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Sample records for dye solar cell

  1. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cummings_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3362 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cummings_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DYE SOLAR CELL RESEARCH Franscious... Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2...

  2. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  3. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  4. Dye Sysentized Solar Cell (Dyssc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dileep,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Dye sensitized solar cell (DYSSC, which is called as future generation solar cell. It is a new class of green photovoltaic cell based on photosynthesis principle in nature. DYSSCs are fabricated using two different natural dyes as sensitizers, which extracted from the materials existing in nature and our life, such as flowers, leaves, fruits, traditional Chinese medicines, and beverages. The use of sensitizers having a broad absorption band in conjunction with oxide films of nanocrystalline morphology permits to harvest a large fraction of sunlight. There are good prospects to produce these cells at lower cost and much better efficiency than conventional semiconductor devices by introducing various chemical and natural dyes. DYSSC are implemented with simple and new technique to overcome the energy crisis and excess cost of semiconductor solar cells.

  5. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  6. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  7. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  8. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  10. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  11. Natural Dyes as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. El-Ghamri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled using Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles as a photoelectrode and natural dyes extracted from eight natural plants as photosensitizers. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were studied using XRD, SEM and TEM characterizations. Photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and overall conversion efficiency η for the fabricated cells were determined under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. It was found that the DSSC fabricated with the extracted safflower dye as a sensitizer showed the best performance. Also, its performance increased with increasing the sintering temperature of the semiconductor electrode with highest performance at 400 °C. Moreover, it was found that a semiconductor electrode of 7.5 μm thickness yielded the highest response.

  12. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  13. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  14. Dye solar cell research: EU delegation presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-09

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cummings1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3236 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cummings1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DYE SOLAR CELL RESEARCH... Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 13 November 2009 © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za CONTENT head2right...

  15. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  16. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Charles Brandon Sweeney, Mark Bundy, Mark Griep, and Shashi P. Karna...ARL-TR-7100 September 2014 Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Charles Brandon Sweeney Texas A&M...

  17. Nanomaterials Enabled Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pei

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as the third generation of solar cells, have attracted tremendous attention for their unique properties. The semi-transparent nature, low-cost, environmental friendliness, and convenient manufacturing conditions of this generation of solar cells are promising aspects of DSCs that make them competitive in their future applications. However, much improvement in many aspects of DSCs' is required for the realization of its full potential. In this thesis, various nanomaterials, such as graphene, multi wall carbon nanotubes, vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, hybrid structures and etc, have been used to improve the performance of DSCs. First, the application of graphene covered metal grids as transparent conductive electrodes in DSCs is explored. It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these flexible hybrid transparent electrodes, in both bending and stretching tests, are better than their oxide-based counter parts. Moreover, different kinds of carbon nanotubes, for instance vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, have been used as a replacement for traditional platinum counter electrodes, in both iodine electrolyte, and sulfide-electrolyte. Further, a flexible, seamlessly connected, 3-dimensional vertically-aligned few wall carbon nanotubes graphene hybrid structures on Ni foil as DSCs' counter electrodes improve their efficiency significantly. All these nanomaterials enabled DSCs architectures achieve a comparable or better performance than standard brittle platinum/fluorine doped tin oxide combination. The large surface area of such nanomaterials in addition to the high electrical conductivity and their mechanical robustness provides a platform for significant enhancements in DSCs' performance.

  18. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  19. Carbonaceous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Biggs, Mark J; Shapter, Joseph G

    2015-03-01

    High photovoltaic efficiency is one of the most important keys to the commercialization of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in the quickly growing renewable electricity generation market. The heart of the DSSC system is a wide bandgap semiconductor based photoelectrode film that helps to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons away into the electrical circuit. However, charge recombination, poor light harvesting efficiency and slow electron transport of the nanocrystalline oxide photoelectrode film are major issues in the DSSC's performance. Recently, semiconducting composites based on carbonaceous materials (carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene) have been shown to be promising materials for the photoelectrode of DSSCs due to their fascinating properties and low cost. After a brief introduction to development of nanocrystalline oxide based films, this Review outlines advancements that have been achieved in the application of carbonaceous-based materials in the photoelectrode of DSSCs and how these advancements have improved performance. In addition, several of the unsolved issues in this research area are discussed and some important future directions are also highlighted.

  20. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  2. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SOLAR CELLS BASED ON DYE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential application in liquid junction photovoltaic cells. ... negative than the semiconductor conduction band potential to enable ... carbon nanotubes could help to make nanoparticle- based solar ..... nanocrystallinc solar cells: synthesis and.

  3. Dye ingredients and energy conversion efficiency at natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbay Karakuş, Mücella; Koca, İrfan; Er, Orhan; Çetin, Hidayet

    2017-04-01

    In this work, natural dyes extracted from the same genus but different species flowers were used as sensitizer in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). To clearly show dye ingredients effect on electrical characteristics, the same genus flowers were selected. The dye ingredients were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The dyes were modified by a procedure that includes refluxing in acetone. All results indicate a relationship between gallic acid quantity in dyes and solar cell efficiency. To gain further insight, the solar cell parameters were obtained by using the single-diode and double-diode models and they were compared to each other. It was observed that the applied process causes a decrease in series resistance. How the modification process and gallic acid affect energy conversion efficiency were argued in detail in the frame of results that were obtained from solar cell models.

  4. Exploiting nanocarbons in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond, and graphene find various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. Nanocarbons can be used as (1) active light-absorbing component, (2) current collector, (3) photoanode additive, or (4) counter electrode. Graphene-based materials have attracted considerable interest for catalytic counter electrodes, particularly in state-of-the-art dye sensitized solar cells with Co-mediators. The understanding of electrochemical charge-transfer at carbon surfaces is key to optimization of these solar cells, but the electrocatalysis on carbon surfaces is still a subject of conflicting debate. Due to the rich palette of problems at the interface of nanocarbons and photovoltaics, this review is selective rather than comprehensive. Its motivation was to highlight selected prospective inputs from nanocarbon science towards the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability, and cost.

  5. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  6. Steric and Solvent Effect in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Utilizing Phenothiazine-Based Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Kafafy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phenothiazine-based dyes have been prepared and utilized as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The effects of dye-adsorption solvent on the performances of dye-sensitized solar cells based on phenothiazine dyes were investigated in this study. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.78% was obtained using ethanol (EtOH and 2.53% for tetrahydrofuran (THF, respectively, as dye-adsorption solvents. Cell performance using EtOH as a dye-adsorption solvent showed relatively higher performance than that using THF. Electrochemical and photochemical tests of phenothiazine dyes in solution and adsorbed on the TiO2 surface showed less dye loading and coverage on the TiO2 surface during adsorption in the case of THF, which decreased the solar cell performance of the DSSC using THF as adsorption solvent compared with using EtOH as adsorption solvent. Meanwhile, the steric effect of phenothiazine-based (PT1–3 dyes was also investigated. Dye with longer and branched aliphatic chain in the order of PT1, PT2, and PT3 showed an increased resistance of the recombination reaction and electron lifetime, thereby increasing Voc and enhancing the overall cell performance because of the sterically hindered conformation of the phenothiazines.

  7. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Halogen Bonding Promotes Higher Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photovoltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Swords, Wesley B; Kellett, Cameron W; Du, Chuan; Lam, Brian; Dean, Rebecca K; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-08-24

    We report here an enhancement in photovoltage for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) where halogen-bonding interactions exist between a nucleophilic electrolyte species (I(-)) and a photo-oxidized dye immobilized on a TiO2 surface. The triarylamine-based dyes under investigation showed larger rate constants for dye regeneration (kreg) by the nucleophilic electrolyte species when heavier halogen substituents were positioned on the dye. The open-circuit voltages (VOC) tracked these kreg values. This analysis of a homologous series of dyes that differ only in the identity of two halogen substituents provides compelling evidence that the DSSC photovoltage is sensitive to kreg. This study also provides the first direct evidence that halogen-bonding interactions between the dye and the electrolyte can bolster DSSC performance.

  9. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  10. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  11. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(π-spacer)-acceptor(D-π-A) organic dyes,containing different groups(triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized.Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes.It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-π-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes.Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance:a short-circuit photocurrent density(Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage(Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor(FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency(η) of 6.72%.

  12. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DaXi; ZHAO Bin; SHEN Ping; HUANG Hui; LIU LiMing; TAN SongTing

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(TT-spacer)-acceptor (D-tt-A) organic dyes,containing different groups (triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized. Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes. It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-tt-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance: a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor (FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (77) of 6.72%.

  13. Vegetable-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Antonino; Di Marco, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2015-05-21

    There is currently a large effort to improve the performance of low cost renewable energy devices. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are emerging as one of the most promising low cost photovoltaic technologies, addressing "secure, clean and efficient solar energy conversion". Vegetable dyes, extracted from algae, flowers, fruit and leaves, can be used as sensitizers in DSSCs. Thus far, anthocyanin and betalain extracts together with selected chlorophyll derivatives are the most successful vegetable sensitizers. This review analyses recent progress in the exploitation of vegetable dyes for solar energy conversion and compares them to the properties of synthetic dyes. We provide an in-depth discussion on the main limitation of cell performance e.g. dye degradation, effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of semiconducting nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, outlining future developments for the use of vegetable sensitizers in DSSCs. We also discuss the cost of vegetable dyes and how their versatility can boost the advancement of new power management solutions, especially for their integration in living environments, making the practical application of such systems economically viable. Finally, we present our view on future prospects in the development of synthetic analogues of vegetable dyes as sensitizers in DSSCs.

  14. Recent Advances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an abundant and accessible source of renewable energy available on earth, and many types of photovoltaic (PV devices like organic, inorganic, and hybrid cells have been developed to harness the energy. PV cells directly convert solar radiation into electricity without affecting the environment. Although silicon based solar cells (inorganic cells are widely used because of their high efficiency, they are rigid and manufacturing costs are high. Researchers have focused on organic solar cells to overcome these disadvantages. DSSCs comprise a sensitized semiconductor (photoelectrode and a catalytic electrode (counter electrode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them and their efficiency depends on many factors. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency of DSSCs attained so far is 11.1%, which is still low for commercial applications. This review examines the working principle, factors affecting the efficiency, and key challenges facing DSSCs.

  15. Progress on the Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The development of a new type of solar cell has been promoted by public concern about pollution and energy consumption.Since the prototype of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) was reported in 1991 by M.Gratzel,it has aroused intensive interest over the past decade due to its low cost and simple preparation procedure.The typical cell is a sandwiched structure consisting of a dye-sensitized TiO2 electrode,a platinized counter electrode and a filled redox couple electrolyte between the electrodes...

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maiaugree, Wasan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Suriharn, Bhalang [Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center (INRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Extract from husk, cob and silk of purple corn was used as a photosensitizer in DSSC. • Effect of solvents i.e. acetone, ethanol and DI water on DSSC efficiency was studied. • The highest efficiency of 1.06% was obtained in DSSC based on acetone extraction. - Abstract: Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  17. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  18. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  20. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  1. Photostability of the solar cell dye sensitizer N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz

    The photostability of the sensitizer dye [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2] (Bu4N)2 (referred to as N719) was investigated in a simple model system instead of a complete nanocrystaline dye sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells (nc-DSSC). The applied model system consisted of N719 dyed titanium dioxide...... intensities. This light intensity dependency of the quantum yield was attributed to the back electron transfer reaction rate between the titanium dioxide conduction band electrons and the oxidized dye cation. Photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA) was used to measure the back electron transfer reaction...

  2. Enhancement of Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuai

    Dye-Sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a class of third-generation solar devices. A notable feature of DSSC is that it can be manufactured by solution-based approach; this non-vacuum processing renders significant reduction in manufacturing costs. Different from conventional solar cells, in a DSSC, mesoporous semiconductor film with large surface areas is utilized for anchoring dye molecules, serving as light absorbing layer. Dye sensitizers play an important role in determining the final performance in DSSCs. Since the first highly-efficient DSSC was reported in 1991 sensitized by a ruthenium-based dye, numerous researchers have been focused on the development and characterization of various kinds of dyes for the applications in DSSCs. These include mainly metal complexes dyes, organic dyes, porphyrins and phthalocyanines dyes. The first part of my thesis work is to develop and test new dyes for DSSCs and a series of phenothiazine-based organic dyes and new porphyrin dyes are reported during the process. It has been realized that extending the response of dye sensitizers to a wider range of the solar spectrum is a key step in further improving the device efficiency. Typically, there are two ways for expanding the strong spectral response of DSSCs from visible to far red/NIR region. One approach is called co-sensitization. Herein, we demonstrate a new co-sensitization concept where small molecules is used to insert the interstitial site of between the pre-adsorbed large molecules. In this case, the co-adsorbed small ones is found to improve the light response and impede the back recombination, finally leading to the power conversion efficiency over 10% in conventional DSSC devices and a record-equaling efficiency of 9.2% in quasi-solid-state devices. I also implemented graphene sheets in the anode films for better charge transfer efficiency and break the energy conversion limit of co-sensitization in DSSCs. The optimal configuration between porphyrin dyes and

  3. Vibrational spectroscopy of photosensitizer dyes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Leon, C.

    2005-11-18

    Ruthenium(II) complexes containing polypyridyl ligands are intensely investigated as potential photosensitizers in organic solar cells. Of particular interest is their use in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2}. Functional groups of the dye allow for efficient anchoring on the semiconductor surface and promote the electronic communication between the donor orbital of the dye and the conduction band of the semiconductor. In the present work a new dye, [Ru(dcbpyH{sub 2}){sub 2}(bpy-TPA{sub 2})](PF6{sub )2}, and the well known (Bu{sub 4}N){sub 2}[Ru(dcbpyH){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] complex were spectroscopically characterized. The electronic transitions of both dyes showed solvatochromic shifts due to specific interactions of the ligands with the solvent molecules. The surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra of the dyes dissolved in water, ethanol, and acetonitrile were measured in silver and gold colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate that the dyes were adsorbed on the metallic nanoparticles in different ways for different solvents. It was also found that in the gold colloid, the aqueous solutions of both dyes did not produce any SERS signal, whereas in ethanolic solution the SERS effect was very weak. Deprotonation, H-bonding, and donor-acceptor interactions seem to determine these different behaviors. Our results indicate the important role of the charge transfer mechanism in SERS. The adsorption of the dye on two different TiO{sub 2} substrates, anatase paste films and anatase nanopowder, was also studied to clarify the role of the carboxylate groups in the anchoring process of the dyes on the semiconductor surface. The recorded spectra indicate a strong dependence of the anchoring configuration on the morphology of the semiconductor. (orig.)

  4. Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Harima, Yutaka

    2012-12-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on oxide semiconductor electrodes, such as TiO(2), ZnO, or NiO, which have emerged as a new generation of sustainable photovoltaic devices, have attracted much attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers because of enormous scientific interest in not only their construction and operational principles, but also in their high incident-solar-light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low cost of production. To develop high-performance DSSCs, it is important to create efficient organic dye sensitizers, which should be optimized for the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dyes themselves, with molecular structures that provide good light-harvesting features, good electron communication between the dye and semiconductor electrode and between the dye and electrolyte, and to control the molecular orientation and arrangement of the dyes on a semiconductor surface. The aim of this Review is not to make a list of a number of organic dye sensitizers developed so far, but to provide a new direction in the epoch-making molecular design of organic dyes for high photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of DSSCs, based on the accumulated knowledge of their photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of the organic dye sensitizers developed so far.

  5. Charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi

    2015-03-01

    The effect of charge transport on the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated by the experimental results and the ion transport. The short current photocurrent density (Jsc) is determined by the electron transport in porous TiO2 when the diffusion limited current (Jdif) due to the {{I}3}- transport is larger than the photo-generated electron flux (Jg) estimated from the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the solar spectrum. However, the Jsc value is determined by the ion transport in the electrolyte solution at Jdif Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  6. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  7. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.

  8. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  9. Cyanine dyes in solid state organic heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Jakob; Peng, Chuyao; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland; Geiger, Thomas; Nüesch, Frank A.; Vismara, Marcus V. G.; Graeff, Carlos F. O.

    2014-10-01

    Today numerous cyanine dyes that are soluble in organic solvents are available, driven by more than a century of research and development of the photographic industry. Several properties specific to cyanine dyes suggest that this material class can be of interest for organic solar cell applications. The main absorption wavelength can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared. The unparalleled high absorption coefficients allow using very thin films for harvesting the solar photons. Furthermore, cyanines are cationic polymethine dyes, offering the possibility to modify the materials by defining the counteranion. We here show specifically how counterions can be utilized to tune the bulk morphology when blended with fullerenes. We compare the performance of bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction solar cells for two different dyes absorbing in the visible and the near-infrared. Light-induced Electron Spin Resonance (LESR) was used to study the charge transfers of light induced excitons between cyanine dyes and the archetype fullerene C60. LESR results show good correlation with the cell performance.

  10. Ethoxy-substituted Oligo-phenylenevinylene-Bridged Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单益凡; 汤杰; 赖华; 谭宏伟; 刘晓峰; 杨帆; 房强

    2012-01-01

    Organic dyes with ethoxy-substituted oligo-phenylenevinylene as chromophores were synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the detailed relationships between the dye structures, photophysical properties, electrochemical properties, and performances of DSSCs were described. The dye S3O showed broad IPCE spectra in the spectral range of 350--750 nm, and the dye S1P showed solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (1/) of up to 4.23% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2) in comparison with the reference Ru-complex (N719 dye) with an r/value of 5.90% under similar experimental conditions.

  11. Optical Design of Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-Zhe; MENG Qing-Bo; GAO Chun-Xiao; XUE Bo-Fei; WANG Hong-Xia; CHEN Li-Quan; O.Sato; A.Fujishima

    2004-01-01

    In nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) the absorption of a large fraction of the incident solar radiation is important for achieving high efficiencies. We develop a model to include both the optical process and the electrochemical process. This model allows us to calculate the performance of the different optical designs (for example the different scattering layers and the different reflecting plane). It is found that appropriate optical designs can improve the performance of DSSCs greatly.

  12. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  13. High Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyuan Han

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Much attention has been paid to the development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) during the past decade. In general, a DSC comprises a nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrode modified with a dye fabricated on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a platinum (Pt) counter electrode, and an electrolyte solution with a dissolved iodide ion/tri-iodide ion redox couple between the electrodes. Although a DSC using black dye with high efficiency of 10.4%, which was measured by NREL(U. S. A. ), was reported by Graetzel et al. [1], the efficiency of DSCs should be further improved for practical use in comparison with silicon solar cells.

  14. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of this grant, dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared and characterized. The solar cells were prepared using materials (dyes, electrolytes, transparent conductive oxide coated glass, nanocrystalline TiO2) entirely prepared in-house, as well as prepared using materials available commercially. Complete cells were characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell prepared at NASA had an AM0 efficiency of 1.22% for a 1.1 sq cm cell. Short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) for the cell were 6.95 mA, 618 mV and 42.8%, respectively. For comparison purposes, two commercially prepared dye-sensitized solar cells were obtained from Solaronix SA, Aubonne, Switzerland. The Solaronix cells were also characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell from Solaronix had an active area of 3.71 sq cm and measured an AM0 efficiency of 3.16%. with Isc, Voc and FF of 45.80 mA, 669.6 mV and 52.3%, respectively. Both cells from Solaronix were rapid thermal cycled between -80 C and 80 C. Thermal cycling led to a 4.6% loss of efficiency in one of the cells and led to nearly a complete failure in the second cell.

  15. Improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells' performance through introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao; Pan, Hao; Ju, Xue-Hai; Ji, Ya-Jun; Qin, Ling; Zheng, He-Gen; Zhou, Xing-Fu

    2012-02-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are currently under intense academic and industrial investigation, owing to their great potential to serve as a low-cost alternative to existing photovoltaic technologies. This paper puts forward a method, which adopts heterocyclic substituted triarylamine units as electronic donor moieties, to design triarylamine dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Three novel triarylamine dyes named TTC101, TTC102 and TTC103, were synthesized economically through modification of the structure of a simple triarylamine dye (TC105) using three kinds of heterocyclic groups (4-pyridyl, 2-thienyl and 1-pyrazolyl). The crystal structure of TTC103 indicates that the heterocyclic groups would partly delocalize the positive charge after photooxidation. The overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 4.92% and 5.21% respectively under AM1.5G irradiation, reaching ∼82.3% and ∼77.7% of a N719-based reference cell under the same conditions. Besides, the energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 1.29 and 1.37 times the efficiency of TC105 respectively. All of the results above demonstrate that photovoltaic performance can be improved by introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes. A series of properties were investigated to explain the results, with a special emphasis on the geometric structures, energetics, and charge transfer processes at the dye/titania/electrolyte interface.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  17. Natural Pigment-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Hernández-Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC based on natural dyes extracted from five different sources is reported. These are inexpensive, have no nutritional use, and are easy to find in Mexico. The solar cells were assembled using a thin film and a TiO2 mesoporous film on ITO-coated glass; these films were characterized by FTIR. The extracts were characterized using UV–Vis and typical I-V curves were obtained for the cells. The best performance was for Punica Granatum with a solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.86%, with a current density Jsc of 3.341 mA/cm2using an incident irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 ºC.

  18. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over tw

  19. Photoelectrochemistry of metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant attention is being paid to dye solar cells (DSCs) as the next generation in solar cell technology for their low cost alternative as compared to solid state solar cells....

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHANG; Zhijun NING; Hongcui PEI; Wenjun WU

    2009-01-01

    Three organic dyes based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives (11, 12 and 13) were synthesized and investigated as sensitizers for the application in nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. The indole group,maleimide group and carboxylic group functioned as electron donor, acceptor and anchoring group, respec-tively. Solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies under simulated amplitude-modulated 1.5 irradiation based on 12 and of 1.87% and 1.50% for 13 and 11,respectively. The open circuit voltage Voc was demon-strated to be enhanced by the introduction of dodecyl or benzyl moieties on the indole groups. The nonplanar structure of bisindolylmaleimide was proven to be effective in aggregation resistance. This work suggests that organic sensitizers with maleimide as electron acceptor are promising candidates as organic sensiti-zers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells: a successful combination of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, DSSC, are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSC are a successful combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a Pt coated counter-electrode. In general, Ru bipyridyl complexes are used as the dye sensitizers. The light-to-energy conversion performance of the cell depends on the relative energy levels of the semiconductor and dye and on the kinetics of the electron-transfer processes at the sensitized semiconductor | electrolyte interface. The rate of these processes depends on the properties of its components. This contribution presents a discussion on the influence of each of the materials which constitute the DSSC of the overall process for energy conversion. An overview of the results obtained for solid-state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells assembled with polymer electrolytes is also presented.

  2. π-Spacer effect in dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Gou, Faliang; Zhao, Dongning; Shi, Jian; Gao, Hong; Zhu, Zhenping; Jing, Huanwang

    2016-08-01

    New dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes have been devised and prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells. Various π-spacers have been successfully introduced into the skeleton of dithiafulvenyl and phenothiazine unit to generate novel D-π-D-A dyes (DPP-1 ∼ 4). All dyes have been characterized with NMR, HRMS, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, and taken into cyclic voltammetry measurements. The devices of new dyes have been determined by photoelectrochemical experiments (IV, IPCE and EIS), in which, solar cell of DPP-4 with biphenyl ring π-spacer enhances obviously its photoelectric conversion efficiency to 7.66% reaching 94% of N719-based standard cell and displays good long-term stability with quasi-solid-state electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of new dyes provide further insight into the molecular geometries and the impacts of the torsion angles on their photovoltaic performance. Large dihedral angles in DPP dyes induce good charge separation for efficient unidirectional flow of electron from donor to acceptor.

  3. A Hybrid Tandem Solar Cell Combining a Dye-Sensitized and a Polymer Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Liangzheng; Ye, Jiajiu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell was assambled by connecting a dye sensitized solar cell and a polymer solar cell in series. A N719 sensitized TiO2 was used as photocathode in dye-sensitized subcell, and a MEH-PPV/PCBM composite was used as active layer in the polymer subcell. The polymer subcell fabricated on the counter electrode of the dye sensitized solar cell. A solution processed TiO(x) layer was used as electron collection layer of the polymer sub cell and the charge recombination layer. The effects of the TiO(x) interlayer and the spectral overlap between the two sub cells have been studied and optimized. The results shows that a proper thickness of the TiO(x) layer is needed for tandem solar cells. Thick TiO(x) will enhance the series resistance, but too thin TiO(x), layer will damage the hole blocking effect and its hydrophilic. The resulting optimized tandem solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.28% with a V(oc) of 0.95 V under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination.

  4. Recent developments in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Nafiseh; Tajabadi, Fariba; Taghavinia, Nima

    2014-12-15

    The knowledge of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has expanded considerably in recent years. They are multiparameter and complex systems that work only if various parameters are tuned simultaneously. This makes it difficult to target to a single parameter to improve the efficiency. There is a wealth of knowledge concerning different DSC structures and characteristics. In this review, the present knowledge and recent achievements are surveyed with emphasis on the more promising cell materials and designs.

  5. Research progress of triphenylamine dye sensitizers of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng YU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC attracted widespread attention for its low cost, being easy to manufacture, large-scale production and environmentally friendly features. Sensitizer is a core component of the DSSC which plays a role in collecting sunlight and injecting excited state electron into the conduction band of the semiconductor, which is crucial to the photo-electric conversion efficiency. Organic dyes have a number of advantages such as easy synthesizing and tuning of photo-physical and electrochemical properties through molecular design. Triphenylamine is a strong electron donating group, and its non-planar spatial structure makes the degree of the dye molecules aggregation to be decreased. These properties are conducive to improve the absorption properties of the dye and the electron transport efficiency. In recent years, triphenylamine or substituted triphenylamine as electron donor of organic sensitizers becomes the research focus for improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the progress of triphenylamine photosensitive dyes is described.

  6. Similar Device Architectures for Inverted Organic Solar Cell and Laminated Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ishwor Khatri; Jianfeng Bao; Naoki Kishi; Tetsuo Soga

    2012-01-01

    Here, we examine the device architecture of two different types of solar cells mainly inverted organic solar cells and solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that use organic materials as hole transportation. The inverted organic solar cells structure is dominated by work on titanium dioxide ( T i O 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO). These layers are sensitized with dye in solid state DSSCs. Because of the similar device architecture, it becomes possible to fabricate laminated solid-state DSSC...

  7. Similar Device Architectures for Inverted Organic Solar Cell and Laminated Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ishwor Khatri; Jianfeng Bao; Naoki Kishi; Tetsuo Soga

    2012-01-01

    Here, we examine the device architecture of two different types of solar cells mainly inverted organic solar cells and solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that use organic materials as hole transportation. The inverted organic solar cells structure is dominated by work on titanium dioxide ( T i O 2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO). These layers are sensitized with dye in solid state DSSCs. Because of the similar device architecture, it becomes possible to fabricate laminated solid-state DSSC...

  8. Molecular design and photovoltaic performance of organic dyes containing phenothiazine for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyo Jeong; Nam, Jung Eun; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jae Hong; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel organic photosensitizers based on fluorine-substituted phenothiazine with thiophene bridge units in the chromophore for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Furthermore, organic dyes with different acceptors exhibited higher molar extinction coefficients, and better light absorption at longer wavelengths. The photovoltaic properties of organic dyes composed of different acceptors in their chromophores were measured to identify their effects on the DSSC performance. The organic dye, PFSCN2 containing multi-cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor, showed a power conversion efficiency of 4.67% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). The retarded recombination kinetics from TiO2 electrode to electrolyte enhanced the electron life time of the organic dye, PFSCN2 in the photoanode of the DSSC. This was confirmed with impedance analysis.

  9. Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry R. Allcock; Thomas E. Mallouk; Mark W. Horn

    2011-10-26

    The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.

  10. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -state-dye-sensitized photovoltaics with an amphiphilic Ruthenium-dye. Appl. Physics Letters 86, 013504-1-013504-3 (2005) 2. A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, Light-induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems. Chem. Rev. 95 (1995) 49-68 XRD (Pure anatase) SEM of anatase film Two... (Artificial photosynthesis) L LE ROUX, C ARENDSE, S HIETKAMP CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa Email: lleroux@csir.co.za ABSTRACT As our fuel sources become depleted, we will increasingly turn to alternative...

  11. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  12. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  13. Fabrication, Optimization and Characterization of Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Kang, Hyeonggon; Sheikh, Tajbik; Yadav, Sunil; Chavez-Gil, Tulio; Nesbitt, Fred; Uddin, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The dyes extracted from pomegranate and berry fruits were successfully used in the fabrication of natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSC). The morphology, porosity, surface roughness, thickness, absorption and emission characteristics of the pomegranate dye sensitized photo-anode were studied using various analytical techniques including FESEM, EDS, TEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy. Pomegranate dye extract has been shown to contain anthocyanin which is an excellent light harvesting pigment needed for the generation of charge carriers for the production of electricity. The solar cell’s photovoltic performance in terms of efficiency, voltage, and current was tested with a standard illumination of air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) having an irradiance of 100 mW/cm2. After optimization of the photo-anode and counter electrode, a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2%, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.39 mV, and a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 12.2 mA/cm2 were obtained. Impedance determination showed a relatively low charge-transfer resistance (17.44 Ω) and a long lifetime, signifying a reduction in recombination losses. The relatively enhanced efficiency is attributable in part to the use of a highly concentrated pomegranate dye, graphite counter electrode and TiCl4 treatment of the photo-anode. PMID:28128369

  14. Fabrication, Optimization and Characterization of Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Kang, Hyeonggon; Sheikh, Tajbik; Yadav, Sunil; Chavez-Gil, Tulio; Nesbitt, Fred; Uddin, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The dyes extracted from pomegranate and berry fruits were successfully used in the fabrication of natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSC). The morphology, porosity, surface roughness, thickness, absorption and emission characteristics of the pomegranate dye sensitized photo-anode were studied using various analytical techniques including FESEM, EDS, TEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy. Pomegranate dye extract has been shown to contain anthocyanin which is an excellent light harvesting pigment needed for the generation of charge carriers for the production of electricity. The solar cell’s photovoltic performance in terms of efficiency, voltage, and current was tested with a standard illumination of air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) having an irradiance of 100 mW/cm2. After optimization of the photo-anode and counter electrode, a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2%, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.39 mV, and a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 12.2 mA/cm2 were obtained. Impedance determination showed a relatively low charge-transfer resistance (17.44 Ω) and a long lifetime, signifying a reduction in recombination losses. The relatively enhanced efficiency is attributable in part to the use of a highly concentrated pomegranate dye, graphite counter electrode and TiCl4 treatment of the photo-anode.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Pique, Alberto; Kushto, Gary P.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Arnold, Craig B.; Kafafi, Zakia H.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous, high surface area structure that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used to forward transfer a paste of commercial TiO2 nanopowder (P25) onto transparent conducting electrodes on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and rigid glass substrates. For the cells based on flexible PET substrates, the transferred TiO2 layers were sintered using an in-situ laser to improve electron paths without damaging PET substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of laser processing techniques to produce nc-TiO2 films (~10 μm thickness) on glass for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 8.7 mA/cm2, ff = 0.67, η = 4.0 % at 100 mW/cm2). This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  16. Titania Nanostructures for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Malekshahi Byranvand; A Nemati Kharat; M H Bazargan

    2012-01-01

    Titania is one kind of important materials, which has been extensively investigated because of its unique electronic and optical properties. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the titania nanostructures electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size, shape, crystallinity, surface morphology, and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters which should be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. Titania can be found in different shape of nanostructures including mesoporous, nanotube, nanowire, and nanorod structures. The present article reviews the structural, synthesis, electronic, and optical properties of TiO2 nanostructures for dye sensitized solar cells.

  17. Recent Advances in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Lenzmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. After a brief discussion of the general operation principles and a presentation of record efficiencies, stability data and key technology drivers, current trends will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte, but commercialization aspects will also be briefly addressed. The review describes the most relevant characteristics and major trends in a compact way.

  18. Alternative redox systems for the dye-sensitized solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Nusbaumer, Hervé

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high efficiencies and their potentially low production costs, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted much attention during the last few years. The technology is based on a layer made of mesoscopic TiO2 film which significantly increases the optical path for light harvesting by the surface-anchored sensitizer molecules, whilst keeping an efficient contact with the electrolytic solution. These sensitizer molecules are often based on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes because...

  19. Functional Materials for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Raksha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review on the analysis of characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC is provided. DSSC design, materials that are used for the manufacture of functional layers and the characteristics of elements depending on their properties are analyzed. The basic disadvantages DSSC, the factors leading to their appearance, as well as solutions to eliminate or reduce the impact of these factors are revealed.

  20. Triarylene linked spacer effect for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yuan Jay, E-mail: jaychang@thu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, Tung Hai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Yu-Jane [Department of Chemistry, Tung Hai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Po-Ting [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, ROC (China); Watanabe, Motonori [International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Chow, Tahsin J., E-mail: chowtj@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-05-02

    The effect of switching the phenylene and thiophenylene units in the triarylene bridge of organic donor-bridge-acceptor dyads on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells is investigated. A thiophenylene group displays several distinctive advantages over those of a phenylene group. The electron-donating nature of thiophenlene elevates the electron energy level of the dyads and narrows down the energy gap of the electronic transition, therefore elongates the absorption wavelength. The presence of thiophenylene unit along the bridge also increases the planarity of the molecular geometry, therefore enhances the degree of π-delocalization; however, it also speeds up the rate of charge recombination. The multiple effects of thiophene group along the bridge are examined systematically on two types of dye derivatives, i.e., the T-series and the M-series dyes. Among all the dyes, the ones containing a phenylene–thiophenylene–thiophenylene bridge (T-PSS) showed the highest performance. A typical device made with T-PSS displayed the maximal monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 65% in the wavelength region between 350 nm and 515 nm, a short-circuit photocurrent density 15.88 mA cm{sup −} {sup 2}, an open-circuit photovoltage 0.64 V, and a fill factor 0.60, that corresponds to an overall conversion efficiency of 6.13%. The packing order of T-PSS can be further improved by adding deoxycholic acid to an overall conversion efficiency of 6.71%. - Highlights: • Six triarylene organic dyes with three kinds of bridges were examined. • Structural and substituent effect on the performance of sensitized solar cells. • A highest conversion efficiency of 6.71% is obtained among all dyes.

  1. New Components for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caramori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs are among the most promising solar energy conversion devices of new generation, since coupling ease of fabrication and low cost offer the possibility of building integration in photovoltaic windows and facades. Although in their earliest configuration these systems are close to commercialization, fundamental studies are still required for developing new molecules and materials with more desirable properties as well as improving our understanding of the fundamental processes at the basis of the functioning of photoactive heterogeneous interfaces. In this contribution, some recent advances, made in the effort of improving DSSC devices by finding alternative materials and configurations, are reviewed.

  2. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively.

  3. A model for recombination in Type II dye-sensitized solar cells: Catechol-thiophene dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells with direct injection is cast as internal conversion in the dye-Ti(OH) 2 complex. For catechol-thiophene dyes with 1, 2, or 3 thiophene units, the complex reproduces the previously observed dye-to-semiconductor bands. We compare the decomposition of the internal conversion rate by vibrational mode and predict a trend in recombination with the extension of conjugation, which offers an explanation for the trend in DSSC efficiency. We employ a simple model for the vibrational factors and show that they are only important in the presence of vibrational modes with ℏω⩽kT and strong electronic factors, as is the case here.

  4. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    The PhD-thesis ''Light Harvesting via Energy Transfer in the Dye Solar Cell'' (University of Freiburg, July 2007) describes the conceptual design, synthesis and testing of energy donor acceptor sensitizers for the dye solar cell (DSC). Under monochromatic illumination solar cells sensitized with the novel donor acceptor systems revealed a higher power conversion efficiency than cells containing exclusively the acceptor component. The following approach led to this conclusion: (i) the choice of suitable chromophores as energy donor and acceptor moieties according to the Foerster-theory, (ii) the synthesis of different donor acceptor systems, (iii) the development of a methodology allowing the quantification of energy transfer within dye solar cells, and (iv) the evaluation of characteristics of DSCs that were sensitized with the different donor acceptor systems. The acceptor chromophores used in this work were derived from [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridin, acac = acetylacetonato). This complex offered the opportunity to introduce substituents at the acac-ligand's terminal CH3 groups without significantly affecting its excellent photoelectrochemical properties. Alkylated 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides (termed Fluorols in the following) were used as energy donor chromophores. This class of compounds fulfils the requirements for efficient energy transfer to [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl. Covalently linking donor and acceptor chromophores to one another was achieved by two different concepts. A dyad comprising one donor and one acceptor chromophore was synthesized by subsequent hydrosilylation steps of an olefin-bearing donor and an acceptor precursor to the dihydrosilane HSiMe2-CH2CH2-SiMe2H. A series of polymers comprising multiple donor and acceptor units was made by the addition of alkyne-bearing chromophores to hyperbranched polyglycerol azide (''Click-chemistry''). In this series the donor acceptor

  5. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    The PhD-thesis ''Light Harvesting via Energy Transfer in the Dye Solar Cell'' (University of Freiburg, July 2007) describes the conceptual design, synthesis and testing of energy donor acceptor sensitizers for the dye solar cell (DSC). Under monochromatic illumination solar cells sensitized with the novel donor acceptor systems revealed a higher power conversion efficiency than cells containing exclusively the acceptor component. The following approach led to this conclusion: (i) the choice of suitable chromophores as energy donor and acceptor moieties according to the Foerster-theory, (ii) the synthesis of different donor acceptor systems, (iii) the development of a methodology allowing the quantification of energy transfer within dye solar cells, and (iv) the evaluation of characteristics of DSCs that were sensitized with the different donor acceptor systems. The acceptor chromophores used in this work were derived from [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridin, acac = acetylacetonato). This complex offered the opportunity to introduce substituents at the acac-ligand's terminal CH3 groups without significantly affecting its excellent photoelectrochemical properties. Alkylated 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides (termed Fluorols in the following) were used as energy donor chromophores. This class of compounds fulfils the requirements for efficient energy transfer to [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl. Covalently linking donor and acceptor chromophores to one another was achieved by two different concepts. A dyad comprising one donor and one acceptor chromophore was synthesized by subsequent hydrosilylation steps of an olefin-bearing donor and an acceptor precursor to the dihydrosilane HSiMe2-CH2CH2-SiMe2H. A series of polymers comprising multiple donor and acceptor units was made by the addition of alkyne-bearing chromophores to hyperbranched polyglycerol azide (''Click-chemistry''). In this series the donor acceptor

  6. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-05-04

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm(2) and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells.

  7. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs) From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs) have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. W...

  8. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltan, Gözde Murat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Dinçalp, Haluk, E-mail: haluk.dincalp@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Erbaş, Seçil Çelik [Celal Bayar University, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO{sub 2}-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation.

  9. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  10. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-22

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  11. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available to chemical analysis, techniques such as impedance spectroscopy (Nyquist and Bode plots), cyclic voltammetry and I-V measurements by means of a PC-interfaced solar simulator are used to determine the stability of the cells. Further work includes research...

  12. Panchromatic Response in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Containing Phosphorescent Energy Relay Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2009-11-23

    Running relay: Incorporating an energyrelay dye (ERD) into the hole transporter of a dye-sensitized solar cell increased power-conversion efficiency by 29% by extending light harvesting into the blue region. In the operating mechanism (see picture), absorption of red photons by the sensitizer transfers an electron into TiO2 and a hole into the electrolyte. Blue photons absorbed by the ERD are transferred by FRET to the sensitizer. Chemical Equitation Presentation © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. ZnO nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, A. B. F.; Elam, J. W.; Hupp, J. T.; Pellin, M. J. (Materials Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2007-05-25

    We introduce high surface area ZnO nanotube photoanodes templated by anodic aluminum oxide for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Atomic layer deposition is utilized to coat pores conformally, providing a direct path for charge collection over tens of micrometers thickness. Compared to similar ZnO-based devices, ZnO nanotube cells show exceptional photovoltage and fill factors, in addition to power efficiencies up to 1.6%. The novel fabrication technique provides a facile, metal-oxide general route to well-defined DSSC photoanodes.

  14. ZnO nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B F; Elam, Jeffrey W; Hupp, Joseph T; Pellin, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    We introduce high surface area ZnO nanotube photoanodes templated by anodic aluminum oxide for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Atomic layer deposition is utilized to coat pores conformally, providing a direct path for charge collection over tens of micrometers thickness. Compared to similar ZnO-based devices, ZnO nanotube cells show exceptional photovoltage and fill factors, in addition to power efficiencies up to 1.6%. The novel fabrication technique provides a facile, metal-oxide general route to well-defined DSSC photoanodes.

  15. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  16. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  17. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  18. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  19. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2014-07-15

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  20. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  1. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  2. Natural dye extracted from karkadah and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells: experimental and density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, S M; Soliman, K A

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an experimental and theoretical study of cyanidin natural dye as a sensitizer for ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using ammonia and oxalic acid as a capping agent. The calculated average size of the synthesized ZnO with different capping agents was found to be 32.1 nm. Electronic properties of cyanidin and delphinidin dye were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT with a B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. By comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data, the cyanidin dye can be used as a sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. An efficiency of 0.006% under an AM-1.5 illumination at 100  mW/cm(2) was attained. The influence of dye adsorption time on the solar cell performance is discussed.

  3. Numerical Procedure for Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Razvan Mitroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a numerical procedure consisting of a simplified physical model and a numerical method with the aim of optimizing the performance parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We calculate the real rate of absorbed photons (in the dye spectral range Grealx by introducing a factor β<1 in order to simplify the light absorption and reflection on TCO electrode. We consider the electrical transport to be purely diffusive and the recombination process only to occur between electrons from the TiO2 conduction band and anions from the electrolyte. The used numerical method permits solving the system of differential equations resulting from the physical model. We apply the proposed numerical procedure on a classical DSSC based on Ruthenium dye in order to validate it. For this, we simulate the J-V characteristics and calculate the main parameters: short-circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and power conversion efficiency η. We analyze the influence of the nature of semiconductor (TiO2 and dye and also the influence of different technological parameters on the performance parameters of DSSCs. The obtained results show that the proposed numerical procedure is suitable for developing a numerical simulation platform for improving the DSSCs performance by choosing the optimal parameters.

