlu; Darabedian, Narek; Ghazarian, Sevak; Hao, Yuanqiang; Zhgamadze, Maxim; Majaryan, Natalie; Shen, Rujuan; Zhou, Feimeng

    2015-11-16

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a significant dye-regeneration force (ΔG(reg)(0)≥0.5 eV) is usually required for effective dye regeneration, which results in a major energy loss and limits the energy-conversion efficiency of state-of-art DSSCs. We demonstrate that when dye molecules and redox couples that possess similar conjugated ligands are used, efficient dye regeneration occurs with zero or close-to-zero driving force. By using Ru(dcbpy)(bpy)2(2+) as the dye and Ru(bpy)2(MeIm)2(3+//2+) as the redox couple, a short-circuit current (J(sc)) of 4 mA cm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.9 V were obtained with a ΔG(reg)(0) of 0.07 eV. The same was observed for the N3 dye and Ru(bpy)2(SCN)2(1+/0) (ΔG(reg)(0)=0.0 eV), which produced an J(sc) of 2.5 mA cm(-2) and V(oc) of 0.6 V. Charge recombination occurs at pinholes, limiting the performance of the cells. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that high V(oc) values can be attained by significantly curtailing the dye-regeneration force.

  9. Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activity and spectrophotometric and dyeing properties of some novel azo disperse dyes based on naphthalimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaki, Hanieh; Gharanjig, Kamaladin; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel disperse dyes containing azo group were synthesized through a diazotization and coupling process. The 4-amino-N-2-aminomethylpyridine-1,8-naphthalimide was diazotized by nitrosylsulphuric acid and coupled with various aromatic amines such as N,N-diethylaniline, N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and 2-methylindole. Chemical structures of the synthesized dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance ((13) C NMR), elemental analysis, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric data of all dyes were evaluated in various solvents with different polarity. Eventually, the dyes were applied on polyamide fabrics in order to investigate their dyeing properties. The fastness properties of the dyed fabrics such as wash, light, and rubbing fastness degrees were measured by standard methods. Moreover, the color gamut of the synthesized dyes was measured on polyamide fabrics. Results indicated that some of the synthesized dyes were able to dye polyamide fabrics with deep shades. They had very good wash and rubbing fastness degrees and moderate-to-good light fastness on polyamide fabrics. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized dyes were evaluated in soluble state and on the dyed fabrics. The results indicated that dye 2 containing N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline as coupler had the highest activity against all the bacteria and fungi used.

  10. An efficient and rapid thin-layer chromatography method for the identification of 32 dye substances in hair dye products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H J; Yang, Y W; Zhu, Y

    2014-08-01

    The use of dye substances in hair dye products has led to controversial public and scientific discussions about their impact on human health. This study aimed to explore a rapid method for identification of dye substances in hair dye products. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was conducted in this study. We developed basic data of 32 dye substances by 4 developing solvents and 2 indicator sprays. The dye substances were identified by comparing the Rf values and colors between samples and reference substances. Thirty samples were identified by the established method. 22 hair dye substances were detected in 16 formula known samples, 15 hair dye substances were detected in 14 formula unknown samples. Four laboratories participated in the validation and the results showed good interlaboratory reproducibility. The developed TLC method is simple, rapid, reliable and can be finely used for identification of dye substances in hair dye products. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Structure-performance correlations of organic dyes with an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sie-Rong; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Yang, Po-Fan; Liao, Chia-Wei; Lee, Mandy M; Su, Wei-Lin; Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Hao-Wu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2014-08-04

    The high performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on seven new dyes are disclosed. Herein, the synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical properties of a series of intentionally designed dipolar organic dyes and their application in DSSCs are reported. The molecular structures of the seven organic dyes are composed of a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor, and an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety integrated in the π-conjugated spacer between the electron donor and acceptor moieties. The DSSCs based on the dye DJ104 gave the best overall cell performance of 8.06 %; the efficiency of the DSSC based on the standard N719 dye under the same experimental conditions was 8.82 %. The spectral coverage of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies extends to the onset at the near-infrared region due to strong internal charge-transfer transition as well as the effect of electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline to lower the energy gap in these organic dyes. A combined tetraphenyl segment as a hydrophobic barrier in these organic dyes effectively slows down the charge recombination from TiO2 to the electrolyte and boosts the photovoltage, comparable to their Ru(II) counterparts. Detailed spectroscopic studies have revealed the dye structure-cell performance correlations, to allow future design of efficient light-harvesting organic dyes.

  12. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  13. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  14. Dyeing of Polyester and Polyamide Synthetic Fabrics with Natural Dyes Using Ecofriendly Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elnagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an ecofriendly method for dyeing synthetic fabrics with natural dyes using UV/ozone pretreatment to activate fiber and improve dyeability of polyester and nylon. Fabrics are pretreated with UV/ozone for different periods of time ranged from 5 min to 120 min. Effect of pretreatment on surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical behavior was studied by testing tensile strength and elongation percentage. Chemical modification of the surface was studied using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR. Dyeability of the treated samples was investigated in terms of their colour strength expressed as K/s in addition to fastness to washing and light. This research showed the increment of the affinity of the studied synthetic fabrics towards curcumin and saffron natural dyes using ecofriendly technique.

  15. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  16. Dyeing of wool fibres with natural dyes: effect of proteolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğru, Mehmet; Baysal, Zübeyde; Aytekin, Cetin

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the widespread use of proteins (casein, peptone, etc.) and protein fragments as a substrate for the proteolytic enzymes, a substrate prepared from dyes that adsorb onto appropriate materials, such as wool and cotton, are also used for enzyme activity determination. In the point of view of this thought, it was our aim to develop the substrates which are easily and economically obtainable and also environmentally safer for the frequently used proteolytic enzymes, such as subtilisin carlsberg, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and protease type XVI and, if possible, to prepare the specific substrate at least for one of these enzymes. For this aim, wool was dyed with natural dyes such as juglone, lawsone, berberine, and quercetin. The optimum pH, incubation time, and agitation rate were determinated. The results indicate that, of all the tested enzymes on wool-dye complex as an insoluble substrate, the most appropriate complex was found to be wool-lawsone complex.

  17. Synthesis of Calix[4]resorcinarene Based Dyes and its Application in Dyeing of Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Jain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new ʻupper rimʼ azocalix[4]resorcinarene have been synthesized by coupling calix[4]resorcinarene with different diazotized aromatic compounds of sulphanilic acid, anthranilic acid, o-aminophenol and p-aminobenzoic acid. The prepared compounds were characterized based on m.p., elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR. These dyes have been used for the dyeing of textile fibres like cotton and wool. Their fastness properties such as fastness to sunlight, water, washings, and perspiration have also been studied. The synthesized dyes have been employed for computerized colour strength determination through colour matching with known standards. Their L, A*, B* values as well as the colour difference values such as ∆L, ∆A*, ∆B*, ∆C and ∆H have also been reported.

  18. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  19. Decolorization of Anthraquinone dye by Rhodopseudomonas XL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas XL-1 gained from textile wastewater can effectively decolorize anthraquinone dye. Under anaerobic condition, 93 percent of the anthraquinone dye is decolorized , which is higher than that under aerobic condition. The optimum pH is 6~9 and the optimum temperature is 20~40℃ for the anthraquinone dye decolorization by XL-1 . XL-1 can not decolorize the anthraquinone dye when it is the sole carbon source. Microbial cometabolism and decolorization of the dye take place in the presence of some other carbon source(0.2~0.4g/100ml)called cometabolic substrate. The cometabolic substrate can be peptone, glucose, sodium acetate, beef extract, amylum, etc. The change of molecular structure of the dye before and after decolorized by XL-1 is studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum. The results indicate that its molecular structure is changed evidently.

  20. Wood Microstructure Effects on Chinese White Poplar Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANXinfang; BAOFucheng

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the influence of wood microstructure on wood dyeing, eleven parameters of wood microstructure and 5 parameters of wood dyeing effects for 34 pieces of wood boards from 5 trees of Chinese white poplar (Populus tornentosa) were determined and the multiple regression analysis between the factors of wood microstructures and the parameters of wood dyeing effects were made. The regression results show that each variable of wood dyeing effects has higher relationship with wood microstructures,and multiple correlation coefficients between each variable of wood dyeing effects and wood microstructures are 0.483 6-0.799 8. The main factors of wood microstructures influencing wood dyeing of Chinese whitep oplar are proportion of wood ray, proportion of vessel and proportion of wood fiber according to comparing the standardized regression coefficients of multiple regression equation.

  1. Progress in modifications and applications of fluorescent dye probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening Fei; Yingchun Gu

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes the labeling technology and applications of fluorescent dye probe in biology,especially the characteristics,modifications and applications of cyanine dyes.Based on the currently available modification methods of fluorescent dye probe,we discuss the studies of enhancing the water-solubility,improving the degree of biocompatibility and target-labeling,increasing the sensitivity and decreasing the toxicity of fluorescent dye.We also give a brief introduction on the modification method,that the fluorescent dye is directly introduced onto the cell surfaces by amine derivatives or azides to intensify the transferring information of aberrant cells.We suggest that fluorescent dye modified with chitosan oligosaccharide can obviously increase the degree of biocompatibility and targetlabeling,and decrease the degree of toxicity.

  2. Ranking of hair dye substances according to predicted sensitization potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, H; Basketter, D A; Estrada, E

    2004-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis following the use of hair dyes is well known. Many chemicals are used in hair dyes and it is unlikely that all cases of hair dye allergy can be diagnosed by means of patch testing with p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The objectives of this study are to identify all hair dye...... in order to help select a number of chemically diverse hair dye substances that could be used in subsequent clinical work. Various information sources, including the Inventory of Cosmetics Ingredients, new regulations on cosmetics, data on total use and ChemId (the Chemical Search Input website provided...... by the National Library of Medicine), were used in order to identify the names and structures of the hair dyes. A QSAR model, developed with the help of experimental local lymph node assay data and topological sub-structural molecular descriptors (TOPS-MODE), was used in order to predict the likely sensitization...

  3. Biosorption of Azo dyes by spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Neeta A.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was used for the removal of six azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The dye removal capacity of the biomass was evaluated by conducting batch tests as a function of contact time, biomass dosage, pH and initial dye concentrations. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999, suggesting that chemisorptions might be the rate limiting step. The equilibrium sorption data showed good fit to the Langmuir isotherm model. Among the six dyes tested, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for fast red A and metanil yellow was found to be 108.8 and 128.5 mg/g, respectively. These encouraging results suggest that dead Rhizopus arrhizus biomass could be a potential biomaterial for the removal of azo dyes from aqueous dye solution.

  4. Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, I; Laeri, F; Nöckel, J U; Schulz-Ekloff, G; Schueth, F; Vietze, U; Weiss, O; Woehrle, D; Braun, Ingo; Ihlein, Guido; Laeri, Franco; Noeckel, Jens U.; Schulz-Ekloff, Guenter; Schueth, Ferdi; Vietze, Uwe; Weiss, Ozlem; Woehrle, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Molecular sieves, such as nanoporous AlPO_4-5, can host a wide variety of laser active dyes. We embedded pyridine 2 molecules as a representative of a commercially available dye which fits into the channel pores of the host matrix. Many efficient dye molecules, such as rhodamines, do not fit into the pores. But the amount of encapsulated dyes can be increased by modifying the structure of the dyes such that they match the host templates. The resulting microlasers have properties that depend on size and shape of the microresonators, and we discuss a model for microscopic hexagonal ring resonators. In terms of pump needed to reach lasing threshold molecular sieve microlasers are comparable to VCSELs. For dyes which fit into the pores we observed a partial regeneration of photo-induced damage.

  5. NIR Electrofluorochromic Properties of Aza-Boron-dipyrromethene Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The photophysical properties of near-infrared (NIR) emissive aza-boron-dipyrromethene (aza-BDP) dyes incorporating nitrofluorene and alkoxy decorations were intensively investigated. Their highly reversible one-electron reduction process showed characteristic electrofluorochromic (EF) properties in the NIR range, depending on the substituents. The nitrofluorene ethynyl-substituted (Type I) dyes showed smaller EF effects than the alkoxy-containing (Type II) dyes because of the difference in th...

  6. Nature of phosphorescence kinetics of xanthene dyes in biological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryakhina, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the experimental results on the nature of the phosphorescence of xanthene dyes in biological media are discussed. Phosphorescence is a monomolecular process and should have exponential type. However, the kinetics of the phosphorescence of xanthene dyes has two-exponential type in biological media. Analysis of data by experimental and theoretical methods showed that the second exponent connects on the phosphorescence of dye dimers. It can be used in biomedical investigation for dose selection of preparation delivery.

  7. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Marija D.; Nikolić Ivan R.; Milutinović Milica D.; Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.; Šiler-Marinković Slavica S.; Antonović Dušan G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was mo...

  8. A New Generation of Glycoconjugated Azo Dyes Based on Aminosugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Guazzelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The third generation of glycoconjugated azo dyes (GADs was prepared linking monoazo dyes to 6-amino-6-deoxy-d-galactose or 6′amino-6′-deoxylactose through mixed amido-ester connections. The complementary conjugation reactions were studied using the succinyl derivative of either the acetal protected aminosugar or the azo dye. Target “naturalized” GADs were obtained after acid hydrolysis of the acetal protecting groups present on the sugar moiety.

  9. Interaction of Natural Dye (Allium cepa) with Ionic Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Allium cepa is a natural dye that has been extracted from onion skin with the help of soxhlet apparatus. The pigment in the dye pelargonidin was found to be 2.25%. The interaction of the dye with ionic surfactants, namely, cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and anionic (sodium lauryl sulphate) has been studied by spectrophotometrically, conductivity, and surface tension measurements. The thermodynamic and surface parameters have been evaluated for the interaction process. Th...

  10. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  12. Mutagenicity assessment of textile dyes from Sanganer (Rajasthan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Sanganer town, district Jaipur (Rajasthan, India) is famous worldwide for its hand block dyeing and textile printing industries. These industries use a variety of chemicals and dyes during processing and finishing of raw materials. Most of the textile dyes used by these industries have not been evaluated for their impact on health and the environment. The workers in these industries are exposed to such dyes with no control over the length and frequency of exposure. Further, untreated and sometimes even treated effluents from these industries are released into surface waters of Amani Shah drainage or through the drainage systems, seep into the ground water and adjoining water bodies. Since many textile dyes are known carcinogens and mutagens, a complete evaluation of the safety of these dyes in the human environment must include an evaluation of their genotoxicity or mutagenicity. A total of 12 textile dyes from Sanganer were tested for their mutagenicity, by Ames Salmonella reversion assay using strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium. Only 1 dye, Red 12 B showed absence of mutagenic activity. The remaining 11 dyes were all positively mutagenic.