  4. Concrete embedded dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, T; Flores-Vivian, I; Sobolev, K; Kouklin, N

    2013-09-25

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190 mV and ISC of ~9 μA, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46 mW confirmed the generation of electrical power of ~0.64 μW with almost half generated via battery effect. This work presents a first step towards realizing the additional pathways to low-cost electrical power production in urban environments based on a combined use of organic dyes, nanotitania and concrete technology.

  5. Molecular modification of coumarin dyes for more efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-de-Armas, Rocio; San-Miguel, Miguel A.; Oviedo, Jaime; Sanz, Javier Fdez. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2012-05-21

    In this work, new coumarin based dyes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have been designed by introducing several substituent groups in different positions of the NKX-2311 structure. Two types of substitutions have been considered: the introduction of three electron-donating groups (-OH, -NH{sub 2}, and -OCH{sub 3}) and two different substituents with steric effect: -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- and -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH-. The electronic absorption spectra (position and width of the first band and absorption threshold) and the position of the LUMO level related to the conduction band have been used as theoretical criteria to evaluate the efficiency of the new dyes. The introduction of a -NH{sub 2} group produces a redshift of the absorption maximum position and the absorption threshold, which could improve the cell efficiency. In contrast, the introduction of -CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}-CH{sub 2}- does not modify significantly the electronic structure of NKX-2311, but it might prevent aggregation. Finally, -CH{sub 2}-HC=CH- produces important changes both in the electronic spectrum and in the electronic structure of the dye, and it would be expected as an improvement of cell efficiency for these dyes.

  6. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Concrete Embedded Dye-Synthesized Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, T.; Flores-Vivian, I.; Sobolev, K.; Kouklin, N.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190 mV and ISC of ~9 μA, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46 mW confirmed...

  8. Salicylic Acid-Based Organic Dyes Acting as the Photosensitizer for Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungjun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Han, Ah-Reum; Ko, Kwan-Woo; Eom, Jin Hee; Namgoong, Sung Keon; Lo, Alvie S V; Gordon, Keith C; Yoon, Sungho; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A D-π-A metal-free organic dye, featuring salicylic acid as a novel acceptor/anchoring unit, has been designed, synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. The detailed photophysical, electrochemical, photovoltaic and sensitizing properties of the organic dye were investigated, in addition to the computational studies of the dye and dye-(TiO2)6 system. A solar cell device using this new organic dye as a sensitizer produced a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.49% (J(sc) = 6.69 mAcm-2, V(oc) = 0.74 V and ff = 0.70) under 100 mWcm(-2) simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation, demonstrating that the salicylic acid-based organic dye is a suitable alternative to currently used organometallic dyes.

  9. Solution Processed Silver Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Berginc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is studied. The solutions of silver nitrate in isopropanol, ethylene glycol, or in TiO2 sol were examined as possible precursors for Ag NPs formation. The solutions were dip-coated on the top of the porous TiO2 layer. The results of optical measurements confirmed the formation of Ag NPs throughout the porous TiO2 layer after the heat treatment of the layers above 100°C. Heat treatment at 220°C was found to be optimal regarding the formation of the Ag NPs. The porous TiO2 layers with Ag NPs have been evaluated also in DSSC by measuring current-voltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency of the cells. In addition, the amount of adsorbed dye has been determined to prove the plasmonic effect in the cells. The I-V characterization of the DSSCs revealed an increase of the short circuit current in the presence of Ag NPs although the amount of the attached dye molecules decreased. These results confirm that the performance enhancement is related to the plasmonic effect. However, neither a thin sol-gel TiO2 layer nor poly(4-vinylpyridine shells provide effective protection for the long term stability of the Ag NPs against the corrosion of I3-/I- based electrolyte.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, H.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Jhongshan N. Rd. Jhongshan District, Taipei City 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Jwo, C.S. [Department of Energy and Air-Conditioning Refrigeration Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lo, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1. Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-16

    This study used spinach extract, ipomoea leaf extract and their mixed extracts as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Spinach and ipomoea leaves were first placed separately in ethanol and the chlorophyll of these two kinds of plants was extracted to serve as the natural dyes for using in DSSCs. In addition, the self-developed nanofluid synthesis system prepared a TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 50 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to let the TiO{sub 2} deposit nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11.61 {mu}m. This TiO{sub 2} thin film underwent sintering at 450 {sup o}C to enhance the compactness of thin film. Finally, the sintered TiO{sub 2} thin film was immersed in the natural dye solutions extracted from spinach and ipomoea leaves, completing the production of the anode of DSSC. This study then further inspected the fill factor, photoelectric conversion efficiency and incident photon current efficiency of the encapsulated DSSC. According to the experimental results of current-voltage curve, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by natural dyes from ipomoea leaf extract is 0.318% under extraction temperature of 50 {sup o}C and pH value of extraction fluid at 1.0. This paper also investigated the influence of the temperature in the extraction process of this kind of natural dye and the influence of pH value of the dye solution on the UV-VIS patterns absorption spectra of the prepared natural dye solutions, and the influence of these two factors on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  11. Effect of Solvent, Dye-Loading Time, and Dye Choice on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd M. Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase titania films with a thickness of up to 20 μm and deposited over a fluorine-doped tin-oxide substrate are impregnated with ruthenium dyes N-719 and N-749 using Dip and supercritical-fluid methods for the purpose of fabricating dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The dyes are dissolved in different solvent mixtures, including supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as combinations of more traditional solvents including mixtures of acetonitrile, and t-butanol. Analytical studies included thin-film analyzing and scanning electron microscopy to measure titania film thickness and porosity, UV-Vis spectroscopy to quantify dye concentration, and current-voltage device characterizations to assess energy conversion efficiency, as well as open-circuit voltage decay measurements and quantum efficiency to examine electron collection efficiency. A significant result is that using the dye N-749 in a solvent that includes supercritical carbon dioxide leads to energy conversion efficiencies that are higher for devices with a thick 20 μm semiconductor film than for the case of devices with thinner films, including the 10 μm film thickness that is traditionally considered an upper threshold. The supercritical-fluid method for the N-719 dye also enabled shorter impregnation duration than more conventional classical Dip Methods.

  12. A simple method for modeling dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Min-Kyu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyunwoong [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Center of Plasma Nano-interface Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Lee, Kyoung-Jun; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Byung-Man; Park, Songyi; Prabakar, Kandasamy [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Je, E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-03

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are photoelectrochemical photovoltaics based on complicated electrochemical reactions. The modeling and simulation of DSCs are powerful tools for evaluating the performance of DSCs according to a range of factors. Many theoretical methods are used to simulate DSCs. On the other hand, these methods are quite complicated because they are based on a difficult mathematical formula. Therefore, this paper suggests a simple and accurate method for the modeling and simulation of DSCs without complications. The suggested simulation method is based on extracting the coefficient from representative cells and a simple interpolation method. This simulation method was implemented using the power electronic simulation program and C-programming language. The performance of DSCs according to the TiO{sub 2} thickness was simulated, and the simulated results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy of this simulation method. The suggested modeling strategy derived the accurate current–voltage characteristics of the DSCs according to the TiO{sub 2} thickness with good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results. - Highlights: • Simple modeling and simulation method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). • Modeling done using a power electronic simulation program and C-programming language. • The performance of DSC according to the TiO{sub 2} thickness was simulated. • Simulation and experimental performance of DSCs were compared. • This method is suitable for accurate simulation of DSCs.

  13. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  14. Pt-graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Hajime, E-mail: hoshi@ed.tus.ac.jp; Tanaka, Shumpei; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphene films with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercial graphene. • Pt consumption can be reduced by using Pt-graphene films. • The film showed improved catalytic activity for the reaction I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −}. • The film can be used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The performance of DSSC was superior to that of the Pt electrode. - Abstract: A simple paste method for fabricating graphene films with Pt nanoparticles was developed. First, graphene pastes with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercially available graphene. The resulting films of graphene nanoplatelet aggregates with Pt nanoparticles (Pt-GNA) contained Pt nanoparticles distributed over the entire three-dimensional surface of the GNA. Then, the catalytic activity for the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox reaction was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The GNA electrode exhibited higher activity than a graphene nanoplatelet electrode because of its higher effective surface area. Addition of Pt nanoparticles to the electrodes improved the catalytic activity. In particular, a large Faradaic current for the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} reaction was observed for the Pt-GNA electrode. As the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), their performance was consistent with the cyclic voltammetry results. In particular, the DSSC performance of the Pt-GNA electrode was superior to that of the Pt electrodes commonly used in DSSCs.

  15. An approach to laminated flexible Dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Aurelien Du [ESRG, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 671 Highway 1, North Brunswick, NJ 08902, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey (United States)

    2007-09-30

    We have built TiO{sub 2} Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that combined flexible TiO{sub 2} photoanodes coated on ITO/PET substrates with a gel electrolyte based on PVDF-HFP-SiO{sub 2} films. Titanium isopropoxide (TiP{sub 4}) was used as additive to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for increasing power conversion efficiency in Dye sensitized solar cell electrodes prepared at low-temperature (130{sup o}C). An efficiency {eta}{sub AM1.5G} = 3.55% on ITO/PET substrates is obtained at 48 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination with a standard liquid electrolyte based on methoxypropionitrile. Among several solvents forming gels with PVDF-HFP-SiO{sub 2}, N-methyl (pyrrolidone) (NMP) was found to enable the most stable devices. A power conversion efficiency {eta}{sub AM1.5G} = 2% was obtained under 10 mW/cm{sup 2} with flexible TiO{sub 2}-ITO-PET photoanodes and the PVDF-HFP-SiO{sub 2} + NMP gel electrolyte. (author)

  16. Time dependent – density functional theory characterization of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hilal, Rifaat

    2017-06-19

    We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations are utilized to study the geometry, electronic structure, electrostatic potential (ESP) and absorption spectrum, for a representative donor-π bridge-acceptor (D–π–A) dye for DSSC. The coplanar geometry of the dye (D1) facilitates strong conjugation and considerable delocalization originating the π CT interaction from donor to acceptor orbitals and the hyper-conjugative interactions involving Rydberg states. A model simulating the adsorption of the dye on the TiO surface is utilized to estimate binding energies. The effect of fluorine substituents in the π-spacer on the quantum efficiency of DSSCs was investigated. Gibb’s free energy values, redox potentials, excited state lifetime, non-linear optical properties (NLO) and driving forces for D1 and its fluorinated derivatives were computed.

  17. Photosynthesis in a test tube- dye sensitized solar cells as a teaching tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raturi, Atul; Fepuleai, Yoheni [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, The University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-05-15

    Dye sensitized solar cells employing natural plant dyes as phosensitizers can be effectively used to train students in the science and technology of solar cells. This is especially relevant to developing countries where facilities for silicon cell fabrication are non-existent. The cross-disciplinary nature of this device makes it very attractive for student projects. The present work describes such a project where anthocyanin dye from hibiscus flowers has been used as the electron harvester. (author)

  18. Porphyrin-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs): a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birel, Özgül; Nadeem, Said; Duman, Hakan

    2017-02-16

    The current review aims to collect short information about photovoltaic performance and structure of porphyrin-based sensitizers used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Sensitizer is the key component of the DSSC device. Structure of sensitizer is important to achieve high photovoltaic performance. Porphyrin derivatives are suitable for DSSC applications due to their thermal, electronic and photovoltaic properties. It describes some electrochemical and spectral properties as well as thestructure of porphyrin dyes used in dye based-solar cells.

  19. Phototransistor Behavior Based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X Q; Wang, Y F; Zhou, W Q; Lu, Y M; Liu, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, a light-controlled device cell is established based on the dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline TiO2 films. Voltage-current curves are characterized by three types of transport behaviors: linear increase, saturated plateau and breakdown-like increase, which are actually of the typical performances for a photo-gated transistor. Moreover, an asymmetric behavior is observed in the voltage-current loops, which is believed to arise from the difference in the effective photo-conducting areas. The photovoltaic voltage between the shared counter electrode and drain (VCE-D) is investigated as well, clarifying that the predominant dark process in source and the predominant photovoltaic process in drain are series connected, modifying the electric potential levels and thus resulting in the characteristic phototransistor behaviors.

  20. Improvement of Dye Solar Cell Efficiency by Photoanode Posttreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Ivanovska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic concept for efficiency improvement in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC is limiting the electron-hole recombination. One way to approach the problem is to improve the photogenerated charge carriers lifetime and consequently reduce their recombination probability. We are reporting on a facile posttreatment of the mesoporous photoanode by using a colloidal solution of TiO2 nanoparticles. We have investigated the outcome of the different sintering temperature of the posttreated photoanodes on their morphology as well as on the conversion efficiency of the DSSC. The DSSCs composed of posttreated photoanodes at 450°C showed an increase in JSC and consequently an increase in efficiency of 10%. Investigations were made to determine the electron recombination via the electrolyte by the OCVD technique. We found that the posttreatment has the effect of reducing the surface trap states and thus increases the electron lifetime, which is responsible for the increase of the overall cell efficiency.

  1. Analysis and design optimization of organic dye sensitized solar cell based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Jay; Mordiya, Meet; Virpariya, Dhruv; Dangodara, Ankita; Gandha, Pinal; Savaliya, Chirag R.; Joseph, Joyce; Shiyani, Tulshi; Dhruv, Davit; Markna, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    In the present communication, simulation of multilayers organic dye-sensitized based solar cells (DSSC) was performed because of its tremendous application in different solar energy harvesting devices and their relatively high efficiency as well as cost effectiveness.J-V and I-V curves ofmultilayer organic dye sensitized solar cell with combination of different dyes were simulated to study the performance in the vicinity of efficiency. On the basis of above parameters, optimum design and operating parameters were derived from the simulation based analysis. It had been jointly shown that a systematic variation of different dye material and its thicknessare highly useful in achieving optimum efficiency of energy harvesting devices.

  2. Dye Oriza sativa glutinosa doped Fe as a active element of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada, A. B.; Fadli, U. M.; Cari; Supriyanto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the research are to determine the effect of doping Fe (III) Sulphate into dye Oriza sativa glutinosa on the characteristics parameters of solar cells, to determine the optical characteristic, functional group and electrical characteristic of dye Oriza sativa glutinosa doped Fe (III) sulphate. TiO2 nano size as much as 0.5 gr dissolved in 3 ml ethanol. 100 gr black sticky rice (Oriza sativa glutinosa) was immersed in 80 ml ethanol solution (95%) and kept at room temperature without exposing to light. Then it was filtered with a filter paper no.42, and the extracted result was process with chromatography. Furthermore, it was doped with Fe (III) sulphate respectively of 10-1 M, 10-2 M, 10-3 M. The characteristic of dye solution was measured using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25 for absorbance, Elkahfi 100/I-V meter for conductivity amd Keithey 2602A for characterization of current and voltage (I-V). The result showed that the area of dye Oriza sativa glutionosa doped Fe (III) sulphate with concentration 10-1 M the largest, because the value of Voc intercept at 6.40 × 10-1 mV and the value Isc intercept at 1.89 × 10-3 mA, with efficiency value is 0.148%.

  3. Molecular Design of TPD-based Organic Dyes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xing-bo

    2013-01-01

    An interesitng class of organic A-π-D-π-A dyes based on an N,N,N',N'-tetraphenylbenzidine(TPD) unit as donor was designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSCs).TPD-4-based DSSCs gave a short circuit photocurrent density(Jsc) of 16.67 mA/cm2,a open circuit voltage(Voc) of 0.635 V and a fill factor(ff) of 0.68,achieving a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency(η) of 7.22% in preliminary tests.The N3-sensitized device gave an η value of 8.02% with a Jsc of 18.81 mA/cm2,a Voc of 0.630 V and an ffof 0.68 under the same conditions.The incident photo-to-current efficiency(IPCE) values above 70% observed in a range of 460 to 600 nm with a maximum value of 80% at 500 nm indicate that the TPD-4-based DSSC shows a high performance.Under the same conditions,the DSSC based on N3 provided the IPCE values above 70% in a range of 490 to 580 nm with a maximum value of 76% at 500 nm.Both further optimization of the device processing and structural modification of these dyes are anticipated to make the device give even better performances.

  4. Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Sumit; Lin, Jiann T

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on our work on metal-free sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Sensitizers based on D-A'-π-A architecture (D is a donor, A is an acceptor, A' is an electron-deficient entity) exhibit better light harvesting than D-π-A-type sensitizers. However, appropriate molecular design is needed to avoid excessive aggregation of negative charge at the electron-deficient entity upon photoexcitation. Rigidified aromatics, including aromatic segments comprising fused electron-excessive and -deficient units in the spacer, allow effective electronic communication, and good photoinduced charge transfer leads to excellent cell performance. Sensitizers with two anchors/acceptors, D(-π-A)2 , can more efficiently harvest light, inject electrons, and suppress dark current compared with congeners with a single anchor. Appropriate incorporation of heteroaromatic units in the spacer is beneficial to DSSC performance. High-performance, aqueous-based DSSCs can be achieved with a dual redox couple comprising imidazolium iodide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl, and/or using dyes of improved wettability through the incorporation of a triethylene oxide methyl ether chain.

  5. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  6. Numerical simulations for the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline silicon pin-solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdorf, Sven; Bauer, Gottfried Heinrich; Brueggemann, Rudolf [Institut fuer Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells consisting of dye sensitizers incorporated in the i-layer of microcrystalline silicon pin solar cell have been proposed and even recently processed. The dye sensitizer molecules are embedded in the matrix and enhance the overall absorption of the dye-matrix system due to their high absorption coefficient in the spectral range interesting for photovoltaic applications. However, the charge transport properties of dyes are quite poor. Microcrystalline silicon on the other hand has acceptable charge transport properties, while the absorption, given a layer thickness in the micron range, is relatively poor. This contribution investigates the effiency improvement of hybrid dye-microcrystalline solar cells compared to pure microcrystalline solar cells by simulation. The results indicate that, under optimal conditions, the effiency can be improved by more than 20 % compared to a pure microcrystalline silicon cell. The thickness reduction for the hybrid system can be as large as 50 % for the same effiency.

  7. Metal-free organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: from structure: property relationships to design rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amaresh; Fischer, Markus K R; Bäuerle, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as they offer the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. This Review focuses on recent advances in molecular design and technological aspects of metal-free organic dyes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special attention has been paid to the design principles of these dyes and on the effect of various electrolyte systems. Cosensitization, an emerging technique to extend the absorption range, is also discussed as a way to improve the performance of the device. In addition, we report on inverted dyes for photocathodes, which constitutes a relatively new approach for the production of tandem cells. Special consideration has been paid to the correlation between the molecular structure and physical properties to their performance in DSSCs.

  8. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...... subunits. A theory for nonadiabatic electron transfer is employed in order to take explicitly into account the contribution from the bridge states mediating the process. If a cross-conjugated fragment is present in the bridge, it is possible to suppress the charge recombination by negative interference...... of the possible tunnelling path. Calculations carried out on realistic molecules at the DFT level of theory show how the recombination lifetime can be modulated by changes in the electron-withdrawing (donating) character of the groups connected to the cross-conjugated bridge. Tight binding calculations...

  9. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  10. Photoelectrochemical Characterizations Of ZnO Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Baviskar, P K; D. B. Salunkhe; Babasaheb R. Sankapal

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on nano-particles of zinc oxide (ZnO) electrode have received considerable attention because of their high incident solar light to power conversion efficiency and low production cost. Multiple organic dyes with different chemical structure have been developed so far. They have been tested for their photovoltaic performances with combinations of different photo-anodes. In order to produce efficient DSSCs, it is imperative to dev...

  11. Towards Rational Designing of Efficient Sensitizers Based on Thiophene and Infrared Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometries, electronic properties, and absorption spectra of the dyes which are a combination of thiophene based dye (THPD and IR dyes (covering IR region; TIRBD1-TIRBD3 were performed using density functional theory (DFT and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT, respectively. Different electron donating groups, electron withdrawing groups, and IR dyes have been substituted on THPD to enhance the efficiency. The bond lengths of new designed dyes are almost the same. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of designed dyes are above the conduction band of TiO2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energies are below the redox couple revealing that TIRBD1-TIRBD3 would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The broad spectra and low energy gap also showed that designed materials would be efficient sensitizers.

  12. The Structure-property Relationships of D-π-A BODIPY Dyes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Song, Qin-Hua

    2016-04-01

    BODIPY dyes have attracted considerable attention as potential photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their excellent optical properties and facile structural modification. This account focuses on recent advances in the molecular design of D-π-A BODIPY dyes for applications in DSSCs. Special attention has been paid to the structure-property relationships of D-π-A BODIPY dyes for DSSCs. The developmental process in the modified position at the BODIPY core with a donor/acceptor is described. The devices based on 2,6-modified BODIPY dyes exhibit better photovoltaic performance over other modified BODIPY dyes. Meanwhile, the research reveals the correlation of molecular structures (various donor chromophores, extended units, molecular frameworks, and long alkyl groups) with their photophysical and electrochemical properties and relates it to their performance in DSSCs. The structure-property relationships give valuable information and guidelines for designing new D-π-A BODIPY dyes for DSSCs.

  13. Molecular engineering of simple phenothiazine-based dyes to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration in highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong; Chang, Shuai; He, Jian; Zhang, Caishun; Zhao, Jianzhang; Chen, Tao; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Zhu, Xunjin

    2014-05-19

    A series of simple phenothiazine-based dyes, namely, TP, EP, TTP, ETP, and EEP have been developed, in which the thiophene (T), ethylenedioxythiophene (E), their dimers, and mixtures are present to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Devices sensitized by the dyes TP and TTP display high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.07 (Jsc = 15.2 mA cm(-2), Voc =0.783 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.679) and 7.87 % (Jsc = 16.1 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.717 V, FF = 0.681), respectively; these were measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight in conjunction with the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. By replacing the T group with the E unit, EP-based DSSCs had a slightly lower PCE of 7.98 % with a higher short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 16.7 mA cm(-2). The dye ETP, with a mixture of E and T, had an even lower PCE of 5.62 %. Specifically, the cell based on the dye EEP, with a dimer of E, had inferior Jsc and Voc values and corresponded to the lowest PCE of 2.24 %. The results indicate that the photovoltaic performance can be finely modulated through structural engineering of the dyes. The selection of T analogues as donors can not only modulate light absorption and energy levels, but also have an impact on dye aggregation and interfacial charge recombination of electrons at the interface of titania, electrolytes, and/or oxidized dye molecules; this was demonstrated through DFT calculations, electrochemical impedance analysis, and transient photovoltage studies.

  14. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴松元; 王孔嘉

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as well as adsorption of dye, it is also known as one of the source to the dark current. The results show that the TiO2 films, such as different particle sizes of TiO2, different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave, have a strong influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells. We give the optimum TiO2 film thickness and morphology for the application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  16. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatani, Mehboob, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Hamid, Nor Hisham, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com; Samsudin, Adel, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com, E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  17. Henna (Lawsonia inermis L. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Titania Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ebrahim Jasim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost solar cells have been the subject of intensive research activities for over half century ago. More recently, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs emerged as a new class of low-cost solar cells that can be easily prepared. Natural-dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs are shown to be excellent examples of mimicking photosynthesis. The NDSSC acts as a green energy generator in which dyes molecules adsorbed to nanocrystalline layer of wide bandgap semiconductor material harvest photons. In this paper we investigate the structural, optical, electrical, and photovoltaic characterization of two types of natural dyes, namely, the Bahraini Henna and the Yemeni Henna, extracted using the Soxhlet extractor. Solar cells from both materials were prepared and characterized. It was found that the levels of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are concentration dependent. Further suggestions to improve the efficiency of NDSSC are discussed.

  18. Porphyrins as excellent dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: recent developments and insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-01-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention as an alternative to silicon-based solar cells because of their low-cost production and high power conversion efficiency. Among various sensitizers, numerous research activities have been focused on porphyrins due to their strong absorption bands in the visible region, versatile modifications of their core, and facile tuning of the electronic structures. In 2005-2007, Officer and Grätzel et al. had achieved a rapid increase in the power conversion efficiency of porphyrin DSSCs from a few percent to as much as 7%. Encouraged by these pioneering works, further high-performance porphyrin dyes have been developed in the last decade. These studies have provided us profound hints for the rational design of sensitizers toward highly efficient DSSCs. Push-pull structures and/or π-extensions have made porphyrins panchromatic in visible and even near-infrared regions. Consequently, porphyrin sensitizers have exhibited power conversion efficiencies that are comparable to or even higher than those of well-established highly efficient DSSCs based on ruthenium complexes. So far the power conversion efficiency has increased up to ca. 13% by using a push-pull porphyrin with a cobalt-based redox shuttle. In this perspective, we review the recent developments in the synthetic design of porphyrins for highly efficient DSSCs.

  19. Natural dyes as sensitizers to increase the efficiency in sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Bayron; Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a sandwich type solar cell consisting of a photoelectrode, a counter electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The photo electrode comprises of a titanium dioxide semiconducting thin film grown over a glass substrate which in-turn has a transparent thin conducting layer of tin oxide film doped with fluorine (FTO) coated over it. The aim of this work is to develop photoelectrodes with different dyes to increase the efficiency of this type of solar cells. Dyes obtained from fresh sources of maqui, black myrtle, spinach and a dye mixture of spinach and spinach-maqui-myrtle were used. The technique used for the extraction of the dyes was maceration for one day, in methanol. Colourants and photoelectrodes were studied using, UV-vis spectrophotometer for their spectral properties. Their photovoltaic properties such as efficiency, fill factor, open circuit voltage and short circuit current were studied using a solar simulator and source meter unit.

  20. EH AND S ANALYSIS OF DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.; FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-10-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells based on a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide photoelectrode have been researched and reported since the early 1990's. Commercial production of dye-sensitized photovoltaic solar cells has recently been reported in Australia. In this report, current manufacturing methods are described, and estimates are made of annual chemical use and emissions during production. Environmental, health and safety considerations for handling these materials are discussed. This preliminary EH and S evaluation of dye-sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells indicates that some precautions will be necessary to mitigate hazards that could result in worker exposure. Additional information required for a more complete assessment is identified.

  1. Coumarin Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells - A Long-Range-Corrected Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Bryan M; 10.1063/1.3025924

    2010-01-01

    The excited-state properties in a series of coumarin solar cell dyes are investigated with a long-range-corrected (LC) functional which asymptotically incorporates Hartree-Fock exchange. Using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), we calculate excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole moments in each of the dyes as a function of the range-separation paramenter, mu. To investigate the acceptable range of mu and assess the quality of the LC-TDDFT formalism, an extensive comparison is made between LC-BLYP excitation energies and approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles (CC2) calculations. When using a properly-optimized value of mu, we find that the LC technique provides a consistent picture of charge-transfer excitations as a function of molecular size. In contrast, we find that the widely-used B3LYP hybrid functional severely overestimates excited-state dipole moments and underestimates vertical excitations energies, especially for larger dye molecules. The results ...

  2. Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes applied in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanine dyes, i.e., MgOCPc, MnOCPc, FeOCPc and ZnOCPc with different central metal ions were designed and synthesized by microwave irradiation. The effects of the introduction of different metal ions with variant 3d orbitals (3d0, 3d5, 3d6, and 3d10, respectively in the centre of the phthalocyanine rings on the thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of octacarboxy-metallophthalocyanines were characterized and evaluated in details. The results showed that ZnOCPc and MgOCPc with closed-shell metal ions and FeOCPc with an open-shell metal ion had excellent thermal property. However, MnOCPc with a half-full-shell metal ion had a lowest decomposition temperature and largest Q band red shifts. By theoretical calculation, the energy gaps of MgOCPc, MnOCPc, FeOCPc and ZnOCPc were 0.11, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.22V, respectively. Applied in TiO2 nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC, the photovoltaic properties of the four dyes were obtained under AM1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2.

  3. Structure-performance correlations of organic dyes with an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sie-Rong; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Yang, Po-Fan; Liao, Chia-Wei; Lee, Mandy M; Su, Wei-Lin; Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Hao-Wu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2014-08-04

    The high performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on seven new dyes are disclosed. Herein, the synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical properties of a series of intentionally designed dipolar organic dyes and their application in DSSCs are reported. The molecular structures of the seven organic dyes are composed of a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor, and an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety integrated in the π-conjugated spacer between the electron donor and acceptor moieties. The DSSCs based on the dye DJ104 gave the best overall cell performance of 8.06 %; the efficiency of the DSSC based on the standard N719 dye under the same experimental conditions was 8.82 %. The spectral coverage of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies extends to the onset at the near-infrared region due to strong internal charge-transfer transition as well as the effect of electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline to lower the energy gap in these organic dyes. A combined tetraphenyl segment as a hydrophobic barrier in these organic dyes effectively slows down the charge recombination from TiO2 to the electrolyte and boosts the photovoltage, comparable to their Ru(II) counterparts. Detailed spectroscopic studies have revealed the dye structure-cell performance correlations, to allow future design of efficient light-harvesting organic dyes.

  4. Screening π-conjugated bridges of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells with panchromatic visible light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Chunmeng; Shao, Changjin; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-07-01

    Developing highly efficient organic dyes with panchromatic visible light harvesting for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is still one of the most important scientific challenges. Here, we design a series of phenothiazine derivative organic dyes with donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) structure using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) based on experimentally synthesized typical SH-6 organic dyes. Results indicate that the newly designed BUCT13 - BUCT30 dyes show smaller HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, higher molar extinction coefficients and obvious redshifts compared to the SH-6 dye, and the maximum absorption peaks of eight dyes are greater than 650 nm among the newly designed dyes. In particular, BUCT27 exhibits a 234 nm redshift and the maximum molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 80% compared to the SH-6 dye. BUCT19 exhibits not only a 269 nm redshift and higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of about 50% compared to the SH-6 dye, but the extremely broad absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range up to the near-IR region of 1200 nm. It is expected that this work can provide a new strategy and guidance for the investigation of these dye-sensitized devices.

  5. Enhanced Electron Lifetimes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Dichromophoric Porphyrin: The Utility of Intermolecular Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Wagner, Pawel; van der Salm, Holly; Gordon, Keith C; Mori, Shogo; Mozer, Attila J

    2015-10-07

    Electron lifetimes in dye-sensitized solar cells employing a porphyrin dye, an organic dye, a 1:1 mixture of the two dyes, and a dichromophoric dye design consisting of the two dyes using a nonconjugated linker were measured, suggesting that the dispersion force of the organic dyes has a significant detrimental effect on the electron lifetime and that the dichromophoric design can be utilized to control the effect of the dispersion force.

  6. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  7. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    In the last decade dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have extensively been studied. From an economical point of view DSCs are of high interest because the manufacturing costs of DSCs devices are significantly lower in contrast to the costs of other solar devices such as silicon cells. One...... on the surface of a semiconductor anode (TiO2). In order to be able to predict the life time of the dye during solar cell operation it is essential to map all the possible side reactions and their rates initiated from the excited (S*), oxidized (S+) and ground state of the sensitizer (S). In my lecture I...... will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells with improved thermal dye stability. The various ruthenium dye...

  8. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho; Oh, Sang Jin

    2012-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ˜ 500 °C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  9. Effects of heat treatment on the dye adsorption of ZnO nanorods for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Won Suk; Choi, Seok Cheol; Sohn, Sang Ho [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Jin [Phoenix Materials, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods for the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were grown via a sonochemical method, and the heat-treatment effects on the dye adsorption in the DSSCs were studied. The heat treatment of well-aligned ZnO nanorods was performed at 200 ∼ 500 .deg. C for 1 h, which was immediately followed by the dye adsorption. The dye amounts adsorbed in the ZnO nanorods were estimated from the UV-Vis absorbance by using Beer-Lambert's law. The efficiency of the DSSCs with ZnO nanorods was measured to investigate the heat-treatment effects of ZnO nanorods on the dye adsorption properties. The heat-treatment of ZnO nanorods was found to yield a change in their dye adsorption ability, resulting in a change in the efficiency of the DSSCs.

  10. Molecular design of donor-acceptor dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells I: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Aziz, Saadullah G; Elroby, Shaaban A K

    2014-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have drawn great attention as low cost and high performance alternatives to conventional photovoltaic devices. The molecular design presented in this work is based on the use of pyran type dyes as donor based on frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) and theoretical UV-visible spectra in combination with squaraine type dyes as an acceptor. Density functional theory has been used to investigate several derivatives of pyran type dyes for a better dye design based on optimization of absorption, regeneration, and recombination processes in gas phase. The frontier molecular orbital (FMO) of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels plays an important role in the efficiency of DSSCs. These energies contribute to the generation of exciton, charge transfer, dissociation and exciton recombination. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures for the predicted dyes were performed using the B3LYP/6-31+G** level of theory. The FMO energies (EHOMO, ELUMO) of the studied dyes are calculated and analyzed in the terms of the UV-visible absorption spectra, which have been examined using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) techniques. This study examined absorption properties of pyran based on theoretical UV-visible absorption spectra, with comparisons between TD-DFT using B3LYP, PBE, and TPSSH functionals with 6-31+G (d) and 6-311++G** basis sets. The results provide a valuable guide for the design of donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes with high molar absorptivity and current conversion in DSSCs. The theoretical results indicated 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye (D2-Me) can be effectively used as a donor dye for DSSCs. This dye has a low energy gap by itself and a high energy gap with squaraine acceptor type dye, the design that reduces the recombination and improves the photocurrent generation in solar cell.

  11. Simulation of solid-state dye solar cells based on organic and Perovskite sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Aldo; Gentilini, Desireé; Gagliardi, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a multiscale numerical simulation of solid-state Dye and Perovskite Solar Cells where the real morphology of the mesoporous active layer is taken into account. Band alignment and current densities are computed using the drift-diffusion model. In the case of Dye cells, a portion of the real interface is merged between two regions described using the effective medium approximation, casting light on the role of trapped states at the interface between TiO2 / Dye / hole transporting materials. A second case of study is the simulation of Perovskite Solar Cell where the performances of cells based on Alumina and Titania mesoporous layer are compared.

  12. Recent progress in interface modification for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Interface modification on the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is one of the most effective approaches to suppress the charge recombination,improve electron injection and transportation,and thus ameliorate the conversion efficiency and stability of DSCs.Conventional research focusing on the photoanodes interface modification before sensitization in dye-sensitized solar cells has been carried out and reviewed.However,recent studies showed that post-modification after sensitization of the TiO2 electrode also plays a significant role on the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface.This post-modification using the immersing method could deprotonate dye molecules,prohibit the dye aggregation and retard the recombination reaction.As a result,it has great influence on the devices’ photovoltaic performance.This interface modification could also provide an approach to broaden the response of the solar spectrum by introducing an alternative assembling structure.An in-situ meaning of using a co-adsorbent is employed to modify the interface in the DSCs,which could retard the aggregation of the dye molecules and enhance the conversion efficiency.In addition,electrolyte additives can be used to modify the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface through some unique mechanisms.Based on the background of interface modification of photoanodes before sensitization,this review introduces various interface modifications after sensitization of dye-sensitized solar cells and their mechanisms.

  13. Electrochemically Deposited Polypyrrole for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Counter Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamsone Keothongkham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole films were coated on conductive glass by electrochemical deposition (alternative current or direct current process. They were then used as the dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that polypyrrole forms a nanoparticle-like structure on the conductive glass. The amount of deposited polypyrrole (or film thickness increased with the deposition duration, and the performance of polypyrrole based-dye-sensitized solar cells is dependant upon polymer thickness. The highest efficiency of alternative current and direct current polypyrrole based-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is 4.72% and 4.02%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy suggests that the superior performance of alternative current polypyrrole solar cells is due to their lower charge-transfer resistance between counter electrode and electrolyte. The large charge-transfer resistance of direct current solar cells is attributed to the formation of unbounded polypyrrole chains minimizing the I3 − reduction rate.

  14. Analysis of Natural Sensitizers to Enhance the Efficiency in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three vegetable dyes are used for the study: anthocyanin dye from pomegranate arils extract, betalain dye from beet root extract and chlorophyll dye from tridax procumbens leaf. The anthocyanin and betalain, anthocyanin and chlorophyll, betalain and chlorophyll dyes are blended in cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on energy gap using dye sensitized solar cells. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of pomegranate arils, beet root and tridax procumbens leaf, in the volumetric proportion 1:1, using an extraction at room temperature the greatest energy gap (eg of up to 1.87eV.

  15. Nanostructured Semiconductor Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cavallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since O’Regan and Grätzel’s first report in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs appeared immediately as a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology. In fact, though being far less efficient than conventional silicon-based photovoltaics (being the maximum, lab scale prototype reported efficiency around 13%, the simple design of the device and the absence of the strict and expensive manufacturing processes needed for conventional photovoltaics make them attractive in small-power applications especially in low-light conditions, where they outperform their silicon counterparts. Nanomaterials are at the very heart of DSSC, as the success of its design is due to the use of nanostructures at both the anode and the cathode. In this review, we present the state of the art for both n-type and p-type semiconductors used in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs, showing the evolution of the materials during the 25 years of history of this kind of devices. In the case of p-type semiconductors, also some other energy conversion applications are touched upon.

  16. Fabrication of highly efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H., E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.L. [Department of Industrial Design, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.D. [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chien, S.H. [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, No. 128 Sec.2, Academia Rd., Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Hung, K.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1 Sec.3, Chung Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    The paper studies the fabrication of a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The photoelectrode substrates are flexible stainless steel sheet with thickness 0.07 mm and titanium (Ti) sheet with thickness 0.25 mm. For the photoelectrode fabrication process, eletrophoresis deposition (EPD) was employed for its merits of low-cost and fast fabrication. With an electric field of 40 V/cm, after undergoing EPD process twice, the TiO{sub 2} nanofilm thickness could be controlled to around 13 {mu}m thick. In addition, to achieve counter electrode, sputtering method was applied to deposit Pt on ITO-PET, resulting in thin films with four different thicknesses of 5, 8, 11 and 14 nm. The experimental results showed that the best colloid solution used in EPD process was a mixture of 100 ml isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and 0.4 g commercial TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, Degussa P25. The best flatness for a 13 {mu}m thick film could be acquired under an electric field of 40 V/cm. Comparing the photoelectric conversion efficiency values of DSSC assembled by counter electrodes with different Pt thicknesses, the experimental results showed that the best Pt thickness was 11 nm, and the conversion efficiency could reach as high as 2.91%.

  17. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2010-05-07

    A hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO(2) layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO(2) framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO(2) nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO(2) nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO(2) electrodes via biotemplating.

  18. A dye sensitized solar cell using natural counter electrode and natural dye derived from mangosteen peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiaugree, Wasan; Lowpa, Seksan; Towannang, Madsakorn; Rutphonsan, Phikun; Tangtrakarn, Apishok; Pimanpang, Samuk; Maiaugree, Prapen; Ratchapolthavisin, Nattawat; Sang-Aroon, Wichien; Jarernboon, Wirat; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2015-10-01

    Mangosteen peel is an inedible portion of a fruit. We are interested in using these residues as components of a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Carbonized mangosteen peel was used with mangosteen peel dye as a natural counter electrode and a natural photosensitizer, respectively. A distinctive mesoporous honeycomb-like carbon structure with a rough nanoscale surface was found in carbonized mangosteen peels. The efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell using carbonized mangosteen peel was compared to that of DSSCs with Pt and PEDOT-PSS counter electrodes. The highest solar conversion efficiency (2.63%) was obtained when using carbonized mangosteen peel and an organic disulfide/thiolate (T2/T-) electrolyte.

  19. High-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells using ferrocene-based electrolytes and natural photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Akyürek, Cafer; Akin, Seçkin

    2012-10-01

    A new and promising dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) bilayer design was developed using an Fe2+/Fe3+ (ferrocene) liquid electrolyte and natural dyes extracted from Hypericum perforatum, Rubia tinctorum L. and Reseda luteola. The photovoltaic parameters controlling the device performance were then investigated. A DSSC based on quercetin dye displayed the most efficient solar to electricity conversion efficiency compared with other dyes with a maximum η value of 2.17%. Maximum overall conversion efficiencies under simulated sunlight that was comparable to natural photosynthesis were increased by 15%. The identification of appropriate additives for improving VOC without causing dye degradation may result in further enhancement of cell performance, making the practical application of such systems more suitable for achieving economically viable solar energy devices.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  1. Triphenylamine-based organic dyes with julolidine as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guohua; Kong, Fantai; Li, Jingzhe; Fang, Xiaqin; Li, Yi; Dai, Songyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Xianxi

    2013-12-01

    Two novel donor-donor-π-conjugated-acceptor (D-D-π-A) metal-free organic dyes (JTPA1 and JTPA2) with a julolidine moiety as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are synthesized. Their absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are extensively investigated and compared with TPA2 dye. Transient absorption measurements show that both sensitizers are quickly regenerated and the dye cations are efficiently intercepted by the redox mediator. Both dyes show good performance as DSSC photosensitizers. In particular, a DSSC using JTPA2 with rhodanine-3-acetic acid shows better photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 9.30 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 509 mV and a fill factor (FF) of 0.68, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.2% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2). Under similar test conditions, ruthenium-based N719 dye gives an efficiency of 6.7%. Compared to TPA2, the dye regeneration rate, the short-circuit photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency of JTPA2 are doubled by introducing a julolidine unit. Our findings show that the julolidine unit may be an excellent electron donor system for organic dyes harvesting solar irradiation.

  2. Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Natural Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on natural sensitizers have become a topic of significant research because of their urgency and importance in the energy conversion field and the following advantages: ease of fabrication, low-cost solar cell, and usage of nontoxic materials. In this study, the chlorophyll extracted from papaya leaves was used as a natural sensitizer. Dye molecules were adsorbed by TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces when submerged in the dye solution for 24 h. The concentration of the dye solution influences both the amount of dye loading and the DSSC performance. The amount of adsorbed dye molecules by TiO2 nanoparticle was calculated using a desorption method. As the concentration of dye solution was increased, the dye loading capacity and power conversion efficiency increased. Above 90 mM dye solution concentration, however, the DSSC efficiency decreased because dye precipitated on the TiO2 nanostructure. These characteristics of DSSCs were analyzed under the irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The best performance of DSSCs was obtained at 90 mM dye solution, with the values of Voc, Jsc,  FF, and efficiency of DSSCs being 0.561 V, 0.402 mA/cm2, 41.65%, and 0.094%, respectively.

  3. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Supratik Kar; Juganta K. Roy; Danuta Leszczynska; Jerzy Leszczynski

    2016-01-01

    Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs). Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron...

  4. Modification of circuit module of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) for solar windows applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, S. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This research has been conducted to obtain a modification of circuit producing the best efficiency of solar window modules as an alternative energy for daily usage. Solar window module was constructed by DSSC cells. In the previous research, solar window was created by a single cell of DSSC. Because it had small size, it could not be applied in the manufacture of solar window. Fabrication of solar window required a larger size of DSSC cell. Therefore, in the next research, a module of solar window was fabricated by connecting few cells of DSSC. It was done by using external electrical circuit method which was modified in the formation of series circuit and parallel circuit. Its fabrication used six cells of DSSC with the size of each cell was 1 cm × 9 cm. DSSC cells were sandwich structures constructed by an active layer of TiO2 as the working electrode, electrolyte solution, dye, and carbon layer. Characterization of module was started one by one, from one cell, two cells, three cells, until six cells of a module. It was conducted to recognize the increasing efficiency value as the larger surface area given. The efficiency of solar window module with series circuit was 0.06%, while using parallel circuit was 0.006%. Module with series circuit generated the higher voltage as the larger surface area. Meanwhile, module through parallel circuit tended to produce the constant voltage as the larger surface area. It was caused by the influence of resistance within the cable in each module. Module with circuit parallel used a longer cable than module with series circuit, so that its resistance increased. Therefore, module with parallel circuit generated voltage that tended to be constant and resulted small efficiency compared to the module with series circuit. It could be concluded that series external circuit was the best modification which could produce the higher efficiency.

  5. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Singh Selopal; Hui-Ping Wu; Jianfeng Lu; Yu-Cheng Chang; Mingkui Wang; Alberto Vomiero; Isabella Concina; Eric Wei-Guang Diau

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. Th...

  6. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Pham Phan, Thu Anh

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (

  7. Design issues for improved environmental performance of dye-sensitized and organic nanoparticulate solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2010-01-01

    Though environmental improvement has been claimed for the application of nanotechnology to solar cells, several characteristics of the fullerene-based organic, and the dye-sensitized nanoparticulate, solar cell are not conducive to such improvement. These include relatively high energy and materials

  8. Recent advances in dye-sensitized solar cells: from photoanodes, sensitizers and electrolytes to counter electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meidan Ye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, as low-cost photovoltaic devices compared to conventional silicon solar cells, have received widespread attention in recent years; although much work is required to reach optimal device efficiencies. This review highlights recent developments in DSSCs and their key components, including the photoanode, sensitizer, electrolyte and counter electrode.

  9. Design issues for improved environmental performance of dye-sensitized and organic nanoparticulate solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2010-01-01

    Though environmental improvement has been claimed for the application of nanotechnology to solar cells, several characteristics of the fullerene-based organic, and the dye-sensitized nanoparticulate, solar cell are not conducive to such improvement. These include relatively high energy and materials

  10. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Van Le, Tan Nhuut;

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (<10 mM) increased the N719 rutheni...

  11. Strategies to Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Organic Sensitizers, Tandem Device Structures, and Numerical Device Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wenger, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constitute a novel class of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. At the heart of the device is a mesoporous film of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, which are coated with a monolayer of dye sensitive to the visible region of the solar spectrum. The role of the dye is similar to the role of chlorophyll in plants; it harvests solar light and transfers the energy via electron transfer to a suitable material (here ...

  12. Theoretical study on the application of double-donor branched organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Rui-Rui [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China); Zhu, Kai-Li [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Gansu Normal University for Nationalities, Hezuo, 747000, Gansu (China); Song, Yan-Lin [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China); Geng, Zhi-Yuan, E-mail: zhiyuangeng@126.com [Gansu Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Eco-environment-related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu (China)

    2016-09-15

    A novel organic dye with 2D-A structure has been designed and calculated whereby density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for dye-sensitized solar cells. The double-donor branched dye which was consisted of two separated light-harvesting moieties was beneficial to photocurrent generation. First, we discussed the effects of different donor chains on photoelectric performance in the dye molecule, using the DTP-B8 which was a previously reported structure as the reference. Only to conclude that the suitable length can achieve the satisfactory efficiency. Secondly, to modify and sift potential sensitizers further, three series of dyes (BC-series, CB-series and CC-series) were designed and characterized. The increased molar extinction coefficient and the red-shifted λ{sub max} was attributed to an increasing in electron conjunction. This work presented a new route to design sensitizers that provide two channels for donating more electrons and improve the final efficiency. It is expected to provide some theoretical guidance on designing and synthetizing high efficiency photosensitive dye in the future experiments. - Highlights: • A novel organic dye with 2D-A structure was designed and characterized. • The double-donor branched dye was consisted of two separated light-harvesting paths. • The double-donor branched dye was beneficial to photocurrent generation. • The molar extinction coefficient was greatly improved in this novel structure. • Four promising candidates have been screened out.

  13. Interfaces in Dye-Sensitized Oxide / Hole-Conductor Heterojunctions for Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Nanoporous dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are promising devices for solar to electric energy conversion. In this thesis photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and photovoltaic measurements are used for studies of the key interfaces in the DSSC. Photovoltaic properties of new combinations of TiO2/dye/hole-conductor heterojunctions were demonstrated and their interfacial structures were studied. Three different types of hole-conductor materials were investigate...

  14. In situ monitoring and optimization of room temperature ultra-fast sensitization for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Matthew L; Watson, Trystan M; Holliman, Peter J; Connell, Arthur; Worsley, David A

    2014-10-25

    We describe the fastest dyeing of TiO2 photo-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells reported to date (12 h using the same dye mixture (η = 5.5%). Time-lapse photography has been used to monitor the ultra-fast co-sensitization. The data show significantly different dye uptake between passive and pump dyeing reflecting competitive sorption between a Ru complex (N719) and an organic dye (SQ1).

  15. Improving the Spectral Response of Black Dye by Cosensitization with a Simple Indoline Based Dye in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akhtaruzzaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoline dye D-1 was successfully applied as a cosensitizer for improving the spectral response of black dye in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. It was observed that D-1 effectively increases the short-circuit photocurrent by offsetting the competitive light absorption by I/I3- electrolyte in the wavelength region 350–500 nm when adsorbed on the TiO2 nanocrystaline films in a mix dye system. The DSCs containing the D-1 and black dye achieved a power conversion efficiency of 9.80% with higher short-circuit photocurrent of 19.54 mA/cm2 compared to the system of black dye without cosensitization under standard AM 1.5 sunlight.

  16. Solid-state photogalvanic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Seare A; Gobeze, Habtom B; Pokharel, Sundari D; Park, Eunsol; Youngblood, W Justin

    2014-07-09

    Photogalvanic cells are photoelectrochemical systems wherein the semiconductor electrode is not a participant in primary photoinduced charge formation. The discovery of photoelectrochemical systems that successfully exploit secondary (thermal) electron injection at dye-semiconductor interfaces may enable studies of electron transfer at minimal driving force for electron injection into the semiconductor. In this study, we have examined thermal electron transfer from molecular sensitizers to nanostructured semiconductor electrodes composed of titanium dioxide nanorods by means of transient spectroscopy and the assembly and testing of photoelectrochemical cells. Electron-accepting molecular dyes have been studied alongside an arylamine electron donor. Thermal injection is estimated for a naphthacenequinone radical anion as a multiexponential decay process with initial decay lifetimes of 6 and 27 ps. The ambient electric field present during charge separation at a surface-adsorbed dye monolayer causes Stark shifts of the radical ion pair absorbance peaks that confounded kinetic estimation of thermal injection for a fullerene sensitizer. Electron-accepting dyes that operate by thermal injection into titanium dioxide function better in solid-state photoelectrochemical cells than in liquid-junction cells due to the kinetic advantage of solid-state cells with respect to photoinduced acceptor-quenching to form the necessary radical anion sensitizers.

  17. A panchromatic anthracene-fused porphyrin sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of ruthenium-free sensitizers which absorb light over a broad range of the solar spectrum is important for improving the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we study three chemically tailored porphyrin-based dyes. We show that by fusing the porphyrin core to an anthracene unit, we can extend the conjugation length and lower the optical gap, shifting the absorption spectrum into the near-infrared (NIR). All three dyes were tested in dye-sensitized solar cells, using both titanium dioxide and tin dioxide as the electron-transport material. Solar cells incorporating the anthracene-fused porphyrin dye exhibit photocurrent collection at wavelengths up to about 1100 nm, which is the longest reported for a porphyrin-based system. Despite extending the photon absorption bandwidth, device efficiency is found to be low, which is a common property of cells based on porphyrin dyes with NIR absorption. We show that in the present case the efficiency is reduced by inefficient electron injection into the oxide, as opposed to dye regeneration, and highlight some important design considerations for panchromatic sensitizers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Pigments for natural dye-sensitized solar cells from in vitro grown shoot cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Chiara; Forni, Cinzia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Teoli, Federico; Nota, Paolo; Matteocci, Fabio; Frattarelli, Andrea; Caboni, Emilia; Lucioli, Simona

    2017-04-01

    In vitro grown shoots cultures (Prunus salicina × Prunus persica), elicited by methyl jasmonate (MJ), are reported here for the first time to prepare a natural dye for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Redox properties of the dye, its photostability, and light absorption properties suggested it as a candidate as natural photosensitizers for TiO2 photoelectrodes. Redox properties of the dye influence the DSSC production of photocurrent, thus three antioxidant assays were performed in order to characterize the antioxidant potential of this dye. The dye exhibited a high antioxidant activity in all the assays performed. Photostability assay revealed that the dye was quite stable to light. The power conversion efficiency that we obtained (0.53%) was comparable to the data by other authors with anthocyanins-based dyes from in vivo grown plants. Finally, we compared the dye with the partially purified one as photosensitizer in DSSC. The results indicated that the raw pigment from in vitro shoot cultures of P. salicina × P. persica elicited with MJ can be proposed without the needing of any other chemicals, thermal or purification process, or pH adjustments, as a dye for natural sensitized solar cells.

  19. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y

    2016-10-06

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells-including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles-face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes' surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  20. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Lund, Torben;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed...

  1. Enhanced performance of natural dye sensitised solar cells fabricated using rutile TIO2 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akila, Y.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Agilan, S.; Mallick, Tapas K.; Senthilarasu, S.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2016-08-01

    Due to the lower cost, natural dye molecules are good alternatives for the ruthenium based sensitizers in the dye-sensitized solar cells. In this article, we have reported the natural sensitizer based dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using TiO2 nanorods. Rutile phase TiO2 nanorods have been synthesized by template free hydrothermal method which results in TiO2 nanorods in the form of acropora corals. These TiO2 nanorods have been sensitized by flowers of Sesbania grandiflora, leaves of Camellia sinensis and roots of Rubia tinctorum. The maximum conversion efficiency of 1.53% has been obtained for TiO2 nanorods based solar cells sensitized with the leaves of Camellia sinensis. The flowers of Sesbania grandiflora and roots of Rubia tinctorum sensitized TiO2 nanorods based solar cells exhibited an efficiency of 0.65% and 1.28% respectively.

  2. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-10-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  3. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructured Photoanodes: From Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells to Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ho Yun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents one dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructured photoanodes for next generation solar cells such as dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs and perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Due to the unique morphological properties, 1D TiO2 nanostructures can act as express electron channels as well as light scattering layer, leading to improved charge transport properties, such as charge separation, electron injection, and electron lifetime, and light harvesting efficiency. As 1D TiO2 nanostructures are applied to solar cells, 1D TiO2 nanostructures should be further modified to overcome some drawbacks. In this review, we have described some solutions by introducing various 1D TiO2 synthetic methods and device fabrication processes for solar cell applications, where we have described some important surface engineering and hierarchical device design strategies that facilitate charge transport and light utilisation in 1D TiO2 nanostructured photoanode system.

  4. Organic photovoltaic solar cells based on some pure and sensitized dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D. (Jodhpur Univ. (IN). Dept. of Physics); Mathur, S.C.; Dube, D.C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Delhi (IN). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-12-15

    Organic photovoltaic solar cells based on metal-dye or sensitized dye-SnO{sub 2} junctions are formed. The electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of these Schottky junctions have been studied on two pure and sensitized dyes (Eriochrome Blue Black B and Rodamine B). From the photovoltaic action spectra the active region responsible for electric power generation was found to be confined to the SnO{sub 2}-dye interface. The effect of sensitization, electrode material and intensity on photovoltaic and electric parameters has also been discussed in detail. Finally the C-V characteristics are discussed in detail. (author).

  5. Ultrafast Fabrication of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Ultrasonic Spray-Coating Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun-Gyu; Weerasinghe, Hashitha C; Min Kim, Kwang; Soo Kim, Jeong; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Jones, David J; Holmes, Andrew B; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2015-09-30

    This study investigates novel deposition techniques for the preparation of TiO2 electrodes for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. These proposed new methods, namely pre-dye-coating and codeposition ultrasonic spraying, eliminate the conventional need for time-consuming processes such as dye soaking and high-temperature sintering. Power conversion efficiencies of over 4.0% were achieved with electrodes prepared on flexible polymer substrates using this new deposition technology and N719 dye as a sensitizer.

  6. Triphenylamine based organic dyes for dye sensitized solar cells: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohankumar, V.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    The geometry, electronic structure and absorption spectra for newly designed triphenylamine based organic dyes were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) with the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-parr(B3LYP) functional, where the 6-31G(d,p) basis set was employed. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 09 software package. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum was simulated by TD-DFT in gas phase. The calculation shows that all of the dyes can potentially be good sensitizers for DSSC. The LUMOs are just above the conduction band of TiO2 and their HOMOs are under the reduction potential energy of the electrolytes (I-/I3-) which can facilitate electron transfer from the excited dye to TiO2 and charge regeneration process after photo oxidation respectively. The simulated absorption spectrum of dyes match with solar spectrum. Frontier molecular orbital results show that among all the three dyes, the "dye 3" can be used as potential sensitizer for DSSC.

  7. A Study on the Efficiency Improvement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) by Repeated Dye Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Eun Chang; Hong, Byungyou

    2015-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is being extensively investigated as the next generation energy source. Despite of the attractive features like simple fabrication process and its economic efficiency, there are some problems such as low efficiency, long fabrication time and low long-term stability. Conventionally, the dye adsorption on TiO2 photo-electrode film needs long time in the solvent with low concentration of dye to get the high efficiency. In this work, the dye coating process was considerably shortened, albeit plenty of dye was used comparing with the conventional way. Our needs were met for the best result in our working environment and the relevant conditions to our work were obtained, which were the coating temperature of 70 °C, the dye concentration of 10 mM and the coating time of 3 min. And this coating process was successively repeated several times to maximize the dye adsorption and to improve the cell efficiency. Therefore, the efficiency increased by 13% in the proper condition.

  8. A Study on a Solar Simulator for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC are emerging low-cost, simple alternatives to conventional solar cells. While there has been considerable study on improving the efficiency of DSSCs, there has not been sufficient research on a photovoltaic power conditioning system adaptable to DSSCs or on a solar simulator for DSSCs. When DSSCs are commercialized in the near future, the DSSC modules must be connected to an adaptable power conditioning system in order to manage the energy produced and provide a suitable interface to the load. In the process of developing a power conditioning system, a solar simulator with the characteristics of DSSCs is essential to show the performance of the maximum power point tracking. In this paper, a virtual DSSC is designed and simulated in PSIM. Irradiation factors, temperature and shadow effects are considered in dynamic link library block in PSIM which is linked to the external C routine. A 100 W converter is built to show the performance of a DSSC as the solar simulator controlled by a digital signal processor.

  9. Molecular Design of D-Tr-A Type II Organic Sensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士锋; 杨希川; 瞿定峰; 王维瀚; 王瑜; 孙立成

    2012-01-01

    Four new type II organic dyes with D-n-A structure (donor-n-conjugated-acceptor) and two typical type II sen- sitizers based on catechol as reference dyes are synthesized and applied in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The four dyes can be adsorbed on TiO2 through hydroxyl group directly. Electron injection can occur not only through the anchoring group (hydroxyl group) but also through the electron-withdrawing group (-CN) located close to the semiconductor surface. Experimental results show that the type II sensitizers with a D-π-A system obviously out- perform the typical type II sensitizers providing much higher conversion efficiency due to the strong electronic push-pull effect. Among these dyes, LS223 gives the best solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.6%, with Jsc = 7.3 mAocm 2, Voc=0.69 V, FF=0.71, the maximum IPCE value reaches 74.9%.

  10. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  11. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  12. Modulation of π-spacer of carbazole-carbazole based organic dyes toward high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpakdee, Chirawat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich; Kungwan, Nawee; Namuangruk, Supawadee

    2017-03-01

    The effects of type and position of π-linker in carbazole-carbazole based dyes on their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated by DFT and TDDFT methods. The calculated electronic energy level, electron density composition, charge injection and charge recombination properties were compared with those of the high performance CCT3A dye synthesized recently. It is found that that mixing a benzothiadizole (B) unit with two thiophene (T) units in the π-spacer can greatly shift absorption wavelength to near infrared region and enhance the light harvesting efficiency (LHE) resulting in increasing of short-circuit current density (Jsc), whereas a thienothiophene unit does not affect those properties. However, a B should be not directly connected to the anchoring group of the dye because it brings electrolyte to the TiO2 surface which may increase charge recombination rate and consequently decrease open circuit voltage (Voc). This work shows how type and position of the π-linker affect the performance of DSSCs, and how to modulate those properties. We predicted that the designed dye derived from insertion of the B unit in between the two T units would have higher performance than CCT3A dye. The insight understanding from this study is useful for further design of higher performance dyes by molecular engineering.

  13. Near infrared organic semiconducting materials for bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Sharma, G D

    2014-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. This account describes the emering class of near infrared (NIR) organic polymers and small molecules having donor and acceptors units, and explores their potential applications in the DSSCs and BHJ solar cells.

  14. Low Sheet Resistance Counter Electrode in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Qiang WANG; Rui Feng LIN; Miao WANG; Chang Neng ZHANG; Yuan LIN; Xu Rui XIAO; Xue Ping LI

    2004-01-01

    In order to search for the high efficiency and low sheet resistance counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell, we used Ti plate as the conducting substrate to prepare the counter electrode by thermal decomposition of H2PtCl6. Ti plate counter electrode shows low sheet resistance, good reflecting performance and matching kinetics. The dye-sensitized solar cell with the Ti plate counter electrode shows better photovoltaic performance than that of the cell with the fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass counter electrode.

  15. Dyes and Redox Couples with Matched Energy Levels: Elimination of the Dye-Regeneration Energy Loss in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dianlu; Darabedian, Narek; Ghazarian, Sevak; Hao, Yuanqiang; Zhgamadze, Maxim; Majaryan, Natalie; Shen, Rujuan; Zhou, Feimeng

    2015-11-16

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a significant dye-regeneration force (ΔG(reg)(0)≥0.5 eV) is usually required for effective dye regeneration, which results in a major energy loss and limits the energy-conversion efficiency of state-of-art DSSCs. We demonstrate that when dye molecules and redox couples that possess similar conjugated ligands are used, efficient dye regeneration occurs with zero or close-to-zero driving force. By using Ru(dcbpy)(bpy)2(2+) as the dye and Ru(bpy)2(MeIm)2(3+//2+) as the redox couple, a short-circuit current (J(sc)) of 4 mA cm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.9 V were obtained with a ΔG(reg)(0) of 0.07 eV. The same was observed for the N3 dye and Ru(bpy)2(SCN)2(1+/0) (ΔG(reg)(0)=0.0 eV), which produced an J(sc) of 2.5 mA cm(-2) and V(oc) of 0.6 V. Charge recombination occurs at pinholes, limiting the performance of the cells. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that high V(oc) values can be attained by significantly curtailing the dye-regeneration force.

  16. The effects of anodization parameters on titania nanotube arrays and dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z. B.; Adams, S.; Blackwood, D. J.; Wang, J.

    2008-10-01

    Ordered, closely packed, and vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays with lengths exceeding 10 µm were fabricated by anodization of titanium foils. The effects of anodization voltage and time on the microstructural morphology and the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on the titania nanotube arrays were investigated. On increasing the anodization voltage or time, the increase in active surface area leads to enhanced photovoltaic currents and thereby an overall higher performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency enhancement with rising anodization voltage exceeds the increase in the outer surface area of the nanotubes, indicating that the active surface area is further enlarged by a more accessible inner surface of the nanotube arrays grown with a higher anodization voltage. A promising efficiency of 3.67% for dye sensitized solar cells based on anodized titania nanotube arrays was achieved under AM1.5, 100 mW cm-2 illumination.

  17. The effects of anodization parameters on titania nanotube arrays and dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z B; Adams, S; Blackwood, D J; Wang, J [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)], E-mail: msexz@nus.edu.sg

    2008-10-08

    Ordered, closely packed, and vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays with lengths exceeding 10 {mu}m were fabricated by anodization of titanium foils. The effects of anodization voltage and time on the microstructural morphology and the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on the titania nanotube arrays were investigated. On increasing the anodization voltage or time, the increase in active surface area leads to enhanced photovoltaic currents and thereby an overall higher performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency enhancement with rising anodization voltage exceeds the increase in the outer surface area of the nanotubes, indicating that the active surface area is further enlarged by a more accessible inner surface of the nanotube arrays grown with a higher anodization voltage. A promising efficiency of 3.67% for dye sensitized solar cells based on anodized titania nanotube arrays was achieved under AM1.5, 100 mW cm{sup -2} illumination.

  18. Organic dyes with intense light absorption especially suitable for application in thin-layer dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, Alessio; Calamante, Massimo; Mordini, Alessandro; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Basosi, Riccardo; Fabrizi de Biani, Fabrizia; Taddei, Maurizio; Colonna, Daniele; Di Carlo, Aldo; Reginato, Gianna; Zani, Lorenzo

    2014-11-21

    Three new thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole-based organic dyes have been designed and synthesized for employment as DSSC sensitizers. Alternation of the electron poor thiazolothiazole unit with two propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) groups ensured very intense light absorption in the visible region (ε up to 9.41 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) in THF solution). The dyes were particularly suitable for application in transparent and opaque thin-layer DSSCs (TiO2 thickness: 5.5-6.5 μm, efficiencies up to 7.71%), thus being good candidates for production of solar cells under simple fabrication conditions.

  19. Patterned 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes as alternative electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan; Jennings, James R; Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Qing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2011-11-21

    We describe the application of 3-dimensional metal grid electrodes (3D-MGEs) as electron collectors in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a replacement for fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes. Requirements, structure, advantages, and limitations of the metal grid electrodes are discussed. Solar conversion efficiencies of 6.2% have been achieved in 3D-MGE based solar cells, comparable to that fabricated on FTO (7.1%). The charge transport properties and collection efficiencies in these novel solar cells have been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  20. Solid State Dye Solar Cells with Metallic Regenerators towards devices with enhanced active area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzmann, F.O.; Olson, C.; Pichon, P.Y.; Heurtault, B.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Budel, T. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, NL-1755 LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    In an alternative approach to solid state dye solar cells a molecular dye is situated at the interface between a TiO2 film and a metallic (Au) film. In a proof of principle with flat model devices, we have shown earlier that the Au layer efficiently regenerates the charge-neutral state of the dye upon electron injection into the TiO2 conduction band under illumination. For practically more relevant devices an increased active area is required for enhanced current output. A specially adapted TiO2 morphology with nanotubular morphology can minimize reflection losses from the metallic regenerator. In this paper the preparation of such films on transparent SnO2:F-coated glass substrates by electrochemical anodization of titanium layers is described. The focus is on preparative parameters with direct influence on film properties relevant to the application in solid-state dye solar cells (transparency and mechanical integrity of the layers)

  1. Co-adsorbents: a key component in efficient and robust dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthou, Victoria S; Pefkianakis, Eleftherios K; Falaras, Polycarpos; Vougioukalakis, Georgios C

    2015-02-01

    Since the establishment of dye-sensitized solar cells in the early '90s, both the efficiency and stability of these third generation photovoltaics have been greatly enhanced. Nevertheless, there still exist many unwanted processes that impede operation of dye-sensitized solar cells, encumbering the achievement of the maximum theoretical power conversion efficiency and decreasing the devices' long-term operation. These processes include charge recombination, dye aggregation, dye desorption, and high protonation degrees of the semiconductor's surface. This Minireview focuses on a powerful strategy developed to address these problems, namely the use of co-adsorbents. All types of co-adsorbents utilized thus far are categorized in terms of the chemical identity of their anchoring group; in addition their operational mechanisms are presented and the properties that a functional molecule should possess to be applied as an efficient co-adsorbent are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-07-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism.

  3. Effects of dye adsorption on the electron transport properties in ZnO-nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jih-Jen; Chen, Guan-Ren; Yang, Hung-Hsien; Ku, Chen-Hao; Lai-Yuan, Jr.

    2007-05-01

    Mercurochrome and N3 dyes are employed to be the sensitizers in the ZnO-nanowire (NW) dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A lower fill factor is obtained in the N3-sensitized cell which results in comparable efficiencies in both ZnO-NW DSSCs although the N3 molecules possess a wider absorptive range for light harvesting. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit photovoltage decay measurements are employed to investigate the electron transport properties in both ZnO-NW DSSCs. The results indicate that more abundant electron interfacial recombination occurs in the N3-sensitized ZnO-NW DSSC due to the higher surface trap density in the ZnO-NW photoanode after N3 dye adsorption.

  4. Perylene anhydride fused porphyrins as near-infrared sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-07-15

    Two perylene anhydride fused porphyrins 1 and 2 have been synthesized and employed successfully in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both compounds showed broad incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra covering the entire visible spectral region and even extending into the near-infrared (NIR) region up to 1000 nm, which is impressive for ruthenium-free dyes in DSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Qu; Chao Lai

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summa...

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Porous CdS/Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abdulelah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are fabricated from porous cadmium sulfide (CdS nanocrystalline thin films. The porous CdS nanostructured thin films are deposited onto FTO/glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD method. The surface morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the prepared nanocrystalline thin films are investigated. Rhodamine B, Malachite green, Eosin methylene blue, and Cresyl violet dyes are used to fabricate the DSSC devices. Comparing the absorption spectra of porous CdS nanocrystalline films, all dyes show an absorption peak in the transparent range of CdS thin films indicating that they are suitable for the preparation of DSSCs with CdS. Current-voltage (I-V characteristics show that the solar cell that is fabricated using Malachite green dye shows the highest conversion efficiency of 0.83% while using Rhodamine B dye produces a solar cell with lowest efficiency of 0.38%. However, heat treatment of the fabricated solar cells causes significant enhancement in the output of all devices.

  7. Mechanism of degradation of electrolyte solutions for dye-sensitized solar cells under ultraviolet light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shohei; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of the degradation of I-/I3--containing electrolyte solutions for dye-sensitized solar cells under UV light irradiation. The yellow electrolyte solutions underwent achromatization during irradiation, indicating the reduction of I3-. We propose a mechanism involving the production of holes in TiO2, reaction of the holes with solvent molecules, and subsequent reduction of I3- by electrons remaining in the TiO2. Although the quantum yield of the photodegradation reaction is estimated to be low (3 × 10-3), this reaction can nevertheless be expected to affect the long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cell devices.

  8. Fabrications of electrospun nanofibers containing inorganic fillers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Keun; Hwang, Won-Pill; Seo, Min-Hye; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra

    2014-08-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers containing inorganic fillers were fabricated by electrospinning. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using these nanofibers showed improved short circuit currents without degraded fill factors or open circuit voltages. The long-term stabilities of cells using electrospun PVDF-HFP/titanium isopropoxide (TIP) nanofibers were significantly improved.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drygała A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the carbon nanotubes counter electrode deposited on the FTO glass substrates on the structure and optoelectrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells counter electrode (CE was analysed. Carbon materials have been applied in DSSC s in order to produce low-cost solar cells with reasonable efficiency. Platinum is a preferred material for the counter electrode because of its high conductivity and catalytic activity. However, the costs of manufacturing of the platinum counter electrode limit its use to large-scale applications in solar cells. This paper presents the results of examining the structure and properties of the studied layers, defining optical properties of conductive layers and electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells manufactured with the use of carbon nanotubes.

  10. Fine tuning of fluorene-based dye structures for high-efficiency p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zonghao; Li, Wenhui; Topa, Sanjida; Xu, Xiaobao; Zeng, Xianwei; Zhao, Zhixin; Wang, Mingkui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Feng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; He, Hongshan

    2014-07-09

    We report on an experimental study of three organic push-pull dyes (coded as zzx-op1, zzx-op1-2, and zzx-op1-3) featuring one, two, and three fluorene units as spacers between donors and acceptors for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSC). The results show increasing the number of spacer units leads to obvious increases of the absorption intensity between 300 nm and 420 nm, a subtle increase in hole driving force, and almost the same hole injection rate from dyes to NiO nanoparticles. Under optimized conditions, the zzx-op1-2 dye with two fluorene spacer units outperforms other two dyes in p-DSSC. It exhibits an unprecedented photocurrent density of 7.57 mA cm(-2) under full sun illumination (simulated AM 1.5G light illumination, 100 mW cm(-2)) when the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple and commercial NiO nanoparticles were used as an electrolyte and a semiconductor, respectively. The cells exhibited excellent long-term stability. Theoretical calculations, impedance spectroscopy, and transient photovoltage decay measurements reveal that the zzx-op1-2 exhibits lower photocurrent losses, longer hole lifetime, and higher photogenerated hole density than zzx-op1 and zzx-op1-3. A dye packing model was proposed to reveal the impact of dye aggregation on the overall photovoltaic performance. Our results suggest that the structural engineering of organic dyes is important to enhance the photovoltaic performance of p-DSSC.

  11. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays that are transferred onto ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate substrates using a simple peel-off process. The solar cells demonstrate an energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% with good bending tolerance. This technique paves a new route for building large-scale cost-effective flexible photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

  12. Efficiency Investigation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we synthesized ZnO nanowires in dye sensitized solar cells. The nanowires have been fabricated using fast-microwave-hydrothermal process.We verify the effects of different lengths of ZnO nanowires on efficiency and absorptionofdye sensitized solar cells. J–V curves of the fabricated ZnO nanowire-based mercurochrome-sensitized solar cellsindicated that the short-circuit current density wouldincrease with increasing the length of nanowires.We also fabricate more efficient N719-sensitized solar cellsand investigate the effect of different length of Zno nanowires on the efficiency.

  13. Alternative materials and processing techniques for optimized nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Judy N; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Simon, George P; Spiccia, Leone

    2008-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent an exciting application of nanotechnology and offer an appealing alternative to conventional solar cells based on photovoltaic devices, with significantly reduced production and material costs. However, further improvements are required to enhance the commercial viability of these solar cells. These improvements may be achieved through the careful manipulation of the structure at the nanoscale and the application of novel processing techniques, which may help to increase the efficiency of these solar cells, improve the ease of manufacture and allow the production of flexible, solid-state solar cells. For example, the use of a nanometre-thick coating of an insulating oxide over the semiconducting film in these solar cells may reduce recombination losses. Also, selective heating techniques such as microwave heating may assist in the production of efficient solar cells on polymer, rather than glass, substrates, by allowing a rapid heat treatment to be applied to the titanium dioxide film at a higher temperature than would be possible with conventional heating. Some novel approaches to the production of semiconducting thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells, as well as the use of alternative materials and nanostructures, are reviewed.

  14. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency by anode surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao-Hsuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hsin-Han [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chin-Cheng [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hong, Franklin C.-N., E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, titanium substrates treated with HF solution and KOH solution sequentially forming micro- and nano-structures were used for the fabrication of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After wet etching treatments, the titanium substrates were then exposed to the O{sub 2} plasma treatment and further immersed in titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) solution. The process conditions for producing a very thin TiO{sub 2} blocking layer were studied, in order to avoid solar cell current leakage for increasing the solar cell efficiency. Subsequently, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were spin-coated on Ti substrates with varied thickness. The dye-sensitized solar cells on the titanium substrates were subjected to simulate AM 1.5 G irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} using backside illumination mode. Surface treatments of Ti substrate and TiO{sub 2} anode were found to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of DSSC. The efficiencies of the backside illumination solar cells were raised from 4.6% to 7.8% by integrating these surface treatments. - Highlights: • The flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device can be fabricated. • Many effective surface treatment methods to improve DSSC efficiency are elucidated. • The efficiency is dramatically enhanced by integrating surface treatment methods. • The back-illuminated DSSC efficiency was raised from 4.6% to 7.8%.

  15. Modeling materials and processes in dye-sensitized solar cells: understanding the mechanism, improving the efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of recent first-principles computational modeling studies on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), focusing on the materials and processes modeling aspects which are key to the functioning of this promising class of photovoltaic devices. Crucial to the DSCs functioning is the photoinduced charge separation occurring at the heterointerface(s) between a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline, mesoporous metal oxide electrode and a redox shuttle. Theoretical and computational modeling of isolated cell components (e.g., dye, semiconductor nanoparticles, redox shuttle, etc…) as well as of combined dye/semiconductor/redox shuttle systems can successfully assist the experimental research by providing basic design rules of new sensitizers and a deeper comprehension of the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing the cell functioning and its performances. A computational approach to DSCs modeling can essentially be cast into a stepwise problem, whereby one first needs to simulate accurately the individual DSCs components to move to relevant pair (or higher order) interactions characterizing the device functioning. This information can contribute to enhancing further the target DSCs characteristics, such as temporal stability and optimization of device components. After presenting selected results for isolated dyes, including the computational design of new dyes, and model semiconductors, including realistic nanostructure models, we focus in the remainder of this review on the interaction between dye-sensitizers and semiconductor oxides, covering organic as well as metallorganic dyes.

  16. The function of a TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating "planar" organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Anthony; Ito, Seigo; Snaith, Henry; Bach, Udo; Kwiatkowski, Joe; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-04-01

    We present a device based study into the operation of liquid electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) using organic dyes. We find that, for these systems, it is entirely necessary to employ a compact TiO2 layer between the transparent fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) anode and the electrolyte in order to reduce charge recombination losses. By incorporation of a compact layer, the device efficiency can be increased by over 160% under simulated full sun illumination and more than doubled at lower light intensities. This is strong evidence that the more widely employed ruthenium based sensitizers act as to "insulate" the anode against recombination losses and that many planar organic dyes employed in DSSC's could greatly benefit from the use of a compact TiO2 blocking layer. This is in strong contrast to DSSC's sensitized with ruthenium based systems, where the introduction of compact TiO2 has only marginal effects on conversion efficiencies.

  17. Hierarchical structured TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yen-Chen; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-04-01

    A novel approach has been developed to fabricate hills-like hierarchical structured TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The appropriately aggregated TiO2 clusters in the photoanode layer could cause stronger light scattering and higher dye loading that increases the efficiency of photovoltaic device. For detailed light-harvesting study, different molecular weights of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as binders for TiO2 nanoparticles (P-25 Degussa) aggregation. A series of TiO2 films with dissimilar morphology, the reflection of TiO2 films, absorbance of attached dye, amount of dye loading, and performance of fabricated DSSC devices, were measured and investigated. An optimized device had energy conversion efficiency of 4.47% having a higher dye loading and good light harvesting, achieving a 23% increase of short-circuit current J(sc) in DSSCs.

  18. Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on Flower-like ZnO Nanoparticles as Photoanode and Natural Dye as Photosensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    G.P. Agus Sumiarna; Irmansyah; Akhiruddin Maddu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper was reported the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing flower-like ZnO nanoparticle as photoanode and natural dye (anthocyanin) extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl) fruit as photosensitizer. Anthocyanin dye extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl) fruit shows a wide range of absorption spectra covering from 400 nm to 600 nm, which suitable for application as sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cell. Flower-like ZnO was synthesized by precipitation metho...

  19. Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on Flower-like ZnO Nanoparticles as Photoanode and Natural Dye as Photosensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    G.P. Agus Sumiarna; Irmansyah, [No Value; Akhiruddin Maddu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper was reported the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing flower-like ZnO nanoparticle as photoanode and natural dye (anthocyanin) extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl) fruit as photosensitizer. Anthocyanin dye extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl) fruit shows a wide range of absorption spectra covering from 400 nm to 600 nm, which suitable for application as sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cell. Flower-like ZnO was synthesized by precipitation metho...

  20. Review on nanostructured semiconductors for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, T.

    2012-06-01

    Nanostructured semiconductors with different morphologies are used widely in various applications in order to enhance their technological advancements compared with the bulk sample. This flourishing nanoscience field has enabled rapid developments that have created numerous opportunities for scienctific advancements with various devices. Considering large environmental impacts such as global warming, problems of nuclear waste storage and nuclear accidents, there is an urgent need for environmentally sustainable energy technologies such as solar cells and fuel cells. In the present paper, the role of nanostructured semiconductors in dyesensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reviewed entensively. The review discusses the present developmental prospects of DSSCs and the problems associated with its layer materials and propose a method of overcoming these problems.

  1. The application of electrospun titania nanofibers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysova, Hana; Zukal, Arnost; Trckova-Barakova, Jana; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Kavan, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Titania nanofibers were fabricated using the industrial Nanospider(TM) technology. The preparative protocol was optimized by screening various precursor materials to get pure anatase nanofibers. Composite films were prepared by mixing a commercial paste of nanocrystalline anatase particles with the electrospun nanofibers, which were shortened by milling. The composite films were sensitized by Ru-bipyridine dye (coded C106) and the solar conversion efficiency was tested in a dye-sensitized solar cell filled with iodide-based electrolyte solution (coded Z960). The solar conversion efficiency of a solar cell with the optimized composite electrode (η = 7.53% at AM 1.5 irradiation) outperforms that of a solar cell with pure nanoparticle film (η = 5.44%). Still larger improvement was found for lower light intensities. At 10% sun illumination, the best composite electrode showed η = 7.04%, referenced to that of pure nanoparticle film (η = 4.69%). There are non-monotonic relations between the film's surface area, dye sorption capacity and solar performance of nanofiber-containing composite films, but the beneficial effect of the nanofiber morphology for enhancement of the solar efficiency has been demonstrated.

  2. Influence of polar solvents on photovoltaic performance of Monascusred dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Wook; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Shin; Lee, Suk-Ho; Park, Kyung Hee

    2014-05-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from Monascus red pigment as a sensitizer. In this work, we studied the adsorption characteristics for harvesting sunlight and the electrochemical behavior for electron transfer in Monascus red DSSC using different solvents. The effect of polar aprotic and protic solvents including water, ethanol, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) used in the sensitization process was investigated for the improvement in conversion efficiency of a cell. As for the Monascus red dye-sensitized electrode in DMSO solvent, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.23mA/cm(2), a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.75V, and a fill factor of 0.72, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.66%.

  3. Influence of polar solvents on photovoltaic performance of Monascusred dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Wook; Kim, Tae Young; Ko, Hyun Seok; Han, Shin; Lee, Suk-Ho; Park, Kyung Hee

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled using natural dyes extracted from Monascus red pigment as a sensitizer. In this work, we studied the adsorption characteristics for harvesting sunlight and the electrochemical behavior for electron transfer in Monascus red DSSC using different solvents. The effect of polar aprotic and protic solvents including water, ethanol, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) used in the sensitization process was investigated for the improvement in conversion efficiency of a cell. As for the Monascus red dye-sensitized electrode in DMSO solvent, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.75 V, and a fill factor of 0.72, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.66%.

  4. Influence of cell fabrication procedure on the performance of the dye sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, C Y; Munukutla, L V; Radhakrishnan, S; Kannan, A M; Htun, A

    2012-03-01

    The recent technological advancements of the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) fabrication technology is gaining momentum as a low cost and simple fabrication technology to convert solar energy into electric energy. A systematic study of the DSSC fabrication procedure and its influence on the cell efficiency are presented in this paper. Preparation of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer on the working electrode was the most significant process improvement made to enhance cell efficiency. The Coatema tool was used to develop an automated TiO2 coating process, which yielded layer thicknesses with minimum micro cracks and repeatable TiO2 weight loading in the range of 8-13 microm. Secondary process improvements implemented were: vacuum drying step for the TiO2 layer, dilution ratio of the sensitized dye and sealant thickness. These optimized cell fabrication steps enhanced cell efficiencies over 200% and reduced total process time. The work in progress demonstrated higher cell efficiency slightly greater than 9% by reducing the cell size using the optimized fabrication process described in this paper. We are confident that higher efficiency cells can be fabricated with this optimized fabrication process illustrated in this paper.

  5. Nicotinic acid as a new co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Phan, Thu Anh Pham; Le, Tan Nhut Van; Le, Duyen My; Le, Duy Dang; Tran, Vy Anh; Huynh, Tuan Van; Lund, Torben

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of introduction a new inexpensive co-adsorbent to improve solar cell performance, the influence of nicotinic acid (NTA) used as a co-adsorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated. The findings showed that low concentrations of NTA (optimized co-adsorbent concentration (1 mM NTA, 0.03 mM CDA, 0.015 mM OPA), the efficiency of the corresponding solar cells increased to the same extent. Specifically, the use of NTA at optimum concentration improved the efficiency of the resulting DSC from 3.14 to 5.02%.