  13. Primary Photoprocesses in Dyes and Other Complex Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    photobiology are given . -~~~~~ 3.2 Reports and Manuscripts in Preparation TR— l3. A Study of the Photodegradation of the Blue—Green Laser Dye , AC3F , A...the contract a preliminary study of the photodegradation of the laser dye , AC3F [Blue—Green Dye Laser Development , Annual Report F4—75 , NELC F233 b...I AD—A0b2 568 WASHINGTON STATE UNIV PULLMAN DEPT OF CHEMISTRY FFG 713 ‘c — F, PRIMARY PHOTOPROCESSES IN DYES AND OTHER COMPLEX MOLECULES. (U) OCT 78

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  15. Adsorption Properties of Lac Dyes on Wool, Silk, and Nylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in the dyeing of textiles with natural dyes. The research about the adsorption properties of natural dyes can help to understand their adsorption mechanism and to control their dyeing process. This study is concerned with the kinetics and isotherms of adsorption of lac dyes on wool, silk, and nylon fibers. It was found that the adsorption kinetics of lac dyes on the three fibers followed the pseudosecond-order kinetic model, and the adsorption rate of lac dyes was the fastest for silk and the slowest for wool. The activation energies for the adsorption process on wool, silk, and nylon were found to be 107.15, 87.85, and 45.31 kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption of lac dyes on the three fibers followed the Langmuir mechanism, indicating that the electrostatic interactions between lac dyes and those fibers occurred. The saturation values for lac adsorption on the three fibers decreased in the order of wool > silk > nylon; the Langmuir affinity constant of lac adsorption on nylon was much higher than those on wool and silk.

  16. STUDY OF DYE-SENSITIZED SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOIMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gao; Chun-ying Zhao; Yong-yuan Yang; Li-dong Li

    2001-01-01

    o-Chloro-hexaarylbiimidazole (o-C1-HABI) can be sensitized efficiently by cyanine dyes, the cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone dyes, when exposed to xenon lamp (use filter cut λ _< 400 nm). The photoreaction between the photoinitiator and the dyes was completed through an electron transfer process. Excellent results have been obtained in photoimaging studies, e.g. the resolution of the image can reach 7 μm. The influence of the content of the dyes and the heat after the exposure on the resolution of the image was investigated.

  17. Color removal of reactive dyes from water by clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armağan, Bülent; Turan, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Orhan; Celik, Mehmet S

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of reactive dyes on Gordes (Turkey) clinoptilolite was investigated by a series of batch and column adsorption experiments. Three reactive dyes (Everzol Black, Everzol Red, Everzol Yellow) were used in laboratory studies. Synthetic wastewaters were used and the ability of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and their modified form were examined. The adsorption results, in batch and column reactor, indicate that natural zeolite have limited adsorption capacities of the reactive dyes but are substantially improved upon modifying their surfaces with quaternary amines (HTAB). The degree of hydrophilicity is found to play an important role in the uptake of reactive dyes.

  18. Decolorization of dye wastewaters by biosorbents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Asha; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari

    2010-10-01

    Dye wastewater is one of the most difficult to treat. There has been exhaustive research on biosorption of dye wastewater. It is evolving as an attractive option to supplement conventional treatment processes. This paper examines various biosorbents such as fungi, bacteria, algae, chitosan and peat, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanism involved, the effects of various factors influencing dye wastewater decolorization and reviews pretreatment methods for increasing the biosorption capacity of the adsorbents. The paper examines the mismatch between strong scientific progress in the field of biosorption and lack of commercialization of research. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dye-coupling among frog (Rana catesbeiana) taste disk cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, O; Okada, Y; Miyamoto, T; Sato, T

    1992-09-01

    1. Dye-coupling among taste disk cells in the bullfrog fungiform papillae was examined histologically by injecting a fluorescent dye (Lucifer yellow) into the cell, and the effects of the dye-coupling on depolarizing responses induced by taste stimuli were studied electrophysiologically. 2. With dye injection into a taste cell, dye-coupling was found between taste cells (23%) or between taste cell and supporting cell (28%). With dye injection into a supporting cell, dye-coupling was found between supporting cells (34%) or between supporting cell and taste cell (27%). 3. Depolarizing responses recorded from either a taste cell or a supporting cell to stimulation with 0.5 M NaCl or 10 mM quinine-HCl were the same in amplitude whether the dye-coupling to another cell was present or not. On the other hand, depolarizing responses recorded from a taste cell for 0.5 mM acetic acid became significantly larger when dye-coupled to a supporting cell. 4. It is concluded that gustatory transduction for acid stimuli is influenced by supporting cells coupled to taste cells.

  20. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...... propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...

  1. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  2. Natural dye extracted from karkadah and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells: experimental and density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, S M; Soliman, K A

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an experimental and theoretical study of cyanidin natural dye as a sensitizer for ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using ammonia and oxalic acid as a capping agent. The calculated average size of the synthesized ZnO with different capping agents was found to be 32.1 nm. Electronic properties of cyanidin and delphinidin dye were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT with a B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. By comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data, the cyanidin dye can be used as a sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. An efficiency of 0.006% under an AM-1.5 illumination at 100  mW/cm(2) was attained. The influence of dye adsorption time on the solar cell performance is discussed.

  3. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho; Oh, Sang Jin

    2012-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ˜ 500 °C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  4. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Jin [Phoenix Materials, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ∼ 500 .deg. C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  5. Molecular design of donor-acceptor dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells I: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Aziz, Saadullah G; Elroby, Shaaban A K

    2014-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have drawn great attention as low cost and high performance alternatives to conventional photovoltaic devices. The molecular design presented in this work is based on the use of pyran type dyes as donor based on frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) and theoretical UV-visible spectra in combination with squaraine type dyes as an acceptor. Density functional theory has been used to investigate several derivatives of pyran type dyes for a better dye design based on optimization of absorption, regeneration, and recombination processes in gas phase. The frontier molecular orbital (FMO) of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels plays an important role in the efficiency of DSSCs. These energies contribute to the generation of exciton, charge transfer, dissociation and exciton recombination. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures for the predicted dyes were performed using the B3LYP/6-31+G** level of theory. The FMO energies (EHOMO, ELUMO) of the studied dyes are calculated and analyzed in the terms of the UV-visible absorption spectra, which have been examined using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) techniques. This study examined absorption properties of pyran based on theoretical UV-visible absorption spectra, with comparisons between TD-DFT using B3LYP, PBE, and TPSSH functionals with 6-31+G (d) and 6-311++G** basis sets. The results provide a valuable guide for the design of donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes with high molar absorptivity and current conversion in DSSCs. The theoretical results indicated 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye (D2-Me) can be effectively used as a donor dye for DSSCs. This dye has a low energy gap by itself and a high energy gap with squaraine acceptor type dye, the design that reduces the recombination and improves the photocurrent generation in solar cell.

  6. Database of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kazuyasu; Kondo, Tadashi; Yokoo, Hideki; Okano, Tetsuya; Yamada, Masayo; Yamada, Tesshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-03-01

    CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye (saturation dye, GE Healthcare Amersham Biosciences) enables highly sensitive 2-D PAGE. As the dye reacts with all reduced cysteine thiols, 2-D PAGE can be performed with a lower amount of protein, compared with CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dye (GE Healthcare Amersham Biosciences), the sensitivity of which is equivalent to that of silver staining. We constructed a 2-D map of the saturation dye-labeled proteins of a liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and identified by MS 92 proteins corresponding to 123 protein spots. Functional classification revealed that the identified proteins had chaperone, protein binding, nucleotide binding, metal ion binding, isomerase activity, and motor activity. The functional distribution and the cysteine contents of the proteins were similar to those in the most comprehensive 2-D database of hepatoma cells (Seow et al.., Electrophoresis 2000, 21, 1787-1813), where silver staining was used for protein visualization. Hierarchical clustering on the basis of the quantitative expression profiles of the 123 characterized spots labeled with two charge- and mass-matched saturation dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) discriminated between nine hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and primary cultured hepatocytes from five individuals, suggesting the utility of saturation dye and our database for proteomic studies of liver cancer.

  7. Comparative Study of the Impact of Two Types of Natural Dyes and Synthetic Dyes on the Fabric Comfort Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yushi; Wang Yuqiu; Yun Song; Deng Ruoyu; Pan Yuan; Li Tianxue; Li Xiuzhi

    2015-01-01

    In order to research whether the Natural Dyes areremarkably different from the chemical dyes in practical application, four experiments relating to the fabric comfort degree were selected for operation and a social survey experiment was also conducted. The research was conducted from the two perspectives of scientific tests and subjective judgments. Through the scientific tests and social survey, it was concluded that the impact of Natural Dyes and that of Synthetic Dyes have little difference towards the fabric comfort degree, but there are still some findings need to be noticed through the conclusion.

  8. Theoretical study on the application of double-donor branched organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Rui-Rui [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China); Zhu, Kai-Li [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Gansu Normal University for Nationalities, Hezuo, 747000, Gansu (China); Song, Yan-Lin [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China); Geng, Zhi-Yuan, E-mail: zhiyuangeng@126.com [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China)

    2016-09-15

    A novel organic dye with 2D-A structure has been designed and calculated whereby density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for dye-sensitized solar cells. The double-donor branched dye which was consisted of two separated light-harvesting moieties was beneficial to photocurrent generation. First, we discussed the effects of different donor chains on photoelectric performance in the dye molecule, using the DTP-B8 which was a previously reported structure as the reference. Only to conclude that the suitable length can achieve the satisfactory efficiency. Secondly, to modify and sift potential sensitizers further, three series of dyes (BC-series, CB-series and CC-series) were designed and characterized. The increased molar extinction coefficient and the red-shifted λ{sub max} was attributed to an increasing in electron conjunction. This work presented a new route to design sensitizers that provide two channels for donating more electrons and improve the final efficiency. It is expected to provide some theoretical guidance on designing and synthetizing high efficiency photosensitive dye in the future experiments. - Highlights: • A novel organic dye with 2D-A structure was designed and characterized. • The double-donor branched dye was consisted of two separated light-harvesting paths. • The double-donor branched dye was beneficial to photocurrent generation. • The molar extinction coefficient was greatly improved in this novel structure. • Four promising candidates have been screened out.

  9. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence and optical reflection spectra of Japanese natural dyes on silk

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Tadaki; Matsuda, Yasunori

    1987-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra under nitrogen-laser excitation were measured for silk cloth dyed with Japanese natural dyes. An identification of the dyes on silk was carried out using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique since dyed cloth has a characteristic fluorescence spectra. Moreover, it is possible to identify dyes on faded cloth and on cloth prepared by a combination dyeing using two kinds of dyes. The LIF technique can identify dyes on cloth which is difficult to identify using the ref...

  11. Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) using CyDye DIGE fluor minimal dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Bulbul; Gallagher, Sean R; Chakravarti, Deb N

    2005-02-01

    One- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE) have been widely used for the separation and quantitative estimation of proteins. Following electrophoresis, the gels are stained appropriately to visualize the proteins. Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) is a new technique in which different protein samples, individually labeled with specific CyDyes, are combined together followed by electrophoresis and post electrophoretic co-detection and co-analysis on the same gel. CyDye DIGE fluor minimal dyes, which consist of three different CyDyes with different spectral characteristics, have been widely used for such purposes. The technique is highly sensitive with a wide dynamic range for detection of proteins and compatible with state-of-the-art protein identification techniques using mass spectrometry. Although DIGE is mainly used to compare differential expression of various protein samples using 2-D SDS-PAGE, 1-D DIGE also has important applications in quantitative proteomic studies.

  12. Dye Oriza sativa glutinosa doped Fe as a active element of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada, A. B.; Fadli, U. M.; Cari; Supriyanto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the research are to determine the effect of doping Fe (III) Sulphate into dye Oriza sativa glutinosa on the characteristics parameters of solar cells, to determine the optical characteristic, functional group and electrical characteristic of dye Oriza sativa glutinosa doped Fe (III) sulphate. TiO2 nano size as much as 0.5 gr dissolved in 3 ml ethanol. 100 gr black sticky rice (Oriza sativa glutinosa) was immersed in 80 ml ethanol solution (95%) and kept at room temperature without exposing to light. Then it was filtered with a filter paper no.42, and the extracted result was process with chromatography. Furthermore, it was doped with Fe (III) sulphate respectively of 10-1 M, 10-2 M, 10-3 M. The characteristic of dye solution was measured using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25 for absorbance, Elkahfi 100/I-V meter for conductivity amd Keithey 2602A for characterization of current and voltage (I-V). The result showed that the area of dye Oriza sativa glutionosa doped Fe (III) sulphate with concentration 10-1 M the largest, because the value of Voc intercept at 6.40 × 10-1 mV and the value Isc intercept at 1.89 × 10-3 mA, with efficiency value is 0.148%.

  13. Fabrication and analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dye extracted from dragon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit dye has been prepared and used in the fabrication of DSSC as sensitizer. The properties of dragon fruit dye have been investigated by UV-Vis and FTIR technique. The absorption spectrum shows a peak value of 535 nm. Chemically dragon fruit dye shows present of intermolecular H-bond, conjugate C=O stretching and esters acetates C-O-C stretching vibration, which is due to the component of anthocyanin. On the other hand, the resistivity of TiO2 film on ITO glass before it is used for the fabrication of DSSC is also investigated. The TiO2 sheet resistivity increase from 1 layer = 22.1 Ω cm to 2 layers = 369.6 Ω cm. Finally, the efficiency of assemble DSSC was evaluated and simulated using a custom made technique. The result shows fill factor, Pmax and efficiency during the present of halogen lamp are 0.30, 13 μW, 0.22%, respectively. We have successfully showed that the DSSC using dragon fruit as a dye sensitizer is useful for the preparation of environmental friendly and low-cost DSSC.

  14. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in the chemical factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dyecollection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind, and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind, and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, thepolluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits.

  15. Biosorption and biodegradation of a sulfur dye in high-strength dyeing wastewater by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai Anh; Fu, Chun-Chieh; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2016-11-01

    The ability of the bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to remove sulfur blue 15 (SB15) dye from water samples was examined. This bacterium could not only oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid but also promote the attachment of the cells to the surface of sulfidic particles, therefore serving as an efficient biosorbent. The biosorption isotherms were better described by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich or Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Also, the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. At pH 8.3 and SB15 concentrations up to 2000 mg L(-1) in the biomass/mineral salt solution, the dye removal and decolorization were 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively, following the biosorption process. Biodegradation was proposed as a subsequent process for the remaining dye (250-350 mg L(-1)). A central composite design was used to analyze independent variables in the response surface methodology study. Under the optimal conditions (i.e., initial dye concentration of 300 mg L(-1), initial biomass concentration of 1.0 g L(-1), initial pH of 11.7, and yeast extract dose of 60 mg L(-1)), up to 50% of SB15 was removed after 4 days of biodegradation.

  16. Co-sensitization of natural dyes for improved efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Ashok; Subalakshmi, K.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new approach of co-sensitized DSSC based on natural dyes is investigated to explore the possible way to improve the power conversion efficiency. To realize this purpose 10 DSSC devices were fabricated using mono-sensitization and co-sensitization of ethanolic extracts of natural dye sensitizers obtained from Cactus fruit, Jambolana fruit, Curcumin and Bermuda grass. The optical absorption spectrum of the mono and hybrid dye extracts were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrum. It shows the characteristic absorption peaks in visible region corresponds to the presence of natural pigments of anthocyanin, betacyanin and chlorophylls. Absorption spectrum of hybrid dyes reveals a wide absorption band in visible region with improved extinction co-efficient and it is favorable for increased light harvesting nature. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC devices were calculated using J-V curve and the maximum efficiency achieved in the present work is noted to be ~0.61% for Cactus-Bermuda co-sensitized DSSC.

  17. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites.

  18. Assessment of different dyes used in leakage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Johannes; Ferk, Stephan; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Deckert, Andreas; Legner, Milos; Staehle, Hans Joerg

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to identify the most suitable dye for endodontic dye leakage studies, which could be a further step towards standardisation. The root canals of 70 extracted, single-rooted human adult teeth were enlarged to apical size 50 using hand instruments. The teeth were divided into seven groups (n = 10 each), and all root canals were completely filled by injection with one of the following dyes: methylene blue 0.5% and 5%, blue ink, black ink, eosin 5%, basic fuchsin 0.5% and drawing ink. Transverse root sections from the coronal, middle and apical part of the roots were examined, and the percentage of the dentine penetrated by dye was evaluated by software-supported light microscopy. In addition, the range of particle size of drawing ink particles was evaluated. There were conspicuous differences in the relative dye penetration into the root dentine and the penetration behaviour in the different root sections (two-way ANOVA, both p < 0.0001). One dye (drawing ink) penetrated less into the root dentine compared with all the others (p <0.0001). The particle size of this agent (0.1-2 microm) corresponds best with the size range of a representative selection of 21 species of pathogenic endodontic bacteria. Compared to the other dyes tested, drawing ink appears to be superior for use in endodontic dye leakage studies. The penetration behaviour into the root dentine of all the other dyes tested might be one factor that limits the applicability of these dyes in dye leakage studies.

  19. Decolorization of azo dyes by Geobacter metallireducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Chen, Congcong; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Geobacter metallireducens was found to be capable of decolorizing several azo dyes with different structures to various extents. Pyruvate, ethanol, acetate, propionate, and benzoate could support 66.3 ± 2.6-93.7 ± 2.1 % decolorization of 0.1 mM acid red 27 (AR27) in 40 h. The dependence of the specific decolorization rate on AR27 concentration (25 to 800 μM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K m = 186.9 ± 1.4 μΜ, V max = 0.65 ± 0.02 μmol mg protein(-1) h(-1)). Enhanced AR27 decolorization was observed with the increase of cell concentrations ranging from 7.5 to 45 mgL(-1). AR27 decolorization by G. metallireducens was retarded by the presence of goethite, which competed electrons with AR27 and was reduced to Fe(II). The addition of low concentrations of humic acid (1-100 mgL(-1)) or 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (0.5-50 μM) could improve the decolorization performance of G. metallireducens. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis suggested reductive pathway to be responsible for decolorization. This was the first study on azo dye decolorization by Geobacter strain and might improve our understanding of natural attenuation and bioremediation of environments polluted by azo dyes.

  20. Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye "Super Vasmol 33" intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived.

  1. Bimanes and Related Heterocycles as Laser Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-10

    514 ones) as laser dyes. Kosower introduced a system nm. Presumably helicity, that was demonstrated by of trivial nomenclature for the bimanes based...Variation in substitution patterns in syn-bimanes tion (S-S) and triplet-triplet (T-T) spectral regions, has remained limited. In the Kosower scheme for...1. R. Politzer, [22] E. M. Kosower , D. Faust, M. Ben-Shoshan, 1. Gold- C. M. Lau, J. AppI. Phys., 62, 1987, 36; (c) T. G. Pavlo- berg, 1. Org. Chem

  2. Resonance energy transfer: Dye to metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wari, M. N.; Pujar, G. H.; Inamdar, S. R., E-mail: him-lax3@yahoo.com [Laser Spectroscopy Programme, Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580003 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In the present study, surface energy transfer (SET) from Coumarin 540A (C540 A) to Gold nanoparticle (Au) is demonstrated. The observed results show pronounced effect on the photoluminescence intensity and shortening of the lifetime of Coumarin 540A upon interaction with the spherical gold nanoparticle, also there are measured effects on radiative rate of the dye. Experimental results are analyzed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and SET theories. The results obtained from distance-dependent quenching provide experimental evidence that the efficiency curve slope and distance of quenching is best modeled by surface energy transfer process.

  3. Dye solar cell research: EU delegation presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-09

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cummings1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3236 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cummings1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DYE SOLAR CELL RESEARCH... Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 13 November 2009 © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za CONTENT head2right...

  4. Removal of hazardous dye Ponceau-S by using Chitin:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sr030111Bin Comp

    Dye pollutants from textile dye industries are an important source of environment ... used in textile industry is about 10,000 (Poon et al., 1999) .... After cooling, the ..... aqueous solution by adsorption on low-cost materials, water, Air, soil. Pollut.

  5. Vegetable-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Antonino; Di Marco, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2015-05-21

    There is currently a large effort to improve the performance of low cost renewable energy devices. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are emerging as one of the most promising low cost photovoltaic technologies, addressing "secure, clean and efficient solar energy conversion". Vegetable dyes, extracted from algae, flowers, fruit and leaves, can be used as sensitizers in DSSCs. Thus far, anthocyanin and betalain extracts together with selected chlorophyll derivatives are the most successful vegetable sensitizers. This review analyses recent progress in the exploitation of vegetable dyes for solar energy conversion and compares them to the properties of synthetic dyes. We provide an in-depth discussion on the main limitation of cell performance e.g. dye degradation, effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of semiconducting nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, outlining future developments for the use of vegetable sensitizers in DSSCs. We also discuss the cost of vegetable dyes and how their versatility can boost the advancement of new power management solutions, especially for their integration in living environments, making the practical application of such systems economically viable. Finally, we present our view on future prospects in the development of synthetic analogues of vegetable dyes as sensitizers in DSSCs.

  6. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  7. Textile dyes and pigments as a source of dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostjan, K.; Marechal, A.M. le [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia); Voncina, E. [Environmental Protection Institute, Maribor (Slovenia); Brodnjak-Voncina, D. [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2004-09-15

    Synthesis of colorants represents a relatively large group of chemicals with complex synthesis processes. Over 7 x 10 ton of dyestuff is produced annually worldwide with more than 100,000 types of dyes and pigments. During synthesis of some colorants polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) can be formed. Dioxins are related to halogens, especially chlorine and bromine homologues are most toxic and persistent. About 40% of worldwide used colorants contain organically bounded chlorine. Further formations of PCDD/Fs can occur via dyeing and textile finishing processes with conditions favoured for the generation of PCDD/Fs (high temperatures, alkaline conditions, UV radiations or other radical starters). Relative small number of data is available for PCDD/Fs presence and contents in textile dyes and pigments. Known sources of PCDD/Fs are dioxazine dyes and pigments, produced from chloranil1. Chloranil is produced from chlorinated phenols and during the synthesis PCDD/Fs as by products are formed. In a sample of Ni-phthalocyanine dye higher congeners of PCDD/Fs were found in {mu}g/kg concentration level. In our work six samples of disperse dyes were analysed for PCDD/Fs content. In two disperse black dyes, a mixture of anthraquinone and azo-disperse dye, considerable level ({mu}g/kg) of PCDD/Fs was determined. The OCDD was the dominant compound. Distribution of dioxins and their fate during textile processes were further investigated.

  8. The Chemistry of Vat Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    From prehistoric times people have been fascinated with color; from cave paintings to the latest computers, color has been a constant companion. Textiles are made more beautiful by the alteration or application of colorants. This teaching resource investigates vat dyes, a colorant class which includes the oldest dyes known as well as important…

  9. EXPLORING THE USE OF SUEDE DYE ON LEATHER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The indigenous leather tanners in Ghana lack access to variety in dyes and colourants, this lim- its the ability of their ... The popular, natural cream colour of leather is the basic colour ... the preparation of the dye from guinea-corn leaves and its ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of camwood (Baphia nitida) dyes on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... Antimicrobial activity of four aqueous extracts of camwood dyes obtained from different locations in ... These results show that camwood dye possessed significant antimicrobial activity ... In Nigeria, the local use of natural products as source ... Bacterial inoculum was prepared by inoculating a loopful of the.

  11. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... color removals from industrial effluents including ion exchange, adsorption ... efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes from effluents. (Malik, 2002). ... biosorbent Ulva lactuca and Saragassum as a natural, renewable ... Stock solution of 1 × 10-3 M of methylene blue dye was prepared in double distilled ...

  12. Spectral and nonlinear studies of night blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu Sukumaran, V.; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this Letter the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye night blue are studied. The spectral characteristics of night blue dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique [S.-B., Mansoor, A.A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 760], by exciting with He Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye night blue show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  13. Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida da França

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, and the final shade is developed by their interactions with an oxidizing agent, but they differ from the alkalizing agent used. In oxidation systems, there is an intense diffusion of the molecules into the cortex, what promotes a longer color resistance. Dyes and color precursors present differences related to chromophore groups, hair fiber affinity, water solubility, and photo stability. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences among hair dye products available in the market and their action mechanisms, molecular structures, application methods, and some aspects of formulations.

  14. Green dyeing of cotton fabrics by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green dyeing process with zero waste water emission is a hot topic recently. This paper reveals that supercritical carbon dioxide is the best candidate for this purpose. Effects of thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpy and entropy of activation, on dyeing process are studied experimentally.

  15. Electronic structure of Fe- vs. Ru-based dye molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Phillip S.; Cook, Peter L.; Zegkinoglou, Ioannis;

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore whether Ru can be replaced by inexpensive Fe in dye molecules for solar cells, the differences in the electronic structure of Fe- and Ru-based dyes are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Molecules with the metal in a sixfold...

  16. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  17. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  18. A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro

    2013-11-15

    Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing–thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

  19. Sorption and desorption of dyes by sulfonated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.K. (Motilal Nehru Regional Coll. of Engineering, Allahabad (India)); Venkobachar, C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India))

    Wastewaters from dye-manufacturing factories and textile, paper, and pulp industries are highly colored. Their discharge into river waters make the water inhibitory to aquatic life, aside from causing, visible pollution. Dyes have a tendency to sequester metals, thus causing microtoxicity to fish and other aquatic organisms. A wide variety of low-cost materials such as flyash, clay minerals, coal, tire chippings, coconut shell powder and biosorbents are being tried as viable substitutes for activated carbon to remove different pollutants such as pesticides, heavy metals, and dyes. The removal of dyes depends upon their physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the properties of the selected sorbents. To understand the nature of the chemical bonding between dyes and sorbents during the sorption process, it is essential to conduct desorption studies. The reversibility of adsorption of dyes can also be determined by a simple mathematical equation. These studies provide information on whether or not the sorbent material can be regenerated after exhaustion. The present study focuses on sorption-desorption of dyes by sulfonated coal, whose dye sorption potential was established by Mittal and Venkobachar (1990).

  20. Dye Indicators for Acidic or Basic Surface Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, A.; Schuler, F.

    1984-01-01

    Application of pH-sensitive dye solution serves as test for acidic or basic contamination of critical bonding surface. Aqueous solution of 0.1 percent Direct Red No. 28 capable of indicating acid activating solution down to 10 parts per million on hardware and tooling. Dye did not cause detectable contamination of surface.

  1. Application of MCM-41 for dyes removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Kung; Liu, Shin-Shou; Juang, Lain-Chuen; Wang, Cheng-Cai; Lin, Kuen-Song; Lyu, Meng-Du

    2007-08-25

    The adsorption of three basic dyes (Rhodamine B (RB), Crystal Violet (CV), and Methylene Green (MG)) and two acid dyes (Acid Red 1 (AR1) and Erioglaucine (EG)) onto MCM-41 was studied to examine the potential of MCM-41 for the removal of dyes from water solution. The revolution of pore structure and surface chemical characteristics of MCM-41 induced by dyes adsorption was characterized based on the analyses of XRD patterns, FTIR spectra, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of MCM-41 for the five dyes followed a decreasing order of RB>CV>MG>EG approximately AR1. It was experimentally concluded that if the dyes adsorption did not introduce a serious disorder on the pore structure of MCM-41 (such as RB adsorption), MCM-41 might be a good adsorbent for the removal of basic dyes from water solution. The fitness of both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model on describing the equilibrium isotherms of three basic dyes was examined. The suitability of both pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intraparticle diffusion model for the description of the kinetic data was investigated, from which the adsorption mechanism was examined.

  2. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Charles Brandon Sweeney, Mark Bundy, Mark Griep, and Shashi P. Karna...ARL-TR-7100 September 2014 Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Charles Brandon Sweeney Texas A&M...

  3. Modification of azo dyes by lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of microorganisms capable of utilizing azo dyes have been an area of significant interest due to their role in the treatment of waste water derived from the textile industry. The ability of L. casei LA1133 and L. paracasei LA0471 to modify the azo dye tartrazine was recently document...

  4. Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles.

  5. Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.

  6. Adsorption Mechanism of Disperse Dye on Elastic Polyurethane Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Hong-fei; SONG Xin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the adsorption isotherms of two disperse dyes, C.I. Disperse Red 60 and C.I. Disperse orange 76,on two kinds of PU fibers at 90℃ were measured respectively. It was found that these adsorption isotherms followed a dual model, Nernst and Langmuir. Based on the parameters obtained in studying, the relationship between the chemical structure of dyes and their adsorption behaviors was analyzed. Through the measurement of washing fastness of dyed sample with two dye concentrations, 1% (o. W. F ) and3% (o. W. F), it was found that the pale shade dyeing possessed better wet-fastness than the dark. This phenomenon confirmed further that the disperse dyes were sorbed on the PU fiber by langmuir sorption and the partition mechanism.

  7. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  8. Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MeenaKumari, M; Philip, Daizy

    2015-01-25

    We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au(3+) and Ag(+) is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles.

  9. Colorimetric studies of some newly synthesized bisazo reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh R. Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of cold brand bisazo reactive dyes (4a–h were obtained by the coupling of tetrazotised 4,4′-methylene-bis(2-methyl-5-nitro aniline (2 with various cyanurated coupling components (3a–h in good yield. Their dyeing performances as reactive dyes have been assessed on silk, wool and cotton fabrics. These dyes were characterized by UV–Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques elemental analysis. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on different fibers were found to be very good. The dyed fabric showed moderate to very good light fastness and good to excellent washing and rubbing fastness properties. Spectral properties and colorimetric data (L∗, a∗, b∗, C∗, H∗, K/S have also been studied in detail.

  10. Decolorization of dyes and textile wastewater by potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2005-05-01

    Decolorization of 10 types of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was studied. Effects of reaction conditions on the decolorization efficiency were examined in batch experiments. The pH value had a significant effect on the decolorization efficiency. When pH value decolorization efficiency was very high. When pH value >4.0, the dye solutions were almost not decolorized. Concentration of potassium permanganate and temperature also showed significant effects on the decolorization efficiency. The decolorization rate of dye solutions by potassium permanganate was rapid, and most of dye solutions can be decolorized effectively. The results of total organic carbon indicated that dye solutions were degraded incompletely by potassium permanganate. The results of treatment of textile wastewater by potassium permanganate indicated that the oxidation with potassium permanganate might be used as a pre-treatment process before biological treatment.