  6. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-Qiang; HUANG Cong-Gong; XING Wei; ZHUO Shu-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical porous carbon is prepared by a combination of self-organization and chemical activation and explored as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.Pore structure analysis shows that micropores generated within the mesopore wall and the pristine mesopore structure of mesoporous carbon are preserved during KOH activation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies demonstrate a relatively high electrocatalytic activity of hierarchical porous carbon electrode for triiodide reduction, as compared with a pristine mesoporous carbon electrode. This enhanced electrocatalytic activity is beneficial for improving the photovoltaic performance of dyesensitized solar cells. The overall conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with the hierarchical porous carbon electrode increased by 11.5% compared with that of the cell with a pristine mesoporous carbon electrode.

  7. High efficiency dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells based on ionic liquid polymer gel electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Exnar, Ivan; Grätzel, Michael

    2002-12-21

    An ionic liquid polymer gel containing 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) has been employed as quasi-solid-state electrolyte in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells with an overall conversion efficiency of 5.3% at AM 1.5 illumination.

  8. See-through dye-sensitized solar cells: photonic reflectors for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P; Grätzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Tétreault, Nicolas

    2013-10-25

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

  9. Debundling and Selective Enrichment of SWNTs for Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bonaccorso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the recent developments in de-bundling and sorting of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs, which are useful for hi-tech applications in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Applications of SWNTs as transparent and conductive films, catalyst, and scaffold in DSSCs are also reviewed.

  10. Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanine / multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was prepared through non- covalent (Pi)p-(Pi)p stacking. The metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was later employed in dye solar cells as a photosensitiser of choice...

  11. TiO2 nanotube-based dye solar cell research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertically orientated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes hold great potential for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as they provide an unscathed, one-dimensional transport route for photo-generated charge carriers, thereby increasing...

  12. Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; West, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate...

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells and complexes between pyridines and iodines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Krake, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between triiodide (I3–) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (4TBP) as postulated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are investigated by means of 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy supported by DFT calculations. The charge transfer (CT) complex 4TBP∙I2 and potential salts such as (4TBP)2I+, I3– were s...

  14. Natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods assembly of broccoli shape based solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvapragasam, Akila; Muthukumarasamy, N; Agilan, S; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Senthil, T S; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2015-07-01

    TiO2 nanorods based thin films with rutile phase have been synthesized using template free low temperature hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the prepared TiO2 samples were made of TiO2 nanorods and the nanorods had arranged by itself to form a broccoli like shape. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the prepared TiO2 samples exhibit rutile phase. The grown TiO2 nanorods had been sensitized using the flowers of Sesbania (S) grandiflora, leaves of Camellia (C) sinensis and roots of Rubia (R) tinctorum. Dye sensitized solar cells had been fabricated using the natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods based thin film photoelectrode and the open circuit voltage and short circuit current density were found to lie in the range of 0.45-0.6 V and 5.6-6.4 mA/cm(2) respectively. The photovoltaic performance of all the fabricated natural dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells indicate that natural dyes have the potential to be used as effective sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells.

  15. Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Nanostructured TiO2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Erten-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free organic sensitizer consisting of donor, electron conducting, and anchoring anhydride groups was engineered at molecular level and synthesized. Dye sensitized solar cells based on conjugated naphthalene dye were fabricated using nanoporous electrode. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. DSSCs were fabricated in a FTO/nc-TiO2/organic dye/I-/I3-/Pt/FTO device geometry. Dye sensitized solar cell was characterized by current density-voltage (J-V measurement. All current-voltage (I-V measurements were done under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity and AM 1.5 conditions. The photovoltaic data revealed a short circuit photocurrent density of 1.86 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 430 mV, and a fill factor of 0.63, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 0.53%.

  16. Nanobeads of zinc oxide with rhodamine B dye as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, MS (India); Zhang, J.B. [Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, MS (India)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: > Synthesis of ZnO film was done at room temperature (27 deg. C). > Simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition method was employed. > The as deposited film consists of mixed phases of hydroxide and oxide. > The post annealing was done at 200 deg. C in order to remove hydroxide phase. > Low-cost, metal free Rhodamine B dye was used for DSSC application. - Abstract: Cost effective, ruthenium metal free rhodamine B dye has been chemically adsorbed on ZnO films consisting of nanobeads to serve as a photo anode in dye sensitized solar cells. These ZnO films were chemically synthesized at room temperature (27 deg. C) on to fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates followed by annealing at 200 deg. C. These films consisting of inter connected nanobeads (20-40 nm) which are due to the agglomeration of very small size particles (3-5 nm) leading to high surface area. The film shows wurtzite structure having high crystallinity with optical direct band gap of 3.3 eV. Optical absorbance measurements for rhodamine B dye covered ZnO film revealed the good coverage in the visible region (460-590 nm) of the solar spectrum. With poly-iodide liquid as an electrolyte, device exhibits photon to electric energy conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 1.26% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm{sup 2}.

  17. Photoelectrochemical Characterizations Of ZnO Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Baviskar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on organic dyes adsorbed on nano-particles of zinc oxide (ZnO electrode have received considerable attention because of their high incident solar light to power conversion efficiency and low production cost. Multiple organic dyes with different chemical structure have been developed so far. They have been tested for their photovoltaic performances with combinations of different photo-anodes. In order to produce efficient DSSCs, it is imperative to develop effective organic sensitizers. The sensitizers need to be optimized for the chemical structures to provide beneficial electron communication between a ZnO electrode and electrolyte for good light-harvesting future. . The current investigation focuses on synthesis of ZnO photo-anode by simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition method at room temperature, which can be potentially used for mass production. The photoelectrochemical characteristic of ZnO based DSSCs with liquid electrolyte as hole conductor & platinum as a counter electrode was also studied. Different types of dyes e.g. Rose Bengal (metal free and N3 (Ru-metal dyes were examined as sensitizers for ZnO based DSSCs. The photoelectrochemical characteris­tics were measured under simulated sunlight with the radiant power of 100 mW/cm2 at AM 1.5 (1 sun conditions. The photocurrent density versus photovoltage char­acteristics was measured with electrochemical analyzer (Potentiostat/Galvanostat. Moreover, two types of dyes (metallic and metal free were adsorbed on photoanode to examine its photoelectrochemical behavior. It was found that metal free Rose Bengal dye has better photoelectrochemical performance than N3 dye. The calculated efficiencies for ZnO based DSSCs are 0.34 % and 0.68 % for N3 and Rose Bengal dyes respectively with the structure FTO/ZnO/Dye/Electrolyte/Pt.

  18. Efficiency Investigations of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research study focuses upon the synthesis, characterization, and performances of optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic (hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells. Initially, polymer dye A was synthesized using condensation reaction between 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and polyethylenimine and was capped to ZnO nanoparticles. Size and morphology of polymer dye A capped ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using DLS, SEM, and XRD analysis. Further, the polymer dye was added to ruthenium metal complex (RuCl3 to form polymer-ruthenium composite dye B. Absorption and emission profiles of polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were further processed to solar cells using wet precipitation method under room temperature. The results of investigations revealed that, after addition of ruthenium chloride (RuCl3 metal complex dye, the light harvesting capacity of ZnO solar cell was enhanced compared to polymer dye A capped ZnO based solar cell. The polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO solar cell exhibited good photovoltaic performance with excellent cell parameters, that is, exciting open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short circuit current density (Jsc of 11.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.65. A maximum photovoltaic cell efficiency of 5.28% had been recorded under standard air mass (AM 1.5 simulated solar illuminations for polymer-ruthenium composite dye B based hybrid ZnO solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell was enhanced by 1.78% and 3.88% compared to polymer dye A (concentrated and polymer dye A (diluted capped ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. The hybrid organic/inorganic ZnO nanostructures can be implemented in a variety of optoelectronic applications in the future of clean and

  19. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP, and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  20. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chih-Ping; Yu, Pin-Feng; Wang, Jyhpyng; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Mu; Chen, Szu-yuan

    2016-08-01

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  1. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chih-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yu, Pin-Feng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyhpyng [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jiunn-Yuan [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Mu [SuperbIN Co., Ltd., Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  2. Molecular design of new hydrazone dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, characterization and DFT study

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.

    2012-07-01

    Three new sensitizers 2-{4-[2-(4-Nitrobenzylidene)hydrazino)]phenyl} ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (NBHPET), 2-{4-[2-p-Chlorobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}- ethylene-1,1,2-tri carbonitrile (CBHPET) and 2-{4-[2-p- Bromobenzylidenehydrazino] phenyl}ethylene-1,1,2-tricarbonitrile (BBHPET) have been synthesized. The dyes showed pronounced solvatochromic effects as the polarity of the solvents increased. The structures have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The torsion in E-isomer is smaller than Z-isomer and azo isomers. The highest occupied molecular orbitals are delocalized on whole molecule while lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are distributed on the tricarbonitrile. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies are above the conduction band of titanium dioxide, highest occupied molecular orbitals of the dyes are below the redox couple of new synthesized dyes and small energy gap revealed these dyes would be better sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fused-Thiophene Based Materials for Organic Photovoltaics and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Kumaresan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaics (OPVs and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have drawn great interest from both academics and industry, due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy at reasonable efficiencies. This review focuses on recent progress in molecular engineering and technological aspects of fused-thiophene-based organic dye molecules for applications in solar cells. Particular attention has been paid to the design principles and stability of these dye molecules, as well as on the effects of various electrolyte systems for DSSCs. Importantly, it has been found that incorporation of a fused-thiophene unit into the sensitizer has several advantages, such as red-shift of the intramolecular charge transfer band, tuning of the frontier molecular energy level, and improvements in both photovoltaic performance and stability. This work also examines the correlation between the physical properties and placement of fused-thiophene in the molecular structure with regard to their performance in OPVs and DSSCs.

  4. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  5. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  6. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Bi4Ti3O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 particles were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment and nanoporous thin films were prepared on conducting glass substrates. The structures and morphologies of the samples were examined with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Significant absorbance spectra emerged in visible region which indicated the efficient sensitization of Bi4Ti3O12 with N3 dye. Surface photovoltaic properties of the samples were investigated by surface photovoltage. The results further indicate that N3 can extend the photovoltaic response range of Bi4Ti3O12 nanoparticles to the visible region, which shows potential application in dye-sensitized solar cell. As a working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, the overall efficiency reached 0.48% after TiO2 modification.

  7. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiros, M. A.; Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Guimarães, F.; Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO2 film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO2 electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO2 films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO2 films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO2 films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  8. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guimarães, F. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LGM/UCTM, Rua da Amieira, Apartado 1089, 4466-901 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO{sub 2} film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO{sub 2} electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO{sub 2} films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO{sub 2} films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  9. Density Functional Theory (DFT Study of Coumarin-based Dyes Adsorbed on TiO2 Nanoclusters—Applications to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai A. Gîrţu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin-based dyes have been successfully used in dye-sensitized solar cells, leading to photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of up to about 8%. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dye adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT studies of several coumarin-based dyes, as well as complex systems consisting of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster. We provide the electronic structure and simulated UV-Vis spectra of the dyes alone and adsorbed to the cluster and discuss the matching with the solar spectrum. We display the energy level diagrams and the electron density of the key molecular orbitals and analyze the electron transfer from the dye to the oxide. Finally, we compare our theoretical results with the experimental data available and discuss the key issues that influence the device performance.

  10. The electronic structure engineering of organic dye sensitizers for solar cells: The case of JK derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Rong; Ma, Jin-Gang; Zhe, Jian-Wu; Jin, Neng-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Lin; Wu, You-Zhi; Chen, Yu-Hong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Shan

    2015-11-05

    The design and development of novel dye sensitizers are effective method to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because dye sensitizers have significant influence on photo-to-current conversion efficiency. In the procedure of dye sensitizer design, it is very important to understand how to tune their electronic structures and related properties through the substitution of electronic donors, acceptors, and conjugated bridges in dye sensitizers. Here, the electronic structures and excited-state properties of organic JK dye sensitizers are calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT methods. Based upon the calculated results, we investigated the role of different electronic donors, acceptors, and π-conjugated bridges in the modification of electronic structures, absorption properties, as well as the free energy variations for electron injection and dye regeneration. In terms of the analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals, the effective chromophores which are favorable for electron injection in DSSCs are addressed. Meanwhile, considering the absorption spectra and free energy variation, the promising electronic donors, π-conjugated bridges, and acceptors are presented to design dye sensitizers.

  11. Kinetic competition in liquid electrolyte and solid-state cyanine dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatay, S.; Gavina, P. [ICMol-UV, Poligono Industrial La Coma s/n, Paterna (Spain); Haque, S.A.; O' Regan, B.C.; Durrant, J.R. [Centre for Electronic Materials and Devices, Chemistry Department, Imperial College, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vidal-Ferran, A. [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Palomares, E. [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia ICIQ, Avgda, Paysos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Verhees, W.J.H.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-08-15

    The photovoltaic performance of liquid electrolyte and solid-state dye sensitized solar cells, employing a squarilium methoxy cyanide dye, are evaluated in terms of interfacial electron transfer kinetics. Dye adsorption to the metal oxide film resulted in a mixed population of aggregated and monomeric sensitizer dyes. Emission quenching data, coupled with transient absorption studies, indicate that efficient electron injection was only achieved by the monomeric dyes, with the aggregated dye population having an injection yield an order of magnitude lower. In liquid electrolyte devices, transient absorption studies indicate that photocurrent generation is further limited by slow kinetics of the regeneration of monomeric dye cations by the iodide/iodine redox couple. The regeneration dynamics are observed to be too slow ( 100 {mu}s) to compete effectively with the recombination of injected electrons with dye cations. In contrast, for solid-state devices employing the organic hole conductor spiro-OMeTAD, the regeneration dynamics are fast enough (1{mu}s) to compete effectively with this recombination reaction, resulting in enhanced photocurrent generation.

  12. Role of Dyestuff in Improving Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Selim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs have attracted great attention for their simple fabrication process, low production costs, relatively high conversion efficiency, and being environmental friendly.DSSC are a combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a electrode.DSSCs use organic dye assist to produce electricity in a wide range of light conditions, indoors and outdoors.The dye in the solar cell is the key element since it is responsible for light harvesting ability, photoelectron generation (the creation of free charges after injection of electrons into the nanostructured semi-conducting oxide and electron transfer.For this reason, this paper gives a background of dyestuff, types and limitations. The motivation of this work is to design a simple, easy and prepare an efficient organic dye sensitizer.Also, this paper investigates the important criteria which are considered for selecting dye to enhance DSSC efficiency. 

  13. Hybrid AgNP–TiO2 thin film based photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayraj V. Vaghasiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses two major issues in the plasmonic dye solar cell; (i protection of plasmonic nanoparticles from electrolyte attack and (ii design of appropriate molecular dye to harvest photon near the plasmonic resonance. This report reveals the synthesis of D-π-A carbazole dye and incorporation of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs into TiO2 film using Ag–TiO2 gel. We have designed and synthesized an efficient D-π-A carbazole dye molecule whose absorption maxima matches the plasmonic resonance of AgNPs leading to augmented near field effect, enhancing photon harvesting property of dye molecule. This article also describes a strategy to incorporate AgNPs into the TiO2 photoelectrode by Ag–TiO2 gel. The plasmonic photoanode was characterized using SEM and optical spectroscopy. Dye solar cells were characterized by J–V characteristics and electrochemical impedance technique in order to take insight into photovoltaic performance and electron transfer kinetic. This engineered DSSC achieves 45% enhancement in current due to the plasmon enhanced near field effect at thin film (3 μm.

  14. Buffer Layers May Reduce Recombination in Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J.; Brennan, T.; Bakke, J.; Bent, S.

    2009-12-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell is a new and renewable energy device that aims to compete with conventional fuels with its low cost and ease to manufacture. While the efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells are improving, they are not yet cost-competitive with current energy sources such as coal. Our project focuses on improving the efficiency of these organic solar cells by adding a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in between the electron donor, a dye called Z907, and the semiconductor, nanoporous titania (TiO2). This SAM will theoretically reduce an unfavorable process called recombination, in which the light-excited electrons fall from their high-energy state directly back into the dye or hole-transport medium, instead of flowing through the circuit. The SAM molecules that we are using have a phosphonic acid head which should bind readily to the TiO2, and an amine group tail to tether the dye. To deposit the SAMs, the phosphonic acids are first dissolved in an organic solvent with the help of either acid (HCl) or base (KOH). We used Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to see what differences there were between acidic and basic deposition. FTIR analysis showed greater attachment of SAMs using acidic solutions rather than basic solutions for two out of the three SAMs. In the third, deposition was fairly even. By developing a reliable procedure to deposit SAMs onto titania, we will be able to more accurately test the effects of SAMs on dye-sensitized solar cells. This could improve the efficiencies of these organic devices and possibly offer a greener and cost-competitive alternative to fossil fuels.

  15. Nano-TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraton, Marie-Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaics are amongst the most popular renewable energy sources and low-cost solar cell technologies are making progress to the market. Research on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) usually based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has been extensively pursued, and the number of papers and patents published in this area has grown exponentially over the last ten years. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the TiO2 nanocrystalline electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size and shape, crystallinity, surface morphology and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters to be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. This article will review the most recent research activities on nanostructured TiO2 for improvement of the DSSC performance.

  16. Single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Te; Hsiao, Ching-Lun; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Hsiang-An; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Lin, Heh-Nan

    2010-10-01

    This study reports the use of single-crystalline and well-aligned ZnO nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. The ZnO nanowires are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates without catalysts by thermal evaporation. In spite of low roughness factors of around 25 for the nanowire photoanodes, the fabricated solar cells yield power conversion efficiencies of around 1.3% under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) illumination. Moreover, fill factors of around 0.5 have been achieved and are relatively high when compared with reported values from ZnO nanowire photoanodes. The results reveal the advantage of using single-crystalline nanowires as photoanode material and provide clues for the advancement of nanowire based dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. Block copolymer directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of TiO2 plays an important role in the operation of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. By using polyisoprene-block- ethyleneoxide (PI-b-PEO) copolymers as structure directing agents for a sol-gel based synthesis of mesoporous TiO2, we demonstrate a strategy for the detailed control of the semiconductor morphology on the 10 nm length scale. The careful adjustment of polymer molecular weight and titania precursor content is used to systematically vary the material structure and its influence upon solar cell performance is investigated. Furthermore, the use of a partially sp 2 hybridized structure directing polymer enables the crystallization of porous TiO2 networks at high temperatures without pore collapse, improving its performance in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Efficiency Investigation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Afifi; Mohammad Kazem Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesized ZnO nanowires in dye sensitized solar cells. The nanowires have been fabricated using fast-microwave-hydrothermal process.We verify the effects of different lengths of ZnO nanowires on efficiency and absorptionofdye sensitized solar cells. J–V curves of the fabricated ZnO nanowire-based mercurochrome-sensitized solar cellsindicated that the short-circuit current density wouldincrease with increasing the length of nanowires.We also fabricate more efficient N719-se...

  19. Study of Light Harvesting Properties of Different Classes of Metal-Free Organic Dyes in TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dye-sensitized solar cells, the photosensitization of TiO2 thin film semiconductor was accomplished by using different classes of metal-free (fluorone, triarymethane, azo and thiazine based organic dyes as photosensitizer. The broad electronic absorption spectra of these dyes have been obtained in the visible region due to the presence of chromophoric groups in these dyes. The contribution of these dyes as light harvesting species is seen from the photocurrent action spectrum of the cell. Here, we report the sensitization activity of these dyes in terms of current-potential curve, open-circuit potential, fill factor, IPCE, and overall solar energy conversion efficiency which have been evaluated under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. The results suggest that dyes based on fluorone and azo groups are promising candidates for high performance, dye-sensitized solar cells because of better anchoring groups (–COOH, –OH, and –SO3- present in these dyes. Better anchorage of dyes to the surface of TiO2 semiconductor helps in charge transfer phenomenon.

  20. Altering the self-organization of dyes on titania with dyeing solvents to tune the charge-transfer dynamics of sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinglin; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Renzhi; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2014-04-14

    Herein we selected the model organic donor-acceptor dye C218 and modulated the self-organization of dye molecules on the surface of titania by changing the dyeing solvent from chlorobenzene to a mixture of acetonitrile and tert-butanol. We further unveiled the relationship between the microstructure of a dye layer and the multichannel charge-transfer dynamics that underlie the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Dyes Extracted from Safflower, Medicago Sativa, and Ros Marinus Oficinalis as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Taya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three extracts of plant leaves were used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. These plants are Safflower, Medicago sativa and Ros marinus oficinalis. The natural dyes were extracted before and after grinding the plant leaves. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the three extracts in ethyl alcohol solution were measured. The DSSCs were assembled using TiO2 films on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO coated glass. The DSSCs sensitized with the extracts of grinded leaves showed a better performance compared to those sensitized with un-grinded leaves with the highest efficiency of 0.115 % was obtained for the DSSC sensitized with Medicago sativa. The performance of the DSSCs sensitized with Safflower and Ros marinus oficinalis was significantly improved by acid treatment of the FTO substrates. Impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  2. Fabrication of dye solar cell on flexible substrate using ITO-PEN film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    Dye solar cell based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has the potential to reach low cost in future indoor power applications. To realize its application for powering the electrical appliances, dye solar cell (DSC) must be made mechanically robust and flexible where indium-doped tin oxide (ITO-PEN) film substrate will be used as the working electrode. In terms of fabrication process, the ITO-PEN film is easier to handle in a process such as cutting of larger film sheet into smaller individual modules or cell. Moreover the processing of the film into complete flexible solar cells can be realized by means of a continuous roll to roll production process. The paper reports the study on the fabrication of dye solar cell on the flexible ITO-PEN. Here, the temperature constraint in the sintering process is addressed by using low temperature of 150°C and further enhanced with direct heat on the photo-electrode at 140°C to achieve a good bonding between the ITO and the deposited TiO2 film. The TiO2 coated ITO-PEN substrate was then soaked in commercial N719 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with AM1.5 solar simulator. The fabricated flexible ITO-PEN DSC test cell was found to have an efficiency of 2.1% which is comparatively lower to DSC cell based on TCO rigid glass. This is attributed to the overall higher internal resistance of TiO2 film as a result of incomplete decomposition of ethyl cellulose at low sintering temperature.

  3. Quantum Dot-Dye Bilayer-Sensitized Solar Cells: Breaking the Limits Imposed by the Low Absorbance of Dye Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Menny; Albero, Josep; Tachan, Zion; Martínez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Zaban, Arie; Palomares, Emilio

    2010-04-01

    Here, we present a new DSSC design, consisting of sequential QDs and dye sensitization layers, that opens the path toward high optical density DSSCs that cover a significant part of the solar spectrum. The new configuration is enabled by the application of an amorphous TiO2 layer between the two sensitizers, allowing both electron injection from the outer absorber and fast hole extraction from the inner sensitizing layer. Utilizing two sensitizing layers, we obtain a 250% increase in cell efficiency compared to a QD monolayer cell.

  4. Potential development in dye-sensitized solar cells for renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy

    2013-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic technology is expected to solve problems related to energy shortages and environmental pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels. Dye-sensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs) are promising next-generation alternatives to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices owing to their low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. This special topic volume addresses recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. The focus of this special topic volume is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte),

  5. Review on development of electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the prototype of a dye-sensitized solar cell(DSSC)was reported in 1991 by M. Gratzel,it has aroused intensive interest over the past decade due to its low cost and simple preparation procedure.The typical cell consists of a dye-coated mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO_2 film sandwiched between two transparent electroldes.A liquid electrolyte,traditionally containing the trioidide/iodide redox couple,fills the pores of the mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO_2 film and contacts the nanoparticles.Photoexcite...

  6. Ultradurable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under 120°C Using Cross-Linkage Dye and Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-bond-edged Ru dye (code name: SG1051 has been studied as a novel sensitizing dye for ultradurable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The SG1051 Ru dye showed the quick dye-uptake time (1 h for the optimized condition: η=9.2%, using volatile electrolyte and the strong adsorption strength compared with standard Ru dyes (N719 and Z907, which was checked by successive dipping of dye-adsorbed nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrodes into NaOH aqueous. solution and acetonitrile. The resulting DSCs using SG1051 Ru dye and ionic-liquid electrolyte survived the durability test at 120°C for 480 h, which can be the strong interest of the industrial groups.

  7. Stability issues pertaining large area perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermosa, S.; Yadav, S. K.; Vesce, L.; Guidobaldi, A.; Reale, A.; Di Carlo, A.; Brown, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells are PV technologies which hold promise for PV application. Arguably, the biggest issue facing these technologies is stability. The vast majority of studies have been limited to small area laboratory cells. Moisture, oxygen, UV light, thermal and electrical stresses are leading the degradation causes. There remains a shortage of stability investigations on large area devices, in particular modules. At the module level there exist particular challenges which can be different from those at the small cell level such as encapsulation (not only of the unit cells but of interconnections and contacts), non-uniformity of the layer stacks and unit cells, reverse bias stresses, which are important to investigate for technologies that aim for industrial acceptance. Herein we present a review of stability investigations published in the literature pertaining large area perovskite and dye-sensitized solar devices fabricated both on rigid (glass) and flexible substrates.

  8. From Cell to Module: Fabrication and Long-term Stability of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursam, N. M.; Hidayat, J.; Muliani, L.; Anggraeni, P. N.; Retnaningsih, L.; Idayanti, N.

    2017-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), which has been firstly developed by Graetzel et al back in 1991, has attracted a considerable interest since its discovery. However, two of the main challenges that the DSSC technology will have to overcome towards commercialization involve device scale-up and long-term stability. In our group, the fabrication technology of DSSC has been developed from laboratory to module scale over the past few years, nevertheless, the long-term stability has still became a major concern. In this contribution, the long-term DSSC performance in relation to their scale-up from cell to module is investigated. The photoelectrode of the DSSCs were fabricated using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide materials that were subsequently sensitized using ruthenium-based dye. Additionally, TiCl4 pre- and post-treatment were carried out to enhance the overall device efficiency. When fabricated as cells, the DSSC prototypes showed relatively stable performance during repeated tests over three months. In order to increase the output power of the solar cells, the DSSCs were then connected in a Z-type series connection to obtain sub-module panels. The DSSC sub-modules exhibit poor stability, particularly as indicated by the significant decrease in the short circuit current (ISC ). Herein, the effect of photoelectrode and sealant materials as well as module design are investigated, highlighting their profound influence upon the DSSC efficiency and long-term stability.

  9. N-Aryl Arenedicarboximides as Tunable Panchromatic Dyes for Molecular Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Cao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three organic dyes designed as molecular dyads were prepared that feature a common naphthalimide acceptor and N-aryl donors. One of these incorporated an additional cyanoacrylic acid linker and conjugated thiophene bridge inserted between donor and acceptor groups. Electrochemical and photochemical characterizations have been carried out on nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells which were fabricated with these dyes as the sensitizing component. HOMO and LUMO energies were also calculated using TDDFT methods and validated by the cyclic voltammetry method. A key finding from this study indicates that computational methods can provide energy values in close agreement to experimental for the N-aryl-naphthalimide system. Relative to HOMO/LUMO energy levels of N719, the dyes based on naphthalimide chromophore are promising candidates for metal-free DSSCs.

  10. Screening and Extraction of Plant Pigments and Fabrication of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaanappriya Mohan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices are constructed on the concept of charge separation at an interface of two different materials with different conduction mechanism. Till date, this area of research has been dominated by solid-state junction devices that are usually made of silicon, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry. In the present study, research is undertaken to unravel the typical coloring pigments from a variety of plant species that can be used for photochemical conversion of the solar energy. Eleven plants’ samples were taken for the screening procedure. Spectrophotometrial analyses were carried out for all the natural dyes extracted. Based on the absorption spectra two dyes were found to be possessing absorption spectra of the permissible range. These two samples were used for the assemblages of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells(DSSC. The photovoltaic characters were analyzed. The Conversion efficiency is reported and discussed.

  11. Computational screening of functionalized zinc porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2013-01-01

    An efficient dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one possible solution to meet the world's rapidly increasing energy demands and associated climate challenges. This requires inexpensive and stable dyes with well-positioned frontier energy levels for maximal solar absorption, efficient charge...... separation, and high output voltage. Here we demonstrate an extensive computational screening of zinc porphyrins functionalized with electron donating side groups and electron accepting anchoring groups. The trends in frontier energy levels versus side groups are analyzed and a no-loss DSSC level alignment...... quality is estimated. Out of the initial 1029 molecules, we find around 50 candidates with level alignment qualities within 5% of the optimal limit. We show that the level alignment of five zinc porphyrin dyes which were recently used in DSSCs with high efficiencies can be further improved by simple side...

  12. Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUHAIL A A R SAYYED; NIYAMAT I BEEDRI; VISHAL S KADAM; HABIB M PATHAN

    2016-10-01

    dark and light DSSCs performance, when loaded with RB dye. The working mechanism of solar cells with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/CeO$_2$/RB dye/carbon-coatedFTO is discussed. These solar cells show VOC $\\sim$360 mV, JSC $\\sim$0.25 mA cm$^{−2}$ and fill factor $\\sim$63% with efficiency of 0.23%. These results are better as compared to costly ruthenium dye-sensitized CeO$_2$ hotoanode.

  13. Imine-linked receptors decorated ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SATBIR SINGH; AMARPAL SINGH; NAVNEET KAUR

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of imine-linked receptors decorated ZnO nanoparticles using wet precipitation method. Initially, polymer dye 3 was synthesized usingcondensation reaction between 2-furancarboxaldehyde 1 and polyethylenimine 2. The decoration of imine-linked receptors on ZnO nanoparticles (sample A) was characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronmicroscope and dynamic light scattering spectroscopic studies. Further, polymer dye 3 was added to ruthenium chloride (RuCl$_3$) to form a polymer–ruthenium-based composite dye-capped ZnO nanoparticles (sample B).The optical properties of sample A were evaluated by fluorescence and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The samples A and B were further processed to dye-sensitized solar cells using wet precipitation method. The results of observationsrevealed that the addition of ruthenium–polymer dye molecules increased the light harvesting capacity of ZnO-based DSSCs. A maximum solar power to electricity conversion efficiency ($\\eta$) of 3.83% was recorded for sample B-based DSSCs with ruthenium–metal complex dye as a good photosensitizer. The recorded photovoltaic efficiency of sample B-based DSSCs was enhanced by 1.36% compared to sample A-based DSSCs.

  14. Correction: Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Dajung; An, Jongdeok; Im, Chan; Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Gunwoo; Choi, Chulmin; Kang, Sang Ook; Cho, Dae Won

    2016-02-21

    Correction for 'Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells' by Kyung-Jun Hwang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 21974-21981.

  15. Electron Transfer in D-B-A Model Systems and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, Joanna

    2010-01-15

    This Thesis presents a thorough study of the electron transfer (ET) processes, both inter-molecular - between dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and intra-molecular - in porphyrin based electron donor-bridge-electron acceptor model systems. The focus has been on charge separation and subsequent re-combination in the femtosecond-nanosecond range in both systems. Studying these processes on nanocrystalline mesoporous films in rather heterogeneous systems for solar cell application is quite a challenge. Therefore, the knowledge gained by studying the same type of processes in designed model systems is in-valuable. To this end, ET has been verified and studied in a series of donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) model systems using femtosecond transient absorption. The D-B-A series show photo-induced ET with exponential distance dependence via superexchange interactions. The attenuation factor of the ET rate, beta, was shown to be direction specific, which is in accordance with the McConnell model. A parallel study of the influence of the barrier height showed that the decrease in electronic coupling for the charge recombination (CR) reaction could be correlated to the impact of charge location. The importance of charge location was also used to explain the large differences in energy conversion efficiency found for two solar cell dyes with differently conjugated anchoring groups adsorbed on TiO{sub 2}. The disparity in energy conversion efficiency for these two dyes was ascribed to the effect of differences in electron density on the binding oxygens, rather than efficiency variations in the injection process. An exponential distance dependence for CR was found also for dyes adsorbed on TiO{sub 2}, with attenuation factors similar to those found for the D-B-A system. In addition, the hole transfer to and from NiO films was studied for two p-type dyes that had shown great differences in current generation. The CR was found to be slower for the dye with the strongest

  16. Large pi-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Ito, Seigo

    2009-11-17

    Recently, dye-sensitized solar cells have attracted much attention relevant to global environmental issues. Thus far, ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complexes have proven to be the most efficient TiO(2) sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a gradual increment in the highest power conversion efficiency has been recognized in the past decade. More importantly, considering that ruthenium is a rare metal, novel dyes without metal or using inexpensive metal are desirable for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Large pi-aromatic molecules, such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and perylenes, are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, owing to their photostability and high light-harvesting capabilities that can allow applications in thinner, low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells. Porphyrins possess an intense Soret band at 400 nm and moderate Q bands at 600 nm. Nevertheless, the poor light-harvesting properties relative to the ruthenium complexes have limited the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) cells. Elongation of the pi conjugation and loss of symmetry in porphyrins cause broadening and a red shift of the absorption bands together with an increasing intensity of the Q bands relative to that of the Soret band. On the basis of the strategy, the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells has been improved intensively by the enhanced light absorption. Actually, some push-pull-type porphyrins have disclosed a remarkably high power conversion efficiency (6-7%) that was close to that of the ruthenium complexes. Phthalocyanines exhibit strong absorption around 300 and 700 nm and redox features that are similar to porphyrins. Moreover, phthalocyanines are transparent over a large region of the visible spectrum, thereby enabling the possibility of using them as "photovoltaic windows". However, the cell performance was poor, owing to strong aggregation and lack of directionality in the

  17. Mondo Grass Berry Pigment for Visible to Near Infrared Absorption in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilva, L. A. A.; Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2013-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Synthesis of artificial dyes with broad response is important in developing an efficient DSSC. Artificial dyes can add up to the cost of the device; therefore, it is important to identify natural dyes with broad abortion and required energy levels. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 degree C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2 were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination and have a broad spectral response extending from 400 nm to 750 nm. This work is supported by COSM at UWG.

  18. Lessons learned: from dye-sensitized solar cells to all-solid-state hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Guldin, Stefan; Leijtens, Tomas; Noel, Nakita K; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-06-25

    The field of solution-processed photovoltaic cells is currently in its second spring. The dye-sensitized solar cell is a widely studied and longstanding candidate for future energy generation. Recently, inorganic absorber-based devices have reached new record efficiencies, with the benefits of all-solid-state devices. In this rapidly changing environment, this review sheds light on recent developments in all-solid-state solar cells in terms of electrode architecture, alternative sensitizers, and hole-transporting materials. These concepts are of general applicability to many next-generation device platforms.

  19. Stabilized Conversion Efficiency and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells from Beta vulgaris Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Vargas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs, based on TiO2 and assembled using a dye from Beta vulgaris extract (BVE with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, are reported. The dye BVE/TEOS increased its UV resistance, rendering an increase in the cell lifetime; the performance of these solar cells was compared to those prepared with BVE without TEOS. The efficiency η for the solar energy conversion was, for BVE and BVE/TEOS, of 0.89% ± 0.006% and 0.68% ± 0.006% with a current density Jsc of 2.71 ± 0.003 mA/cm2 and 2.08 ± 0.003 mA/cm2, respectively, using in both cases an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C. The efficiency of the BVE solar cell dropped from 0.9 ± 0.006 to 0.85 ± 0.006 after 72 h of operation, whereas for the BVE/TEOS, the efficiency remained practically constant in the same period of time.

  20. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with (PVDF-HFP-KI-EC-PC Electrolyte and Different Dye Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Noor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasticized polymer electrolyte system composed of PVDF-HFP, potassium iodide (KI, and equal weight of ethylene carbonate (EC and propylene carbonate (PC has been used in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. The electrolyte with the composition 40 wt. % PVDF-HFP-10 wt. % KI-50 wt. % (EC + PC exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.10 × 10−3 S cm−1. A small amount of iodine crystal of about 10 wt. % of KI was added to the electrolyte in the liquid state to provide the redox couple for DSSC operation. The polymer electrolyte films were prepared by the solvent casting method. The DSSCs were fabricated with the electrolyte film sandwiched between a TiO2/dye photoelectrode and a Pt-counter electrode and characterized under 100 mW cm−2 white light. The DSSC performance with different dyes such as Ruthenizer 535 (N3, anthocyanin, chlorophyll, and a mixture of anthocyanin and chlorophyll (v/v=1 has been compared. The DSSC with Ruthenizer 535 (N3 dye exhibits the best performance with a short-circuit current density of 8.16 mA cm−2, open-circuit voltage of 0.76 V, fill factor of 0.35, and photoconversion efficiency of 2.2%.

  1. Characteristics of triphenylamine-based dyes with multiple acceptors in application of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Hsin; Chen, Han-Lung; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Guey; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Liao, Shao-Hong; Wang, Tzong-Liu

    We report the synthesis and photophysical/electrochemical properties of triphenylamine (TPA)-based multiple electron acceptor dyes (TPAR1, TPAR2, and TPAR3) as well as their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In these dyes, the TPA group and the rhodanine-3-acetic acid play the role of the basic electron donor unit and the electron acceptor, respectively. It was found that introduction of two rhodanine-3-acetic acid groups into the TPA unit (TPAR2) exhibited better photovoltaic performance due to the increase with a red shift and broadening of the absorption spectrum. The monolayer of these TPA-based dyes was adsorbed on the surface of nanocrystalline TiO 2 mesoporous electrode with the thickness of ∼6 μm, polyethylene oxide (PEO) used as the matrix of gel electrolyte, and 4-nm thick Pt used as a counter-electrode. Photovoltaic device can be realized in a single quasi-solid-state DSSC. TPAR2-based gel DSSC had an open circuit voltage and short circuit current density of about 541 and 10.7 mA cm -2, respectively, at 1-sun.

  2. Polypyridyl transition metal complexes with application in water oxidation catalysis and dye-sensitised solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rudd, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains complementary synthetic and computational studies of transition metal complexes with polypyridyl ligands for use either as water oxidation catalysts or for application in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs). Chapter 1 introduces the reasons for researching water splitting catalysts and describes a number of current techniques used to do so; from photoelectrochemical cells to the use of transition metal polypyridyl complexes. It also introduces three commercially avail...

  3. Photocurrent generation by dye-sensitized solar cells using natural pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendáriz-Mireles, Eddie Nahúm; Rocha-Rangel, Enrique; Caballero-Rico, Frida; Ramírez-de-León, José Alberto; Vázquez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic panels has improved the conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy. This paper deals with the electrical and thermal characteristics (voltage, current, and temperature) of photovoltaic solar cells sensitized with natural pigments (dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC) based on a titanium dioxide semiconductor. Several natural pigments (blackberry, beets, eggplant skin, spinach, flame tree flower, papaya leaf, and grass extracts) were evaluated to determine their sensitizing effect on titanium dioxide. The results showed the great potential of natural pigments for use in solar cells. The best results were obtained with the blackberry pigment, reaching a value of 7.1 mA current, open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of 0.72 V in 2 cm(2) , and fill factor (ff) of 0.51 in the DSSC. This performance is well above than that currently offers by actual cells.

  4. Dye stability and performances of dye-sensitized solar cells with different nitrogen additives at elevated temperatures - Can sterically hindered pyridines prevent dye degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyet Nguyen, Phuong; Lund, Torben [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rand Andersen, Anders [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sensors, Signals and Electrotechnics (SENSE), Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Danish Technological Institute, Plastics Technology, Gregersensvej 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Morten Skou, Eivind [University of Southern Denmark, Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Enviromental Technology, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    The homogeneous kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reactions between the ruthenium dye N719 and eight pyridines and 1-methylbenzimidazole have been investigated in 3-methoxypropionitrile at 100 C. The half lives of N719 with the additives 4-tert-butylpyridine (0.5 M) and 1-methylbenzimidazole (0.5 M) were 57 and 160 h, respectively. Sterically hindered pyridines like 2,6-lutidine did not react with N719. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC, area=8.0 cm{sup 2}) prepared with 1-methylbenzimidazole (MBI), 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), 2,6-lutidine and without any additive were 7.1%, 6.2%, 6.0% and 4.8%, respectively. The cells were stored in dark at 85 C and their I-V curves and impedance spectra were measured at regular time intervals. The N719 dye degradation in the cells were monitored by a new dye extraction protocol combined with analysis of the dye extract by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. After 300 h storage in dark at 85 C 40% of the initial amount of N719 dye was degraded in DSC cells prepared with MBI and the efficiency was decreased to 40% of its initial value. DSC cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additives showed smaller thermal dye and efficiency stability at elevated temperatures than DSC cells prepared with the none sterically hindered additives MBI and 4-TBP. In the cells prepared with 2,6-lutidine or no additive higher contents of the iodo products [RuL{sub 2}(NCS)(iodide)]{sup +} and [RuL{sub 2}(3-MPN)(iodide)]{sup +} were found than in cells prepared with 4-TBP and MBI. It is suggested that sterically hindered pyridines have smaller complexation constants with I{sub 3}{sup -} than unsterically hindered additives. This may explain the observed faster nucleophilic substitution rates of uncomplexed I{sub 3}{sup -} with N719 in DSC cells prepared with sterically hindered pyridines. The EIS analysis showed that the lifetime of the injected electrons in the TiO{sub 2}{tau}{sub eff} is reduced by a thermally induced change

  5. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with (PVDF-HFP)-KI-EC-PC Electrolyte and Different Dye Materials

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Noor; M. H. Buraidah; S. N. F. Yusuf; Careem, M. A.; Majid, S. R.; A. K. Arof

    2011-01-01

    A plasticized polymer electrolyte system composed of PVDF-HFP, potassium iodide (KI), and equal weight of ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) has been used in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The electrolyte with the composition 40 wt. % PVDF-HFP-10 wt. % KI-50 wt. % (EC + PC) exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.10 × 10−3 S cm−1. A small amount of iodine crystal of about 10 wt. % of KI was added to the electrolyte in the liquid state to provide th...

  6. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Di Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2 and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm. Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%.