  11. Dye removal using some surface modified silicate minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selim K.A.; Youssef M.A.; Abd El-Rahiem F.H.; Hassan M.S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the efficiency of some surface modified phyllosilicate minerals (bentonite and glauconite) in the removal of dyes from textile waste water. It is found that complete dye removal was achieved by using 10-25 g modified glauconite from solutions having a dye concentration of 10-50 mg/L. Adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Adsorption capacities and optimum adsorption isotherms were predicted by linear regression method. The analysis of experimental isotherms showed that Langmuir isotherm reasonably fit the experimental data in the studied concentration range for the adsorption of dye onto glauconite mineral surface where Freundlich isotherm fit the experimental data for the adsorption of dye onto bentonite mineral surface.

  12. Solar efficiency of a photo catalytic nonwoven: dye removal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, C.; Disdier, J.; Herrmann, J. M.; Monnet, C.; Dussaud, J.; Malato, S.; Blanco, J.

    2003-07-01

    A specially designed titania photo catalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photo catalytic support, with Millennium anatase PC50 and PC500 at different mass coatings. Several types of reactants were treated: formetanate (pesticide), Remazole (azo-dye), Amaranth (azo-dye) and Methylene Blue (model dye). Supported catalysts installed in a new solar photo reactor (STEP) were compared to the well-known CPCs working with slurries (0.5 g/L) of the same catalysts. Efficiency of both photo catalytic system was very similar for formetanate removal but not for dye degradation, for which the CPC was more efficient. Solar UV light adsorption by dyes is proposed as the reason for these results. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Screening of freshwater fungi for decolorizing multiple synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Panpan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Hongkai; Liu, Hongmei

    The biodegradation of synthetic dyes by fungi is emerging as an effective and promising approach. In the present study, freshwater fungal strains isolated from submerged woods were screened for the decolorization of 7 synthetic dyes. Subsequently, 13 isolates with high decolorization capability were assessed in a liquid system; they belonged to 9 different fungal species. Several strains exhibited a highly effective decolorization of multiple types of dyes. New absorbance peaks appeared after the treatment with 3 fungal strains, which suggests that a biotransformation process occurred through fungal biodegradation. These results showed the unexploited and valuable capability of freshwater fungi for the treatment of dye-containing effluents. The ability of certain fungi to decolorize dyes is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic dye decolorization capacity of white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decolorize eight chemically different synthetic dyes (Orange G, Amaranth, Orange I, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Cu-phthalocyanin, Poly R-478, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet) by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens was evaluated on agar plates. The fungus showed high decolorization capacity and was able to decolorize all dyes tested, but not to the same extent. Some of the dyes did not limit the decolorization capacity of the strain tested even at a concentration of 2g/l. The presence of the dyes in solid media reduced the mycelial growth rate of D. squalens; a positive correlation was found between the growth rate and the decolorization ability. Decolorization of Orange G and RBBR was studied also in liquid culture, where both dyes caused an enhancement of ligninolytic enzyme and overall hydrogen peroxide production and a decrease of biomass production. RBBR was removed to a higher extent than Orange G.

  15. Aqueous Processes for Dyeing Generic, Unmodified Polypropylene Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murari L. Gupta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid leuco vat dyeings of polypropylene (PP fabrics in combinations of a trichromatic series of colorants (red, yellow and blue plus an orange were performed in order to determine the compatibility of the component colorants in the developed single stage, batch exhaust dyeing process reported earlier. Cross-section micrographs of dyed fibers revealed the absence of "ring-dyeing". Tensile tests and X-ray crystallinity results confirmed that the developed dyeing process did not significantly alter the tensile strength and modulus of the dyed PP textiles. PP fabrics dyed with simulated, continuous acid vat dyeing processes (pad-steam and pad-dry heat demonstrated good color yields and levelness with adequate fastness to crocking, washing and dry cleaning.

  16. Plant waste materials from restaurants as the adsorbents for dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has demonstrated the valorization of inexpensive and readily available restaurant waste containing most consumed food and beverage residues as adsorbents for methylene blue dye. Coffee, tea, lettuce and citrus waste have been utilized without any pre-treatment, thus the adsorption capacities and dye removal efficiency were determined. Coffee waste showed highest adsorbent capacity, followed by tea, lettuce and citrus waste. The dye removal was more effective as dye concentration increases from 5 up to 60 mg/L. The favorable results obtained for lettuce waste have been especially encouraged, as this material has not been commonly employed for sorption purposes. Equilibrium data fitted very well in a Freundlich isotherm model, whereas pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes the process behavior. Restaurant waste performed rapid dye removal at no cost, so it can be adopted and widely used in industries for contaminated water treatment.

  17. Patterned dye structures limit reabsorption in luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Shufen; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W; Debije, Michael G

    2010-11-08

    This work describes a method for limiting internal losses of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) due to reabsorption through patterning the fluorescent dye doped coating of the LSC. By engineering the dye coating into regular line patterns with fill factors ranging from 20 - 80%, the surface coverage of the dye molecules were reduced, thereby decreasing the probability of the re-emitted light encountering another dye molecule and the probability of reabsorption. Two types of fluorescent dyes with different quantum yields were used to examine the effects of patterning on LSC performance. The effect of various dimension and geometry of the patterns on the efficiency and edge emission of LSC are presented and analyzed.

  18. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric identification of dyes and pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltzberg, L J; Hagar, Amanda; Kridaratikorn, Supicha; Mattson, Anne; Newman, Richard

    2007-11-01

    We have used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to characterize a selection of dyes from the Schweppe dye collection and pigments from the Tate Gallery collection. MALDI-TOF mass spectra of such samples are easily obtained and, through observation of both positive and negative ion spectra, provide a convenient, versatile method for dye characterization and identification. Such pairs of positive and negative ion spectra immediately distinguish between acidic and basic dyes and provide the characteristic mass of either the molecular ion or a simply related fragment ion. This approach is especially useful in situations where very small amounts of analyte are available, as in museum research and forensic analysis. In the case of textile dyes, we have carried out identification on material from single fibers and, with insoluble pigments, have begun to identify components of historically important pastel sticks from submicrogram samples.

  19. Modified Dye for Water-Fast Ink-Jet Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Qingkang(郑庆康); Zhu Puxin(朱谱新); Wu Dacheng(吴大诚); Lewis DM.

    2001-01-01

    A quaternary ammonium compound containing amino acid residue was synthesized by Converting 3-chloro-2-hydroxy- propyalkyldimethylammonium chlorides into its epoxide derivatives, then attaching an amino acid to the epoxide derivatives synthesized a quaternary ammonium compound containing amino acid residue. Modified dyes were prepared by the ionotropy of anionic dyes with the quaternary ammonium compound containing amino acid residue. It was discovered that the modified dyes exhibited an excellent pH controllable solubility. These modified dyes have good water solubility at pH> 8.0, but they were water insoluble at pH < 6.5. On the printing paper, modified dyes in water-based ink-jet print ink could convert to water insoluble form and give prints excellent water fastness.

  20. Kinetic modelling and mechanism of dye adsorption on unburned carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.B.; Li, H.T. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Textile dyeing processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes by producing coloured wastewaters. The adsorption method using unburned carbon from coal combustion residue was studied for the decolourisation of typical acidic and basic dyes. It was discovered that the unburned carbon showed high adsorption capacity at 1.97 x 10{sup -4} and 5.27 x 10{sup -4} mol/g for Basic Violet 3 and Acid Black 1, respectively. The solution pH, particle size and temperature significantly influenced the adsorption capacity. Higher solution pH favoured the adsorption of basic dye while reduced the adsorption of acid dye. The adsorption of dye increased with increasing temperature but decreased with increasing particle size. Sorption kinetic data indicated that the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption mechanism consisted of two processes, external diffusion and intraparticle diffusion, and the external diffusion was the dominating process.

  1. Separation of Organic Dyes from Water by Colloidal Gas Aphrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖怡; 王运东; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    Colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) are micron-sized gas bubbles produced by stirring surfactant solutions at high speed. A single CGA dispersed in water is composed of a gaseous inner core, surrounded by a double water-soapy layer. CGAs have large interfacial area per unit volume and exhibit relatively high stability. These characteristics make CGAs very suitable in flotation systems. This paper studied the flotation of organic dyes from water using CGAs. The experimental results show that the flotation process may follow four mechanisms, i.e., ion coupling of the oppositely charged species of the surfactant forming the CGA and the organic dye, reactions between CGA and the organic dye, ion-dye complex adsorbed on the surface of CGAs, and hydrophilic or hydrophobic characteristics of the organic dyes.

  2. Carbonaceous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Biggs, Mark J; Shapter, Joseph G

    2015-03-01

    High photovoltaic efficiency is one of the most important keys to the commercialization of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in the quickly growing renewable electricity generation market. The heart of the DSSC system is a wide bandgap semiconductor based photoelectrode film that helps to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons away into the electrical circuit. However, charge recombination, poor light harvesting efficiency and slow electron transport of the nanocrystalline oxide photoelectrode film are major issues in the DSSC's performance. Recently, semiconducting composites based on carbonaceous materials (carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene) have been shown to be promising materials for the photoelectrode of DSSCs due to their fascinating properties and low cost. After a brief introduction to development of nanocrystalline oxide based films, this Review outlines advancements that have been achieved in the application of carbonaceous-based materials in the photoelectrode of DSSCs and how these advancements have improved performance. In addition, several of the unsolved issues in this research area are discussed and some important future directions are also highlighted.

  3. Adsorption of azo dyes on polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panić Vesna V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymeric adsorbents for the removal of azo dyes from solution has been reviewed. Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of azo dyes as pollutants from wastewaters of textile, paper, printing, leather, pharmaceutical and other industries has been addressed by the researchers. The wider use of already available adsorbents is restricted due to their high costs which lead to investigation and development of new materials that can be cheaper, eficient and easy regenerated. The aim of this article is to present to the readers the widespread investigations in recent years of synthetic and natural polymers as adsorbents and potential replacement of conventional adsorbents. This review presents only the data obtained using raw, hydrogel, grafted and crosslinked forms of synthetic and nature based polymers, and the discussion is limited to these polymer-based materials and their adsorption properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43009 i br. 172062.

  4. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tattersall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing.

  5. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing. PMID:26933409

  6. Fixed Drug Eruption due to Achiote Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Reddy, Bobby Y

    2016-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a localized type IV sensitivity reaction to a systemically introduced allergen. It usually occurs as a result of new medication, making identification and avoidance of the trigger medication straightforward; however, in a rare subset of cases no pharmacological source is identified. In such cases, the causative agent is often a food or food additive. In this report we describe a case of a FDE in a 12-year-old girl recently immigrated to the United States from Ecuador who had no medication exposure over the course of her illness. Through an exhaustive patient history and literature review, we were able to hypothesize that her presentation was caused by a dietary change of the natural achiote dye used in the preparation of yellow rice to a locally available commercial dye mix containing tartrazine, or Yellow 5, which has previously been implicated in both systemic hypersensitivity reactions and specifically in FDE. This report adds to the small body of available literature on non-pharmacological fixed hypersensitivity eruptions and illustrates an effective approach to the management of such a presentation when history is not immediately revealing.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosensitizer dyes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Leon, C.

    2005-11-18

    Ruthenium(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands are intensely investigated as potential photosensitizers in organic solar cells. Of particular interest is their use in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2}. Functional groups of the dye allow for efficient anchoring on the semiconductor surface and promote the electronic communication between the donor orbital of the dye and the conduction band of the semiconductor. In the present work a new dye, [Ru(dcbpyH{sub 2}){sub 2}(bpy-TPA{sub 2})](PF6{sub )2}, and the well known (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex were spectroscopically characterized. The electronic transitions of both dyes showed solvatochromic shifts due to specific interactions of the ligands with the solvent molecules. The surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of the dyes dissolved in water, ethanol, and acetonitrile were measured in silver and gold colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate that the dyes were adsorbed on the metallic nanoparticles in different ways for different solvents. It was also found that in the gold colloid, the aqueous solutions of both dyes did not produce any SERS signal, whereas in ethanolic solution the SERS effect was very weak. Deprotonation, H-bonding, and donor-acceptor interactions seem to determine these different behaviors. Our results indicate the important role of the charge transfer mechanism in SERS. The adsorption of the dye on two different TiO{sub 2} substrates, anatase paste films and anatase nanopowder, was also studied to clarify the role of the carboxylate groups in the anchoring process of the dyes on the semiconductor surface. The recorded spectra indicate a strong dependence of the anchoring configuration on the morphology of the semiconductor. (orig.)

  8. Elution of labile fluorescent dye from nanoparticles during biological use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tenuta

    Full Text Available Cells act as extremely efficient filters for elution of unbound fluorescent tags or impurities associated with nanoparticles, including those that cannot be removed by extensive cleaning. This has consequences for quantification of nanoparticle uptake and sub-cellular localization in vitro and in vivo as a result of the presence of significant amount of labile dye even following extensive cleaning by dialysis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE can be used to monitor the elution of unbound fluorescent probes from nanoparticles, either commercially available or synthesized in-house, and to ensure their complete purification for biological studies, including cellular uptake and sub-cellular localisation. Very different fluorescence distribution within cells is observed after short dialysis times versus following extensive dialysis against a solvent in which the free dye is more soluble, due to the contribution from free dye. In the absence of an understanding of the presence of residual free dye in (most labeled nanoparticle solutions, the total fluorescence intensity in cells following exposure to nanoparticle solutions could be mis-ascribed to the presence of nanoparticles through the cell, rather than correctly assigned to either a combination of free-dye and nanoparticle-bound dye, or even entirely to free dye depending on the exposure conditions (i.e. aggregation of the particles etc. Where all of the dye is nanoparticle-bound, the particles are highly localized in sub-cellular organelles, likely lysosomes, whereas in a system containing significant amounts of free dye, the fluorescence is distributed through the cell due to the free diffusion of the molecule dye across all cellular barriers and into the cytoplasm.

  9. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. (Univ. of Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  10. Phytoremediation of textile effluent and mixture of structurally different dyes by Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Akhil N; Khandare, Rahul V; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-04-01

    Plants of Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc. performed decolorization of structurally different dyes to varying extent because of induction of different set of enzymes in response to specific dyes. Differential pattern of enzyme induction with respect to time was obtained for lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase during the decolorization of dye mixture, whose combined action resulted in greater and faster decolorization of dyes. HPLC, FTIR and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis confirmed degradation of dyes from textile effluent and mixture. HPTLC demonstrated progressive decolorization of dye mixture along with preferential degradation of the dyes. G. pulchella showed reduction in American Dye Manufacturer's Institute from 405 to 21 and 418 to 22, in case of textile effluent and mixture of dyes respectively. The non-toxic nature of the metabolites of degraded textile dye effluent and mixture of dyes was revealed by phytotoxicity studies.

  11. Study of the conditions affecting dye adsorption on titania films and of their effect on dye photodegradation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strataki, Nikoleta; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2007-07-31

    Nanocrystalline titania films have been deposited on glass slides by the sol-gel technique in the presence of surfactant, which plays the role of template of the nanostructure. Several different dyes, both anionic and cationic, have been adsorbed on these films from aqueous solutions. Some of these dyes were adsorbed at large quantities some at lower quantities. Some of them were adsorbed in monomeric form and others formed aggregates. Aggregates are easily distinguished by absorption spectrophotometry, since absorption of light is observed at a different wavelength than monomer absorption in a dilute solution. In all cases, aggregation demonstrated a hypsochromic shift, indicating repulsive interactions, which are justified in view of the fact that titania surface is charged and that adsorbed molecules are aligned in parallel. The above titania films are hydroxylated. Therefore, cationic dyes were readily adsorbed. Anionic dyes could be adsorbed only from aqueous solutions brought at low pH. Photodegradation rates of adsorbed dyes were generally fast since these films are efficient photocatalysts. Nevertheless, photodegradation of an adsorbed dye was faster when the quantity of the dye was smaller. When the adsorbed dyes formed aggregates, aggregation had adverse effect on photodegradation rates.

  12. Triphenylamine-based organic dyes with julolidine as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guohua; Kong, Fantai; Li, Jingzhe; Fang, Xiaqin; Li, Yi; Dai, Songyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Xianxi

    2013-12-01

    Two novel donor-donor-π-conjugated-acceptor (D-D-π-A) metal-free organic dyes (JTPA1 and JTPA2) with a julolidine moiety as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are synthesized. Their absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are extensively investigated and compared with TPA2 dye. Transient absorption measurements show that both sensitizers are quickly regenerated and the dye cations are efficiently intercepted by the redox mediator. Both dyes show good performance as DSSC photosensitizers. In particular, a DSSC using JTPA2 with rhodanine-3-acetic acid shows better photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 9.30 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 509 mV and a fill factor (FF) of 0.68, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.2% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2). Under similar test conditions, ruthenium-based N719 dye gives an efficiency of 6.7%. Compared to TPA2, the dye regeneration rate, the short-circuit photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency of JTPA2 are doubled by introducing a julolidine unit. Our findings show that the julolidine unit may be an excellent electron donor system for organic dyes harvesting solar irradiation.

  13. Nickel-Based Dye-Sensitized Photocathode: Towards Proton Reduction Using a Molecular Nickel Catalyst and an Organic Dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, B.; Rombouts, J.A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Reek, J.N.H.; Detz, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    To construct an efficient dye-sensitized photo-electrochemical tandem cell for hydrogen production, it is crucial to understand the working principles of both the photoanode and the photocathode. Herein, the anchoring of a proton-reduction catalyst and an organic dye molecule on metal oxides is stud

  14. Investigation of the dye concentration influence on the lasing wavelength and threshold for a micro-fluidic dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kragh, Søren; Kjeldsen, B.G.;

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a micro-fluidic dye laser, which can be integrated with polymer-based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the lasing threshold. The laser device is characterised using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in e...

  15. Fast and efficient removal of alizarin yellow dye (Azo dye from water and wastewater samples using modified nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Elhami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient method has been developed for removal of Alizarin Yellow dye using modified nanoclay. Montmorillonite (MMT was modified by a facile and one-step procedure with diethylenetriamine (DETA and was used as an adsorbent. The effects of pH value of the dye solution, adsorbent dose, adsorption time and the initial dye concentration on the Alizarin Yellow adsorption onto the composite were investigated.  The DETA-MMT had a high uptake capacity in room temperature and could remove Alizarin Yellow dye of about 85 % with 6 g/L of adsorbent, in only 2 min. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed for the study of the adsorption of Alizarin Yellow dye onto DETA-MMT. The method was applied to the removal of Alizarin Yellow in different tap water, river water and industrial wastewater samples.

  16. One-Pot Synthesis of Disperse Dyes Under Microwave Irradiation: Dyebath Reuse in Dyeing of Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda M. Mahmoud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4-hydroxyphenylazopyrazolopyrimidine disperse dyes were prepared via one-pot reactions of p-hydroxyphenylhydrazone, hydrazine hydrate, and acetylacetone or enaminones using microwave irradiation as an energy source. Structural assignments of the dyes were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic structure determination. Instead of discharging the dyebath after each dyeing cycle, the residual dyebath was spectrophotometrically analyzed and then pH readjusted for a repeat dyeing with longer time. Fastness of the dyed samples was measured after each recycle. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed good light fastness and excellent fastness to washing and perspiration. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  17. One-pot synthesis of disperse dyes under microwave irradiation: dyebath reuse in dyeing of polyester fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; El-Apasery, Morsy A; Mahmoud, Huda M; Al-Awadi, Nouria A

    2012-04-10

    A series of 4-hydroxyphenylazopyrazolopyrimidine disperse dyes were prepared via one-pot reactions of p-hydroxyphenylhydrazone, hydrazine hydrate, and acetylacetone or enaminones using microwave irradiation as an energy source. Structural assignments of the dyes were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic structure determination. Instead of discharging the dyebath after each dyeing cycle, the residual dyebath was spectrophotometrically analyzed and then pH readjusted for a repeat dyeing with longer time. Fastness of the dyed samples was measured after each recycle. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed good light fastness and excellent fastness to washing and perspiration. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  18. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-05

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy.

  19. Metal-free organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: from structure: property relationships to design rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amaresh; Fischer, Markus K R; Bäuerle, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as they offer the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. This Review focuses on recent advances in molecular design and technological aspects of metal-free organic dyes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special attention has been paid to the design principles of these dyes and on the effect of various electrolyte systems. Cosensitization, an emerging technique to extend the absorption range, is also discussed as a way to improve the performance of the device. In addition, we report on inverted dyes for photocathodes, which constitutes a relatively new approach for the production of tandem cells. Special consideration has been paid to the correlation between the molecular structure and physical properties to their performance in DSSCs.

  20. The extraction and absorption study of natural dye from Areca catechu for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Asmaa Soheil; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Ludin, Norasikin A.

    2017-05-01

    Natural dye from local plant has a potential to replace the synthetic dye due to the lower environmental impact and simple processing method. This study focus on the properties of natural dye (Betalain) from Areca catechu, extracted using different solvents, namely hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, and methanol. Different extracting solvent were used to observe the absorption spectra by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) were used to characterize the dye's active components at (4000 - 650) cm-1. From the FTIR result, the CO=OH which corresponds to the carboxylic group in betalain dye is observed. Hexane was appeared to be the best solvents according to the highest absorbance obtained from betalain. The optimum pH and temperature for extraction were also identified at pH 4.5 and 65 °C. At these conditions, the absorbance was the highest.

  1. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Khatri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used. The new dye-bath formulation using the organic salt gave more than 90% dye-fixation. Traditional pad-steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes requires the use of inorganic electrolyte, sodium-chloride, and alkali, sodium-carbonate, to ensure effective dye consumption and fixation. These inorganic chemicals when drained generate heavy contents of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent leading to environmental pollution. Thus, Tetrasodium N, N-biscarboxylatomethyl-L-Glutamate was used in place of inorganic electrolyte and alkali to improve effluent quality. A significant increase in dye-fixation and ultimate color-yield was obtained with same colorfastness properties of the dyed fabric comparing to the traditional pad-steam dye-bath formulation.

  2. DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE INITIATED BY COUMARIN DYE/IODONIUM SALT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gao; Yong-yuan Yang

    1999-01-01

    The photosensitive initiating system composed of 7-diethylamino-3-(2'-benzimidazolyl)coumarin dye (DEDC) and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DIHP) which act as the sensitizer and the initiator respectively, can be used to initiate the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The results showed that when exposed to visible light, coumarin dye/iodonium salt undergoes quick electron transfer from DEDC to DIHP and free radicals are produced. The visible light photoinduced reaction between DEDC and DIHP is mainly through the excited singlet state of DEDC and thus it is a little sensitive to O2. The influence of concentration of DEDC, DIHP and MMA on the rate of photopolymerization of MMA was also investigated.

  3. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita

    2008-11-26

    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  4. Synthesis of dye linked conducting block copolymers, dye linked conducting homopolymers and preliminary application to photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Hagemann, O.; Jørgensen, M.

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic approach to the synthesis of a large super molecule composed of two chemically different conducting polymer blocks with, respectively, high and low lying electronic energy levels linked through a porphyrin dye molecule is presented. The synthetic strategies to these molecular...... architectures are discussed. Finally the molecular systems are applied to make photovoltaic devices and the rather low efficiency is discussed in terms of the synthetic approach. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Using Dyes for Evaluating Photocatalytic Properties: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malka Rochkind

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This brief review aims at analyzing the use of dyestuffs for evaluating the photocatalytic properties of novel photocatalysts. It is shown that the use of dyes as predictors for photocatalytic activity has its roots in the pre visible-light activity era, when the aim was to treat effluents streams containing hazardous dyes. The main conclusion of this review is that, in general, dyes are inappropriate as model compounds for the evaluation of photocatalytic activity of novel photocatalysts claimed to operate under visible light. Their main advantage, the ability to use UV-Vis spectroscopy, is severely limited by a variety of factors, most of which are related to the presence of other species. The presence of a second mechanism, sensitization, diminishes the generality required from a model contaminant used for testing a novel photocatalyst. While it is recommended not to use dyes for general testing of novel photocatalysts, it is still understandable that a model system consisting of a dye and a semiconductor can be of large importance if the degradation of a specific dye is the main aim of the research, or, alternatively, if the abilities of a specific dye to induce the degradation of a different type of contaminant are under study.

  6. Microbial fuel cell with an azo-dye-feeding cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Geochemistry; Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdon Key Lab. of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control; Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Fang-bai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangdon Key Lab. of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control; Feng, Chun-hua [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Li, Xiang-zhong [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering

    2009-11-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed using azo dyes as the cathode oxidants to accept the electrons produced from the respiration of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain L17 in the anode. Experimental results showed that a methyl orange (MO)-feeding MFC produced a comparable performance against that of an air-based one at pH 3.0 and that azo dyes including MO, Orange I, and Orange II could be successfully degraded in such cathodes. The reaction rate constant ({kappa}) of azo dye reduction was positively correlated with the power output which was highly dependent on the catholyte pH and the dye molecular structure. When pH was varied from 3.0 to 9.0, the k value in relation to MO degradation decreased from 0.298 to 0.016 {mu}mol min{sup -1}, and the maximum power density decreased from 34.77 to 1.51 mW m{sup -2}. The performances of the MFC fed with different azo dyes can be ranked from good to poor as MO > Orange I > Orange II. Furthermore, the cyclic voltammograms of azo dyes disclosed that the pH and the dye structure determined their redox potentials. A higher redox potential corresponded to a higher reaction rate. (orig.)

  7. Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cervantes, Francisco J. [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa de San José 2055, San Luis Potosí 78216 (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán, E-mail: gbuitronm@ii.unam.mx [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Processes for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Azo dyes were reduced efficiently by chemical and biogenic sulfide. ► Biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide. ► There was no competition between dyes and sulfate for reducing equivalents. ► Aromatic amines barely affected the sulfate-reducing process. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection.

  8. Experimental Researches Regarding the Ecological Dyeing with Natural Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Ramona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘environmental awareness’ has recently had a major impact on the textile industry and on the fashion world as well. In this context, the use of natural fibres and the development of natural dyeing processes gradually became important goals of the textile industry. Of all natural textile fibres, hemp is considered to be one of the strongest and most durable. A wide range of natural extracts have been used for natural textile coloration and dyeing. Dyes deriving from natural sources have emerged as an important alternative to synthetic dyes. Ecofriendly, nontoxic, sustainable and renewable natural dyes and pigments have been used for colouring the food substrate, leather, wood, natural fibres and fabrics from the dawn of human history. The purpose of the research is to obtain ecologically coloured fabrics for textiles by using a method of dyeing that relies on natural ingredients extracted from red beet, onion leaves and black tea. The experiments are conducted on three different types of hemp fabrics. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the dyeing process of hemp fabrics with natural extracts, the colours of the dyed samples inspected with reflectance spectra and the CIE L*a*b* colour space measurements.

  9. BIODEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY Anabaena flos-aqual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigida Pimentel Villar de Queiroz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The pollution caused by dumping of toxic waste into the environment has resulted in impairment of essential natural resources such as water. With population growth and industries, the generation of waste increases substantially. Specifically, about 3,000 were commercial dyes to be carcinogenic and have no longer been manufactured, but in third world countries such as Brazil, some of these dyes high commercial value, are still in use. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of biodegradation of dyes technical Drim CL 2 R Yellow and Blue Drim CL R. We tested the ability of degradation of these dyes by the cyanobacteria blue-green algae Anabaena flos-aqual. For this, their effectiveness in the degradation was evaluated in terms of discoloration spectrophotometrically. The blue dye was greater than R Drim CL degradation rate compared to the yellow dye Drim CL 2R. The species Anabaena flos-aqual achieved high degradation efficiency compared to blue dye, revealing a high potential applicability in processes of textile biodegradations in the county of Americana.

  10. Indigo Dye Derived from Indigofera Tinctoria as Natural Food Colorant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Wardani, D. K.; Aini, F. N.; Sari, P. L.; Tamtama, B. P. N.; Kristiawan, Y. R.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the uses of dyes are increasingly widespread especially in foods and beverages as food colors to attract the consumers. The dye that currently attracts is indigo. Indigo is a group of carbonyl compounds, one of the oldest known dyes in terms of natural blue dye derived from the Indigofera tinctoria plant. The use of indigo as a natural food dye intended to reduce the use of synthetic dyes are carcinogenic impact. The method used in this study includes the analysis of indigo using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and FTIR analysis. Based on the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer analysis results with the various concentrations of 0.002 mg/mL; 0.004 mg/mL; 0.006 mg/mL and 0.008 mg/mL were obtained maximum absorption peak at wavelength of 550-700 nm. The indigo dyes in various concentrations produce a stable pH at an average pH 9, therefore it can make the colors not easily fade (strong staining). Based on infrared spectrophotometer measurement were obtained absorption spectrum at 3100-3500 cm-1 as primary N-H and secondary amine, 1600 cm-1 as aromatic C=C, 1000-1350 cm-1 as aromatic C-N, 690-900 cm-1 as aromatic C-H.

  11. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment.

  12. Key factors regarding decolorization of synthetic anthraquinone and azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyakamol, A; Imai, T; Chairattanamanokorn, P; Higuchi, T; Sekine, M

    2009-07-01

    The factors affecting decolorization of anthraquinone dye represented by Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and azo dye represented by Methyl Orange (MO) were studied in batch experiments under mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic conditions. The results indicated differences in decolorization properties of the dyes with different chromophore structures. In abiotic conditions, MO could be decolorized by a physicochemical reaction when it was sterilized at 121 degrees C together with sludge cells or glucose. RB4 only showed absorption onto the cell mass. The presence of a redox mediator accelerated the decolorizing reaction when supplied together with glucose in the presence of sterilized sludge cells. In biotic conditions, the results indicated that the biological activity of microorganisms was an important factor in decolorization. The main factor involved in decolorization was the conversion of cosubstrate as electron donor, which reacted with dye as an electron acceptor in electron transfer. Redox mediators, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid, and anthraquinone could accelerate decolorization even if a small amount (0.2 mM) was applied. On the other hand, a high concentration of redox mediator (1.0 mM) had an inhibitory effect on decolorization especially under thermophilic conditions. In addition, the decolorization of dye was accelerated by increasing treatment temperature, as shown in biotic treatments. Based on these results, increasing the treatment temperature could be used to improve the decolorizing process of textile dye wastewater treatment, especially for recalcitrant dyes such as anthraquinone.