  7. Study on the improved structure of dye-sensitized solar cells for enhancing light absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; SHEN Hui; DENG Youjun

    2007-01-01

    The absorption coefncients of N719 or N3 dyes at the longer wavelength region (>600 nm)are not enough to catch photons efficiently,but the solar spectrum has a large photon flux in the wavelength region between 500 and 1,000 nm,so it is desirable to enhance the absorption of light by the dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC)to achieve higher efficiencies.To solve this problem,an improved structure Of DSSC for enhancing light absorption is introduced in this paper, and I-V characteristics of DSSC are measured to illustrate the enhancement of the light absorption and efficiency.As a result,the improved DSSC exhibits higher light absorption and solar-to-electric conversion efficiency than traditional DSSC.

  8. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  9. High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Three-Dimensional Photoanode

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-11-09

    Herein, we present a straightforward bottom-up synthesis of a high electron mobility and highly light scattering macroporous photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dense three-dimensional Al/ZnO, SnO2, or TiO 2 host integrates a conformal passivation thin film to reduce recombination and a large surface-area mesoporous anatase guest for high dye loading. This novel photoanode is designed to improve the charge extraction resulting in higher fill factor and photovoltage for DSCs. An increase in photovoltage of up to 110 mV over state-of-the-art DSC is demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerender, P.; Saxena, Vibha; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  11. Optimizing porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells using large-scale ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; Pedersen, Christian S.; García Lastra, Juan Maria;

    2014-01-01

    different side and anchoring groups. Based on the calculated frontier orbital energies and optical gaps we quantify the energy level alignment with the TiO2 conduction band and different redox mediators. An analysis of the energy level-structure relationship reveals a significant structural diversity among......In the search for sustainable energy sources, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent an attractive solution due to their low cost, relatively high efficiencies, and flexible design. Porphyrin-based dyes are characterized by strong absorption in the visible part of the spectrum and easy...

  12. Enhanced Light Harvesting in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using External Lightguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hui Chien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An external lightguide (EL for enhancing the light-harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was designed and developed. The EL attached to the exterior of a DSSC photoelectrode directed light on a dye-covered nanoporous TiO2 film (D-NTF of the photoelectrode. Experimental tests confirmed that the EL increased the light-harvesting efficiency of a DSSC with an active area of 0.25 cm2 by 30.69%. Photocurrent density and the power conversion efficiency were also increased by 38.12% and 25.09%, respectively.

  13. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Polyaniline/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the successful fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell using polyaniline base (EB, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, organic dye (rhodamine B or riboflavin, zinc oxide (ZnO, and indium tin oxide (ITO. The electrical properties of the resultant devices were investigated by measuring the current density voltage (-, capacitance voltage (-, and impedance measurements under both dark and illuminated conditions. The photovoltaic cell characteristics, that is, open circuit voltage (, short circuit current density (, and energy conversion efficiency (, were evaluated under illumination and were found to be 0.48 mA/cm2, 400 mV, and 0.224%, respectively, for ITO/EB-MWCNTs/ZnO-rhodamine B/ITO heterostructure. Using impedance spectra, it was found that the series resistances of this type of solar cell are 62 and 60 Ω under darkness and illumination, respectively.

  14. Effect of photoanode thickness on electrochemical performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatani, Mehboob, E-mail: mkhatani@hotmail.com; Hamid, Nor Hisham, E-mail: hishmid@petronas.com.my; Sahmer, Ahmed Zahrin, E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com [Electrical Engineering Department, UTP (Malaysia); Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Muhsan, Ali Samer, E-mail: ali.samer@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), UTP (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The thickness of photoanode is crucial as it adsorbed a large amount of dye molecules that provide electrons for generation of electricity in dye sensitized solar cell (DSC). Thus, in order to realize the practical application of DSC, study on various thickness of photoanode need to be carried out to analyze its effect on the electrochemical behavior of dye sensitized solar cell. To enhance the conversion efficiency, an additional layer of TiO{sub 2} using TiCl{sub 4} treatment was deposited prior to the deposition of the photoanode (active area of 1cm{sup 2}) with the thickness of 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 µm on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The resulting photoanode after the soak in N719 dye for more than 12hrs were used to be assembled in a test cell in combination with liquid electrolyte and counter electrode. The fabricated cells were characterized by solar simulator, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to approximate the thickness of photoanode. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 4.54% was obtained for the cell fabricated with 18 µm photoanode thickness. This is attributed to the reduced resistance related to electron transport in the TiO{sub 2}/dye/electrolyte interface as proven by the EIS result. This led to the reduction of internal resistance, the increase in the electron life time and the improvement in the conversion efficiency.

  15. Investigation on the Tunable-Length Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Yi Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We had successfully fabricated ZnO-based nanowires by vapor transport method in the furnace tube. ZnO nanowire arrays grown in 600°C for 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes had applied to the dye-sensitized solar cells. The dye loading is proportional to the total equivalent surface area of ZnO nanowire arrays in the cells and plays an important role in improving power conversion efficiency. The highest efficiency was observed in DSSC sample with ZnO nanowires grown for 90 minutes, which had the largest equivalent surface area and also the highest dye loading. According to our experimental results, the enhancement in power conversion efficiency is attributed to the higher light harvesting and reduction of carrier recombination. In addition, ZnO nanowires also contribute to the photocurrent in the UV region.

  16. Insertion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells in Textiles using a Conventional Weaving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; kim, Han Seong; Lee, Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demands for wearable energy sources and highly flexible, lightweight photovoltaic devices have stimulated the development of textile-structured solar cells. However, the former approach of wire-type solar cell fabrication, followed by weaving of these devices, has had limited success, due to device failure caused by high friction forces and tension forces during the weaving process. To overcome this limitation, we present a new approach for textile solar cell fabrication, in which dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) electrodes are incorporated into the textile during the weaving process, using the textile warp as a spacer to maintain the DSSC structure. Porous, dye-loaded TiO2-coated holed metal ribbon and Pt nanoparticle-loaded carbon yarn were used as the photoanode and counterelectrode, respectively. The highly flexible textile-based solar cell was fabricated using a common weaving process with a loom. The inserted DSSCs in the textile demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 2.63% (at 1 sun, 1.5 A.M.). Our results revealed that additional performance enhancement was possible by considering other electrode materials and textile structures, as well as where and how the DSSC electrodes are inserted. In addition, we demonstrated that the inserted DSSCs could be electrically connected using a parallel configuration. PMID:26087134

  17. Insertion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells in Textiles using a Conventional Weaving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Kim, Han Seong; Lee, Dong Y.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing demands for wearable energy sources and highly flexible, lightweight photovoltaic devices have stimulated the development of textile-structured solar cells. However, the former approach of wire-type solar cell fabrication, followed by weaving of these devices, has had limited success, due to device failure caused by high friction forces and tension forces during the weaving process. To overcome this limitation, we present a new approach for textile solar cell fabrication, in which dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) electrodes are incorporated into the textile during the weaving process, using the textile warp as a spacer to maintain the DSSC structure. Porous, dye-loaded TiO2-coated holed metal ribbon and Pt nanoparticle-loaded carbon yarn were used as the photoanode and counterelectrode, respectively. The highly flexible textile-based solar cell was fabricated using a common weaving process with a loom. The inserted DSSCs in the textile demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 2.63% (at 1 sun, 1.5 A.M.). Our results revealed that additional performance enhancement was possible by considering other electrode materials and textile structures, as well as where and how the DSSC electrodes are inserted. In addition, we demonstrated that the inserted DSSCs could be electrically connected using a parallel configuration.

  18. A new sight towards dye-sensitized solar cells material and theoretical

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) technology is emerging, against the current background of drastic consumption-rates of irreplaceable natural resources, as the Cinderella solution to many energy-related problems, Almost since its first appearance, it has been regarded as being the most promising alternative to conventional silicon solar cell technology due to the tremendous advantages of low cost and high theoretical energy-conversion efficiency. Review from Book News Inc.: Eight invited and peer-reviewed papers comprise this special-topic volume on a possible alternative to conventional silico

  19. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Integrated Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Upconversion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattestad, Andrew; Cheng, Yuen Yap; MacQueen, Rowan W; Schulze, Tim F; Thompson, Fletcher W; Mozer, Attila J; Fückel, Burkhard; Khoury, Tony; Crossley, Maxwell J; Lips, Klaus; Wallace, Gordon G; Schmidt, Timothy W

    2013-06-20

    Photon upconversion (UC) by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) is employed in order to enhance the response of solar cells to sub-bandgap light. Here, we present the first report of an integrated photovoltaic device, combining a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) and TTA-UC system. The integrated device displays enhanced current under sub-bandgap illumination, resulting in a figure of merit (FoM) under low concentration (3 suns), which is competitive with the best values recorded to date for nonintegrated systems. Thus, we demonstrate both the compatibility of DSC and TTA-UC and a viable method for device integration.

  20. TiO2 Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells Fabricated by Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Gu, Haoshuang; Xia, Huating; Hu, Mingzhe

    2011-02-01

    TiO2 nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using hydrothermal method. The synthesizing of TiO2 nanowire/nanorod arrays directly on FTO substrate would cause a high conducting loss to solar cells. Through la minating a compact layer between FTO substrate and photonic anode layer, the conducting loss could be effectively prevented. Results indicated that using different concentration of titanium tetrabutoxide would affect the photoelectric conversion efficiency and different producing methods of the compact layer also played an important role to the conversion efficiency.

  1. Composite Electrode SnO2/TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Bin XIA; Fu You LI; Shu Ming YANG; Chun Hui HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Composite nanoporous electrode SnO2/TiO2 was fabricated for the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with N3 (Cis-Ru). After introducing of TiO2, the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) was higher than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, while short-circuit photocurrent (Isc) was varied with the ratio of the TiO2. Appropriate content of the TiO2 can be beneficial to the efficiency of the solar cell, and it gives negative impact on the composite electrode when the content of TiO2 is higher.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of natural dye and counter electrode thin films with different carbon materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Tien-Li; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chien, Shu-Hua; Jiang, Lii-Jenq

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to deal with the film of the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the preparation, structure and characteristics of the extract of natural dye. This study adopts different commercial carbon materials such as black lead, carbon black and self-made TiO2-MWCNT compound nanoparticle as the film of the counter electrodes. Moreover, for the preparation of natural dyes, anthocyanins and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mulberry and pomegranate respectively. Furthermore, the extracted anthocyanins and chlorophyll are blended into cocktail dye to complete the preparation of natural dye. Results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the single-layer TiO2-MWCNT counter electrode film and the cocktail dye of the DSSCs is 0.462%.

  3. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Dominika

    2016-12-01

    Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  4. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szura Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  5. Inorganic p-Type Semiconductors: Their Applications and Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing global demand for energy and the harmful ecological impact of conventional energy sources, it is obvious that development of clean and renewable energy is a necessity. Since the Sun is our only external energy source, harnessing its energy, which is clean, non-hazardous and infinite, satisfies the main objectives of all alternative energy strategies. With attractive features, i.e., good performance, low-cost potential, simple processibility, a wide range of applications from portable power generation to power-windows, photoelectrochemical solar cells like dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs represent one of the promising methods for future large-scale power production directly from sunlight. While the sensitization of n-type semiconductors (n-SC has been intensively studied, the use of p-type semiconductor (p-SC, e.g., the sensitization of wide bandgap p-SC and hole transport materials with p-SC have also been attracting great attention. Recently, it has been proved that the p-type inorganic semiconductor as a charge selective material or a charge transport material in organometallic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs shows a significant impact on solar cell performance. Therefore the study of p-type semiconductors is important to rationally design efficient DSCs and PSCs. In this review, recent published works on p-type DSCs and PSCs incorporated with an inorganic p-type semiconductor and our perspectives on this topic are discussed.

  6. Red Sicilian orange and purple eggplant fruits as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Marco, Gaetano Di [CNR, Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (Sede di Messina) Salita Sperone, C. da Papardo, I-98158 Faro Superiore Messina (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using red Sicilian orange juice (Citrus Sinensis) and the purple extract of eggplant peels (Solanum melongena, L.) as natural sensitizers of TiO{sub 2} films. Conversion of solar light into electricity was successfully accomplished with both fruit-based solar cells. The best solar energy conversion efficiency ({eta}=0.66%) was obtained by red orange juice dye that, under AM 1.5 illumination, achieved up to J{sub sc}=3.84 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.340 V and fill factor=0.50. In the case of the extract of eggplant peels, the values determined were up to J{sub sc}=3.40 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}=0.350 V and fill factor=0.40. Cyanidine-3-glucoside (cyanine) and delphinidin 3-[4-(p-coumaroyl)-L-rhamnosyl(1-6)-glucopyranoside]-5-glucopyranoside (nasunin) are the main pigments of cocktail dyes for red orange and eggplant, respectively. Actually, their application is far below the industrial requirements. Nevertheless, their study is an interesting multidisciplinary exercise useful for dissemination of knowledge and to educate people on renewable energy sources. Here, we report and discuss the role of the structure, the absorption spectra and the sensitization activity of the mentioned compounds. (author)

  7. A Comparison of the Performances of Different Mesoporous Titanias in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Latini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at optimizing titanium dioxide morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells applications. Five different anatase phase mesoporous titanias were prepared and tested as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials were prepared by using a template approach. Two materials were synthesized by using monodisperse silica nanospheres and the other three using two different organic templating agents (Pluronic P123 and Brij 58. A complete characterization of the obtained materials was performed by powder XRD, FEG-SEM, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, BET surface area measurements, and TG-DTA. Several cells were assembled using N719 as dye and a nonvolatile electrolyte based on benzonitrile. The cells were tested by means of J-V curves under simulated solar radiation, IPCE, and dark current measurements. The highest efficiencies were achieved with titania prepared by using Pluronic P123 as template (ηmax=6.8%, while the lowest efficiencies were recorded with using titania samples prepared with the silica nanospheres template (ηmin=5.7%. The different performances of the samples are examined and discussed.

  8. Optically transparent FTO-free cathode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Liska, Paul; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-12-24

    The woven fabric containing electrochemically platinized tungsten wire is an affordable flexible cathode for liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells with the I3(-)/I(-) redox mediator and electrolyte solution consisting of ionic liquids and propionitrile. The fabric-based electrode outperforms the thermally platinized FTO in serial ohmic resistance and charge-transfer resistance for triiodide reduction, and it offers comparable or better optical transparency in the visible and particularly in the near-IR spectral region. The electrode exhibits good stability during electrochemical loading and storage at open circuit. The dye-sensitized solar cells with a C101-sensitized titania photoanode and either Pt-W/PEN or Pt-FTO cathodes show a comparable performance.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells using double-oxide electrodes: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Yuji; Ishii, Natsumi

    2015-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC or DSSC) have been widely investigated because of their potentially high cost performance compared with Si-based solar cells and of their fascinating appearance. DSC with photoelectric conversion efficiency of >10 % (or even 12 %) have been reported, where porous TiO2 films are generally used as semi-conductor electrodes. Such porous TiO2 films usually have high specific surface area, and thus, they adsorb plenty of dye molecules, resulting in high photocurrent density. Recently, some double oxides have been examined as alternative photoanode materials, mainly in order to improve photovoltage. Here, studies on DSC using double-oxide electrodes, i.e., perovskite, spinel, ilmenite, wolframite, scheelite and pseudobrookite-types, are briefly reviewed.

  10. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio; Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  11. Tuning the photovoltage of dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrodeposited ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekermann, Torsten [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3- 3A, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Peter, Laurence [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Yoshida, Tsukasa [Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Nanoporous, fully crystalline ZnO films can be prepared by cathodic electrodeposition from aqueous solutions of Zn salts under the influence of structure-directing agents such as surfactants. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on such films have emerged as a possible alternative for nanocrystalline TiO2-based DSSC due to the very high porosity and good electron transport properties of the films. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the sensitizer dye molecules on the photovoltage of the ZnO-based DSSC. Impedance measurements show that the adsorbed dye molecules lead to a shift of the flatband potential of the ZnO. Electron pushing or withdrawing effects of the dye molecules and protonation or deprotonation of the ZnO surface are discussed as possible explanations. The shifts in the flatband potential partly explain the differences in the photovoltages caused by different dyes, however, differences in the electron injection efficiency and the blocking of electron back reaction by the dye molecules have to be taken into account, too, for a complete description.

  12. The emergence of copper(I)-based dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housecroft, Catherine E; Constable, Edwin C

    2015-12-01

    Since the discovery of Grätzel-type dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) in the early 1990s, there has been an exponential growth in the number of publications dealing with their optimization and new design concepts. Conventional Grätzel DSCs use ruthenium(II) complexes as sensitizers, and the highest photon-to-electrical current conversion efficiency for a ruthenium dye is ≈12%. However, ruthenium is both rare and expensive, and replacement by cheaper and more sustainable metals is desirable. In this Tutorial Review, we describe strategies for assembling copper(I) complexes for use as dyes in DSCs, a research area that has been active since ≈2008. We demonstrate design principles for (I) ligands to anchor the complex to a semiconductor surface and promote electron transfer from dye to semiconductor, and (II) ancillary ligands to tune the light absorption properties of the dye and facilitate electron transfer from electrolyte to dye in the DSC. We assess the progress made in terms of light-harvesting and overall photoconversion efficiencies of copper(I)-containing DSCs and highlight areas that remain ripe for development and improvement.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous conjugated polymer counter electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Naeimeh; Behjat, Abbas, E-mail: abehjat@yazd.ac.ir; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, we report platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells that were fabricated using a grown porous poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) counter electrode. The growing of the porous P3MT was performed by an electrochemical deposition method. This method is easy and affordable unlike the common expensive deposition methods. The morphology of P3MT films was studied by scanning electron microscopy images. It was observed that polymer layers grown with a current density of 2 mA/cm{sup 2} have a clear porous and rough structure as compared to layers grown with a lower current density. To understand the reaction kinetics and the catalytic activities of the counter electrodes with P3MT for 3I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox reaction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed. Based on the analysis of CV, it was shown that this layer can be used as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The electro deposition conditions during the growth of polymer layers such as current density, the morphology of polymer films and the duration of polymerization have a significant role in the current–voltage characterization of the fabricated solar cells. The performance of the fabricated solar cells was improved by optimization of these parameters. The highest efficiency of 2.76% was obtained by using porous P3MT in the counter electrode. - Highlights: • Poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) layers were grown using electrochemical deposition method. • By controlling the growth conditions, porous P3MT can be produced. • Grown P3MT layers can be used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. • The growth rate of P3MT layers plays an essential role in the cell performance.

  14. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Optimal Gel Electrolyte Using the Taguchi Design Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn-Kai Tsai; Wen Dung Hsu; Tian-Chiuan Wu; Jia-Song Zhou; Ji-Lin Li; Jian-Hao Liao; Teen-Hang Meen

    2013-01-01

    The Taguchi method was adopted to determine the optimal gel electrolyte used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Since electrolyte is a very important factor in fabrication of high performance and long-term stability DSSCs, to find the optimal composition of gel electrolyte is desired. In this paper, the common ingredients used in the liquid electrolyte were chosen. The ingredients then mixed with cheap ionic liquids and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) were added...

  15. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  16. Barium Staminate as Semiconductor Working Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-an Guo; Guoqiang Li; Weifeng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated with perovskite-type BaSnO3 as the photoelectrode materials. Different preparation methods including coprecipitation, hydrothermal, and solid state reaction are employed to synthesize BaSnO3 particles to optimize the photoelectric activities of electrode materials. The photoelectric properties of BaSnO3 particles and the performances of DSSCs are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The light-to-e...

  17. Tailoring the Interface to Improve Voc in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neale, N. R.; Kopidakis, N.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    Adding certain adsorbents in conjunction with the sensitizing dye employed in high-efficiency TiO2 nanoparticle solar cells has been shown to increase the photovoltage. It is has been speculated that the increased photovoltage is due to these hydrophobic adsorbents passivating surface states that mitigate the recombination of photoinjected electrons with redox species in the electrolyte. In collaboration with the DOE Office of Science Program, we are conducting transient-photovoltage measurements to determine the mechanism for the improved photovoltage.

  18. Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Qin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. The DSSCs-based ruthenium complexes as sensitizers show high efficiency and excellent stability, implying potential practical applications. This review focuses on recent advances in design and preparation of efficient ruthenium sensitizers and their applications in DSSCs, including thiocyanate ruthenium sensitizers and thiocyanate-free ruthenium sensitizers.

  19. New Insights Into Dye-sensitized Solar Cells With Polymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nei De Freitas J.; Nogueira A.F.; De Paoli M.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes or gel polymer electrolytes are interesting alternatives to substitute liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The interest in this research field is growing continuously, reflected in the increase in the number of papers published each year concerning these materials. This feature article presents a brief review of the history and development of polymer electrolytes aiming at applications in DSSC. Recent improvements achieved by modifications of the com...

  20. Electrolytes in solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hongli; XUE Bofei; LI Dongmei; MENG Qingbo; GUO Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the structure and operating principle of the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells (DSSC) are discussed. The electrolytes can be divided into three types: liquid electrolyte, quasi-solid electrolyte and solid electrolyte. Based on the rele vant study of our group, we summarized mainly the research progress of the quasi-solid electrolyte and solid electrolyte in solid-state DSSC.

  1. See-Through Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photonic Reflectors for Tandem and Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp

    2013-08-21

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 μm in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup −2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  3. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  4. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, U. E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Emetere, M. E., E-mail: uno-essang@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Fadipe, L. A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Oluranti, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.oluranti@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO{sub 2} conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm{sup 2} active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10{sup −2}, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10{sup −2}, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  5. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, U. E.; Emetere, M. E.; Fadipe, L. A.; Oluranti, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO2 conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm2 active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10-2, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10-2, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  6. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells based on naturally extracted dye from the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrer, Julio; Hunter, Renato; Rubilar, Monica; Pavez, Boris; Morales, Eduardo; Torres, Simonet

    2016-10-01

    The mini modules of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated for their conversion efficiency using anthocyanin-enriched extracts from maqui berry, which to date has never been tested in a DSSC. Anthocyanins are a group of red, purple, violet and blue water-soluble polyphenolic pigments widely found in berry fruits. Maqui berries are a particularly rich source. The aqueous extract concentrations of maqui fruit were tested at 750 and 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L. The immersion time to produce sensitized TiO2 film was 8 h. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared with 750 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.14%, with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.43 V, a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.38 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.450. The conversion efficiency attained with 1500 mg of anthocyanin/L was 0.19%, with (VOC) of 0.45 V, (JSC) of 0.44 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.55. Therefore, a higher concentration brought about a higher photosensitized performance. The maqui extracts were successfully dye sensitized over a layer of TiO2 nanoparticles, providing useful information for further studies related to the use of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  7. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Optimal Gel Electrolyte Using the Taguchi Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taguchi method was adopted to determine the optimal gel electrolyte used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Since electrolyte is a very important factor in fabrication of high performance and long-term stability DSSCs, to find the optimal composition of gel electrolyte is desired. In this paper, the common ingredients used in the liquid electrolyte were chosen. The ingredients then mixed with cheap ionic liquids and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP were added to form colloidal electrolyte (gel. The optimal composition of each materials in the gel electrolyte determined by Taguchi method consists of 0.03 M I2, 0.15 M KI, 0.6 M LiI, 0.5 M 4-tertbutylpyridine (TBP, and 10% PVDF-HFP dissolved in the acetonitrile and 3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN solution with volume ratio of 2 : 1. The short circuit current density of 14.11 mA/cm2, the conversion efficiency (η of 5.52%, and the lifetime of over 110 days were observed for the dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with optimal gel electrolyte. The lifetime increases 10 times when compared with the conventional dye-sensitized solar cell assembled with liquid electrolyte.

  8. Metal oxide semiconductors for dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concina, Isabella; Vomiero, Alberto

    2015-04-17

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the synthesis and application of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors for dye sensitized and quantum dot sensitized solar cells. In these devices, the wide bandgap semiconducting oxide acts as the photoanode, which provides the scaffold for light harvesters (either dye molecules or quantum dots) and electron collection. For this reason, proper tailoring of the optical and electronic properties of the photoanode can significantly boost the functionalities of the operating device. Optimization of the functional properties relies with modulation of the shape and structure of the photoanode, as well as on application of different materials (TiO2, ZnO, SnO2) and/or composite systems, which allow fine tuning of electronic band structure. This aspect is critical because it determines exciton and charge dynamics in the photoelectrochemical system and is strictly connected to the photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The different strategies for increasing light harvesting and charge collection, inhibiting charge losses due to recombination phenomena, are reviewed thoroughly, highlighting the benefits of proper photoanode preparation, and its crucial role in the development of high efficiency dye sensitized and quantum dot sensitized solar cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Novel Organic Sensitizers Containing 2,6-Difunctionalized Anthracene Unit for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann T. Lin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new organic dyes comprising different amines as electron donors, 2-(6-substituted-anthracen-2-yl-thiophene as the π-conjugated bridge, and cyanoacrylic acid group as an electron acceptor and anchoring group, have been synthesized. There exists charge transfer transition from arylamine and anthracene to the acceptor in these compounds, as evidenced from the photophysical measurements and the computational results. Under one sun (AM 1.5 illumination, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs using these dyes as the sensitizers exhibited efficiencies ranging from 1.62% to 2.88%, surpassing that using 9,10-difunctionalized anthracene-based sensitizer.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cell employing zinc oxide aggregates grown in the presence of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-15

    Provided are a novel ZnO dye-sensitized solar cell and method of fabricating the same. In one embodiment, deliberately added lithium ions are used to mediate the growth of ZnO aggregates. The use of lithium provides ZnO aggregates that have advantageous microstructure, morphology, crystallinity, and operational characteristics. Employing lithium during aggregate synthesis results in a polydisperse collection of ZnO aggregates favorable for porosity and light scattering. The resulting nanocrystallites forming the aggregates have improved crystallinity and more favorable facets for dye molecule absorption. The lithium synthesis improves the surface stability of ZnO in acidic dyes. The procedures developed and disclosed herein also help ensure the formation of an aggregate film that has a high homogeneity of thickness, a high packing density, a high specific surface area, and good electrical contact between the film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode and among the aggregate particles.

  11. A critical review of recent developments in nanomaterials for photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, C. Clement; Prasanth, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a dye sensitized solar cell the photoanode performs a dual role of acting as a matrix for dye adsorption and as a charge transport medium for electron transport. The surface area and the electronic property of the material determine the current output of the device. So the performance of dye sensitized solar cell is significantly affected by our choice of material to be used as photoanode. High surface area, optimum carrier density, low impedance and efficient carrier transport are requirements for an efficient photoanode material in a DSSC. The goal of this review article is to highlight the fabrication methods used for the preparation of efficient nanostructured photoanodes. The application of these nanostructured photoanode materials and their impact on the device efficiency has been described in detail. The enhancement in the surface area of the material and its impact on the dye adsorption and current generation has been discussed. A detailed analysis of the role of different blocking layers used in improving the open circuit voltage of the device has been done. The outlook and future directions in improving the device performance are also discussed.

  12. Absorption spectra and photovoltaic characterization of chlorophyllins as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Crupi, Cristina; Di Marco, Gaetano

    2014-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Chlorine-e6 (Chl-e6), a Chlorophyll a derivative, and Chl-e6 containing Cu, have been investigated by carrying out incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The effect of the metallic ion and the influence of the solvent polarity on the dye aggregation and their absorption bands have been analysed by performing electronic absorption measurements. The dependence of the photoelectrochemical parameters of these DSSCs on the electrolyte by the addition of pyrimidine and/or pyrrole has been discussed in details. For the first time I-V curves for a DSSC based on copper Chl-e6 dye have been shown and compared with Zn based chlorophyllin. Furthermore, the performance of a Cu-Chl-e6 based DSSC has been deeply improved by a progressive optimization of the TiO2 multilayer photoanode overcoming the best data reported in literature so far for this dye. It's worth to emphasize that, the analysis reported in this paper supplies very useful information which paves the way to further detailed studies turned to the employment of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  13. Molecular origins of optoelectronic properties in coumarin dyes: toward designer solar cell and laser applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Cole, Jacqueline M; Waddell, Paul G; Lin, Tze-Chia; Radia, Jignesh; Zeidler, Anita

    2012-01-12

    Coumarin derivatives are used in a wide range of applications, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and dye lasers, and have therefore attracted considerable research interest. In order to understand the molecular origins of their optoelectronic properties, molecular structures for 29 coumarin laser dyes are statistically analyzed. To this end, data for 25 compounds were taken from the Cambridge Structural Database and compared with data for four new crystal structures of coumarin laser dyes [Coumarin 487 (C(19)H(23)NO(2)), Coumarin 498 (C(16)H(17)NO(4)S), Coumarin 510 (C(20)H(18)N(2)O(2)), and Coumarin 525 (C(22)H(18)N(2)O(3))], which are reported herein. The competing contributions of different resonance states to the bond lengths of the 4- and 7-substituted coumarin laser dyes are computed based on the harmonic oscillator stabilization energy model. Consequently, a positive correlation between the contribution of the para-quinoidal resonance state and the UV-vis peak absorption wavelength of these coumarins is revealed. Furthermore, the perturbations of optoelectronic properties, owing to chemical substituents in these coumarin laser dyes, are analyzed: it is found that their UV-vis peak absorption and lasing wavelengths experience a red shift, as the electron-donating strength of the 7-position substituent increases and/or the electron-withdrawing strength of the 3- or 4-position substituent rises; this conclusion is corroborated by quantum-chemical calculations. It is also revealed that the closer the relevant substituents align with the direction of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), the larger the spectral shifts and the higher the molar extinction coefficients of coumarin laser dyes. These findings are important for understanding the ICT mechanism in coumarins. Meanwhile, all structure-property correlations revealed herein will enable knowledge-based molecular design of coumarins for dye lasers and DSC applications.

  14. Optimization of nanoparticle structure for improved conversion efficiency of dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructure and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Heavy dye loading and the ability to contain the light within the thin layer (typically ∼12 μm) are the requirement needed for the photoelectrode material in order to enhance the harvesting efficiency of dye solar cell. This can be realized by optimizing the particle size with desirable crystal structure. The paper reports the investigation on the dependency of the dye loading and light scattering on the properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials by comparing 4 different samples of TiO{sub 2} in the form of nanoparticles and micron-sized TiO{sub 2} aggregates which composed of nanocrystallites. Their properties were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UVVis spectroscopy while the performance of the fabricated test cells were measured using universal photovoltaic test system (UPTS) under 1000 W/cm{sup 2} intensity of radiation. Nano sized particles provide large surface area which allow for greater dye adsorption but have no ability to retain the incident light in the TiO{sub 2} film. In contrast, micron-sized particles in the form of aggregates can generate light scattering allowing the travelling distance of the light to be extended and increasing the interaction between the photons and dye molecules adsorb on TiO{sub 2}nanocrystallites. This resulted in an improvement in the conversion efficiency of the aggregates that demonstrates the close relation between light scattering effect and the structure of the photolectrode film.

  15. Molecular and Material Approaches to Overcome Kinetic and Energetic Constraints in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Thomas [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-08-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a lot of interest as they proffer the possibility of extremely inexpensive and efficient solar energy conversion. The excellent performance of the most efficient DSSCs relies on two main features: 1) a high surface area nanoparticle semiconductor photoanode to allow for excellent light absorption with moderate extinction molecular dyes and 2) slow recombination rates from the photoanode to I3- allowing good charge collection. The I3-/I- couple, however, has some disadvantages, notably the redox potential limits the maximum open-circuit voltage, and the dye regeneration requires a large driving force which constrains the light harvesting ability. Thus, the design features that allow DSSCs to perform as well as they do also prevent further significant improvements in performance. As a consequence, the most efficient device configuration, and the maximum efficiency, has remained essentially unchanged over the last 16 years. Significant gains in performance are possible; however it will likely require a substantial paradigm shift. The general goal of this project is to understand the fundamental role of dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC, components (sensitizer, redox shuttle, and photoanode) involved in key processes in order to overcome the kinetic and energetic constraints of current generation DSSCs. For example, the key to achieving high energy conversion efficiency DSSCs is the realization of a redox shuttle which fulfills the dual requirements of 1) efficient dye regeneration with a minimal driving force and 2) efficient charge collection. In current generation DSSCs, however, only one or the other of these requirements is met. We are currently primarily interested in understanding the physical underpinnings of the regeneration and recombination reactions. Our approach is to systematically vary the components involved in reactions and interrogate them with a

  16. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  17. Recent Progress of Counter Electrodes in Nanocrystalline Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) consists a combination of several different materials: photoanodes with nanoparticulated semiconductors, sensitizers, electrolytes and counter electrodes (CEs). Each materials performs specific task for the conversion of solar energy into electricity. The main function of CE is to transfer electrons to the redox electrolyte and regenerate iodide ion. The work of CE is mainly focused on the studies of the kinetic performance and stability of the traditional CEs to improve the overall efficiency of DSC, seeking novel design concepts or new materials. In this review, the development and research progress of different CEmaterials and their electrochemical performance, and the problems are discussed.

  18. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO 2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-05-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell\\'s performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. (Figure Presented).

  19. Simplifying the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells to increase their accessibility for community education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleyard, Steve [Department of Environment and Conservation, PO Box K822, Perth, WA 6842 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Simple dye-sensitized solar cells were developed using blackboard chalk as a substrate for mixed ZnO and SnO{sub 2} films that were sensitized with Mercurochrome (Merbromine) dye. Graphite pencil 'leads' were used as counter electrodes for the cells and the electrolyte consisted of an aqueous solution of iodine and potassium iodide that was gelled with a disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds and cyanoacrylate adhesive (Superglue {sup registered}). The open circuit potential of constructed cells was typically 0.50-0.64 V and the short circuit current varied between 0.5 and 2.0 mA cm{sup -2}. The cells were developed as an educational resource that could be simply and safely constructed in a home or school environment with readily accessible materials. (author)

  20. Characteristics of Polyaniline/Si Heterojunction Solar Cell By Electrochemical Dye Sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jian-bang; REN Ju; HOU Chao-qi

    2005-01-01

    Using the electrochemical polymerization dye sensitization(ECDS) method, polyaniline (PAn),which is used as top region material in solar cells, is sensitized with direct blue dye(DS), and sensitized Al grid/DS-PAn/n-Si/Al heterojunction solar cells is prepared by ECDS. Influences of the ECDS on the absorption spectrum and the junction characteristics of the solar cell were discussed, and the output characteristics were measured. The results show that the absorption spectrum of the sensitized PAn films is much wider and stronger in Vis-range; the diode quality factor is about 6.3 and the height of latent barrier potential of p-n junction is 0.89 eV; the short-circuit current and the conversion efficiency of sensitized DSPAn/Si heterojunction solar cells are greatly improved, which the short-circuit current can increase 6 times,the fill factor is 57% and the efficiency can reach 1.42% under the illumination of 37.2 W/m2 , respectively.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanowires: Improved performance in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia A. Kazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. Recently, one dimensional nanomaterial, such as nanorods and nanotubes has replaced the nanoparticles used in DSSCs anode because of their ability to improve the electron transport leading to enhanced electron collection efficiency. In the present work, rapid synthesis of silver nanowires (AgNWs was done. The XRD characterization was performed to confirm the formation and size of synthesized AgNWs. It was observed that FWHM of the diffraction peaks was increased with AgNWs concentration in TiO2. The synthesized TiO2AgNWs nanocomposite was used as the photo anode of Dye sensitized solar cell. The I–V characteristics of the solar cell were drawn using standard conditions. It was observed that TiO2AgNWs based solar cells have significantly increased photocurrent density resulting in improved conversion efficiency as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC.

  2. Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Alexander C; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Tiano, Amanda L; DeRosa, Donald; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2011-06-17

    We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO(2) as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO(2) material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

  3. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  4. Triarylamine: Versatile Platform for Organic, Dye-Sensitized, and Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayu; Liu, Kuan; Ma, Lanchao; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2016-12-14

    Triarylamine (TAA) and related materials have dramatically promoted the development of organic and hybrid photovoltaics during the past decade. The power conversion efficiencies of TAA-based organic solar cells (OSCs), dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have exceeded 11%, 14%, and 20%, which are among the best results for these three kinds of devices, respectively. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of the high-performance TAA-based materials in OSCs, DSSCs, and PSCs. We focus our discussion on the structure-property relationship of the TAA-based materials in order to shed light on the solutions to the challenges in the field of organic and hybrid photovoltaics. Some design strategies for improving the materials and device performance and possible research directions in the near future are also proposed.

  5. Influence of Dye Adsorbtion Time on TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Krokot Extract (Portulaca Oleracea. L as A Natural Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Krisdiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC photoelectrodes were fabricated using titanium oxide (TiO2 and sensitized with the krokot extract dye. This study investigated the effect of dye adsorption time to an efficiency of the solar cells. The fabrication cells immersed with krokot extract dye for 1, 8 and 26 hours. The photochemical performance of the DSSC showed that the open circuit voltage (Voc were 0.33, 0.036 and 0.27 V with short photocurrent density (Isc 8.00 x 10-5, 6.80 x 10-7 and 3.10 x 10-4. The photo-to-electric conversion efficiency of the DSSC reached 4.63 x 10-3 % for 26 hours adsorption time.

  6. The Effects of Phosphonic Acids in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Keith Edward

    Novel methods for the construction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were developed. A thin dense underlayer of TiO2 was applied on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass using as a precursor Tyzor AA-105. Subsequently a mesoporous film of P-25 TiO2 was applied by spreading a suspension uniformly over the surface of the underlayer and allowing the plate to slowly dry while resting on a level surface. After sintering at 500° C slides were treated with TCPP as a sensitizing dye and assembled into DSSCs. A novel method was used to seal the cells; strips of ParafilmRTM were used as spacers between the electrodes and to secure the electrodes together. The cells were filled with a redox electrolyte and sealed by dipping into molten paraffin. A series of phosphonic acids and one arsonic acid were employed as coadsorbates in DSSCs. The coadsorbates were found to compete for binding sites, resulting in lower levels of dye adsorption. The resulting loss of photocurrent was not linear with the reduction of dye loading, and in some cases photocurrent and efficiency were higher for cells with lower levels of dye loading. Electrodes were treated with coadsorbates by procedures including pre-adsorption, simultaneous (sim-adsorption), and post-adsorption, using a range of concentrations and treatment times and a variety of solvents. Most cells were tested using an iodide-triiodide based electrolyte (I3I-1) but some cells were tested using electrolytes based on a Co(II)/Co(III) redox couple (CoBpy electrolytes). Phosphonic acid post-adsorbates increased the Voc of cells using CoBpy electrolytes but caused a decrease in the Voc of cells using I3I-1 electrolyte. Phosphonic acids as sim-adsorbates resulted in a significant increase in efficiency and Jsc, and they show promise as a treatment for TCPP DSSCs.

  7. Incorporation of graphene into SnO{sub 2} photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J. [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Biggs, Mark J. [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); School of Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Shapter, Joseph G., E-mail: joe.shapter@flinders.edu.au [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia)

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Incorporation of a graphene structure into SnO{sub 2} dye-sensitized solar cell photoanode films has been demonstrated for the first time. The use of graphene in the SnO{sub 2} has been found to be a promising strategy to address many problems of photovoltaic cells based on SnO{sub 2} photoanodes. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid is prepared using a microwave technique. • The first SnO{sub 2}-RGO photoanode based DSSC is fabricated. • Use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO{sub 2} when employed as a DSSC photoanode. • RGO significantly improved the electron transport rate within the DSSC devices. • Incorporation of RGO into the SnO{sub 2} photoanode enhanced the DSSC efficiency by 91.5%. - Abstract: In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO{sub 2}), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO{sub 2} and reduced graphene oxide (SnO{sub 2}-RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO{sub 2} photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO{sub 2} when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  8. Rationalizing the molecular origins of Ru- and Fe-based dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Kian Sing; Zhou, Xiaolan; Yufa, Nataliya [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2012-04-15

    As part of an effort to design more efficient dyes for dyesensitized solar cells (DSCs), structure-property relationships are established in the world's best-performing chemical series of dyes: 2,2{sup '}-bipyridyl-4,4{sup '}-carboxylatoruthenium(II) complexes. Statistical analysis, based on crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database, is used to determine common structural features and the effects of structural change to its salient molecular constituents. Also included is the report of two new crystal structures for tris(2,2{sup '}-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II)hexahydrate and tris(2,2{sup '}-bipyridyl)iron(II)dithiocyanate; these add to this statistical enquiry. Results show that the metal (M) core exhibits a distorted octahedral environment with M - N {pi}-backbonding effects affording the propensity of the metal ion towards oxidation. The same characteristics are observed in iron-based analogues. The role of carboxylic groups in this series of dyes is assessed by comparing complexes which contain or are devoid of COOH groups. Space-group variation and large molecular conformational differences occur when COOH groups are present, while such structural features are very similar in their absence. The nature of the anion is also shown to influence the structure of COOH-containing complexes. These structural findings are corroborated by solution-based UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and DSC device performance tests. The presence of COOH groups in this series of compounds is shown to be mandatory for dye-uptake in TiO2 in the DSC fabrication process. Throughout this study, results are compared with those of the world's most famous DSC dye, N3 (N719 in its fully protonated form): cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2{sup '}-bipyridyl-4,4{sup '}-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II). Overall, the molecular origins of charge-transfer in these complexes are ascertained. The findings have important implications to the materials

  9. Investigation of Temperature and Aging Effects in Nanostructured Dye Solar Cells Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Toivola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of aging and cyclically varying temperature on the electrical parameters of dye solar cells were analyzed with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photoelectrode total resistance increased as a function of time due to increasing electron transport resistance in the TiO2 film. On the other hand, photoelectrode recombination resistance was generally larger, electron lifetimes in the TiO2 were film longer, and charge transfer resistance on the counter electrode was smaller after the temperature treatments than before them. These effects correlated with the slower deterioration rate of the temperature-treated cells, in comparison to the reference cells.

  10. New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelio Rodriguez; Susana Vargas; Fracisco Quintanilla; Angel Ramon Hernandez-Martinez; Miriam Estevez

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized....