  13. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  14. Making cancer visible--Dyes in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kiryu K; Neuhaus, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    Dyes share an intricate relationship with oncology. Dyes can cause cancer as chemical carcinogens, but can also be harnessed against cancer when used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Histopathology, imaging, and newer molecular diagnostics all rely on dyes, and their use in sentinel lymph node biopsies and intra-operative imaging has helped drive a paradigm shift in cancer surgery towards minimally-invasive and organ sparing approaches with enhanced resection accuracy. As therapeutic agents, the cytotoxicity of specific dyes can be employed in direct chemo-ablation or in photodynamic therapy. The same agent can have dual functionalities in cancer detection and treatment, in a novel field known as theranostics. This is facilitated by newer generation dyes conjugated with tumour-targeting probes such as antibodies, and these bio-conjugate agents can also incorporate nanotechnology or radio-isotopes. Further advances will be closely aligned with our increasing understanding of molecular oncology, and will form a new generation of cancer detection and treatment agents that promote precision medicine for cancer. Dyes and their roles have evolved and been reinvented, but they remain relevant as ever. This review explores the fascinating history of dyes, and their place in the state-of-the-art of oncology.

  15. Detoxification of azo dyes by bacterial oxidoreductase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shahid; Khalid, Azeem; Arshad, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Crowley, David E

    2016-08-01

    Azo dyes and their intermediate degradation products are common contaminants of soil and groundwater in developing countries where textile and leather dye products are produced. The toxicity of azo dyes is primarily associated with their molecular structure, substitution groups and reactivity. To avoid contamination of natural resources and to minimize risk to human health, this wastewater requires treatment in an environmentally safe manner. This manuscript critically reviews biological treatment systems and the role of bacterial reductive and oxidative enzymes/processes in the bioremediation of dye-polluted wastewaters. Many studies have shown that a variety of culturable bacteria have efficient enzymatic systems that can carry out complete mineralization of dye chemicals and their metabolites (aromatic compounds) over a wide range of environmental conditions. Complete mineralization of azo dyes generally involves a two-step process requiring initial anaerobic treatment for decolorization, followed by an oxidative process that results in degradation of the toxic intermediates that are formed during the first step. Molecular studies have revealed that the first reductive process can be carried out by two classes of enzymes involving flavin-dependent and flavin-free azoreductases under anaerobic or low oxygen conditions. The second step that is carried out by oxidative enzymes that primarily involves broad specificity peroxidases, laccases and tyrosinases. This review focuses, in particular, on the characterization of these enzymes with respect to their enzyme kinetics and the environmental conditions that are necessary for bioreactor systems to treat azo dyes contained in wastewater.

  16. Photostability enhancement of anionic natural dye by intercalation into hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Yoshiumi; Totsuka, Koichi; Ikoma, Shuji; Yoda, Keiko; Shibata, Masashi; Matsushima, Ryoka; Tomita, Yasumasa; Maeda, Yasuhisa; Kobayashi, Kenkichiro

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is the improvement of the photostability of several natural anionic dyes, carmine (CM), carthamus yellow (CY), and annatto dye (ANA), by complexation with hydrotalcite. The composite of the dyes and hydrotalcite is prepared by the coprecipitation method. CM is successfully intercalated in the hydrotalcite layer when the amount of introduced CM is large. The photostability of CM in CM/HT composites is superior to the CM adsorbed on silica surface. The effect of the stability enhancement is larger when the amount of introduced CM exceeds 0.23 g/g-host, or when the layer charge density of the hydrotalcite is larger. CY is also stabilized by complexation with hydrotalcite, whereas ANA is not stabilized by complexation with hydrotalcite. The photostability of an anionic natural dye can be improved by intercalation into the hydrotalcite layer, if the dye has a hydrophilic nature and a rather planar structure. The intercalated dye is stabilized by the protection from the attack of the atmospheric oxygen. In addition, contribution of the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged hydrotalcite layer and the intercalated anionic dye is also proposed.

  17. The removal of textile dyes by diatomite earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emin; Cölgeçen, Gülay; Donat, Ramazan

    2005-02-15

    The adsorption of some textile dyes by diatomite was investigated using Sif Blau BRF (SB), Everzol Brill Red 3BS (EBR), and Int Yellow 5GF (IY). Adsorption of these textile dyes onto diatomite earth samples was studied by batch adsorption techniques at 30 degrees C. The adsorption behavior of textile dyes on diatomite samples was investigated using a UV-vis spectrophotometric technique. The effect of particle size of diatomite, diatomite concentration, the effect of initial dye concentrations, and shaking time on adsorption was investigated. Adsorption coverage over the surface of diatomite was studied using two well-known isotherm models: Langmuir's and Freundlich's. These results suggest that the dye uptake process mediated by diatomite has a potential for large-scale treatment of textile mill discharges. According to the equilibrium studies, the selectivity sequence can be given as IY > SB > EBR. Values of the removal efficiency of the dyes ranged from 28.60 to 99.23%. These results show that natural diatomite holds great potential to remove textile dyes from wastewater.

  18. Antibacterial Dyeing of Wool with Natural Cationic Dye Using Metal Mordants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminoddin HAJI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Berberine colorant extracted from berberis vulgaris root was applied on wool fiber using alum (aluminum potassium sulfate, copper sulfate and potassium dichromate as mordant. The effect of treatment variables such as amount of mordant, time and temperature on the color strength of dyed fibers was examined. The fastness properties of dyed wool against washing, light and wet rubbing were evaluated. the use of metal mordants increased the color strength of the dyed goods. Increase in dyeing time and temperature caused deeper shades. All mordants, increased the rub fastness and wash fastness of dyed samples, but the light fastness was increased except in case of alum. Berberine is a cationic dye and because of it's quaternary ammonium structure can act as an antibacterial agent. So, dyed samples were tested for antibacterial activity using AATCC test method 100-2004. The dyed wool represented a high level of antibacterial activity. The extract of the berberis vulgaris can be considered as a natural dye of acceptable fastness properties together with excellent antibacterial activity for woolen textiles.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2437

  19. Coumarin Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells - A Long-Range-Corrected Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Bryan M; 10.1063/1.3025924

    2010-01-01

    The excited-state properties in a series of coumarin solar cell dyes are investigated with a long-range-corrected (LC) functional which asymptotically incorporates Hartree-Fock exchange. Using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), we calculate excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole moments in each of the dyes as a function of the range-separation paramenter, mu. To investigate the acceptable range of mu and assess the quality of the LC-TDDFT formalism, an extensive comparison is made between LC-BLYP excitation energies and approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles (CC2) calculations. When using a properly-optimized value of mu, we find that the LC technique provides a consistent picture of charge-transfer excitations as a function of molecular size. In contrast, we find that the widely-used B3LYP hybrid functional severely overestimates excited-state dipole moments and underestimates vertical excitations energies, especially for larger dye molecules. The results ...

  20. Molecular Design of TPD-based Organic Dyes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xing-bo

    2013-01-01

    An interesitng class of organic A-π-D-π-A dyes based on an N,N,N',N'-tetraphenylbenzidine(TPD) unit as donor was designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSCs).TPD-4-based DSSCs gave a short circuit photocurrent density(Jsc) of 16.67 mA/cm2,a open circuit voltage(Voc) of 0.635 V and a fill factor(ff) of 0.68,achieving a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency(η) of 7.22% in preliminary tests.The N3-sensitized device gave an η value of 8.02% with a Jsc of 18.81 mA/cm2,a Voc of 0.630 V and an ffof 0.68 under the same conditions.The incident photo-to-current efficiency(IPCE) values above 70% observed in a range of 460 to 600 nm with a maximum value of 80% at 500 nm indicate that the TPD-4-based DSSC shows a high performance.Under the same conditions,the DSSC based on N3 provided the IPCE values above 70% in a range of 490 to 580 nm with a maximum value of 76% at 500 nm.Both further optimization of the device processing and structural modification of these dyes are anticipated to make the device give even better performances.

  1. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes applied in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes, i.e., MgOCPc, MnOCPc, FeOCPc and ZnOCPc with different central metal ions were designed and synthesized by microwave irradiation. The effects of the introduction of different metal ions with variant 3d orbitals (3d0, 3d5, 3d6, and 3d10, respectively in the centre of the phthalocyanine rings on the thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanines were characterized and evaluated in details. The results showed that ZnOCPc and MgOCPc with closed-shell metal ions and FeOCPc with an open-shell metal ion had excellent thermal property. However, MnOCPc with a half-full-shell metal ion had a lowest decomposition temperature and largest Q band red shifts. By theoretical calculation, the energy gaps of MgOCPc, MnOCPc, FeOCPc and ZnOCPc were 0.11, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.22V, respectively. Applied in TiO2 nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC, the photovoltaic properties of the four dyes were obtained under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2.

  2. Study of Novel Oligomeric Azo Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel J. R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diazotization of p-anisidine and coupling with 3-amino-phenol-Formaldehyde (APF resin give oligomaric azo dye TAPF, based on 3-amino-phenol-Formaldehyde (APF polymer. The TAPF was then treated with 5-chloro methyl-8-quinolinol hydrochloride in the presence of a THF in alkaline medium (pH 9-10 at room temperature for 7 hrs. The resultant oligomaric ligand designated as azo polyphenol-formaldehyde-5-chloromethyl-8-quinolinol (AAPFQ was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral studies, and thermogravimetry. The polymeric metal chelates of AAPFQ with Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Fe3+ and Co2+ metal ions were prepared and characterised by metal:ligand ratio, IR and reflectance studies, magnetic properties and thermogravimetry. The AAPFQ sample was also screened for its chelating and ion-exchanging properties. Batch equilibration method has been adopted for evolution of ion-exchange properties.

  3. AZO dye-doped photorefractive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, B.; Meerholz, K.; Sandalphon; Peyghambarian, N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center; Kippelen, B. [Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique, Strasbourg (France)

    1994-12-31

    The authors report the studies of the photorefractive properties of the two polymer composites based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK). The polymers were obtained by doping PVK with 2,4,7 trinitro-9-fluorenone as a sensitizer agent and two different azo dyes as nonlinear chromophores. Best results were obtained for the polymer doped with 2,5-dimethyl-4-p-nitrophenylazoanisole, which showed a maximum diffraction efficiency of 34% at 40 V/{micro}m external electric field strength in 105 {micro}m thick samples. The influence of different geometries of the hologram writing-retrieval on the diffraction efficiency is described. Net amplification of one of the writing beams in two-beam coupling within the material has been observed. Recording of the holograms of 2-dimensional objects in real time has been demonstrated with good resolution and image brightness. All the results were obtained with a low power visible laser diode emitting at 675 nm.

  4. Eco- and genotoxicological assessments of two reactive textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues de; Meireles, Gabriela; Brito, Lara Barroso; Rodrigues, Laís de Brito; Palma de Oliveira, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of natural waters has been one of the major problems of modern society and the textile industry is rated as an important polluting source, due to the generation of large amounts of wastewaters. The aim of this study was to assess textile dyes Reactive Blue 19 (RB19, anthraquinone dye) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120, azo dye) in terms of the potential to induce adverse effects on aquatic organisms and humans. Thus, these dyes were tested using the following assays: Microtox assay (Vibrio fischeri); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); Daphnia similis; and Comet with normal human dermal fibroblasts as well as Ames test (TA98, TA100, YG1041, YG1042--with and without S9). RB19 was relatively nontoxic to all aquatic bioindicators analyzed with an EC50 of more than 100 mg/L, whereas RR120 was only moderately toxic to A. salina with a EC50-48h of 81.89 mg/L. Mutagenicity through base pair substitution was observed with RB19 in the presence of S9 (Ames-positive). The comet assay did not demonstrate any apparent genotoxic effects for any tested dye. Although mutagenicity was detected with RB19, the mutagenic effect observed may be considered weak compared to the ability to induce DNA damage by other classes of dyes such as disperse dyes. Therefore, these dyes may be classified as nonmutagens (RR120) or weak mutagens (RB19) and relatively nontoxic for aquatic organisms. However, it is noteworthy that the weak acute toxicity to A. salina induced by RR120 is sufficient to suggest potential damage to the aquatic ecosystem and emphasizes the need for biomonitoring dye levels in wastewater systems.

  5. A review of NIR dyes in cancer targeting and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shenglin; Zhang, Erlong; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Shi, Chunmeng

    2011-10-01

    The development of multifunctional agents for simultaneous tumor targeting and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is expected to have significant impact on future personalized oncology owing to the very low tissue autofluorescence and high tissue penetration depth in the NIR spectrum window. Cancer NIR molecular imaging relies greatly on the development of stable, highly specific and sensitive molecular probes. Organic dyes have shown promising clinical implications as non-targeting agents for optical imaging in which indocyanine green has long been implemented in clinical use. Recently, significant progress has been made on the development of unique NIR dyes with tumor targeting properties. Current ongoing design strategies have overcome some of the limitations of conventional NIR organic dyes, such as poor hydrophilicity and photostability, low quantum yield, insufficient stability in biological system, low detection sensitivity, etc. This potential is further realized with the use of these NIR dyes or NIR dye-encapsulated nanoparticles by conjugation with tumor specific ligands (such as small molecules, peptides, proteins and antibodies) for tumor targeted imaging. Very recently, natively multifunctional NIR dyes that can preferentially accumulate in tumor cells without the need of chemical conjugation to tumor targeting ligands have been developed and these dyes have shown unique optical and pharmaceutical properties for biomedical imaging with superior signal-to-background contrast index. The main focus of this article is to provide a concise overview of newly developed NIR dyes and their potential applications in cancer targeting and imaging. The development of future multifunctional agents by combining targeting, imaging and even therapeutic routes will also be discussed. We believe these newly developed multifunctional NIR dyes will broaden current concept of tumor targeted imaging and hold promise to make an important contribution to the diagnosis

  6. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TEXTILE DYES: A BIOREMEDIAL ASPECT OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Shertate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Large number of textile industries are located on the coastal areas due to ease of transport to the various places in world and help in building nations economy, but on the contrary the effluents released from these industries are proving a great problem for the marine life. Therefore, industrial effluents containing dyes must be treated before their safe discharge into the environment. There are various physiochemical methods are conventionally used. These methods are effective but quite expensive leading to the production of solid sludge. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dye-contaminated textile wastewaters. Most of the Scientists used chemical coagulation, Flocculation and Precipitation techniques for the removal of dye colors from waste waters. But this method is not cost beneficial as it generates huge amount of Sludge and to dispose the sludge is major problem. The physical methods are also not cost effective. So only biological treatment using acclimatized microorganisms could remove 99-100% dye colour from wastewater. Hence now a day most of the workers concentrated on biotransformation of textile azo dyes by adapted organisms. The use of co substrates also slightly increased the decolorization of dye solution. Some scientists showed that the products of dye degradation are not toxic to biological system. Products formed can be determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS technique, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR etc.

  7. Sonochemical degradation of martius yellow dye in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Ritu; Grieser, Franz; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2009-01-01

    The sonolytic degradation of the textile dye martius yellow, also known as either naphthol yellow or acid orange 24, was studied at various initial concentrations in water. The degradation of the dye followed first-order kinetics under the conditions examined. Based on gas chromatographic results and sonoluminescence measurements of sonicated aqueous solutions of the dye, it is concluded that pyrolysis does not play a significant role in its degradation. The chromatographic identification of hydroxy added species indicates that an OH radical induced reaction is the main degradation pathway of the dye. Considering the non-volatility and surface activity of the dye, the degradation of the dye most probably takes place at the bubble/solution interface. The quantitative and qualitative formation of the degradation intermediates and final products were monitored using HPLC and ESMS. The analytical results suggest that the sonolytic degradation of the dye proceeds via hydroxylation of the aryl ring and also by C-N bond cleavage of the chromophoric ring, either through OH radical attack or through another unidentified process. The identification of various intermediates and end products also imply that the degradation of martius yellow proceeds through multiple reaction pathways. Total organic carbon (TOC) analyses of the dye solutions at various times following sonication revealed that sonolysis was effective in the initial degradation of the parent dye but very slow in achieving mineralization. The slow rate of mineralization is likely to be due to the inability of many of the intermediate products such as, the carboxylic acids, to accumulate at the bubble (air/water) interface and undergo decomposition due to their high water solubility (low surface activity).

  8. Research on the Dyeing Properties of Silk-like Knitted Fabric of Ultrafine Polyester Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rui-chao; DING Yan-rui; WANG Hong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, dyeing processes of silk-like fabric of ultrafine polyester fiber are studied through orthogonal experiment, dyeing properties (K/S value, L* value, and C* value) of the fabric are tested under different dyeing conditions (pH value, time, and bath ratio), and optimum dyeing conditions are arrived at through analysis.

  9. Computational design of molecules for dye sensitized solar cells and nano electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël

    . This is illustrated in this thesis, where a high-throughput Density Functional Theory study of a total of 5145 porphyrin based dye molecules is presented. Initially, the structures of the dyes are optimized and the frontier energy orbital energies calculated. Following this, the dyes are scored for use in a dye...

  10. Protection from the nephrotoxicity of contrast dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, B M; Hoch, B S; Hernandez, C; Namboodiri, N; Neiderman, G; Nissenbaum, A; Foti, F P; Magno, A; Banayat, G; Fata, F; Manohar, N L; Lipner, H I

    1996-07-01

    Previous studies have reported a 4%-50% incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) following the use of radiocontrast media in patients with preexisting chronic renal insufficiency. In these studies, ARF was defined as a rise of the serum creatinine of at least 1 mg/dl above baseline. Using the same criteria, we studied 214 patients undergoing various intravascular radiocontrast media procedures. Patients were infused with a specially prepared cocktail solution (NSMF) containing 1000 ml half-normal saline, 12.5 g of mannitol (M), I ampule NaHCO3, and 200 mg of furosemide (F) at 100 ml/h from one hour prior to two hours after the procedure. Urinary output was replaced with normal saline for at least 6 h after the procedure. Seven percent of the patients developed acute renal insufficiency. Only 3% of the patients had a rise in serum creatinine greater than 2 mg/dl. No patient required dialysis therapy after the procedure. There was one unrelated death caused by acute myocardial infarction postangioplasty. Risk factors for development of ARF despite cocktail administration included the presence of diabetes mellitus and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy. We concluded that the properly administered NSMF solution protects against radiocontrast dye induced renal failure. In select patients with chronic renal insufficiency, consideration should be given to withholding ACE inhibitor therapy for 24-48 h prior to administration of intravenous radiocontrast dye. A large controlled trial will be required to establish whether the NSMF solution offers benefit beyond that of saline hydration alone.

  11. Dye laser as a six-level system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczynski, A.; Kossakowski, A.; Marszalek, T.

    1977-01-01

    Stationary solutions of kinetic equations of dye lasers based on a six-level model of dye molecule were analyzed. Such a model is the simplest one to account for the participation of triplet states in generating a laser. The course of triplet losses versus pumping parameter can undergo a jump at threshold which leads to the jump of photon number in the cavity. The improvement of the laser performance of dye lasers by means of an additional triplet-triplet pumping is proposed.

  12. PVA with nopal dye as holographic recording material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Pinto-Iguanero, B.

    2011-09-01

    Cactus nopal dye is introduced into a polyvinyl alcohol matrix achieving a like brown appearance thick film, such that they can be used as a recording medium. This dye material provides excellent property as photosensitizer, i.e., easy handling, low cost and can be used in real time holographic recording applications. The experimental results show the diffraction efficiencies obtained by recording grating patterns induced by a He-Cd laser (442nm). For the samples, a thick film of polyvinyl alcohol and dye from cactus nopal was deposited by the gravity technique on a glass substrate. This mixture dries to form a photosensitive emulsion.

  13. A comparative study of polymer-dye interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye Methyl Orange and two poly cations namely, Poly (N-vinyl-4-methylpyridiniumiodide, (PC1 & Poly (vinylbenzyltriphenylphosphoniumchloride, (PC2 has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers are observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maximum of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  14. Photostability of the solar cell dye sensitizer N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz

    The photostability of the sensitizer dye [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2] (Bu4N)2 (referred to as N719) was investigated in a simple model system instead of a complete nanocrystaline dye sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells (nc-DSSC). The applied model system consisted of N719 dyed titanium dioxide...... intensities. This light intensity dependency of the quantum yield was attributed to the back electron transfer reaction rate between the titanium dioxide conduction band electrons and the oxidized dye cation. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA) was used to measure the back electron transfer reaction...

  15. Biodegradation of azo dyes by genetically engineered azoreductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; YAN Bin; ZHOU Ji-ti; BAO Yong-ming; LU Hong; YUAN Xiao-dong

    2005-01-01

    A azoreductase gene with 537 bp was obtained by PGR amplification from Rhodobacter sphaeroides AS1.1737. The enzyme,with a molecular weight of 18.7 kD, was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and its biodegradation characteristics for azo dyes were investigated. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics and mechanism of azo dyes catalyzed by the genetically engineered azoreductase were studied in detail. The presence of a hydrazo-intermediate was identified, which provided a convincing evidence for the assumption that azo dyes were degraded via an incomplete reduction stage.

  16. Thiophene based monoazo disperse dyes for polyester fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITHAL SOMA PATEL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoazo disperse dyes have been prepared by coupling 2-amino-3-carbethoxy-4,5-dimethylthiophene with various N-arylmaleimides. The monoazo disperse dyes were characterised by IR spectral studies and elemental analysis. These dyes were applied at 2 % depth on polyester fabrics and gave light yellow to brown colour hues with fair fastness to light and very good to excellent fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration and sublimation. The percentage exhaustion of the dyebath and fixation on the fabric were found to be very good.

  17. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  18. Role of white rot fungus Funalia trogii in detoxification of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apohan, Elif; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2005-01-01

    Toxic and genotoxic effects of the textile dyes on organisms suggest the need for remediation of dyes before discharging them into the environment. For this reason, the ability of Funalia trogii pellets to detoxify textile dyes was investigated and evaluated. Although, textile dyes are toxic substances for many microorganisms, the pellets were able to decolorize and detoxify the azo dyes used. Astrazon Blue and Red dyes inhibit growth of F. trogii and S. aureus on solid medium in a concentration dependent manner. The toxicity of these dyes on a fungus, F. trogii and a bacterium, S. aureus was significantly decreased after pretreatment with fungal pellets.

  19. The Dyeing Procedures Evaluation of Wool Fibers with Prangos ferulacea and Fastness Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Barani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dyeing procedure of wool fibers with Prangos ferulacea was evaluated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Using this method, the quantitive relationship between dye concentration of Prangos ferulacea, mordant concentration, dyeing temperature, and dyeing time on the dyeing procedure was investigated. The effect of these variables as well as plasma pretreatment was examined on the color strength of dyed samples. Finally, the fastness characteristic of dye sampled at proposed optimized condition was reported. The obtained results indicate that the presence of mordant improved the fastness properties and dyes uptake of wool fibers.

  20. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  1. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  2. Modulation of π-spacer of carbazole-carbazole based organic dyes toward high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpakdee, Chirawat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich; Kungwan, Nawee; Namuangruk, Supawadee

    2017-03-01

    The effects of type and position of π-linker in carbazole-carbazole based dyes on their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated by DFT and TDDFT methods. The calculated electronic energy level, electron density composition, charge injection and charge recombination properties were compared with those of the high performance CCT3A dye synthesized recently. It is found that that mixing a benzothiadizole (B) unit with two thiophene (T) units in the π-spacer can greatly shift absorption wavelength to near infrared region and enhance the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) resulting in increasing of short-circuit current density (Jsc), whereas a thienothiophene unit does not affect those properties. However, a B should be not directly connected to the anchoring group of the dye because it brings electrolyte to the TiO2 surface which may increase charge recombination rate and consequently decrease open circuit voltage (Voc). This work shows how type and position of the π-linker affect the performance of DSSCs, and how to modulate those properties. We predicted that the designed dye derived from insertion of the B unit in between the two T units would have higher performance than CCT3A dye. The insight understanding from this study is useful for further design of higher performance dyes by molecular engineering.

  3. A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) by Repeated Dye Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Eun Chang; Hong, Byungyou

    2015-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is being extensively investigated as the next generation energy source. Despite of the attractive features like simple fabrication process and its economic efficiency, there are some problems such as low efficiency, long fabrication time and low long-term stability. Conventionally, the dye adsorption on TiO2 photo-electrode film needs long time in the solvent with low concentration of dye to get the high efficiency. In this work, the dye coating process was considerably shortened, albeit plenty of dye was used comparing with the conventional way. Our needs were met for the best result in our working environment and the relevant conditions to our work were obtained, which were the coating temperature of 70 °C, the dye concentration of 10 mM and the coating time of 3 min. And this coating process was successively repeated several times to maximize the dye adsorption and to improve the cell efficiency. Therefore, the efficiency increased by 13% in the proper condition.

  4. Photobleaching effect in azo-dye containing epoxy resin films: the potentiality of carbon nanotubes as azo-dye dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Costanzo, Guadalupe; Goyanes, Silvia; Ledesma, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Azo-dye molecules may suffer from bleaching under certain illumination conditions. When this photoinduced process occurs, it generates an irreversible effect that is characterized by the loss of absorption of the dye molecule. Moreover, the well-known isomerization of azodye molecules does not occur anymore. In this work it is shown how the addition of a small amount of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) helps to decrease the bleaching effect in a photosensitive guest-host azo-polymer film. Two different systems were fabricated using an epoxy resin as polymer matrix. An azo-dye, Disperse Orange 3, was used as photosensitive material in both systems and MWCNTs were added into one of them. The optical response of the polymeric systems was studied considering the degree of photoinduced birefringence. Photobleaching of the azo-dye was observed in all cases however, the effect is lower for the composite material containing 0.2 wt % MWCNTs. The weak interaction between MWCNTs and dye molecules is less favorable when the material is heated. The optical behavior of the heated composite material suggests that carbon nanotubes can be potentially used as azo dye dispensers. The results are interpreted in terms of the non-covalent interaction between azo-dye molecules and MWCNTs.

  5. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  6. Study on Dyeing of a Novel, Pro-environment Polylactic Acid (PLA) Fiber Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ke-jie; MIN Jie; LI Zheng-rong; YANG Li-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Seventeen disperse dyes including anthraquinone, azo, methine, nitro, and quinoline dyes were applied to dye the Polylactic Acid (PLA) yarns at different conditions, and the dyebath exhaustion was determined. The result shows that C.I. disperse red 167, C.I. disperse orange 30, and C.I. disperse blue 284 have dye-uptakes greater than 80%. Therefore, they can be used as the three principal dyes for PLA yams. The experiment discovered that the dyes, because of their Monoazo and ester group contents, have a higher dye-uptake for the PLA fiber. The research on the optimization of dyeing techniques suggests that PLA yarn can obtain a high level of dyeing effectiveness at the following conditions: pH 4-5, dyeing temperture 110℃ for 30- 40 min. Color fastness to perspiration, and water-washing fastness increased 1 - 1. 5 by the addition of the abstergent FB during the reduction clearing.

  7. Enhanced Electron Lifetimes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Dichromophoric Porphyrin: The Utility of Intermolecular Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Wagner, Pawel; van der Salm, Holly; Gordon, Keith C; Mori, Shogo; Mozer, Attila J

    2015-10-07

    Electron lifetimes in dye-sensitized solar cells employing a porphyrin dye, an organic dye, a 1:1 mixture of the two dyes, and a dichromophoric dye design consisting of the two dyes using a nonconjugated linker were measured, suggesting that the dispersion force of the organic dyes has a significant detrimental effect on the electron lifetime and that the dichromophoric design can be utilized to control the effect of the dispersion force.

  8. Synthesis of Malononitrile-Condensed Disperse Dyes and Application on Polyester and Nylon Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An active methylene compound, malononitrile, was introduced into the structures of a series of disperse dyes previously prepared by coupling phloroglucinol, barbituric acid, and α and β-naphtho to 4-amino-3-nitrobenzaldehyde. The dyes were purified by recrystallization from ethanol. The purity of the dyes was examined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the dyes were characterized by visible absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The malononitrile-condensed dyes pro...

  9. Ozo-Dyes mixture degradation in a fixed bed biofilm reactor packed with volcanic porous rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras-Blancas, E.; Cobos-Vasconcelos, D. de los; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N.; Galindez-Mayer, J.

    2009-07-01

    Textile industries discharge great amounts of dyes and dyeing-process auxiliaries, which pollute streams and water bodies. Several dyes, especially the ones containing the azo group, can cause harmful effects to different organisms including humans. Through bacterial and mammalian tests, azo dyes or their derived aromatic amines have shown cell genotoxicity. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of air flow rate on azo-dyes mixture biodegradation by a microbial community immobilized in a packed bed reactor. (Author)

  10. The effect of Cu doping into Oriza sativa L. indica dye as photosensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, U. M.; Prasada, A. B.; Cari; Supriyanto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the research to are know the effect of Cu doping into natural dye in increasing the efficiency of DSCC, to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of natural dye Cu doping. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode Platina (Pt). Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two- point probe El Kahfi/I-V Meter, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The Cu doping into dye was increasing the efficiency of 71%.