  11. Influence of scattering layers on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hore, S. [Freiburg Materials Research Center, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Stefan-Meier-Strasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Vetter, C.; Kern, R.; Hinsch, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Smit, H.J.P. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    Thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor layer with different scattering layers was investigated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Since the cost of the photoactive dye in the DSSC is relatively high, it is reasonable to assume that the price of the dye could be one of the decisive factors in determining the price of the DSSC modules. Use of a thin layer of nanocrystalline TiO2 would imply reduction in the amount of dye coverage, however, lower amount of dye in the thin films would imply fewer electron generation upon illumination. Thus, it becomes necessary to include a light scattering layer such that the lower photon conversion due to thin layer could be compensated. In the present study up to 80% increase in current density was observed due to inclusion of scattering layers. Reflectance and transmittance measurements were employed in order to study the optical properties of these scattering layers. The scattering layers, which are considered here, are TiO2-Rutile, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and layers consisting of these two in various proportions. With a 4 {mu}m thin titanium dioxide semiconductor layer as photo electrode and an additional light scattering layer (consisting of TiO2-Rutile and ZrO2 in a ratio of 1:3), efficiencies of 6.8% were achieved.

  12. ZnO Photoanode Effect on the Efficiency Performance of Organic Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, I. S.; Ismail, S. S.; Norizan, M. N.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Abdullah, M. M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell has been emerged as one of the most promising candidates for photovoltaics applications in good quality of their low manufacturing cost and impressive conversion energy. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) which is used as photoanode in the market has the advantage of wide bandgap energy but low in electron mobility (∼10 cm2/(V.s)). Ruthenium in the other hand, as the dye sensitizer is a rare noble metal and harmful to human health. Thus, this article reveals the performance of photo-to-electric conversion efficiency with the usage of Zinc Oxide as photoanode with higher electron mobility (155 cm2/(V.s)) compared to TiO2 utilizing three natural fruit dyes of Prunus domestica, Magnifera indica and Citrus limon. ZnO and TiO2 photoanodes were fabricated using sol gel and dr blade method respectively. The morphology of the photoanodes were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope and the efficiency of the complete DSSC with all different fruit dyes were characterized using Semiconductor Parametric Analyzer. The different property of electron mobility photoanodes effect in DSSC proved to give better performance with the photoconversion efficiency of 3.082% using ZnO with Prunus domestica dye. This article also reveals that pH indicator does not affect the selection and the performance of DSSC.

  13. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Performances of Pyridine Based Monomer and Polymer Capped ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Raj, Tilak; Singh, Amarpal; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-06-01

    The present research work describes the comparative analysis and performance characteristics of 4-pyridine based monomer and polymer capped ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. The N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene) propaneamine (4,monomer) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5, polymer) dyes were synthesized through one step condensation reaction between 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 1 and N, N-dimethylpropylamine 2/polyamine 3. Products obtained N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene)propaneamine (4) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5) were purified and characterized using 1H, 13C NMR, mass, IR and CHN spectroscopy. Both the dyes 4 and 5 were further coated over ZnO nanoparticles and characterized using SEM, DLS and XRD analysis. Absorption profile and emission profile was monitored using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. A thick layer of these inbuilt dye linked ZnO nanoparticles of dyes (4) and (5) was pasted on one of the conductive side of ITO glass followed with a liquid electrolyte and counter electrode of the same conductive glass. Polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base polymer (5) decorated dye sensitized solar cell has shown better exciting photovoltaic properties in the form of short circuit current density (J(sc) = 6.3 mA/cm2), open circuit photo voltage (V(oc) = 0.7 V), fill factor (FF = 0.736) than monomer decorated dye sensitized solar cell. Polymer dye (5) based ZnO solar cell has shown a maximum solar power to electrical conversion efficiency of 3.25%, which is enhanced by 2.16% in case of monomer dye based ZnO solar cell under AM 1.5 sun illuminations.

  14. Surface modifications of photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells: enhanced light harvesting and reduced recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vibha; Aswal, D. K.

    2015-06-01

    In a quest to harvest solar power, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have potential for low-cost eco-friendly photovoltaic devices. The major processes which govern the efficiency of a DSSC are photoelectron generation, injection of photo-generated electrons to the conduction band (CB) of the mesoporous nanocrystalline semiconductor (nc-SC); transport of CB electrons through nc-SC and subsequent collection of CB electrons at the counter electrode (CE) through the external circuit; and dye regeneration by redox couple or hole transport layer (HTL). Most of these processes occur at various interfaces of the photoanode. In addition, recombination losses of photo-generated electrons with either dye or redox molecules take place at the interfaces. Therefore, one of the key requirements for high efficiency is to improve light harvesting of the photoanode and to reduce the recombination losses at various interfaces. In this direction, surface modification of the photoanode is the simplest method among the various other approaches available in the literature. In this review, we present a comprehensive discussion on surface modification of the photoanode, which has been adopted in the literature for not only enhancing light harvesting but also reducing recombination. Various approaches towards surface modification of the photoanode discussed are (i) fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/nc-SC interface modified via a compact layer of semiconductor material which blocks exposed sites of FTO to electrolyte (or HTL), (ii) nc-SC/dye interface modification either through acid treatment resulting in enhanced dye loading due to a positively charged surface or by depositing insulating/semiconducting blocking layer on the nc-SC surface, which acts as a tunneling barrier for recombination, (iii) nc-SC/dye interface modified by employing co-adsorbents which helps in reducing the dye aggregation and thereby recombination, and (iv) dye/electrolyte (or dye/HTL) interface modification using

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Cassia angustifolia as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Mahfudli Fadli, Ulfa; Bayu Prasada, Ashari

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) is one of the electric cells photochemical consisting of photoelectrode, dye, counter electrode, and electrolyte. The aims of the research to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of the extract Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Cassia angustifolia. The study is also aimed to determine the effect of natural dyes extract to increase the efficiency of solar cells based DSSC. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode platinum (Pt). Dye extraction process is performed by stirring for 1 hour and then allowed to stand for 24 hours. Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two-point probes Elkahfi 100, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The results showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.160% at Dye Pandanus amaryllifolius.

  16. Enhancement of power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by co-sensitization of Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue dyes on ZnO photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Suman; Bahadur, Lal, E-mail: lbahadur@bhu.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    A single dye usually absorbs light only in a limited range of solar spectrum. In order to widen the absorption range, a combination of dyes, namely, Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It has been found that the DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. It has been ascribed to the enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) when both dyes were used together as was evident from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto ZnO electrode. The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub SC}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub OC}=0.606 V, FF=0.53 and maximum energy conversion efficiency (η) of 1.35% on illuminating the cell with visible light of 150 mW cm{sup −2} intensity. - Highlights: • Phloxine B and Bromophenol blue have been used as sensitizers in ZnO based DSSC. • DSSC sensitized by mixed dyes exhibited better photovoltaic performance than those observed with the DSSCs using test dyes individually. • Enhanced absorption of light particularly in higher energy region (λ=400–550 nm) have been observed when both dyes were used together. • The DSSC using ZnO electrode sensitized by mixed dyes provided J{sub sc}=5.6 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.606 V, FF=0.53. • Efficiency of 1.35% is achieved at visible light intensity of 150 mW cm{sup −2}.

  17. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Prabu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol, methanol and water. In this study, a photo electrode using ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles was prepared by sol-gel method. In this paper we investigate the optical absorption, functional group, surface morphology and elementary composition of pure TiO2, ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles and opuntia prickly pear dye extract by using UV-Visible, PL-Studies, FT-IR, FE-SEM and EDS analysis. Finally photocurrent-voltaic characterization of nanocrystaline natural dye solar cell using I-V studies. It was found that the levels of short-circuit current (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF and overall conversion efficiency (η.

  18. Ultrafast interfacial charge transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized and quantum dot solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hirendra N.

    2013-02-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) appeared to be one of the good discovery for the solution of energy problem. We have been involved in studying ultrafast interfacial electron transfer dynamics in DSSC using femtosecond laser spectroscopy. However it has been realized that it is very difficult to design and develop higher efficient one, due to thermodynamic limitation. Again in DSSC most of the absorbed photon energy is lost as heat within the cell, which apart from decreasing the efficiency also destabilizes the device. It has been realized that quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) are the best bet where the sensitizer dye molecules can be replaced by suitable quantum dot (QD) materials in solar cell. The quantum-confinement effect in semiconductors modifies their electronic structure, which is a very important aspect of these materials. For photovoltaic applications, a long-lived charge separation remains one of the most essential criteria. One of the problems in using QDs for photovoltaic applications is their fast charge recombination caused by nonradiative Auger processes, which occur predominantly at lower particle sizes due to an increase in the Coulomb interaction between electrons and holes. Various approaches, such as the use of metal-semiconductor composites, semiconductor-polymer composite, and semiconductor core-shell heterostructures, have been attempted to minimize the fast recombination between electrons and holes. To make higher efficient solar devices it has been realised that it is very important to understand charge carrier and electron transfer dynamics in QD and QD sensitized semiconductor nanostructured materials. In the present talk, we are going to discuss on recent works on ultrafast electron transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles/film [1-12] and charge (electron/hole) transfer dynamics in quantum dot core-shell nano-structured materials [13-17].

  19. Triazoloisoquinoline-Based/Ruthenium-Hybrid Sensitizer for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Lung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs were synthesized and used in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. After cosensitization with ruthenium complex, the triazoloisoquinoline-based organic dyestuffs overcame the deficiency of ruthenium dyestuff absorption in the blue part of the visible spectrum. This method also fills the blanks of ruthenium dyestuff sensitized TiO2 film and forms a compact insulating molecular layer due to the nature of small molecular organic dyestuffs. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of N719 at shorter wavelength regions is 49%. After addition of a triazoloisoquinoline-based dyestuff for co-sensitization, the IPCE at 350–500 nm increased significantly. This can be attributed to the increased photocurrent of the cells, which improves the dye-sensitized photoelectric conversion efficiency from 6.23% to 7.84%, and the overall conversion efficiency increased by about 26%. As a consequence, this low molecular weight organic dyestuff is a promising candidate as coadsorbent and cosensitizer for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. New triarylamine sensitizers for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells: Recombination kinetics of cobalt(III) complexes at titania/dye interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weixue; Liang, Mao; Tan, Yulin; Wang, Min; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is based on a combination of D-π-A organic dyes in conjunction with cobalt-based redox mediators. Here, two new triarylamine organic dyes (M36 and M37) toward cobalt electrolytes are constructed and employed as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoelectrochemical properties and photovoltaic performance of dyes are sensitive to the slightly structural modification of the terminal donor in triarylamine. Recombination kinetics of cobalt(III) complexes at titania/dye interface are also studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and controlled intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements. Our results show that, for M36 sensitized DSCs, a Marcus inverted region can be reached for the charge recombination kinetics behavior of cobalt(III) species. While that for DSCs based on M37 just lies in the Marcus normal region. The results can be attributed to differences in the retarding charge recombination ability of the dye layer. Benefiting from a Marcus inverted region behavior, the M36 dye exhibits a good compatibility with the [Co(phen)3]2+/3+ redox couples, achieving a high overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.58% under full sun illumination.

  1. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet;

    2016-01-01

    the adsorption of the dye on TiO2 can be obtained. Furthermore it is found that the polarization fluorescence anisotropy is very different for adsorbed and non-adsorbed dye molecules. This information is automatically obtained when processing the Raman data. The conclusion is that if the polarization properties......Abstract: The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed...... on N719/TiO2 – DSCs that by combining an analysis of the wave number dependent polarization of these modes with the small shifts observed in the visible absorption spectra of adsorbed, non-adsorbed molecules and degradation products new and more reliable information about dye stability and about...

  2. In-Situ Spectroscopic Analyses of the Dye Uptake on ZnO and TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Nadia; Pugliese, Diego; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran; Tresso, Elena

    2015-08-01

    UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements have been performed on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) photoanodes at different dye impregnation times ranging from few minutes to 24 hours. In addition to the traditional absorbance experiments, based on diffuse and specular reflectance of dye impregnated thin films and on the desorption of dye molecules from the photoanodes by means of a basic solution, an alternative in-situ solution depletion measurement, which enables fast and continuous evaluation of dye uptake, has been employed. Two different nanostructured semiconducting oxide films (mesoporous TiO2 and sponge-like ZnO) and two different dyes, the traditional Ruthenizer 535-bisTBA (N719) and a newly introduced metal-free organic dye based on a hemi-squaraine molecule (CT1), have been analyzed. DSSCs have been fabricated with the dye-impregnated photoanodes using a customized microfluidic architecture. The dye adsorption results are discussed and correlated to the obtained DSSC electrical performances such as photovoltaic conversion efficiencies and Incident Photon-to-electron Conversion Efficiency (IPCE) spectra. It is shown that simple UV-Vis measurements can give useful insights on the dye adsorption mechanisms and on the evaluation of the optimal impregnation times.

  3. Structurally stabilized mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargol Hasani Bijarbooneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructures are very desirable for providing fascinating properties and features, such as high electron mobility, quantum confinement effects, and high specific surface area. Herein, 1D mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using the electrospinning method to verify their potential for use as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The 1D mesoporous nanofibres, 300 nm in diameter and 10-20 μm in length, were aggregated from anatase nanoparticles 20-30 nm in size. The employment of these novel 1D mesoporous nanofibres significantly improved dye loading and light scattering of the DSSC photoanode, and resulted in conversion cell efficiency of 8.14%, corresponding to an ∼35% enhancement over the Degussa P25 reference photoanode.

  4. Achievement of over 1.4 V photovoltage in a dye-sensitized solar cell by the application of a silyl-anchor coumarin dye

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Kakiage; Hiroyuki Osada; Yohei Aoyama; Toru Yano; Keiji Oya; Shinji Iwamoto; Jun-ichi Fujisawa; Minoru Hanaya

    2016-01-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by using a novel silyl-anchor coumarin dye with alkyl-chain substitutes, a Br3 −/Br− redox electrolyte solution containing water, and a Mg2+-doped anatase-TiO2 electrode with twofold surface modification by MgO and Al2O3 exhibited an open-circuit photovoltage over 1.4 V, demonstrating the possibility of DSSCs as practical photovoltaic devices.

  5. Achievement of over 1.4 V photovoltage in a dye-sensitized solar cell by the application of a silyl-anchor coumarin dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiage, Kenji; Osada, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Yohei; Yano, Toru; Oya, Keiji; Iwamoto, Shinji; Fujisawa, Jun-Ichi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by using a novel silyl-anchor coumarin dye with alkyl-chain substitutes, a Br3‑/Br‑ redox electrolyte solution containing water, and a Mg2+-doped anatase-TiO2 electrode with twofold surface modification by MgO and Al2O3 exhibited an open-circuit photovoltage over 1.4 V, demonstrating the possibility of DSSCs as practical photovoltaic devices.

  6. Nanographite-TiO2 photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Khushboo; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-05-01

    Nanographite-TiO2 (NG-TiO2) composite was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method and its performance as the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. Environmental Scanning electron microscope (E-SEM) micrographs show the uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoflowers deposited over nanographite sheets. The average performance characteristics of the assembled cell in terms of short-ciruit current density (JSC), open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF) and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were measured.

  7. Performance Degradation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Induced by Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Yuan Yang; Huang-Yu Chen; Fu-Der Lai

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the change of the electric characteristics in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) when the electrolyte has been injected and measured initially and lately for a period of time. It was found that the short-circuit current density decreased from 9.799 mA/cm2 to 7.056 mA/cm2 and the fill factor increased from 0.406 to 0.559 when the cell had stood for an hour, while the open-circuit photovoltage did not change due to fixed difference between the Fermi level of TiO2 and the oxidation...

  8. Degradation of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Yang, Xichuan; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-07-01

    Organic dyes have become widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their good performance, flexible structural modifications, and low costs. To increase the photostability of organic dye-based DSSCs, we conducted a full study on the degradation mechanism of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in DSSCs. The results showed that with the synergy between water and UV light, the sensitizer could desorb from the TiO2 surface and the cyanoacrylic acid unit of the sensitizer was transformed into the aldehyde group. It was also observed that the water content had a great effect on the degradation process. Our experiments conducted using (18) O-labeled water demonstrated that the oxygen atom of the aldehyde group identified in the degraded dye came from the solvent water in the DSSCs. Therefore, controlling the water content during DSSC fabrication, good sealing of cells, and filtering the UV light are crucial to produce DSSCs that are more durable and robust.

  9. Fabrication of Copper(I) Bipyridyl Complex Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Son; Nguyen-Dang, Ha-My; Tran, Quang Thinh; Luong, Thi Thu Thuy; Pham, Trang T. T.; Nguyen-Tran, Thuat; Mai, Anh Tuan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on a copper(I) complex. A simple form of copper(I) complex dye was synthesized with a structure of [Cu(L)(CH3CN)], where L is the 6,6'-dimethyl-4,4'-bis(phenylethynyl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligand. The full structure of DSSC investigated in this study is as follows: FTO/TiO2/dye Cu(I) bipyridyl/3I-/I3 - electrolyte/graphite/FTO. The TiO2 photoanodes were deposited from apoly(vinylpyrrolidone)-based paste using a spin coating technique. Different conditions of fabrication, such as paste dispersion time and total TiO2 thickness, were systematically studied in order to optimize the performance of the DSSC. The trigonal planar complex [Cu(L)CH3CN] was revealed to be suitable for applications in DSSC. The highest exhibited short circuit current density was found to be 0.48 mA/cm2, with an open voltage of 477 mV, a form factor of 34% and a power conversion efficiency of 0.08% for the cell with photoanodes thickness of about 2.2 μm. It was shown that the dye and the paste formulation had great potential for applications in DSSC.

  10. A robust organic dye for dye sensitized solar cells based on iodine/iodide electrolytes combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien; Pellejà, Laia; Narbey, Stéphanie; Oswald, Frédéric; Chiron, Julien; Clifford, John N; Palomares, Emilio; Demadrille, Renaud

    2014-02-07

    Among the new photovoltaic technologies, the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) is becoming a realistic approach towards energy markets such as BIPV (Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics). In order to improve the performances of DSCs and to increase their commercial attractiveness, cheap, colourful, stable and highly efficient ruthenium-free dyes must be developed. Here we report the synthesis and complete characterization of a new purely organic sensitizer (RK1) that can be prepared and synthetically upscaled rapidly. Solar cells containing this orange dye show a power conversion efficiency of 10.2% under standard conditions (AM 1.5G, 1000 Wm(-2)) using iodine/iodide as the electrolyte redox shuttle in the electrolyte, which is among the few examples of DSC using an organic dyes and iodine/iodide red/ox pair to overcome the 10% efficiency barrier. We demonstrate that the combination of this dye with an ionic liquid electrolyte allows the fabrication of solar cells that show power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.36% that are highly stable with no measurable degradation of initial performances after 2200 h of light soaking at 65°C under standard irradiation conditions. RK1 achieves one of the best output power conversion efficiencies for a solar cell based on the iodine/iodide electrolyte, combining high efficiency and outstanding stability.

  11. Synthesis of Novel Arylazothiazolyl-thiophene Dyes for Solar Cell and Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed E; Al-Amoudi, Muhammed S; Gobouri, Adil A; Merazga, Amar; Fadda, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and investigation of new donor-acceptor conjugated N-(5-arylazothiazol-2-yl)-2-aminothiophene derivatives with the aim to elucidate the contribution of their interaction with solvent molecules upon intramolecular charge transfer for their potential solar cells application. The UV-visible and emission spectra measurements indicated that the properties of the synthesized dyes had a significant effect on the visible absorption and emission maxima. The effect of the donor and acceptor groups were studied for the nonlinearity based on their HOMO-LUMO band gap energy. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the newly synthesized aryl thiazolyl-thiophene dyes as sensitizers. The promising results of J(SC) (2.46 × 10(-2) and 4.07 × 10(-2) mA/cm(2)), the V(OC) (0.429 V and 0.426 V) and the FF (0.66 %) values obtained comparing with other organic and natural sensitizer were due to the better interaction between the carboxyl and carbonyl groups of aryl azo molecule attached to the thiazolyl nucleus and the surface of TiO(2) porous film.

  12. A UV-prepared linear polymer electrolyte membrane for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiyka, M., E-mail: imperiyka@gmail.com [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kufra Campus, University of Benghazi, Al Kufrah (Libya); Ahmad, A.; Hanifah, S.A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bella, F. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of LiClO{sub 4} and LiFS{sub 3}SO{sub 3} on poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based solid polymer electrolyte and its photoelectrochemical performance in a dye sensitized solar cell consisting of FTO/TiO{sub 2}–dye/P(GMA)–LiClO{sub 4}–EC/Pt were investigated. The electrochemical stability of films was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest ionic conductivities obtained were 4.2×10{sup −5} and 3.7×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} for the film containing 30 wt% LiClO{sub 4} and 25 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The polymer electrolytes showed electrochemical stability windows up to 3 V and 2.8 V for LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cell showed a sunlight conversion efficiency of 0.679% (J{sub sc}=3 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.48 V and FF=0.47), under light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2}.

  13. Mesoporous TiO2 Nanowire Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Xu, Jia; Liu, Xiu; Zhang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi; Dai, Songyuan; Tan, Zhanao; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, TiO2 nanowire arrays were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, and then were converted into mesoporous nanowires (MNWs). The TiO2 MNWs are about 5 μm in length and 30-200 nm in diameter, with mesopores size of 5-30 nm randomly distributed on the NW surface. X-ray diffraction pattern reports show that the NWs are single crystallized rutile TiO2 and oriented grown along [001]. Through further characterization of FT-IR and TG-DSC, we proposed a reasonable explanation for pore existence. After dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembly, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of MNWs based DSSC achieved 3.2%. It means tenfold enhancement of photoelectric property compare with the as-grown NWs. Furthermore, dye absorb capacity of MNWs can reach up to 4.11 x 10(-8) mol/cm2. However, such MNWs can not only provide quick and efficient electron transmission channel, but also owns big specific surface area to absorb abundant dyes, thus conducive to fabricate solar cell with a high PCE.

  14. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline ZnO Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium(II Phendione Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shahroosvand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal complexes (RuII (phen2(phendione(PF62(1, [RuII (phen(bpy(phendione(PF62 (2, and (RuII (bpy2(phendione(PF62 (3 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and phendione = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione have been synthesized as photo sensitizers for ZnO semiconductor in solar cells. FT-IR and absorption spectra showed the favorable interfacial binding between the dye-molecules and ZnO surface. The surface analysis and size of adsorbed dye on nanostructure ZnO were further examined with AFM and SEM. The AFM images clearly show both, the outgrowth of the complexes which are adsorbed on ZnO thin film and the depression of ZnO thin film. We have studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phendione complexes, which gave power conversion efficiency of (η of 1.54% under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm−2 with a short-circuit photocurrent density (sc of 3.42 mA cm−2, an open-circuit photovoltage (oc of 0.622 V, and a fill factor (ff of 0.72. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 38% at 485 nm.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Four new donor-π-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653 nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163 mV compared to 158 mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs.

  16. Evaluation of microwave plasma sintering for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, A; Rahman, M; MacElroy, J M D; Dowling, D P

    2012-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have demonstrated considerable potential due to their solar energy conversion efficiency and their fabrication from relatively low cost materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used in the fabrication of the DSSC electrodes. There is a considerable energy requirement however required for the sintering of the TiO2 particles during the fabrication of the mesoporous electrodes. This study investigates the use of microwave (MW) plasma treatments as a rapid, energy efficient processing technique for the sintering of the metal oxide particles. A comparison is made with conventional furnace treatments for the sintering of TiO2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25), deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. Subsequent to the TiO2 sintering, ruthenium based dye (N719) adsorption studies were carried out for coatings heated using both sintering techniques. Based on UV/Vis absorption spectra measurements of 5 mins plasma and 30 mins furnace sintering, it was observed that both sintering techniques exhibited similar levels of dye adsorption. A decrease in the level of dye adsorption was observed for the TiO2 coatings sintered for longer periods (up to 10 mins in this study). This change with longer plasma treatment times was associated with rutile grain growth and a decrease in surface roughness, possibly due to a densification of the mesoporous structure. The effect of TiO2 coating plasma treatment times on the conversion efficiency of the dye sensitised electrodes was also evaluated. Plasma treatments of 5 mins were found to yield the highest conversion efficiency of 6.4%.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Greenhouse Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum-Jong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed dye-sensitized solar cells using novel sensitizers with enhanced transmittance of red (625–675 nm and blue (425–475 nm wavebands to control the illumination condition in the greenhouse. Novel ruthenium bipyridyl sensitizers with general formulas (Me3PhN4[Ru(dcbpy2(NCS2] (JJ-7 and (Me3BnN4[Ru(dcbpy2(NCS2] (JJ-9 have been synthesized and demonstrated as efficient sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells for greenhouse application. Under standard AM 1.5 sunlight, the solar cell of JJ-7 using a liquid-based electrolyte exhibits a short-circuit photocurrent density of 8.49 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.83 V, and a fill factor of 0.71, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 4.96% on 5 μm TiO2 film. The transmittance of JJ-7 and JJ-9 shows 62.0% and 61.0% at 660 nm and 18.0% and 15.0% at 440 nm for cultivation on 5 μm TiO2 film, respectively.

  18. O2 plasma sintering study of TiO2 photoelectrodes in dye solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. D.; Stegemann, C.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Miyakawa, W.; Massi, M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of more efficient photoelectrochemical solar cells has been, over the years, the subject of many scientific researches. In this paper a methodology was established to carry out the sintering process of nanoporous TiO2 layer by using plasma, which was compared with sintered layers made by the conventional sintering process in a furnace. The TiO2 commercial paste was spread by doctor-blading technique and subjected to different sintering processes. Porous layer samples were subjected to structural and morphological analyses. Then photoelectrodes dye-loading was measured by optical spectrophotometry. The quality of the layers under plasma sintering process in terms of weight loss and removal of organic compounds was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The results showed that the plasma sintering process favors the adsorption of dye on the layer surface due to the creation of active states caused by O2 reactive plasma. Furthermore the O2 plasma process provides enough energy for removing organic compounds arising from the TiO2 paste and for providing nanoparticle sintering. Solar cells assembled with the plasma-sintered layers had a power conversion efficiency 20.1% higher than the obtained in solar cells sintered in a conventional furnace, proving the efficiency of the plasma sintering process.

  19. Electron migration and stability of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available on the efficiency of the cells were investigated. Two physical properties of the solvents (viscosity and permittivity) were used in this comparison. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (Nyquist and Bode plots) was used for analysis of the charge transfer...

  20. Optimization of dye adsorption time and film thickness for efficient ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells with high at-rest stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chia-Hua; Yu, Wan-Chin; Lin, Chun-Min

    2012-12-28

    Photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using commercially available zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and sensitized with the dye N719. This study systematically investigates the effects of two fabrication factors: the ZnO film thickness and the dye adsorption time. Results show that these two fabrication factors must be optimized simultaneously to obtain efficient ZnO/N719-based cells. Different film thicknesses require different dye adsorption times for optimal cell performance. This is because a prolonged dye adsorption time leads to a significant deterioration in cell performance. This is contrary to what is normally observed for titanium dioxide-based cells. The highest overall power conversion efficiency obtained in this study was 5.61%, which was achieved by 26-μm-thick photoelectrodes sensitized in a dye solution for 2 h. In addition, the best-performing cell demonstrated remarkable at-rest stability despite the use of a liquid electrolyte. Approximately 70% of the initial efficiency remained after more than 1 year of room-temperature storage in the dark. To better understand how dye adsorption time affects electron transport properties, this study also investigated cells based on 26-μm-thick films using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS results show good agreement with the measured device performance parameters.

  1. The isolated anatase for dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmi, Irfan, E-mail: irfan.ilmi149@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Functional Coating Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Kartin, Indriana; Suyanta [Functional Coating Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry,Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Ohtani, Bunsho; Wang, Kunlei [Graduate School of Environmental and Earth Science, Hokkaido University Japan (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    The isolation of crystallite anatase from commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 Degussa was investigated. The aim of this research was to study of isolated anatase based DSSC as an effort to develop industrial DSSC. The crystal phase, crystallite size and crystal shape both of original P25 and isolated anatase were characterized by XRD and TEM. By observing DSSC parameters such as FF, Jsc and Voc resulted in cell test, the efficiency of samples based DSSC was known. The isolation of anatase crystal was done by dissolving P25 in ammonia catalyzed hydrogen peroxide solution for 15 hours followed by washing and drying. DSSC cell performance was evaluated by applying the isolated anantase and original P25 as photoanode in the Gratzel cell system. The observation of cell efficiency was measured under 100 mW /cm{sup 2} with active area 1.5 cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction pattern showed obviously that no rutile contaminant in produced isolated anatase. TEM image shows typical anatase crystal with the particle size 21 nm. Surface area measurement exhibits that surface area of isolated anatase was 64.7m{sup 2}/g. I-V measurement showed that the efficiency of anatase based cell and P25 based cell is 0.79% and 0.51% respectively.

  2. Fabrication and analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dye extracted from dragon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit dye has been prepared and used in the fabrication of DSSC as sensitizer. The properties of dragon fruit dye have been investigated by UV-Vis and FTIR technique. The absorption spectrum shows a peak value of 535 nm. Chemically dragon fruit dye shows present of intermolecular H-bond, conjugate C=O stretching and esters acetates C-O-C stretching vibration, which is due to the component of anthocyanin. On the other hand, the resistivity of TiO2 film on ITO glass before it is used for the fabrication of DSSC is also investigated. The TiO2 sheet resistivity increase from 1 layer = 22.1 Ω cm to 2 layers = 369.6 Ω cm. Finally, the efficiency of assemble DSSC was evaluated and simulated using a custom made technique. The result shows fill factor, Pmax and efficiency during the present of halogen lamp are 0.30, 13 μW, 0.22%, respectively. We have successfully showed that the DSSC using dragon fruit as a dye sensitizer is useful for the preparation of environmental friendly and low-cost DSSC.

  3. Co-sensitization of natural dyes for improved efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Ashok; Subalakshmi, K.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new approach of co-sensitized DSSC based on natural dyes is investigated to explore the possible way to improve the power conversion efficiency. To realize this purpose 10 DSSC devices were fabricated using mono-sensitization and co-sensitization of ethanolic extracts of natural dye sensitizers obtained from Cactus fruit, Jambolana fruit, Curcumin and Bermuda grass. The optical absorption spectrum of the mono and hybrid dye extracts were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrum. It shows the characteristic absorption peaks in visible region corresponds to the presence of natural pigments of anthocyanin, betacyanin and chlorophylls. Absorption spectrum of hybrid dyes reveals a wide absorption band in visible region with improved extinction co-efficient and it is favorable for increased light harvesting nature. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC devices were calculated using J-V curve and the maximum efficiency achieved in the present work is noted to be ~0.61% for Cactus-Bermuda co-sensitized DSSC.

  4. Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells based on Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 Framework Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; CHENG Yun-Fei; LI Fu-You; ZHOU Zhi-Guo; YI Tao; HUANG Chun-Hui; JIA Neng-Qin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We develop a novel and efficient quasi-solid-state electrolyte based on the mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a framework material for a dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell. A solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.34% is achieved under AM 1.5 illumination (100mW/cm2).

  5. International round-robin inter-comparison of dye-sensitized and crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Aoki, Dasiuke; Kokubo, Junichi; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Saito, Hidenori; Lee, Kyung Sik; Magaino, Shinichi; Takagi, Katsuhiko; Lin, Ling-Chuan; Lee, Kun-Mu; Wu, Chun-Guey; Zhou, Hong; Igari, Sanekazu

    2017-02-01

    An international round-robin inter-comparison of the spectral responsivity (SR) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and crystalline silicon solar cells is reported for the first time. The crystalline silicon cells with various spectral responsivities were also calibrated by AIST to validate this round-robin activity. On the basis of the remarkable consistency in Pmax (within ±1.4% among participants) and Isc (within ±1.2% compared to the primary calibration of AIST) of the silicon specimens, the discrepancy in the SR and photovoltaic parameters of five DSCs among three national laboratories can be verified and diagnosed. Recommendations about sample packages, SR and I-V measurement methods as well as the inter-comparison protocol for improving the performance characterization of the mesoscopic DSCs are presented according to the consolidated data and the experience of the participants.

  6. In silico designing of power conversion efficient organic lead dyes for solar cells using todays innovative approaches to assure renewable energy for future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Juganta K.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Advances in solar cell technology require designing of new organic dye sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells with high power conversion efficiency to circumvent the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cells. In silico studies including quantitative structure-property relationship analysis combined with quantum chemical analysis were employed to understand the primary electron transfer mechanism and photo-physical properties of 273 arylamine organic dyes from 11 diverse chemical families explicit to iodine electrolyte. The direct quantitative structure-property relationship models enable identification of the essential electronic and structural attributes necessary for quantifying the molecular prerequisites of 11 classes of arylamine organic dyes, responsible for high power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Tetrahydroquinoline, N,N'-dialkylaniline and indoline have been least explored classes under arylamine organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Therefore, the identified properties from the corresponding quantitative structure-property relationship models of the mentioned classes were employed in designing of "lead dyes". Followed by, a series of electrochemical and photo-physical parameters were computed for designed dyes to check the required variables for electron flow of dye-sensitized solar cells. The combined computational techniques yielded seven promising lead dyes each for all three chemical classes considered. Significant (130, 183, and 46%) increment in predicted %power conversion efficiency was observed comparing with the existing dye with highest experimental %power conversion efficiency value for tetrahydroquinoline, N,N'-dialkylaniline and indoline, respectively maintaining required electrochemical parameters.

  7. Synthesis and photoelectric properties of an organic dye containing benzo[1,2-b∶4,5-b']dithiophene for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Rong Gao; Ling-Ling Chu; Wei Guo; Ting-Li Ma

    2013-01-01

    A novel benzodithiophene-containing organic dye BDT was synthesized and characterized as a sensitizer for a nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cell.The BDT dye shows two major electronic absorptions.The absorption of the BDT dye covers a broad visible range from 300 nm to 550 nm.The benzodithiophene unit was used as a π bridge with several advantages:(1) It facilitates the electron transfer from the donor to the acceptor; (2) A facile structural modification on the 4,8-positions in the benzodithiophene unit can be achieved; (3) Fusing benzene with two flanking thiophene units improves the thermal stability.Under simulated AM1.5G solar light (100 mW/cm2) illumination,the DSC based on BDT gives a power conversion efficiency of 1.78%.

  8. On global energy scenario, dye-sensitized solar cells and the promise of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Govardhan; Deepak, T G; Anjusree, G S; Thomas, Sara; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Subramanian, K R V; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2014-04-21

    One of the major problems that humanity has to face in the next 50 years is the energy crisis. The rising population, rapidly changing life styles of people, heavy industrialization and changing landscape of cities have increased energy demands, enormously. The present annual worldwide electricity consumption is 12 TW and is expected to become 24 TW by 2050, leaving a challenging deficit of 12 TW. The present energy scenario of using fossil fuels to meet the energy demand is unable to meet the increase in demand effectively, as these fossil fuel resources are non-renewable and limited. Also, they cause significant environmental hazards, like global warming and the associated climatic issues. Hence, there is an urgent necessity to adopt renewable sources of energy, which are eco-friendly and not extinguishable. Of the various renewable sources available, such as wind, tidal, geothermal, biomass, solar, etc., solar serves as the most dependable option. Solar energy is freely and abundantly available. Once installed, the maintenance cost is very low. It is eco-friendly, safely fitting into our society without any disturbance. Producing electricity from the Sun requires the installation of solar panels, which incurs a huge initial cost and requires large areas of lands for installation. This is where nanotechnology comes into the picture and serves the purpose of increasing the efficiency to higher levels, thus bringing down the overall cost for energy production. Also, emerging low-cost solar cell technologies, e.g. thin film technologies and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) help to replace the use of silicon, which is expensive. Again, nanotechnological implications can be applied in these solar cells, to achieve higher efficiencies. This paper vividly deals with the various available solar cells, choosing DSCs as the most appropriate ones. The nanotechnological implications which help to improve their performance are dealt with, in detail. Additionally, the

  9. Highly efficient donor-acceptor hydrazone dyes-inorganic Si/TiO₂ hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G; Irfan, Ahmad; Al-Melfi, Mohrah Abdullah M

    2015-06-15

    We have synthesized the two donor-bridge-acceptor organic dyes (hydrazone dye 1 (HD1) and hydrazone dye 2 (HD2)) with the aim to enhance intra-molecular charge transfer then characterized by FTIR and NMR. The ground state geometries have been optimized at three different levels of theories, i.e., B3LYP/6-31G, B3LYP/6-31G and Hartee-Fock HF/6-31G. The absorption spectra and oscillator strengths in different solvents have been computed and compared with the experimental data. The vibrational spectral assignments have been performed on the recorded FTIR spectra based on the theoretical predicted wavenumbers at three different levels of theories. The effect of different solvents (CHCl3, CH3CN and C2H5OH) has been studied on the absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, we have computed the ionization potentials, electron affinities and reorganization energies of studied compounds and shed light on the charge transport properties. The hetero-junction solar cell devices were fabricated by organic-inorganic hetero-junction (Si/TiO2/dye) then the efficiency has been measured by applying the incident power 30, 50 and 70 mW/cm(2). The maximum efficiency 3.12% has been observed for HD1.

  10. GREEN SEAWEEDS EXTRACT AS CO-SENSITIZER FOR DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The row extract of ethanol soluble compounds from the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis was used as source for chlorophyll pigments in the sensitization and co-sensitization of TiO2-based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs. We used two techniques for co-sensitization (the successive adsorptions of dyes, respective the cocktails of dyes and the characteristics of DSSCs were studied having in view different pHs of the extracts. The results for DSSCs based on co-sensitized TiO2 photoanodes, obtained in diverse pH conditions, were compared with those for DSSCs based on substrates sensitized by a single source of pigments. The DSSCs fabricated using photoanodes sensitized with a cocktail of green seaweeds and red cabbage extracts, in basic medium, have higher value for efficiency, compared to green seaweeds, respective red cabbage extracts in the same conditions, and the fill factor was remarkable high (0.795. Thus, the co-sensitization by cocktail method may be a proper technique to enhance the light harvesting capability of natural dyes based DSSCs.

  11. TiO2 nanotubes infiltrated with nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2011-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the infiltration of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes (NTs) with TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The aim is to combine the merits of the NP's high dye loading and high light harvesting capability with the NT's straight carrier transport path and high electron collection efficiency to improve the DSSC performance. On infiltrating NTs with TiCl4 solution followed by hydrothermal synthesis, 10 nm size NPs were observed to form a conformal and dense layer on the NT walls. Compared with the bare NT structure, dye loading of this mixed NT and NP structure is more than doubled. The overall photon conversion efficiencies of the fabricated DSSCs are improved by 152%, 107%, and 49% for 8, 13, and 20 µm long NTs, respectively. Electron transport and recombination parameters were extracted based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Although a slight reduction of electron lifetime was observed in the mixed structures due to enhanced recombination with a larger surface area, the diffusion length is still significantly longer than the NT length used, suggesting that most electrons are collected. In addition to dye loading and hence photocurrent increment, the photovoltage and filling factor were also improved in the mixed structure due to a low serial resistance, leading to the enhancement of the overall efficiency.

  12. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes infiltrated with nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Xuan; Chen Changhong; Fan Zhaoyang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, PO Box 43102, Lubbock, TX, 79409-3102 (United States); Zhu Kai, E-mail: zhaoyang.fan@ttu.edu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401-3393 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    We present a detailed study of the infiltration of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes (NTs) with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The aim is to combine the merits of the NP's high dye loading and high light harvesting capability with the NT's straight carrier transport path and high electron collection efficiency to improve the DSSC performance. On infiltrating NTs with TiCl{sub 4} solution followed by hydrothermal synthesis, 10 nm size NPs were observed to form a conformal and dense layer on the NT walls. Compared with the bare NT structure, dye loading of this mixed NT and NP structure is more than doubled. The overall photon conversion efficiencies of the fabricated DSSCs are improved by 152%, 107%, and 49% for 8, 13, and 20 {mu}m long NTs, respectively. Electron transport and recombination parameters were extracted based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Although a slight reduction of electron lifetime was observed in the mixed structures due to enhanced recombination with a larger surface area, the diffusion length is still significantly longer than the NT length used, suggesting that most electrons are collected. In addition to dye loading and hence photocurrent increment, the photovoltage and filling factor were also improved in the mixed structure due to a low serial resistance, leading to the enhancement of the overall efficiency.

  13. Organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC): Properties from computation, progress and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obotowo, I. N.; Obot, I. B.; Ekpe, U. J.

    2016-10-01

    The advent of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) came at a time when the quest for alternative energy was high, replacing p-n junction photovoltaic devices. Its uniqueness arises from the fact that unlike the conventional systems where the semiconductor assumes the task of light absorption and charge transport, the two functions are separated in DSSC. Organic sensitizers have been used to harvest a large fraction of sunlight ranging from the UV region to the near infrared region of the spectrum leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to ∼ 10.65 % for metal-free organic sensitizers. Currently, experimental analysis of photo sensitizers utilized in DSSCs is often a trial and error process, often laborious and require extensive and expensive chemical synthesis. In most cases, disappointing results from late-stage of the dye synthesis indicate an urgent need to understand the properties of the dyes at a molecular level, before experiments take place. Fortunately, the use of quantum chemical calculations especially Density Functional Theory (DFT) to screen potential dyes has helped in developing efficient sensitizers and to reduce cost. In the present review article, we discuss the current state of the field, new concepts, design strategies, challenges facing the theoretical design and development of organic sensitizers for DSSCs and future perspectives.

  14. Cycloruthenated sensitizers: improving the dye-sensitized solar cell with classical inorganic chemistry principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Bomben, Paolo G; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2012-07-14

    A divergence from the conventional approach to chromophore design has led to the establishment of many exciting new benchmarks for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), including the first documented power conversion efficiency in excess of 12% at 1 sun illumination [Yella et al., Science 2011, 334, 629]. Paramount to these advances is the deviation from polypyridyl ruthenium dyes bearing NCS(-) ligands, such as [Ru(dcbpy)(2)(NCS)(2)] (N3; dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine). While metal-free and porphyrin dyes have demonstrated much promise, the discovery that the NCS(-) ligands of N3 can be replaced by anionic, chelating cyclometalating ligands without compromising device efficiencies has ushered in a new era of ruthenium dye development. A particularly appealing feature of this class of dyestuff is that they offer acute control of the frontier molecular orbitals to enable the precise attenuation of both the ground and excited state redox potentials through judicious chemical modification of the aryl ring. This Perspective summarizes very recent developments in the field, and demonstrates how the new and rapidly expanding class of Ru-based sensitizers provides a conduit for enhancing the performance (and potentially the stability) of the DSSC.

  15. Incorporation of graphene into SnO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J.; Biggs, Mark J.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2016-11-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO2) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO2), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO2 and reduced graphene oxide (SnO2-RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO2 photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  16. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratik Kar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs. Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron transfer step. This depends on the relative position of the sensitized organic dye in the metal oxide composite system. In the present work, we developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models to set up the quantitative relationship between the overall PCE and quantum chemical molecular descriptors. They were calculated from density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT methods as well as from DRAGON software. This allows for understanding the basic electron transfer mechanism along with the structural attributes of arylamine-organic dye sensitizers for the DSSCs explicit to cobalt electrolyte. The identified properties and structural fragments are particularly valuable for guiding time-saving synthetic efforts for development of efficient arylamine organic dyes with improved power conversion efficiency.

  17. Application of the Organic Photosensitizers Bearing Two Carboxylic Acid Groups to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-Hua; YAO Yi-Shan; LI Chao; WANG Wei-Bo; CHENG Xue-Xin; WANG Xue-Song; ZHANG Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    Three electron donor-n bridge-electron acceptor(D-π-A)organic dyes bearing two carboxylic acid groups were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC)as sensitizers,in Which one triphenylamine or modified triphenylamine and two rhodanine-3-acetic acid fragments act as D and A.respectively.It was found that the introduction of t-butyl or methoxy group in the triphenylamine subunit could lead to more efficient photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer,thus improving the overall photoelectric conversion efficiency of the resultant DSSC.Under global AM 1.5 solar irradiation(73 mW·cm-2),the dye molecule based on methoxy-substituted triphenylamine achieved the best photovoltaic performance:a short circuit photocurrent density(Jsc)of 12.63 mA·cm-2,an open circuit voltage(Voc)of 0.55 V,a fill factor(FF)of 0.62,corresponding to an overall efficiency(η)of 5.9%.

  18. Molecular engineering of D-D-π-A type organic dyes incorporating indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Wang, Xiaoying; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Yan, Rucai; Hou, Linxi

    2016-09-01

    Four metal-free organic dyes QX05-08 based on indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine have been successfully designed and synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells. The D-D-π-A type dyes QX07 and QX08 consist of an indoloquinoxaline donor, a phenothiazine donor, a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor/anchoring group and a thiophene or furan π-bridge. Other simple D-π-A type dyes QX05 and QX06 based on indoloquinoxaline and phenothiazine respectively have also been synthesized for comparison. The D-D-π-A type dyes QX07 and QX08 present good balanced structures and show excellent photoelectric properties. Especially, the dye QX07 with a thiophene unit as the π-bridge exhibits the best photovoltaic performances in solar cells. A high power conversion efficiency up to 8.28% with a Jsc of 15.3 mA cm-2 and a Voc of 757 mV have been achieved by the dye QX07 using an iodine electrolyte under standard conditions.

  19. Tropolone as a High-Performance Robust Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Fujimori, Yamato; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tsuji, Yukihiro; Ito, Seigo; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-07-27

    A tropolone group has been employed for the first time as an anchoring group for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on a porphyrin, YD2-o-C8T, with a tropolone moiety exhibited a power-conversion efficiency of 7.7 %, which is only slightly lower than that observed for a reference porphyrin, YD2-o-C8, with a conventional carboxylic group. More importantly, YD2-o-C8T was found to be superior to YD2-o-C8 with respect to DSSC durability and binding ability to TiO2 . These results unambiguously demonstrate that tropolone is a highly promising dye-anchoring group for DSSCs in terms of device durability as well as photovoltaic performance.

  20. Comparison of different structures of niobium oxide blocking layer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jong Sung

    2014-08-01

    In this study, four different types of Nb2O5 thin layers were prepared using sol-gel process to improve energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Nb2O5 layer was prepared on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) layer, TiO2 electrode layer, and inside of TiO2 layer, respectively. The Nb2O5 layer was used to reduce the recombination of photo induced electrons and holes. The DSSCs were assembled with platinum (Pt) coated counter electrode, ruthenium dye, and iodine based electrolyte. The photocurrent-voltage (I-V) characteristics of DSSCs with different types of Nb2O5 were studied. The efficiency depends not only on the structure of DSSCs but also on the initial compositions for the preparation of Nb2O5.

  1. Transparent nickel selenide alloy counter electrodes for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Li, Ru; Yu, Liangmin

    2014-11-07

    In the current work, we report a series of bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that provide power conversion efficiencies of more than 10% from bifacial irradiation. The device comprises an N719-sensitized TiO2 anode, a transparent nickel selenide (Ni-Se) alloy counter electrode (CE), and liquid electrolyte containing I(-)/I3(-) redox couples. Because of the high optical transparency, electron conduction ability, electrocatalytic activity of Ni-Se CEs, as well as dye illumination, electron excitation and power conversion efficiency have been remarkably enhanced. Results indicate that incident light from a transparent CE has a compensation effect to the light from the anode. The impressive efficiency along with simple preparation of the cost-effective Ni-Se alloy CEs highlights the potential application of bifacial illumination technique in robust DSSCs.

  2. Synthesis of nanostructural ZnO using hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were successful synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method combined with and without hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB).The phases and morphologies of the products were measured using X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and transmission electron microscopy(TEM),respectively.The results indicated that the ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were of hexagonal wurtzite structure.ZnO nanorods were obtained without using CTAB,and then the morphology of ZnO changed to ZnO nanoflower and the density of nanoflower became denser with the increase of CTAB concentration.ZnO nanoflower and ZnO nanorod as photoanode were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC),respectively.The nanoflower shows a higher dye loading,so DSSC with the use of the ZnO nanoflower possesses a higher conversion efficiency than ZnO nanorod.

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  4. Microwave assisted synthesis of zinc stannate nanocubes for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabal, P.; Sasirekha, V.; Mayandi, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-11-01

    The ternary complex oxide Zn2SnO4 (ZS) has become more essential because of its photonic energy conversion, tremendous stability and higher electron mobility compared to the binary counterparts. The ZS nanocubes were prepared by simple microwave assisted route. The cubic spinel structured ZS was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman techniques. Scanning electron micrograph revealed the formation of nanocubes with size of ∼90 nm. The Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using the synthesized ZS as photoanode and low cost organic dyes such as Rose Bengal (RB), Eosin Yellow (EY) and Fluorescein sodium salt (FY) as sensitizers to study their light conversion efficiencies. The DSSCs exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.64%, 0.05% and 0.02% for RB, EY and FY sensitized films, respectively.

  5. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  6. Universal Features of Electron Dynamics in Solar Cells with TiO2 Contact: From Dye Solar Cells to Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todinova, Anna; Idígoras, Jesús; Salado, Manuel; Kazim, Samrana; Anta, Juan A

    2015-10-01

    The electron dynamics of solar cells with mesoporous TiO2 contact is studied by electrochemical small-perturbation techniques. The study involved dye solar cells (DSC), solid-state perovskite solar cells (SSPSC), and devices where the perovskite acts as sensitizer in a liquid-junction device. Using a transport-recombination continuity equation we found that mid-frequency time constants are proper lifetimes that determine the current-voltage curve. This is not the case for the SSPSC, where a lifetime of ∼1 μs, 1 order of magnitude longer, is required to reproduce the current-voltage curve. This mismatch is attributed to the dielectric response on the mid-frequency component. Correcting for this effect, lifetimes lie on a common exponential trend with respect to open-circuit voltage. Electron transport times share a common trend line too. This universal behavior of lifetimes and transport times suggests that the main difference between the cells is the power to populate the mesoporous TiO2 contact with electrons.

  7. Simple, highly efficient vacuum-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells based on merocyanine dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Vera; Kronenberg, Nils M.; Lenze, Martin R.; Graf, Steven M.; Hertel, Dirk; Meerholz, Klaus [Department fuer Chemie, Universitaet Koeln, Luxemburger Strasse 116, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Buerckstuemmer, Hannah; Tulyakova, Elena V.; Wuerthner, Frank [Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In order to be competitive on the energy market, organic solar cells with higher efficiency are needed. To date, polymer solar cells have retained the lead with efficiencies of up to 8%. However, research on small molecule solar cells has been catching up throughout recent years and is showing similar efficiencies, however, only for more sophisticated multilayer device configurations. In this work, a simple, highly efficient, vacuum-processed small molecule solar cell based on merocyanine dyes - traditional colorants that can easily be mass-produced and purified - is presented. In the past, merocyanines have been successfully introduced in solution-processed as well as vacuum-processed devices, demonstrating efficiencies up to 4.9%. Here, further optimization of devices is achieved while keeping the same simple layer stack, ultimately leading to efficiencies beyond the 6% mark. In addition, physical properties such as the charge carrier transport and the cell performance under various light intensities are addressed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Low resistivity molybdenum thin film towards the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vuong Son; Tran Thi Ha; Luong T Thu Thuy; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Nguyen Duc Chien; Mai Anh Tuan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the molybdenum thin film electrode as the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The molybdenum thin film was grown on the glass substrate by direct current sputtering techniques of which the sputtering power was 150Wat 18 sccm flow rate of Ar. At such sputtering parameters, the Mo film can reach the lowest resistivity of 1.28E−6 cm at 400 nm thick. And the reflection of Mo membrane was 82%. This value is considered as a very good result for preparation of the back contact of DSSC.

  9. Towards Renewable Iodide Sources for Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sagaidak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of iodide salts and ionic liquids based on different carbohydrate core units is herein described for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The influence of the molecular skeleton and the cationic structure on the electrolyte properties, device performance and on interfacial charge transfer has been investigated. In combination with the C106 polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, power conversion efficiencies lying between 5.0% and 7.3% under standard Air Mass (A.M. 1.5G conditions were obtained in association with a low volatile methoxypropionitrile (MPN-based electrolyte.

  10. Freestanding polypyrrole films as counter electrode for low cost dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, P.; Veerender, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Sridevi, C.; Chabbi, Pradnya; Samanta, S.; Chauhan, A. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2017-05-01

    Free standing polypyrrole films were synthesized using aqueous-organic interfacial polymerization. The electrical conductivity of these films was found to be higher when hexane(or benzene)-aqueous biphasic system is used. These high conductivity films were utilized as cost effective counter electrode to replace expansive Platinum in the fabrication of quasi-solid dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of DSSC was found to be 1.1%, which is close to that of 1.8% prepared using Pt as counter electrode.

  11. RF Sputtered Iridium (Ir) Film as a Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Kamble, Anvita; Bhargava, Parag; Mallick, Sudhanshu

    2015-11-01

    Iridium (Ir) films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by radio-frequency sputtering at room temperature and the as-deposited films were used as counter electrodes (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The photo conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC fabricated with Ir-based CE was 7.2%. Electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical data for Ir-based CE were compared with those for conventional Pt-based CE. The results were indicative of potential use of Ir as an alternative CE material for DSSC.

  12. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  14. Fabrication of Monolithic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Ionic Liquid Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, monolithic DSCs with ionic liquid electrolyte were studied. Deposited by screen printing, a carbon layer was successfully fabricated that did not crack or peel when annealing was employed beforehand. Optimized electrodes exhibited photovoltaic characteristics of 0.608 V open-circuit voltage, 6.90 cm−2 mA short-circuit current, and 0.491 fill factor, yielding 2.06% power conversion efficiency. The monolithic DSC using ionic liquid electrolyte was thermally durable and operated stably for 1000 h at 80°C.

  15. Influence of TiO2 nanofiber additives for high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Sun-Il

    2011-02-01

    TiO2 nanofibers were prepared from a mixture of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide and poly vinyl pyrrolidone by applying the electrospinning method. The samples were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and BET analyses. The diameter of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers is in the range of 70 approximately 160 nm. To improve the short-circuit photocurrent, we added the TiO2 nanofibers in the TiO2 electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TiO2 nanofibers added in DSSCs can make up to 20% more conversion energy than the conventional DSSC with only TiO2 films only.

  16. A new type counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI WeiWei; CAI Ning; ZHAO Ying; ZHANG XiaoDan; SUN Jian; WEI ChangChun; YUAN CunDa; LI Yuan; SU Yan; XIONG ShaoZhen

    2009-01-01

    A new type counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was proposed which consists of aubstrate, aluminum film and platinum film. The new type counter electrode can obviously improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSCs from 3.46% to 7.07% under the standard AM1.5 irradiation condition. Advantages and shortcomings of this new type counter electrode in terms of electrical properties, optical properties and anti-corrosive properties were analyzed. As a result, some improvements were proposed.

  17. CoS-Graphene Composite Counter Electrode for High Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Wu, Congcong; Tan, Yuan; Jin, Tetsuro; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2015-02-01

    CoS-graphene composite counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was prepared by coating hydrothermal synthesized CoS with graphene onto the FTO conductive glass. SEM shows that CoS particles are uniformly dispersed in the graphene. The result confirms that the prepared composite counter electrode is of highly electrocatalytic activity towards iodine reduction, which is even better than Pt electrode. And cyclic voltammetry measurement also shows that the composite counter electrode has good stability after 100 scan cycles. DSSC with CoS-graphene as composite counter electrode achieves a maximum power conversion efficiency of 6.31%, which is better than Pt electrode.

  18. (Invited) Atomic Layer Deposition for Novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Herein we present the latest fabrication and characterization techniques for atomic layer deposition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, Nb 2O 5, HfO 2, Ga 2O 3 and TiO 2 for research on dye-sensitized solar cell. In particular, we review the fabrication of state-of-the-art 3D host-passivation-guest photoanodes and ZnO nanowires as well as characterize the deposited thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction, Hall effect, J-V curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  19. Photochemical solar cells based on dye-sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, S.K.; Ellingson, R.; Ferrere, S.; Frank, A.J.; Gregg, B.A.; Nozik, A.J.; Park, N.; Schlichthoerl, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A photoelectrochemical solar cell that is based on the dye-sensitization of thin nanocrystalline films of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanoparticles in contact with a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte is described. The cell, fabricated at NREL, shows a conversion efficiency of {approximately} 9.2% at AM1.5, which approaches the best reported value of 10--11% by Graetzel at EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. The femtosecond (fs) pump-probe spectroscopy has been used to time resolve the injection of electrons into the conduction band of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films under ambient conditions following photoexcitation of the adsorbed Ru(II)-complex dye. The measurement indicates an instrument-limited {minus}50 fs upper limit on the electron injection time. The authors also report the sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} by a novel iron-based dye, CIS-[Fe{sup II}(2,2{prime}-bipyridine-4,4,{prime}-dicarboxylic acid){sub 2}(CN){sub 2}], a chromophore with an extremely short-lived, nonemissive excited state. The dye also exhibits a unique band selective sensitization through one of its two absorption bands. The operational principle of the device has been studied through the measurement of electric field distribution within the device structure and studies on the pH dependence of dye-redox potential. The incorporation of WO{sub 3}-based electrochromic layer into this device has led to a novel photoelectrochromic device structure for smart window application.

  20. Smart photovoltaics based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives as photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shengbo; Ting, Hungkit; Ma, Yingzhuang; Zheng, Lingling; Zhang, Miwei [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xiao, Lixin, E-mail: zjchen@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lxxiao@pku.edu.cn; Chen, Zhijian, E-mail: zjchen@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lxxiao@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Haixi Collaborative Innovation Center for New Display Devices and Systems Integration, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, smart photovoltaic (SPV) devices, integrating both functions of solar cells and smart windows, was fabricated based on dye-sensitized solar cells using photochromic spiropyran derivatives SIBT as photosensitizers. SPV devices have self-regulated power conversion efficiency (PCE) and light transmission responding to the incident spectra due to the photoisomerization of SIBT. SIBT isomerize from closed-ring form to open-ring form under UV illumination, accompanied with enhanced visible light absorption and electron delocalization. Therefore, increased PCE and absorption in SPV devices were observed under UV treatment and the devices can be restored gradually to the initial status when kept in dark. The SPV devices have self-regulation of PCE and sunlight transmission responding to the changing sun spectra in different times of a day, providing a proper energy usage and a better sun-shading.

  1. Cobalt-Based Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Recent Advances towards Stable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Redox mediators based on cobalt complexes allowed dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs to achieve efficiencies exceeding 14%, thus challenging the emerging class of perovskite solar cells. Unfortunately, cobalt-based electrolytes demonstrate much lower long-term stability trends if compared to the traditional iodide/triiodide redox couple. In view of the large-scale commercialization of cobalt-based DSCs, the scientific community has recently proposed various approaches and materials to increase the stability of these devices, which comprise gelling agents, crosslinked polymeric matrices and mixtures of solvents (including water. This review summarizes the most significant advances recently focused towards this direction, also suggesting some intriguing way to fabricate third-generation cobalt-based photoelectrochemical devices stable over time.

  2. Hysteresis analysis in dye-sensitized solar cells based on external bias field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Li, Xiaoyi; Tong, Yanhua; Zhang, Tiansheng

    2017-02-01

    The current density-voltage (J-V) hysteresis phenomenon occurs in perovskite solar cells as well as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs); however, it has received little attention in DSCs. We consider that the trapping-detrapping-induced variation of the charge collection efficiency might cause J-V hysteresis. Therefore, we conduct a systematic study on the influence of an external bias field during and before J-V measurements in typical DSCs. We find that the J-V performance of DSCs significantly depends on the scan bias direction and the external bias field before and during measurements. Our results indicate that the external-bias-field-modulated charge injection, trapping-detrapping, and accumulation processes in DSCs are possible causes for the anomalous J-V behavior.

  3. Simulation on the Performance of Dye Solar Cell Incorporated with TiO2 Passivation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unan Yusmaniar Oktiawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye Solar Cell (DSC has started to gain interest in the recent years for practical application because of its ecofriendly, low cost, and easy fabrication. However, its efficiency is still not as competitive as the conventional silicon based solar cell. One of the research efforts to improve the efficiency of DSC is to use the passivation layer in between the photoelectrode material and the conductive oxide substrate. Thus, the objective of this simulation study is to investigate the effect of passivation layer on the performance of DSC. Properties from literatures which are based on physical work were captured as the input for the simulation using process, ATHENA, and device, ATLAS, simulator. Results have shown that the addition of two-20 nm TiO2 passivation layers on DSC can enhance the efficiency by 11% as the result of less recombination, higher electron mobility, and longer electron lifetime.

  4. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  5. Optimization of polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Changneng; WANG Miao; ZHOU Xiaowen; LIN Yuan; FANG Shibi; LI Xueping; XIAO Xuri; CEN Kuang

    2004-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on polymer electrolytes consisting of polyethylene oxide (PEO) with the additions of nano-TiO2 and ionic liquid of MPII (1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide) were studied. By using a composite polymer electrolyte of PEO:LiI:TiO2:MPII:I2 = 3:3:3:7:1 (in mol ratio), the solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.2% under 100 Mw·cm-2 was obtained, which was 8 times higher than that of the cell using polymer electrolyte without any additives. The effect of the additives was attributed to the increase of ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes.

  6. TDDFT screening auxiliary withdrawing group and design the novel D-A-π-A organic dyes based on indoline dye for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Liu, Yun; Liu, Chunmeng; Lin, Chundan; Shao, Changjin

    2016-10-01

    Based on the experimentally synthesized dye JZ145, we designed a series of novel D-A-π-A dyes SPL201-SPL211 with different π-conjugated bridges and a new auxiliary withdrawing group for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT(TDDFT). The molecular structures, energy levels, absorption spectra, light-harvesting efficiency (LHE), driving force of injection(ΔGinj) and regeneration(ΔGreg), electron dipole moment (μnormal) and lifetime of the first excited state(τ) were all scrutinized in details. Results reveal that the additional withdrawing group A2 and the π-conjugated group di-η-hexyl-substituted cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) are more promising functional groups for the organic dyes with D-A-π-A structure. We further designed SPL212 and SPL213 by employing indoline group as donor, the above screened functional groups as π-conjugated bridge and additional withdrawing group, biscarbodithiolic acid and dicyanovinyl sulfonic acid groups as acceptor group. We found that SPL212 exhibits not only a higher molar extinction coefficient with an increment of 30.8%, larger excited state lifetime and an obvious redshift of 201 nm but also a broader absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range even up to near-IR of 1200 nm compared to JZ145. So, SPL212 can be used as a promising candidate for DSSCs. In addition, the results also prove that biscarbodithiolic acid may be more favorable than dicyanovinylsulfonic acid as acceptor group in DSSCs.

  7. Influence of the pH value of anthocyanins on the electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irén Juhász Junger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the harvesting of renewable energies became of great importance. This led to a rapid development of dye-sensitized solar cells which can be produced from low-purity materials. The best electrical properties are provided by cells prepared using synthetical, ruthenium based dyes. Unfortunately, most of them are toxic and expensive. The anthocyanins extracted for example from hibiscus flowers yield a more cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to toxic dyes, however, with a loss of solar cell efficiency. In this article the possibility of improvement of the conversion efficiency by modification of the pH value of the dye is investigated. By decrease of the pH value, an increase of efficiency by a factor of two was achieved.

  8. Pigments from UV-resistant Antarctic bacteria as photosensitizers in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Órdenes-Aenishanslins, N; Anziani-Ostuni, G; Vargas-Reyes, M; Alarcón, J; Tello, A; Pérez-Donoso, J M

    2016-09-01

    Here we report the use of pigments produced by UV-resistant Antarctic bacteria as photosensitizers in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). Pigments were obtained from red and yellow colored psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from soils of King George Island, Antarctica. Based on metabolic characteristics and 16s DNA sequence, pigmented bacteria were identified as Hymenobacter sp. (red) and Chryseobacterium sp. (yellow). Pigments produced by these microorganisms were extracted and classified as carotenoids based on their spectroscopic and structural characteristics, determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. With the purpose of develop green solar cells based on bacterial pigments, the photostability and capacity of these molecules as light harvesters in DSSCs were determined. Absorbance decay assays determined that bacterial carotenoids present high photostability. In addition, solar cells based on these photosensitizers exhibit an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 435.0 [mV] and a short circuit current density (ISC) of 0.2 [mA·cm(-2)] for the red pigment, and a VOC of 548.8 [mV] and a ISC of 0.13 [mA·cm(-2)] for the yellow pigment. This work constitutes the first approximation of the use of pigments produced by non-photosynthetic bacteria as photosensitizers in DSSCs. Determined photochemical characteristics of bacterial pigments, summed to their easy obtention and low costs, validates its application as photosensitizers in next-generation biological solar cells.

  9. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells from Dye Molecules: An Investigation of Diketopyrrolopyrrole:Vinazene Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Walker, Bright

    2012-01-25

    Although one of the most attractive aspects of organic solar cells is their low cost and ease of fabrication, the active materials incorporated into the vast majority of reported bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells include a semiconducting polymer and a fullerene derivative, classes of materials which are both typically difficult and expensive to prepare. In this study, we demonstrate that effective BHJs can be fabricated from two easily synthesized dye molecules. Solar cells incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based molecule as a donor and a dicyanoimidazole (Vinazene) acceptor function as an active layer in BHJ solar cells, producing relatively high open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.1%. Atomic force microscope images of the films show that active layers are rough and apparently have large donor and acceptor domains on the surface, whereas photoluminescence of the blends is incompletely quenched, suggesting that higher PCEs might be obtained if the morphology could be improved to yield smaller domain sizes and a larger interfacial area between donor and acceptor phases. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Solution-processed organic photovoltaics based on indoline dye molecules developed in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Ojima, Haruhiko; Hong, Ziruo; Kido, Junji; Tian, Wenjing; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-03-07

    A donor-acceptor (D-A) type indoline dye, D149, was used as an electron donor in solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs). For bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) type OSCs with PC70BM as electron acceptor, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is sensitive to the amount of D149 in the D149/PC70BM blend film. When the concentration of D149 in the blend film was as low as 5%, the highest PCE of up to 1.29%, together with a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 4.58 mA·cm-2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.90 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.31, was achieved. In order to improve the PCE of D149-based OSCs, a bilayer-heterojunction configuration with C70 as electron acceptor has been employed. By optimizing the thickness of the D149 layer and varying the electron- and hole-transport layers, a highest PCE of up to 2.28% with a Jsc of 4.38 mA·cm-2, a Voc of 0.77 V, and an FF of 0.62 was achieved under AM 1.5G solar illumination (100 mW·cm-2).

  11. Energy relay from an unconventional yellow dye to CdS/CdSe quantum dots for enhanced solar cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Remya; Das, Amrita; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2013-12-02

    A new design for a quasi-solid-state Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) enabled solar cell with unattached Lucifer yellow (LY) dye molecules as donors and CdS/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) tethered to titania (TiO2 ) as acceptors is presented. The Forster radius is experimentally determined to be 5.29 nm. Sequential energy transfer from the LY dye to the QDs and electron transfer from the QDs to TiO2 is followed by fluorescence quenching and electron lifetime studies. Cells with a donor-acceptor architecture (TiO2 /CdS/CdSe/ZnS-LY/S(2-)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes) show a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 53 % at 530 nm. This is the highest efficiency among Ru-dye free FRET-enabled quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs), and is much higher than the donor or acceptor-only cells. The FRET-enhanced solar cell performance over the majority of the visible spectrum paves the way to harnessing the untapped potential of the LY dye as an energy relay fluorophore for the entire gamut of dye sensitized, organic, or hybrid solar cells.

  12. Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D Nanostructured Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC scheme for better solar conversion efficiency is proposed. The distinctive characteristic of this novel scheme is that the conventional thin film electrode is replaced by a 3D nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO electrode, which was fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. The template was prepared by immersing the barrier-layer side of an AAO film into a 30 wt% phosphoric acid solution to produce a contrasting surface. RF magnetron sputtering was then used to deposit a 3D nanostructured ITO thin film on the template. The crystallinity and conductivity of the 3D ITO films were further enhanced by annealing. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the 3D ITO film after which the proposed DSSC was formed by filling vacant spaces in the 3D nanostructured ITO electrode with dye. The measured solar conversion efficiency of the device was 0.125%. It presents a 5-fold improvement over that of conventional spin-coated TiO2 film electrode DSSCs.

  13. Conformal growth of anodic nanotubes for dye-sensitized solar cells: part II. Nonplanar electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Wang, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Anodic titania nanotube array features highly ordered alignment as well as porous nature, and exhibits intriguing properties when employed in a variety of applications. All these profit from the continuous efforts on controlling the nanotube configurations. Recently, nonplanar electrodes have also been used to grow the nanotubes besides the conventional planar counterparts. As such, it is of great interest and significance to complete a picture to link the nanotubes grown on planar and various nonplanar electrodes for a comprehensive understanding of nanotube growing manners, in an attempt to boost their future applications. In the first part of this review, planar electrodes are focused with regard to nanotube growth and application in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this part, the nanotubes grown on patterned or curved surfaces are discussed first with reference to a similar structure of alumina nanopores, which are subsequently used to mirror the growth of nanotubes on cylindrical electrodes (i.e., titanium wires or meshes). The last section focuses on titanium tubular electrodes which are attractive for thermal fluids in view of the drastically reduced thermal conductivity in the presence of anodic nanotubes. As a recent hot topic, wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are deliberated in terms of cell structure, efficiency calculation, merits, challenges and outlook.

  14. Stainless steel electrode characterizations by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanta, A.-F., E-mail: abdoul.kanta@umons.ac.be [Service de Science des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Decroly, A. [Service de Science des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2011-11-30

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to understand the electrochemical mechanisms which appear in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This qualitative and quantitative technique permits identification of the phenomena proceeding within the different elements composing the cell and at their interfaces. In this study, the classical conducting glass substrate was replaced by a protected stainless steel (304 type) substrate as the counter-electrode (cathode) in dye-sensitized solar cells. Platinum was deposited at the substrate surface to optimize the charge transfer resistance of the electrode. After a few days of immersion in the electrolytic solution, stainless steel substrates coated with low thickness of Pt show pitting corrosion due to iodine. Defects in the Pt layer such as discontinuity of the film and micro-cracks may explain the corrosion of the stainless steel substrate. However the Pt layer degradation is retarded for thicker films. On the other hand, polished substrates show a better behaviour probably due to the elimination of the defects on the stainless steel surface. Electrolytic solution was optimized. For this, components such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (BMII), guanidine thiocyanate (GT) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) were added. No corrosion phenomena on stainless steel 304 appeared within 3 days when TBP was added. This means that TBP acts as a corrosion inhibitor. A schematic equivalent circuit is also proposed.

  15. Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colodrero, Silvia; Mihi, Agustin; Ocana, Manuel; Miguez, Hernan [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (Spain), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Americo Vespucio; Haeggman, Leif; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders [Department of Chemistry Center of Molecular Devices, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-02-16

    The solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiency ({eta}) of dye-sensitized solar cells can be greatly enhanced by integrating a mesoporous, nanoparticle-based, 1D photonic crystal as a coherent scattering layer in the device. The photogenerated current is greatly improved without altering the open-circuit voltage of the cell, while keeping the transparency of the cell intact. Improved average {eta} values between 15% and 30% are attained. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Polyaniline Nanofibers as the Hole Transport Medium in an Inverse Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselsweet, Ian Brock

    In order to become a viable alternative to silicon photovoltaics, dye-sensitized solar cells must overcome several issues primarily resulting from their use of a liquid electrolyte. Much research has gone into correcting these shortcomings by replacing the liquid electrolyte with solid-state hole-transport media. Using these solid-state materials brings new difficulties, such as completely filling the pores in the TiO2 nanostructure, and achieving good adhesion with the dye-coated TiO2. A novel approach to addressing these difficulties is the inverse dye-sensitized solar cell design. In this method the devices are constructed in reverse order, with the solidstate hole-transport medium providing the nanostructure instead of the TiO2. This allows new materials and methods to be used which may better address these issues. In this project, inverse dye-sensitized solar cells using polyaniline nanofibers as the hole transport medium were prepared and characterized. The devices were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass electrodes. The first component was a dense spin-coated polyaniline blocking layer, to help prevent short circuiting of the devices. The second layer was a thin film of drop cast polyaniline nanofibers which acted as the hole transport medium and provided high surface area for the dye attachment. The dye used was 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP), which was covalently attached to the nanofibers using a Friedel-Crafts acylation. Titania gel was then deposited into the pores of the nanofiber film by controlled hydrolysis of a titanium complex (Tyzor LA). A back electrode of TiO2 nanoparticles sintered on FTO was pressed on top to complete the devices. A typical device generated an open circuit voltage of 0.17 V and a closed circuit current of 5.7 nA/cm2 while the highest open circuit voltage recorded for any variation on a device was 0.31 V and the highest short circuit current was 52 nA/cm2 under AM 1.5 simulated solar

  17. Natural Pigments from Plants Used as Sensitizers for TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four natural pigments, extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis, tamarind (Tamarindus indica, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, and the flower of crimson bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus, were used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The dyes have shown absorption in broad range of the visible region (400–700 nm of the solar spectrum and appreciable adsorption onto the semiconductor (TiO2 surface. The DSSCs made using the extracted dyes have shown that the open circuit voltages (Voc varied from 0.430 to 0.610 V and the short circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mA cm−2. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE varied from 12–37%. Among the four dyes studied, the extract obtained from teak has shown the best photosensitization effects in terms of the cell output.

  18. Photocurrent enhancement by surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles in highly porous dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Nak Cheon; Prasittichai, Chaiya; Hupp, Joseph T

    2011-12-06

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) by silver nanoparticles that are photochemically incorporated into an electrode-supported TiO(2) nanoparticulate framework enhances the extinction of a subsequently adsorbed dye (the ruthenium-containing molecule, N719). The enhancement arises from both an increase in the dye's effective absorption cross section and a modest increase in the framework surface area. Deployment of the silver-modified assembly as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells leads to light-to-electrical energy conversion with an overall efficiency of 8.9%. This represents a 25% improvement over the performance of otherwise identical solar cells lacking corrosion-protected silver nanoparticles. As one would expect based on increased dye loading and electromagnetic field enhanced (LSPR-enhanced) absorption, the improvement is manifested chiefly as an increase in photocurrent density ascribable to improved light harvesting.

  19. π-Conjugated Donor-Acceptor Systems as Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakeeruddin S. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High extinction coefficients and easily tunable spectral properties of π- conjugated donor-acceptor dyes are of superior advantage for the design of new metalfree organic sensitizers for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on the femtosecond and nanosecond time scales provided deep insights into the dependence of charge carrier dynamics in fully organic dye/TiO2 systems on i the donor-acceptor distance, ii the π-conjugation length, and iii the coupling to TiO2 by different anchoring groups. Importantly, the observed differences in charge transfer dynamics justify the variations of photovoltaic performances of the dyes as applied in solar cell devices. This leads to the conclusion that the photoconversion efficiencies strongly depend on a delicate interplay between the dyes’ building blocks, i.e. the donor, the π-conjugated spacer and the anchor/acceptor moieties, and may easily be tuned by molecular design.

  20. Light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength using natural dyes of gardenia and cochineal for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Shin; Ko, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Suk-Ho; Song, Yong-Min; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Wook

    2014-07-15

    Two natural dyes extracted from gardenia yellow (Gardenia jasminoides) and cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) were used as sensitizers in the assembly of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest light over a wide range of wavelengths. The adsorption characteristics, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic efficiencies of the natural DSSCs were investigated. The adsorption kinetics data of the dyes were obtained in a small adsorption chamber and fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. The photovoltaic performance of a photo-electrode adsorbed with single-dye (gardenia or cochineal) or the mixture or successive adsorption of the two dyes, was evaluated from current-voltage measurements. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with the successive adsorption of cochineal and gardenia dyes was 0.48%, which was enhanced compared to single-dye adsorption. Overall, a double layer of the two natural dyes as sensitizers was successfully formulated on the nanoporous TiO2 surface based on the differences in their adsorption affinities of gardenia and cochineal.

  1. New efficient organic dyes employing indeno[1,2-b]indole as the donor moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Yan, Rucai; Xu, Chong; Shao, Li; Li, Hongmei; Hou, Linxi

    2016-11-01

    A new series of organic dyes based on indeno[1,2-b]indole have been synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for the first time. These four dyes QX11-14 are constructed to a D-π-A type structure consisting of an indeno[1,2-b]indole donor and a cyanoacrylic acid acceptor/anchoring group. Different π-bridges (thiophene and furan) and different alkyl groups (ethyl and hexyl) are involved to tune the photoelectric properties. Their optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties, as well as the density functional theory calculations have been systematically investigated, indicating these four dyes are all capable as photosensitizers. The four dyes all show good DSSC performances and a highest power conversion efficiency up to 7.64% with a Jsc of 15.8 mA cm-2 and a Voc of 763 mV has been achieved by the dye QX12 with a furan π-bridge and a pair of ethyl groups, which reaches 95% of the commercial N719 dye (8.07%) under AM 1.5G illumination. This result reveals indeno[1,2-b]indole is a promising electron donor to construct efficient organic dyes for DSSCs.

  2. Novel D-A-π-A organic dyes based on 3-dimensional triarylamine and benzothiadiazole derivatives for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongli; Chen, Huajie; Long, Jun; Wang, Guo; Tan, Songting

    2016-09-01

    Organic dyes with a 3-dimensional (3D) structure is helpful for retarding dyes aggregation and charge recombination as well as improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this contribution, a novel 3D triarylamine derivative (IDTTPA) featuring an indenothiophenene unit has been designed, synthesized, and applied to develop a 3D organic dyes. Two novel D-A-π-A organic dyes (CD1 and CD2) based on IDTTPA as the electron donors, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole derivatives as the auxiliary acceptors, and formic acid as the anchoring groups have been successfully synthesized and applied in DSSCs. The effects of the fluoro substitute groups on the photophysical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties are investigated. The results indicate that the fluoro-containing dye CD2 exhibits higher molar extinction coefficient, stronger light-capturing ability, and better photovoltaic performance than those of CD1 dye without fluoro substitute. Investigation of the DSSCs performance shows that CD2-based DSSCs exhibit a high PCE value of 7.91%, higher than that of CD1-based DSSCs (6.29%), even higher than that of the reference DSSCs based on N719 (7.49%). This works has demonstrated that this kind of 3D unit (IDTTPA) is a strong and promising electron donor unit to develop high efficiency metal-free organic dyes.

  3. Vanadium oxide (VO) based low cost counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, P.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in [SSN Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603 110, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Vanadium oxide nanostars were synthesized by chemical method. The prepared Vanadium oxide nanostars are introduced into dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) as counter electrode (CE) catalyst to replace the expensive platinum (Pt). The products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. The photovoltaic performance of the VO as counter electrode based DSSC was evaluated under simulated standard global AM 1.5G sunlight (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSC was found to be 0.38%.This work expands the Counter electrode catalyst, which can help to reduce the cost of DSSC and thereby encourage their fundamental research and commercial application.

  4. Submicrometer-scale ZnO Composite Aggregate Arrays Photoanodes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jia; Suihu Dang; Hairui Liu; Zhuxia Zhang; Tianbao Li; Xuguang Liu; Bingshe Xu

    2013-01-01

    Submicrometer-scale ZnO composite aggregate arrays of nanorods and nanoparticles were prepared by simple wet-chemical route and studied as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) photoanodes.The ZnO composite aggregate arrays significantly improved the efficiency of DSSCs due to their relatively high surface area,fast electron transport,and enhanced light-scattering capability.A short current density (Jsc) of 11.7 mA/cm2 and an overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency (η) of 3.17% were achieved for the ZnO composite aggregate DSSCs,which were much higher than those obtained for the monodisperse aggregate DSSCs (Jsc=6.9mA/cm2,η=1.51 %) and ZnO nanorod array DSSCs (Jsc =4.2 mA/cm2,η=0.61%).

  5. A new improved structure of dye-sensitized solar cells with reflection film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; SHEN Hui; HUANG Xiaorui; DENG Youjun

    2006-01-01

    A new improved structure of dye- sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells (DSSC) for utilizing reflected light was introduced in this paper. Typical DSSC is based on a sandwich structure, which consists of photoanode, electrolyte and cathode. For the improved structure of DSSC in this paper, a sliver reflection film was attached to the back of transparent conducting glass of cathode. In this way, the residual light passing through photoanode was reflected to it to be used again. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics of DSSC fabricated by two different thickness of TiO2 film were measured to illustrate the effects of utilizing reflected light. As a result, the improved DSSC with reflection film exhibited higher photocurrent and solar-to-electric conversion efficiency than DSSC without reflection film.

  6. Gold nanoparticle decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyoor, Adarsh; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2012-11-01

    A novel counter electrode material for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) composed of nanostructured Au particles decorated on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) is demonstrated for the first time. MWNTs synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique are purified and functionalized by treating with concentrated acids. Au nanoparticles are decorated on f-MWNTs by a rapid and facile microwave assisted polyol reduction method. The materials are characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The DSSC fabricated with Au/f-MWNTs based counter electrode shows enhanced power conversion efficiency (eta) of 4.9% under AM 1.5G simulated solar radiation. In comparison, the reference DSSCs fabricated with f-MWNTs and Pt counter electrodes show eta of 2.1% and 4.5%. This high performance of Au/f-MWNTs counter electrode is investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies.

  7. A study of charge transfer kinetics in dye-sensitized surface conductivity solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Dennis

    2011-05-15

    The efficiency of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell developed by Junghaenel and Tributsch, the so-called Nano Surface Conductivity Solar Cell (NSCSC), was improved from 2% to 3.5% introducing a compact TiO{sub 2} underlayer, modifying the surface of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode, optimizing the deposition process of the electrolyte film, and replacing the platinum counter electrode by a carbon layer. Space-resolved photocurrent images revealed the importance of a homogeneous distribution of the electrolyte film. An uneven dispersion led to localized areas of high and low photocurrents, whereas the latter were attributed to an insufficient concentration of the redox couple. Impedance spectroscopy was performed on cells containing different concentrations of the redox couple. By modeling the spectra using an equivalent circuit with a transmission line of resistive and capacitive elements, the characteristic parameters of electron transport in the TiO{sub 2}, such as diffusion length and electron lifetime were obtained. The measurements indicated that the transport of the positive charge to the counter electrode is the main process limiting the efficiency of the cells. Excess charge carrier decay in functioning devices was analyzed by contactless transient photoconductance measurements in the microwave frequency range (TRMC). The lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers was observed to decrease with increasing applied potential, reaching its maximum close to the opencircuit potential of the cell, where the photocurrent density was minimal, i.e. the potential dependent decay observed was limited by the injection of electrons into the front contact. The functioning of this NSCSC indicated that the transport of the positive charge occurs by solid-state diffusion at the surface of the TiO{sub 2} particles. TRMC measurements on subset devices in the form of sensitized TiO{sub 2} layers revealed charge carrier kinetics strongly dependent on the

  8. Transparent platinum counter electrode for efficient semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iefanova, Anastasiia; Nepal, Jeevan; Poudel, Prashant; Davoux, Daren; Gautam, Umesh [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Mallam, Venkataiah [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Qiao, Qiquan [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Logue, Brian [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Baroughi, Mahdi Farrokh, E-mail: m.farrokhbaroughi@sdstate.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A method for fabrication of highly transparent platinum counter electrodes (CEs) has been developed based on spray coating of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on hot substrates. This method leads to 86% reduction in Pt consumption reducing the Pt cost per peak watt of counter electrode from $0.79/Wp down to $0.11/Wp compared to the conventional Pt counter electrodes made by sputter deposition. The simplicity and low cost of this method provide a basis for an up-scalable fabrication process. The Pt NP layer is over 88% transparent, leading to overall transparency of 80% when incorporated with indium tin oxide/glass substrates for functional counter electrodes. This counter electrode exhibits a large surface area and high catalytic activity, comparable to that of the conventional opaque CEs. Semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated based on this counter electrode showed 6.17% power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Counter electrode (CE) prepared by spraying nanoparticle (NP) Pt on hot substrate. • Low cost and scalable fabrication process of CE. • The spray deposited CE uses 10 times less Pt compared to the sputtering method. • The CE is 80% transparent and exhibits a large surface and high catalytic activity. • A semitransparent dye-sensitized solar cell with Pt NP CE was 6.17% efficient.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical WO{sub 3} nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, M.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Shalan, A.E. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO{sub 3} micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO{sub 3} photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO{sub 3} showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively. (orig.)