  11. Synthesis of Some Novel 2-Amino-5-arylazothiazole Disperse Dyes for Dyeing Polyester Fabrics and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem E. Gaffer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the synthesis of a series of four novel biologically active 2-amino-5-arylazothiazole disperse dyes containing the sulfa drug nucleus. The structures of the synthesized thiazole derivatives are confirmed using UV-spectrophotometry, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and elemental analysis. The synthesized dyes are applied to polyester fabrics as disperse dyes and their fastness properties to washing, perspiration, rubbing, sublimation, and light are evaluated. The synthesized compounds exhibit promising biological efficiency against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as well as fungi.

  12. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Singh Selopal; Hui-Ping Wu; Jianfeng Lu; Yu-Cheng Chang; Mingkui Wang; Alberto Vomiero; Isabella Concina; Eric Wei-Guang Diau

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. Th...

  13. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye.

  14. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... obtained by diluting the dye stock solutions in accurate proportions to different ... with a 752 W Grating Spectrophotometer (Shanghai, China) and computing from the ... The ion exchange mechanism could be used to explain.

  15. Biological decolorization of textile dyes from isolated microfungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyik, Halil; Basbulbul, Gamze; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Kalmis, Erbil; Oryasin, Erman

    2012-05-01

    In this study, biological decolorization of two textile dyestuff (Benazol black ZN and Cibacron black W-NN) was comparatively studied using 22 microfungi strains isolated from polluted industrial soil areas. The initial dye concentrations in the medium were 250 and 500 mg l(-1). Benazol black ZN was the best decolorized by Haematonectria haematococca (HH1) (36.0%) and Cibacron black W-NN was the best decolorized by Aspergillus niger (AN1) (33.0%) at 250 mg l(-1) dye concentration. At 500 mg l(-1) dye concentration for two different dyes all microfungi strains used showed weak decolorization rates, maximum 13.0% for Benazol black ZN and 6.0% for Cibacron Black W-NN.

  16. Comparative sensitizing potencies of fragrances, preservatives, and hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidén, Carola; Yazar, Kerem; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the sensitizing potencies of fragrance substances, preservatives, and hair dye substances, which are skin sensitizers that frequently come into contact with the skin of consumers and workers, LLNA results and EC3 values for 72 fragrance substances, 25 preservatives and 107 hair dye substances were obtained from...... two published compilations of LLNA data and opinions by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and its predecessors. The median EC3 values of fragrances (n = 61), preservatives (n = 19) and hair dyes (n = 59) were 5.9%, 0.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The majority of sensitizing preservatives...... and hair dyes are thus strong or extreme sensitizers (EC3 value of ≤2%), and fragrances are mostly moderate sensitizers. Although fragrances are typically moderate sensitizers, they are among the most frequent causes of contact allergy. This indicates that factors other than potency need to be addressed...

  17. Severe allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2006-01-01

    Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD) sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use...... of hair dyes in this age group. This investigation reports PPD sensitization in children with regard to cause of sensitization, clinical presentation and consequences. Clinical history and patch test results for consecutive children below 16 years of age with suspected hair dye allergic reactions...... and positive patch tests to PPD were collected over 2 years in 2 Danish dermatology clinics. 8 children aged 12-15 years were collected, and they all reacted to several hair dye ingredients. 5 of the patients were hospitalized, 1 in the intensive care unit. 6 of the patients gave a history of prior reaction...

  18. Photodynamic properties of vital dyes for vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Dawczynski, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate photodynamic properties of indocyanine green (ICG), brilliant blue G (BBG) and trypan blue (TB) as currently used vital dyes for chromovitrectomy. Under consideration of intraoperative illumination intensities and dye concentrations, a simulative in vitro investigation was set up. Therefore, standardized dilutions of original ICG, BBG and TB vials were irradiated at a wavelength of 366 nm with an intensity of 14 µW/cm2 between 0 and 48 h. After this, all samples were measured spectroscopically in a 220- to 750-nm bandwidth. Analyzing the vital dyes over the time course, an exponential photolysis was observed for ICG, whereas BBG and TB presented photostable properties. Regarding ICG, 5% of the concentration was degraded to toxic metabolites every 20 min. For this reason, our study provides evidence that intraocular dye concentrations and modern endoillumination systems alone cannot fully prevent ICG photodegradation.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of reactive dye-cassava mesocarp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... tested for dye fixation, fastness (acid, alkali, wash) and solvent stability. Results ... obtained by using such an agricultural waste in feeding ... The cassava peels were obtained from a cassava processing mill at. Choba, Nigeria.

  20. Decolorization of Azo Dyes by Pycnoporus sanguineus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User1

    showed different behaviors on the biomass production and decolorization of the dyes under different growing ... laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase was reported (Tuor ..... Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on xylanase ...

  1. Synthesis of Some Monoazo Disperse Dyes Derived from Aminothienochromene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Ahmed El-Apasery

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of azo disperse dyes based on aminothienochromene were synthesized. The fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness and moderate light fastness.

  2. ADSORPTION OF ACID DYE ONTO ACTIVATED ALGERIAN CLAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These dyes in surface waters are of barrier effect on the sun light penetration and aeration of water body, and thus reduce photosynthetic activity. ..... indicative of the energy or intensity of the reaction and suggests the favourability and capacity.

  3. Synthesis and Absorption Characteristics of Two Infrared Cyanine Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two infrared dyes, 1,3,3,1', 3', 3'-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (A) and 1,3,3,1',3',3'-hexamethyl-11-chloro-10,12-propylenetricarbocyanine iodide (B), were synthesized and characterized by melting point, elemental analysis, IR, and 1H-NMR. Their electron absorption spectra, laser absorption characteristics and solubility were investigated. The results showed that A and B have maximum absorption peaks at around 748 nm and 774 nm, respectivey, which match well with the wavelength output of the near infrared laser diode. The dyes were found to have photoinduced fading during irradiation with the infrared laser, especially in the presence of oxygen. However, this procession can be greatly slowed by using a layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) to barricade the dyes from oxygen. The experiments also showed that the dyes were thermally stable but decayed under strong sunlight. Furthermore, they are easily dissolved in some common solvents.

  4. The removal of reactive dyes using high-ash char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.F.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of reactive dyes on high-ash char was studied. Equilibrium data were obtained using the static method with controlled agitation at temperatures in the range of 30 to 60ºC. The Langmuir isotherm model was used to describe the equilibrium of adsorption, and the equilibrium parameters, R L, in the range of 0 to 1 indicate favorable adsorption. The amount of dye adsorbed increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40ºC, but above 40ºC the increase in temperature resulted in a decrease in the amount of dye adsorbed. The kinetic data presented are for controlled agitation at 50 rpm and constant temperature with dye concentrations in the range of 10 ppm to50 ppm. The film mass transfer coefficient, Kf, and the effective diffusivity inside the particle, De, were fitted to the experimental data. The results indicate that internal diffusion governs the adsorption rate.

  5. Equipments for Dyeing & Finishing are Facing Low Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shimiao

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dyeing & finishing industry makes it possible for textile products to present colorful world on them.When it beautifies human's life immensely,it also makes great consumption of energy and resources,and causes environmental pollution.

  6. Column studies for biosorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or ... biomass was immobilised in a polysulphone matrix in the form of spherical beads. In column studies, adsorption and elution tests were conducted for each dye and the ...

  7. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies of novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi M. Marwani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde/2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines. Results of the newly synthesized compounds established by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and GC–MS spectroscopic experiments were consistent with their chemical structures. Resulted heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were found to be pure from data obtained by the elemental analysis. In addition, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies showed that these dyes were good absorbent and fluorescent. Fluorescence polarity study data revealed that some of these compounds were sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment provided by different solvents. Time-based fluorescence steady-state measurements also showed that these heterocyclic Schiff base dyes have high photostability against photobleaching.

  8. Preparation of Dye Using Selected Local Materials | Alamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation of Dye Using Selected Local Materials. ... RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Nigeria produce juice that can permanently stick to clothing materials.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  10. New synthetic strategies for xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Milo; Darcsi, Andras; Balint, Mihaly; Benkovics, Gabor; Sohajda, Tamas; Beni, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Xanthene dyes can be appended to cyclodextrins via an ester or amide bridge in order to switch the fluorescence on or off. This is made possible through the formation of nonfluorescent lactones or lactams as the fluorophore can reversibly cyclize. In this context we report a green approach for the synthesis of switchable xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins based on the coupling agent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM). By using 6-monoamino-β-cyclodextrin and commercially available inexpensive dyes, we prepared rhodamine- and fluorescein-appended cyclodextrins. The compounds were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry, their UV-vis spectra were recorded at various pH, and their purity was determined by capillary electrophoresis. Two potential models for the supramolecular assembly of the xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins were developed based on the set of data collected by the extensive NMR characterization.

  11. A spectroscopic study of interaction of cationic dyes with heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two cationic dyes namely, acridine orange and pinacyanol chloride with an anionic polyelectrolyte, heparin, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method.The polymer induced metachromasy in the dyes resulting in the shift of the absorption maxima of the dyes towards shorter wavelengths. The stability of the complexes formed between acridine orange and heparin was found to be lesser than that formed between pinacyanol chloride and heparin. This fact was further confirmed by reversal studies using alcohols, urea and surfactants. The interaction of acridine orange with heparin has also been investigated fluorimetrically.The interaction parameters revealed that binding between acridine orange and heparin arises due to electrostatic interaction while that between pinacyanol chloride and heparin is found to involve both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The effect of the structure of the dye in inducing metachromasy has also been discussed.

  12. Aerobic decolourization of two reactive azo dyes under varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(5), pp. 672-677, 1 ... pharmaceutical, textile, leather, cosmetics and paper industries due to their ... Five different textile dyes; reactive torquoise blue, disperse yellow, reactive orange ...

  13. Ultradurable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under 120°C Using Cross-Linkage Dye and Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-bond-edged Ru dye (code name: SG1051 has been studied as a novel sensitizing dye for ultradurable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The SG1051 Ru dye showed the quick dye-uptake time (1 h for the optimized condition: η=9.2%, using volatile electrolyte and the strong adsorption strength compared with standard Ru dyes (N719 and Z907, which was checked by successive dipping of dye-adsorbed nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrodes into NaOH aqueous. solution and acetonitrile. The resulting DSCs using SG1051 Ru dye and ionic-liquid electrolyte survived the durability test at 120°C for 480 h, which can be the strong interest of the industrial groups.

  14. Decolorization and removal of textile and non-textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent by using potato (Solanum tuberosum) soluble and immobilized polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-03-01

    Celite bound potato polyphenol oxidase preparation was employed for the treatment of wastewater/dye effluent contaminated with reactive textile and non-textile dyes, Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86. The maximum decolorization was found at pH 3.0 and 4.0 in case of Reactive Blue 4 and Reactive Orange 86, respectively. Immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase was significantly more effective in decolorizing the individual dye and complex mixtures of dyes as compared to soluble enzyme. The absorption spectra of the treated and untreated dye mixture and dyeing effluent exhibited a marked difference in the absorption value at various wavelengths. The polluted water contaminated with an individual dye or mixtures of dyes treated with soluble and immobilized potato polyphenol oxidase resulted in the remarkable loss in total organic carbon.

  15. Factors that affect print quality in thermal dye transfer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel J. P.; McInerney, Elizabeth

    1995-04-01

    Thermal dye transfer (TDT) imaging has established itself as the state- of-the-art process for high quality, continuous tone, nonimpact printing. Imaging quality from this process rivals conventional silver halide photography and exceeds other nonimpact printing technologies. Because this output appears to be virtually indistinguishable from photographic prints, there has been an expectation that all the quality attributes of silver halide photography are embodied in a TDT print. However, there are many significant differences that affect output quality between these two technologies. These differences are primarily in color gamut, print artifacts, Dmin, grain/sharpness, and image stability. The range of colors reproducible by a color, hard copy device, known as its color gamut, is dictated primarily by the image- forming dyes used by the device. The size and shape of a device's gamut is controlled by the spectral density distributions of these image forming dyes, the Dmin of the receiver base, the Dmax of each dye, the amount of light scatter, and the spectral distribution of the viewing illuminant. The spectral density distributions of dyes also have an impact on illuminant sensitivity, which is a predictor of how much the color balance of a print will change with a change in illuminant. By determining and then using characteristic curves for various image- forming dyes, we have been able to calculate and compare the color gamuts and illuminant sensitivity of TDT imaging with other technologies (color monitor and silver halide photography, for example). The differences we have found can have a significant impact on output quality, depending upon the application. Compared to conventional photography, thermal dye transfer prints have traditionally had inferior light stability and resistance to damage from fingerprints. In addition, thermal dye transfer prints have been aggressively attacked by plasticized polyvinyl chloride sheets and folders commonly found in

  16. NIR fluorescent dyes: versatile vehicles for marker and probe applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged

    2013-02-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are increasingly used in the biological and medical field. The binding characteristics of NIR dyes to biomolecules are possibly controlled by several factors, including hydrophobicity, size and charge just to mention a few parameters. Binding characteristics of symmetric carbocyanines and found that the hydrophobic nature of the NIR dye is only partially responsible for the binding strength. Upon binding to biomolecules significant fluorescence enhancement can be observed for symmetrical carbocyanines. This fluorescence amplification facilitates the detection of the NIR dye and enhances its utility as NIR reporter. This manuscript discusses some probe and marker applications of such NIR fluorescent dyes. One application discussed here is the use of NIR dyes as markers. For labeling applications the fluorescence intensity of the NIR fluorescent label can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in nanoparticles. To decrease self quenching dyes that have relatively large Stokes' shift needs to be used. This is achieved by substituting meso position halogens with amino moiety. This substitution can also serve as a linker to covalently attach the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. We report here on the preparation of NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles that are modified with aminoreactive moieties can be used as bright fluorescent labels in bioanalytical applications. A new bioanalytical technique to detect and monitor the catalytic activity of the sulfur assimilating enzyme using NIR dyes is reported as well. In this spectroscopic bioanalytical assay a family of Fischer based n-butyl sulfonate substituted dyes that exhibit distinct variation in absorbance and fluorescence properties and strong binding to serum albumin as its

  17. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies of novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde/2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines. Results of the newly synthesized compounds established by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and GC–MS spectroscopic experiments were consistent with their chemical structures. Resulted heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were found to be pure from data obtained by the elemental analysis. In addition, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies showed that t...

  18. Removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions using chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Jabbar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Congo Red (CR from aqueous solution onto chitosan was investigated in a batch system. The effects of solution pH, initial dye concentration, and temperature were studied. Results indicated that chitosan could be used as a biosorbent to remove the azo dyes from contaminated water. Synthesize of chitosan involved three main stages as preconditioning, demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation. Chitosan was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and solubility in 1% acetic acid.

  19. Enhancement of polymer dye lasers by multifunctional photonic crystal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser.......The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser....

  20. Fingerprint Powder Formulation based on Azure I1 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Sodhi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel fingerprint-dusting composition based on an organic dye, azure 11, has been prepared. The proportion of the dye in the formulation is 1 per cent, the remaining being an adhesivemixture of meshed aluminum, boric acid, talc, and barium carbonate. The powder gives sharp and clear prints on a wide range of absorbent and non-absorbent surfaces, including multicoloured ones. Weak, chance prints may be detected under ultraviolet light.