  10. Electrospun polymethylacrylate nanofibers membranes for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymethylacrylate (PMA nanofibers membranes are fabricated by electrospinning technique and applied to the polymer matrix in quasi-solid-state electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. There is no previous studies reporting the production of PMA nanofibers. The electrospinning parameters such as polymer concentration, applied voltage, feed rate, tip to collector distance and solvent were optimized. Electrospun PMA fibrous membrane with average fiber diameter of 350 nm was prepared from a 10 wt% solution of PMA in a mixture of acetone/N,N-dimethylacetamide (6:4 v/v at an applied voltage of 20 kV. It was then activated by immersing it in 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 3-methoxyproponitrile to obtain the corresponding membrane electrolyte with an ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 25 °C. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs employing the quasi solid-state electrolyte have an open-circuit voltage (Voc of 0.65 V and a short circuit current (Jsc of 6.5 mA cm−2 and photoelectric energy conversion efficiency (η of 1.4% at an incident light intensity of 100 mW cm−2.

  11. One electron changes everything: a multispecies copper redox shuttle for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffeditz, William L.; Katz, Michael J.; Deria, Pravas; Cutsail, George E.; Pellin, Michael J.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2016-02-25

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are an established alternative photovoltaic technology that offers numerous potential advantages in solar energy applications. However, this technology has been limited by the availability of molecular redox couples that are both noncorrosive/nontoxic and do not diminish the performance of the device. In an effort to overcome these shortcomings, a copper-containing redox shuttle derived from 1,8-bis(2'-pyridyl)-3,6-dithiaoctane (PDTO) ligand and the common DSC additive 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) was investigated. Electrochemical measurements, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies reveal that, upon removal of one metal-centered electron, PDTO-enshrouded copper ions completely shed the tetradentate PDTO ligand and replace it with four or more TBP ligands. Thus, the Cu(I) and Cu(II) forms of the electron shuttle have completely different coordination spheres and are characterized by widely differing Cu(II/I) formal potentials and reactivities for forward versus reverse electron transfer. Notably, the coordination-sphere replacement process is fully reversed upon converting Cu(II) back to Cu(I). In cells featuring an adsorbed organic dye and a nano- and mesoparticulate, TiO2-based, photoelectrode, the dual species redox shuttle system engenders performance superior to that obtained with shuttles based on the (II/I) forms of either of the coordination complexes in isolation.

  12. Barium Staminate as Semiconductor Working Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-an Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are fabricated with perovskite-type BaSnO3 as the photoelectrode materials. Different preparation methods including coprecipitation, hydrothermal, and solid state reaction are employed to synthesize BaSnO3 particles to optimize the photoelectric activities of electrode materials. The photoelectric properties of BaSnO3 particles and the performances of DSSCs are investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The light-to-electricity conversion of 1.1% is preliminarily reached on the DSSC made of the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles. Large current density of hole injection into the HOMO level of N719 dye from the valence band of BaSnO3 and reduced photogenerated charge recombination in BaSnO3 could be responsible for the observed solar cell performance of the DSSC fabricated from the coprecipitation-derived BaSnO3 particles.

  13. Investigating the role of graphene in the photovoltaic performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Brijesh, E-mail: brijesh.tripathi@sse.pdpu.ac.in [School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); School of Solar Energy, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); Yadav, Pankaj; Pandey, Kavita; Kanade, Pooja [School of Solar Energy, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune 411025 (India); Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: manoj.kumar@sse.pdpu.ac.in [School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar 382007 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphene catalytic activity in dye-sensitized solar cell is evaluated. • Two-diode model is used for performance evaluation. • Optical performance of graphene is analyzed. • 36% increase in efficiency has been reported using graphene-coupled counter electrode. - Abstract: This article compares and describes the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) consisting of platinum (Pt) and graphene-coupled-platinum based counter electrodes (CE). The power conversion efficiency of DSSC could be enhanced by 36% with multi-layer graphene flakes (MGF)/Pt CE as compared to Pt CE. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analysis show that DSSC with an MGF/Pt CE exhibits a higher electro-catalytic activity with lower series resistance. Two-diode model has been used to extract the recombination governing and the performance indicating parameters of a DSSC. An enhancement of ≈76% in short-circuit current of MGF/CE based DSSC, as compared to Pt CE, could be attributed to optical and catalytic properties of graphene. This study provides an insight into electronic transport mechanism of DSSC, which changes under the influence of highly catalytic materials such as graphene.

  14. Transition Metal Polypyridine Complexes: Studies of Mediation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Charge Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. Michael [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Prieto, Amy L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-02-08

    The Elliott group has long been supported by DOE for studies of cobalt(II/III) trisbypiridine (DTB) mediator complexes in dye sensitized solar cells. Previous work demonstrated that Co(II/III) chemistry is sensitive to the environment, showing unprecedented electrode-surface and electrolyte dependant voltammetry. In electrolytes that have large lipophilic cations, voltammetry of the [Co(DTB)3]2+/3+ couple is nearly Nernstian in appearance on nominally oxide-free metal surfaces. In contrast, on semiconductor electrodes in electrolytes with small, hard cations such as Li+, the electron transfer rates are so slow that it is difficult to measure any Faradaic current even at overpotentials of ±1 V. These studies are of direct relevance to the operation of cobalt-based mediators in solar cells. The research has also shown that these mediators are compatible with copper phenantroline based dyes, in contrast to I- due to the insolubility of CuI.

  15. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  16. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells with improved thermal dye stability. The various ruthenium dye...

  17. Ultrafast and slow charge recombination dynamics of diketopyrrolopyrrole-NiO dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Favereau, Ludovic; Farré, Yoann; Mijangos, Edgar; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Odobel, Fabrice; Hammarström, Leif

    2016-07-21

    In a photophysical study, two diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers functionalized with 4-thiophenecarboxylic acid as an anchoring group and a bromo (DPPBr) or dicyanovinyl (DPPCN2) group, and a dyad consisting of a DPP unit linked to a naphthalenediimide group (DPP-NDI), were investigated both in solution and grafted on mesoporous NiO films. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements indicate that ultrafast hole injection occurred predominantly on a timescale of ∼200 fs, whereas the subsequent charge recombination occurred on a surprisingly wide range of timescales, from tens of ps to tens of μs; this kinetic heterogeneity is much greater than is typically observed for dye-sensitized TiO2 or ZnO. Also, in contrast to what is typically observed for dye-sensitized TiO2, there was no significant dependence on the excitation power of the recombination kinetics, which can be explained by the hole density being comparatively higher near the valence band of NiO before excitation. The additional acceptor group in DPP-NDI provided a rapid electron shift and stabilized charge separation up to the μs timescale. This enabled efficient (∼95%) regeneration of NDI by a Co(III)(dtb)3 electrolyte (dtb = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine), according to transient absorption measurements. The regeneration of DPPBr and DPPCN2 by Co(III)(dtb)3 was instead inefficient, as most recombination for these dyes occurred on the sub-ns timescale. The transient spectroscopy data thus corroborated the trend of the published photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on these dyes on mesoporous NiO, and show the potential of a design strategy with a secondary acceptor bound to the dye. The study identifies rapid initial recombination between the dye and NiO as the main obstacle to obtaining high efficiencies in NiO-based DSSCs; these recombination components may be overlooked when studies are conducted using only methods with ns resolution or slower.

  18. Mechanism of Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based TiO2 Films Treated by Titanium Tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾隆月; 戴松元; 王孔嘉; 潘旭; 史成武; 郭力

    2004-01-01

    Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells can be improved by treating the nanoporous TiO2 films with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution. We explore the reason why the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells is enhanced by this method. It is found that the effect of TiCl4 treatment not only reduces the films surface area and improves the electronic contact, but also enhances the binding of N719 with the TiO2 films surface.

  19. Application of TiO2 nanotubes in dye-sensitised solar cells for improved charge transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available their operation • 20 years onwards and big strides have been made, however head2right Efficiency of best manufactured DSCs ~ 11% mark and 7% for DSC panels Dye-sensitised Solar Cells • Relatively inexpensive – Made in non-vacuum setting – Simple... in dye- sensitised solar cells for improved charge transport Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing © CSIR 2010 Slide 1 Rhodes Workshop 7 – 8 September 2010 circle6 Background circle6 Problem Statement...

  20. Novel planar binuclear zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis and spectral, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baiqing; Zhang, Xuejun; Han, Mingliang; Deng, Pengfei; Li, Qiaoling

    2015-01-01

    A planar binuclear zinc phthalocyanine was newly synthesized for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, based on Schiff base and asymmetric amino zinc phthalocyanine. The novel compounds were characterized using FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, cyclic voltammetry and elemental analysis. From the reduction and oxidation behavior, it is proved that APC and bi-NPC have negative LUMO levels and positive HOMO levels, satisfying the energy gap rule, and can be employed as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications.

  1. 2,3-Dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline-Based Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of π-Bridges and Electron Donors on Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zu-Sheng; Zang, Xu-Feng; Hua, Tao; Wang, Lingyun; Meier, Herbert; Cao, Derong

    2015-09-16

    Five novel metal-free organic dyes DQ1-5 containing a dipentyldithieno[3,2-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline (DPQ) unit were synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where DPQ was employed as a π-spacer for the first time. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical calculations and photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated. All the five dyes show broad photoresponse. Especially the absorption edges of DQ3-5 extend to 800 nm on the TiO2 films. The inserted electron-rich unit 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene or electron-withdrawing group benzothiadiazole (BTD) in DPQ-based dyes can greatly influence the optoelectronic properties of the dyes. In addition, the different electron donors also significantly affect the performance of the DSSCs. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar light conditions, the DQ5 sensitized solar cell obtained a power conversion efficiency of 7.12%. The result indicates that the rigid DPQ-based organic dye is a promising candidate for efficient DSSCs.

  2. Porphyrin Dye-Sensitized Zinc Oxide Aggregated Anodes for Use in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Syu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrin YD2-o-C8-based dyes were employed to sensitize room-temperature (RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. To reduce the acidity of the YD2-o-C8 dye solution, the proton in the carboxyl group of a porphyrin dye was replaced with tetrabuthyl ammonium (TBA+ in this work. The short-circuit current density (Jsc of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSCs is higher than that of the YD2-o-C8-sensitized cells, resulting in the improvement of the efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-based ZnO DSSCs. With an appropriate incorporation of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA as coadsorbate, the Jsc and efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC are enhanced due to the improvement of the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE values in the wavelength range of 400–450 nm. Moreover, a considerable increase in Jsc is achieved by the addition of a light scattering layer in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO photoanodes. Significant IPCE enhancement in the range 475–600 nm is not attainable by tuning the YD2-o-C8-TBA sensitization processes for the anodes without light scattering layers. Using the RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anode with a light scattering layer, an efficiency of 3.43% was achieved in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC.

  3. Electron transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells made from single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache-Pommer, Emil; Liu, Bin; Aydil, Eray S

    2009-11-14

    Contrary to expectations, the electron transport rate in dye-sensitized solar cells made from single-crystal rutile titanium dioxide nanowires is found to be similar to that measured in dye-sensitized solar cells made from titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

  4. Universal electron injection dynamics at nanointerfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Hai-Yu; Fang, Hong-Hua; Gao, Bing-Rong; Chen, Qi-Dai [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Wang, Hai; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Hong-Bo [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Han, Wei [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2012-07-10

    Initial nanointerfacial electron transfer dynamics are studied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in which the free energy and kinetics vary over a broad range. Surprisingly, it is found that the decay profiles, reflecting the electron transfer behavior, show a universal shape despite the different kinds of dye and semiconductor nanocrystalline films, even across different device types. This renews intuitive knowledge about the electron injection process in DSSCs. In order to quantitatively comprehend the universal behavior, a static inhomogeneous electronic coupling model with a Gaussian distribution of local injection energetics is proposed in which only the electron injection rate is a variant. It is confirmed that this model can be extended to CdSe quantum dot-sensitized films. These unambiguous results indicate exactly the same physical distribution in electron injection process of different sensitization films, providing limited simple and important parameters describing the electron injection process including electronic coupling constant and reorganization energy. The results provide insight into photoconversion physics and the design of optimal metal-free organic dye-sensitized photovoltaic devices by molecular engineering. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Comparative study of TiO2 nanoparticles applied to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi, Besma; Bennaceur, Jamila; Ben Taieb, S.; Chtourou, Rathowan

    2014-02-01

    Microcrystalline titanium oxide (TiO2) particles of anatase crystal phase were prepared by the sol-gel route, varying thermal treatment conditions (400 °C and 600 °C), for a comparison purpose with commercial TiO2 (P25). Structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) application. Both microcrystalline TiO2 particles, synthesized by the sol-gel method and obtained from the P25 powder were used to prepare a light scattering layer of the working electrode. The obtained electrodes were then immersed in a solution of N-719 (ruthenium) dye, at the ambient temperature, during 24 h. Finally, the DSSCs were assembled, the short circuit photocurrent, the open circuit photovoltage, and the power conversion efficiency were measured using an I-V measurement system. The overall conversion efficiencies for all elaborated DSSCs were proximate. A maximum efficiency of 2.3% was achieved for the sol-gel TiO2 thin film annealed at 400 °C, under one sun irradiation, with an open circuit voltage of 0.61 V and a current density of 6.54 mA/cm2. The higher efficiency value of the sol-gel TiO2 sample, annealed at 400 °C, was attributed to the uniformity of the prepared titanium oxide substrate, which provides a better surface for the dye absorption.

  6. Energy and Electron Transfer Cascade in Self-Assembled Bilayer Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsolu, Omotola Olukemi; Murphy, Ian A; Wang, Jamie C; Das, Anjan; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-10-04

    Current high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) rely on the incorporation of multiple chromophores, via either co-deposition or pre-formed assemblies, as a means of increasing broad band light absorption. These strategies have some inherent limitations including decreased total light absorption by each of the dyes, low surface loadings, and complex synthetic procedures. In this report, we introduce an alternative strategy, self-assembled bilayers, as a simple, step-wise method of incorporating two complementary chromophores into a DSSC. The bilayer devices exhibit a 10% increase in Jsc, Voc and η over the monolayer devices due to increased incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency across the entire visible spectrum and slowed recombination losses at the interface. Directional energy and electron transfer towards the metal oxide surface are key steps in the bilayer photon-to-current generation process. These results are important as they open the door to a new architecture for harnessing broad band light in dye-sensitized devices.

  7. Characterization of the Pore Filling of Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with Photoinduced Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Olson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Near steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the pore filling of spiro-MeOTAD (2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine9,9′-spirobifluorene into the nanoparticulate TiO2 electrode of a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSC. The volumetric ratio of filled to unfilled pore volumes, as well as the optical signature of interacting chemical species, that is, the hole-transfer yield (HTY, are investigated. PIA spectroscopy is used to measure the HTY, relative to the amount of spiro-MeOTAD present, without needing to determine the extinction coefficients of the dye and spiro-MeOTAD cation species. The Beer-Lambert law is used to relate the relative PIA signal to the penetration length of the hole-conductor in the TiO2 film. For the sample thickness range of 1.4–5 μm investigated here, the optimum characteristic penetration length is determined to be 3.1+0.46 μm, which is compared to 1.4 μm for the 200 mg mL−1 concentration of spiro-MeOTAD conventionally used. Therefore, doubling the effective penetration of spiro-MeOTAD is necessary to functionalize all the dye molecules in a ssDSC.

  8. New Amphiphilic Polypyridyl Ruthenium(Ⅱ) Sensitizer and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-Tai; DAI Song-Yuan; WANG Kong-Jia

    2007-01-01

    Amphiphilic polypyridyl ruthenium(Ⅱ) complex cis-di(isothiocyanato)(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(Ⅱ) (K005) has been synthesized and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, and FT-IR spectroscopies. The sensitizer sensitizes TiO2 over a notably broad spectral range due to its intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands at 537 and 418 nm. The photophysical and photochemical studies of K005 were contrasted with those of cis-Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2, known as the N3 dye, and the amphiphilic ruthenium(Ⅱ) dye Z907. A reversible couple at E1/2=0.725 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) with a separation of 0.08 V between the anodic and cathodic peaks, was observed due to the RuⅡ/Ⅲ couple by cyclic voltammetry.Furthermore, this amphiphilic ruthenium complex was successfully used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells with the efficiency of 3.72% at the 100 mW·cm-2 irradiance of air mass 1.5 simulated sunlight without optimization of TiO2 films and the electrolyte.

  9. Efficient transparent thin dye solar cells based on highly porous 1D photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colodrero, Silvia; Lopez-Lopez, Carmen; Miguez, Hernan [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, C/Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Forneli, Amparo; Pelleja, Laia [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) Avda., Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Palomares, Emilio [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) Avda., Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Avda. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-03-21

    A working electrode design based on a highly porous 1D photonic crystal structure that opens the path towards high photocurrents in thin, transparent, dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. By enlarging the average pore size with respect to previous photonic crystal designs, the new working electrode not only increases the device photocurrent, as predicted by theoretical models, but also allows the observation of an unprecedented boost of the cell photovoltage, which can be attributed to structural modifications caused during the integration of the photonic crystal. These synergic effects yield conversion efficiencies of around 3.5% by using just 2 {mu}m thick electrodes, with enhancements between 100% and 150% with respect to reference cells of the same thickness. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electric Characterization and Modeling of Microfluidic-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric response to an external periodic voltage of small amplitude of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs made up with an alternative architecture has been investigated. DSCs have been fabricated with a reversible sealing structure, based on microfluidic concepts, with a precise control on the geometric parameters of the active chamber. Cells with different electrolyte thicknesses have been characterized, without varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer, both under illumination and in dark conditions. Measurements of the electric impedance have been performed in the presence of an external bias ranging from 0 V to 0.8 V. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a transmission line model, with two transport channels. The results show that the photovoltaic performances of the microfluidic cell are comparable with those obtained in irreversibly sealed structures, actually demonstrating the reliability of the proposed device.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cell with energy storage function through PVDF/ZnO nanocomposite counter electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Huang, Xuezhen; Li, Chensha; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-08-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells with an energy storage function are demonstrated by modifying its counter electrode with a poly (vinylidene fluoride)/ZnO nanowire array composite. This simplex device could still function as an ordinary solar cell with a steady photocurrent output even after being fully charged. An energy storage density of 2.14 C g(-1) is achieved, while simultaneously a 3.70% photo-to-electric conversion efficiency is maintained.

  12. Doping saturation in dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO:Ga nanostructured photoanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Agnaldo S. [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Goes, Marcio S. [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco, E-mail: fran.fabregat@fca.uji.es [Grup de Dispositius Fotovotaics i Optoelectronics, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castello (Spain); Moehl, Thomas [Grup de Dispositius Fotovotaics i Optoelectronics, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castello (Spain); Davolos, Marian R. [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Bisquert, Juan [Grup de Dispositius Fotovotaics i Optoelectronics, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castello (Spain); Yanagida, Shozo [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Nogueira, Ana F. [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Paulo R., E-mail: prbueno@iq.unesp.br [Dpto. de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Prof. Francisco Degni n. 55, 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > ZnO:Ga-based photoelectrodes were compared to analogous ZnO solar cells. > The photoelectrodes capacitance is governed by Ga doping. > Short circuit current is determined by the increasing roughness factor. > The estimated donor density level exceeds 1021 cm-3. - Abstract: The origins of the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO:Ga nanostructured photoelectrodes, compared to analogous ZnO solar cells, were studied by means of impedance spectroscopy under illumination as a function of forward bias voltage. The film capacitance is governed by Ga doping. It can be assumed that the higher donor density of states of ZnO materials and, principally, ZnO:Ga-doped materials pin the Fermi level at a certain shallow energy level so that there is no photovoltage variation as a function of doping level. On the other hand, short circuit current is determined by the increasing roughness factor obtained at the higher doping levels while the lower fill factor values of DSCs based on ZnO:Ga, compared to analogous ZnO, were attributed to the higher ohmic resistive losses associated with the increasing photocurrent densities. In any case, the microstructure and morphological aspects were also considered as a possible origin of the low fill factor values. The estimated donor density level exceeds 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}, indicating a high doping level in the semiconductor. As a consequence of the synthesis process of ZnO:Ga nanoparticles its size diminishes with the higher Ga contents producing an increase in the overall roughness factor of the films, and then a larger dye upload and short circuit current.

  13. One-dimensional titania nanostructures: Synthesis and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Shimin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liu, Weimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-02

    One-dimensional (1D) titania (TiO{sub 2}) in the form of nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their unique physical, chemical and optical properties enabling extraordinary performance in biomedicine, sensors, energy storage, solar cells and photocatalysis. In this review, we mainly focus on synthetic methods for 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures and the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Traditional nanoparticle-based DSCs have numerous grain boundaries and surface defects, which increase the charge recombination from photoanode to electrolyte. 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures can provide direct and rapid electron transport to the electron collecting electrode, indicating a promising choice for DSCs. We divide the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs into four parts, that is, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures only, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructure/nanoparticle composites, branched 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures combined with other materials. This work will provide guidance for preparing 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and using them as photoanodes in efficient DSCs. - Graphical abstract: 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures which can provide direct and rapid pathways for electron transport have promising applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The synthetic methods and applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs are summarized in this review article.

  14. Tailor-made hole-conducting coadsorbents for highly efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Taek; Ju, Myung Jong; Song, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Cho, Dae Won; Im, Chan; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2013-11-11

    The Y-shaped, low molecular mass, hole-conductor (HC), acidic coadsorbents 4-{3,7-bis[4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl}benzoic acid (PTZ1) and 4-{3,7-bis[4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl}biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid (PTZ2) were developed. Owing to their tuned and negative-shifted HOMO levels (vs. NHE), they were used as HC coadsorbents in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to improve cell performance through desired cascade-type hole-transfer processes. Their detailed functions as HC coadsorbents in DSSCs were investigated to obtain evidence for the desired cascade-type hole-transfer processes. They have multiple functions, such as preventing π-π stacking of dye molecules, harvesting light of shorter wavelengths, and faster dye regeneration. By using PTZ2 as the tailor-made HC coadsorbent on the TiO2 surface with the organic dye NKX2677, an extremely high conversion efficiency of 8.95 % was achieved under 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5G simulated light (short-circuit current JSC =16.56 mA cm(-2) , open-circuit voltage VOC =740 mV, and fill factor of 73 %). Moreover, JSC was increased by 13 %, VOC by 27 % and power-conversion efficiency by 49 % in comparison to an NKX2677-based DSSC without an HC coadsorbent. This is due to the HC coadsorbent having a HOMO energy level well matched to that of the NKX-2677 dye to induce the desired cascade-type hole-transfer processes, which are associated with a slower charge recombination, fast dye regeneration, effective screening of liquid electrolytes, and an induced negative shift of the quasi-Fermi level of the electrode. Thus, this new class of Y-shaped, low molecular weight, organic, HC coadsorbents based on phenothiazine carboxylic acid derivatives hold promise for highly efficient organic DSSCs.

  15. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  16. Novel D––A dye sensitizers of polymeric metal complexes with triphenylamine derivatives as donor for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis, characterization and application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guipeng Tang; Jun Zhou; Wei Zhang; Jiaomei Hu; Dahai Peng; Qiufang Xie; Chaofan Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Because of being the key component of dye-sensitized solar cells and acting as an important role, dye sensitizer and its synthesis and application has been extensively researched. In this paper, four novel polymeric metal complexes with D––A structure that use 4-(octyloxymethyl)-N, N-diphenylbenzenamine as donor group (D), C=N bondasa -conjugation linkage (), and transition metal complexes as an acceptor (A), were functionally designed and synthesized. All the four polymeric metal complexes exhibited some photovoltaic performance, the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency of compound P4 reached 1.09% (sc = 2.55 mA cm−2, oc = 0.61 V and FF = 70.14%) under simulate AM 1.5 G solar irradiation. A new path for the synthesis and study of the dye sensitizer was provided.

  17. Improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by using the conversion luminescence of a phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively studied since their discovery in 1991. A DSSC is composed of an electrode made of a dye-adsorbed nanoporous TiO{sub 2} layer on a fluorine doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass substrate, redox electrolytes, and a counter electrode. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of DSSC is to enhance the harvest of light. Many synthetic dyes have been synthesized and employed to improve the harvest of light and increase photocurrent production by DSSCs; however, even the best dyes (e.g., N-719) only absorb in the wavelength range of 400 - 800 nm, and most ultraviolet wavelengths are not used. In this work, phosphor is introduced to the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode of a DSSC to improve the light harvesting, photovoltage, photocurrent production, and solar conversion efficiency by using a conversion-luminescence process. Moreover, further increases in the conversion efficiency of the DSSC are possible.

  18. Improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by using the conversion luminescence of a phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seong Gwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively studied since their discovery in 1991. A DSSC is composed of an electrode made of a dye-adsorbed nanoporous TiO2 layer on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) glass substrate, redox electrolytes, and a counter electrode. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of DSSC is to enhance the harvest of light. Many synthetic dyes have been synthesized and employed to improve the harvest of light and increase photocurrent production by DSSCs; however, even the best dyes ( e.g., N-719) only absorb in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, and most ultraviolet wavelengths are not used. In this work, phosphor is introduced to the TiO2 photoelectrode of a DSSC to improve the light harvesting, photovoltage, photocurrent production, and solar conversion efficiency by using a conversion-luminescence process. Moreover, further increases in the conversion efficiency of the DSSC are possible.

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Microfluidic housing system: a useful tool for the analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, A.; Lamberti, A.; Pugliese, D.; Chiodoni, A.; Shahzad, N.; Bianco, S.; Quaglio, M.; Gazia, R.; Tresso, E.; Pirri, C. F.

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the behavior of the different dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) components, an in-situ analysis should give fundamental help but it is impossible to be performed without compromising the integrity of the cell. Our recently proposed novel microfluidic approach for the fabrication of DSCs is based on a reversible sealing of the two transparent electrodes and it allows the easy assembling and disassembling of the cell, making possible an analysis of the components over time. The aim of this work is not to investigate the different degradation mechanisms of a standard DSC: we want to show that, by using a microfluidic architecture, it is possible to perform a non-destructive analysis and to monitor the photoanode and the counter electrode properties during their lifetime. Morphological (field emission scanning electron microscopy), wetting (contact angle), optical (UV-visible spectroscopy) and electrical (current-voltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements under standard AM1.5G illumination) characterizations have been performed over a period of three weeks. The results show how the variation of the wetting and morphological properties at the counter electrode and of the dye absorbance at the photoanode are strongly related to the decrease of the cell performances as evidenced by electrical characterization, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the use of our structure in this kind of studies.

  1. Effect of TiO2–graphene nanocomposite photoanode on dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akbar Eshaghi; Abbas Ail Aghaei

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, graphene–TiO2 photoanodes with various graphene concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt%) were deposited on fluorine tin oxide glass substrates as working electrodes for dyesensitized solar cells. The structure, morphology, surface composition and dye adsorption of the photoanodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–VIS–NIR spectroscopy, respectively. The photocurrent–voltage characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were examined using a solar simulator. The results indicated that the dye adsorption on photoanode surfaces increases with the increase in the graphene content. In addition, dye-sensitized solar cells efficiency increases with the increase in the graphene content to 1.5 wt% and then decreased. The efficiency of the dyesensitized solar cell, based on the TiO2–1.5 wt% graphene nanocomposite, increased by 42% with respect to the pristine sample.

  2. Star-shaped carbazole derivative based efficient solid-state dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaleviciute, Asta; Degbia, Martial; Tomkeviciene, Ausra; Schmaltz, Bruno; Gurskyte, Egle; Grazulevicius, Juozas Vidas; Bouclé, Johan; Tran-Van, François

    2014-05-01

    Two new star-shaped carbazole molecules, including tri(9-(methoxyphenyl)carbazol-3-yl)amine named TMPCA having molecular glasses properties and hole transport properties were synthesized. Their thermal, optical, photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied. The carbazole based molecules exhibit high thermal stability with 5% weight loss temperatures over 480 °C with higher glass temperature transitions 164-175 °C than the classical spiro-OMeTAD reference molecule. Their optical band gaps (2.76 eV) are low enough not to hinder neither the absorption of the indoline sensitizer (D102) nor its photoexcitation and charge transfer. Solid state ionization potential (IPs) of TMPCA is well adapted to that of D102 and ensure a driving force ΔrG >0.2 eV for an efficient transfer and regeneration of the photo-oxidized dye. Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells ITO/TiO2/D102/T4MPCA/Au showed a power conversion efficiency of 2.23% with Jsc of 8.85 mA cm-2 under standard AM 1.5 simulated solar irradiation.

  3. Effect of Anatase Synthesis on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Mario Alberto; Bokhimi, Xim; Maldonado-Álvarez, Arturo; Jiménez-González, Antonio Esteban

    2015-12-01

    Anatase nanoparticles were synthesized from a titanium isopropoxide solution using a hydrothermal process at different pressures in an autoclave system while keeping the volume of the solution constant. As the autoclave pressure was increased from 1 to 71 atm (23 to 210 °C), the crystal size in the nanoparticles increased from 9 to 13.8 nm. The anatase nanoparticles were used to build dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Mesoporous films of this oxide were deposited over conducting SnO2:F substrates using the screen-printing technique and then annealed at 530 °C at 1 atm of air pressure. The morphology of the mesoporous film surface of anatase, studied using scanning electron microscopy, revealed that the crystal size and pore distribution were functions of the pressure conditions. The energy band gap of the films as a function of the crystal size exhibited quantum effects below 11.8 nm. The effects of the anatase synthesis conditions and properties of the mesoporous film on the DSSC-type solar cell parameters, η%, V OC, J SC, and FF, were also investigated: the mesoporous anatase films prepared at 200 °C (54 atm of pressure in the autoclave) and annealed at 530 °C in air generated the best solar cell, having the highest conversion efficiency.

  4. Spectral splitting photovoltaics using perovskite and wideband dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takumi; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Jeon, Nam Joong; Giordano, Fabrizio; Abate, Antonio; Uchida, Satoshi; Kubo, Takaya; Seok, Sang Il; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2015-11-05

    The extension of the light absorption of photovoltaics into the near-infrared region is important to increase the energy conversion efficiency. Although the progress of the lead halide perovskite solar cells is remarkable, and high conversion efficiency of >20% has been reached, their absorption limit on the long-wavelength side is ∼800 nm. To further enhance the conversion efficiency of perovskite-based photovoltaics, a hybridized system with near-infrared photovoltaics is a useful approach. Here we report a panchromatic sensitizer, coded DX3, that exhibits a broad response into the near-infrared, up to ∼1100 nm, and a photocurrent density exceeding 30 mA cm(-2) in simulated air mass 1.5 standard solar radiation. Using the DX3-based dye-sensitized solar cell in conjunction with a perovskite cell that harvests visible light, the hybridized mesoscopic photovoltaics achieved a conversion efficiency of 21.5% using a system of spectral splitting.

  5. Preparation of a Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Opwis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy conversion is an object of continuous research, focusing on improving the energy efficiency as well as the structure of photovoltaic cells. With efficiencies continuously increasing, state-of-the-art PV cells offer a good solution to harvest solar energy. However, they are still lacking the flexibility and conformability to be integrated into common objects or clothing. Moreover, many sun-exposed surface areas are textile-based such as garments, tents, truck coverings, boat sails, and home or outdoor textiles. Here, we present a new textile-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC which takes advantage from the properties inherent to fabrics: flexibility, low weight, and mechanical robustness. Due to the necessary thermostability during manufacturing, our DSC design is based on heat-resistant glass-fiber fabrics. After applying all needed layers, the overall structure was covered by a transparent and simultaneously conductive protective film. The light and still flexible large-area devices (up to 6 cm2 per individual unit are working with efficiencies up to 1.8% at 1/5 of the sun. Stability tests assure no loss of photovoltaic activity over a period of at least seven weeks. Therefore, our technology has paved the way for a new generation of flexible photovoltaic devices, which can be used for the generation of power in the mentioned applications as well as in modern textile architecture.

  6. In Vitro Polarized Resonance Raman Study of N719 and N719-TBP in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassig, Søren; Jernshøj, Kit; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet;

    2016-01-01

    The working efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) depends on the long-term stability of the dye itself and on the microscopic structure of the dye-semiconductor interface. Previous experimental studies of DSCs based on ruthenium dye with bipyridine ligands (N719) adsorbed to the TiO2......substrate applied FTIR,un-polarized Raman (RS) and un-polarized resonance Raman (RRS) spectroscopy. In the un-polarized RRS studies of N719/TiO2 – DSCs the discussion of the adsorption of N719 was based on the rather weak carbonyl or carboxyl group stretching vibrations and on minor spectral changes...... of overlapping Raman modes, whereas conclusions about the dye-stability was based on the observation that fresh and aged DSCs had almost identical RRS spectra. In the present paper we address the problems mentioned above, by utilizing the unique property of Raman scattering that the polarization of the scattered...

  7. Layered co-sensitization of gardenia and monascus for panchromatic light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Oun; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Young; Park, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jae-Wook

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 electrodes adsorbed with two natural dyes (gardenia yellow and monascus) were used as sensitizers to improve the conversion efficiency of cocktail dye-sensitized solar cells (CDSC) for light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength. Adsorption and electrochemical properties of two dyes were evaluated based on adsorption kinetics and electrochemical measurements. In addition, the photovoltaic performance of a photo-electrode adsorbed with single-dye (gardenia yellow and monascus) or the mixture or successive adsorption of the two dyes, was evaluated from current-voltage measurements. Layered co-sensitization of the two natural dyes was compared depending on the adsorption modes. As for the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorption of monascus and gardenia yellow dyes, the solar cell yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.04 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.63 V, and a fill factor of 0.64, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.82%.

  8. Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on Flower-like ZnO Nanoparticles as Photoanode and Natural Dye as Photosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Agus Sumiarna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was reported the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing flower-like ZnO nanoparticle as photoanode and natural dye (anthocyanin extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl fruit as photosensitizer. Anthocyanin dye extracted from Lampeni (Ardisia humilis Vahl fruit shows a wide range of absorption spectra covering from 400 nm to 600 nm, which suitable for application as sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cell. Flower-like ZnO was synthesized by precipitation method from mixed solution of zinc acetate dihydrate and KOH. X-ray diffraction analysis of ZnO was found a hexagonal structure with lattice parameters a = b = 3.25 Ǻ and c = 5.21 Ǻ, while average crystal size (ACS was found 23.403 nm. The observation by SEM shows a flower-like structure arranged from ZnO nanorods. Optical absorption spectra of ZnO shows a strong absorption under 350 nm, and sharp absorption transition occurs around 350 nm from which the bandgap energy of ZnO was determined. Using Tauc plot method, bandgap energy of ZnO was found 3.2 eV. The assembled solar cell has energy conversion efficiency about of 0.03 % with fill factor of 0.25 and maximum power output of 12.8 μWatt.

  9. EXAFS, ab Initio Molecular Dynamics, and NICIS Spectroscopy Studies on an Organic Dye Model at the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrode Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Johansson, Viktor; Trilaksana, Herri; Rosdahl, Jan; Andersson, Gunther G; Kloo, Lars

    2017-06-14

    The organization of dye molecules in the dye layer adsorbed on the semiconductor substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells has been studied using a combination of theoretical methods and experimental techniques. The model system is based on the simple D-π-A dye L0, which has been chemically modified by substituting the acceptor group CN with Br (L0Br) to offer better X-ray contrast. Experimental EXAFS data based on the Br K-edge backscattering show no obvious difference between dye-sensitized titania powder and titania film samples, thus allowing model systems to be based on powder slurries. Ab initio molecular dynamic (aiMD) calculations have been performed to extract less biased information from the experimental EXASF data. Using the aiMD calculation as input, the EXAFS structural models can be generated a priori that match the experimental data. Our study shows that the L0Br dye adsorbs in the trans-L0Br configuration and that adsorption involves both a proximity to other L0Br dye molecules and the titanium atoms in the TiO2 substrate. These results indicate direct coordination of the dye molecules to the TiO2 surface in contrast to previous results on metal-organic dyes. The molecular coverage of L0Br on mesoporous TiO2 was also estimated using NICIS spectroscopy. The NICISS results emphasized that the L0Br dye on nanoporous titania mainly forms monolayers with a small contribution of multilayer coverage.

  10. A Study of Mixed Vegetable Dyes with Different Extraction Concentrations for Use as a Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ching Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two vegetable dyes are used for the study: chlorophyll dye from sweet potato leaf extract and anthocyanin dye from extracts of blueberry, purple cabbage, and grape. The chlorophyll and anthocyanin dyes are blended in a cocktail in equal proportions, by volume. This study determines the effect of different extraction concentrations and different vegetable dyes on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. In order to make the electrode for the experiments, P25 TiO2 powder was coated on the ITO conducting surface, using a medical blade, to form a thin film with a thickness of around 35 μm. The experimental results show that the cocktail dye blended using extracts of sweet potato leaf and blueberries, in the volumetric proportion 1 : 1, at a weight concentration of 40%, using an extraction temperature of 50°C and an extraction heating time of 10 min produces the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of up to 1.57%, an open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.61 V, and a short-circuit current density (JSC of 4.75 mA/cm2.

  11. Novel Blue Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieving High Efficiency in Cobalt-Based Electrolytes and by Co-Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yan; Saygili, Yasemin; Cong, Jiayan; Eriksson, Anna; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Jinbao; Polanski, Enrico; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2016-12-07

    Blue and green dyes as well as NIR-absorbing dyes have attracted great interest because of their excellent ability of absorbing the incident photons in the red and near-infrared range region. A novel blue D-π-A dye (Dyenamo Blue), based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-core, has been designed and synthesized. Assembled with the cobalt bipyridine-based electrolytes, the device with Dyenamo Blue achieved a satisfying efficiency of 7.3% under one sun (AM1.5 G). The co-sensitization strategy was further applied on this blue organic dye together with a red D-π-A dye (D35). The successful co-sensitization outperformed a panchromatic light absorption and improved the photocurrent density; this in addition to the open-circuit potential result in an efficiency of 8.7%. The extended absorption of the sensitization and the slower recombination reaction between the blue dye and TiO2 surface inhibited by the additional red sensitizer could be the two main reasons for the higher performance. In conclusion, from the results, the highly efficient cobalt-based DSSCs could be achieved with the co-sensitization between red and blue D-π-A organic dyes with a proper design, which showed us the possibility of applying this strategy for future high-performance solar cells.

  12. Highly efficient betanin dye based ZnO and ZnO/Au Schottky barrier solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thankappan, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.subhash@gmail.com [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices (IUCND), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Divya, S.; Augustine, Anju K.; Girijavallaban, C.P.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V.P.N. [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India)

    2015-05-29

    Performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on betanin natural dye from red beets with various nanostructured photoanodes on transparent conducting glass has been investigated. In four different electrolyte systems cell efficiency of 2.99% and overall photon to current conversion efficiency of 20% were achieved using ZnO nanosheet electrode with iodide based electrolyte in acetonitrile solution. To enhance solar harvesting in organic solar cells, uniform sized metal nanoparticles (gold (Au) of ~ 8 nm) synthesized via microwave irradiation method were incorporated into the device consisting of ZnO. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 1.71% was achieved with ZnO/Au nanocomposite compared to the 0.868% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanosheet cell with ferrocene based electrolyte. - Highlights: • The influence of electrolytes has been studied. • Cell efficiency of 2.99% was achieved by ZnO. • Enhancement of efficiency with incorporation of Au nano.

  13. Effective solid electrolyte based on benzothiazolium for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Wang, Ye Feng; Zeng, Jing Hui

    2014-12-24

    Thiaozole/benzothiaozole-based dicationic conductors were synthesized and applied as solid-state electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, steady-state voltammogram, photocurrent intensity-photovoltage test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to characterize the materials and the mechanism of the cell performance. Compared to the traditional monocationic crystals, the dicationic crystals have a larger size and can provide more opportunities to fine-tune their physical/chemical properties. As a consequence, this solid-state electrolyte-based DSSC achieved photoelectric conversion efficiency of 7.90% under full air-mass (AM 1.5) sunlight (100 mW·cm(-2)).

  14. Performance Degradation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Induced by Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yuan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the change of the electric characteristics in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC when the electrolyte has been injected and measured initially and lately for a period of time. It was found that the short-circuit current density decreased from 9.799 mA/cm2 to 7.056 mA/cm2 and the fill factor increased from 0.406 to 0.559 when the cell had stood for an hour, while the open-circuit photovoltage did not change due to fixed difference between the Fermi level of TiO2 and the oxidation-reduction potential of electrolyte. The results can be explained by using the variation of the series resistance in the equivalent circuit of the DSSC.

  15. Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with novel synthesized TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ki-Young; Cho, Jung-Min; Cho, Sung-June; Yun, Je-Jung; Mun, Soo-San; Han, Eun-Mi

    2010-05-01

    An anatase TiO2 and three kinds of novel TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were obtained by mixing NaOH (10 M), KOH (14 M) and LiOH (10 M) solution with an anatase TiO2 powder, respectively. The TiO2 working electrodes of DSSCs were prepared and the photoelectric properties of the cells were characterized. The influence of different poly(ethylene glycol) contents in TiO2 films with and without HNO3 treatment on the electron transfer in DSSCs were investigated. It is found that the DSSC with HNO3 (0.002 mol/l)-treated film containing 16.7 wt% PEG shows the higher power conversion efficiency of 6.0%, which was mainly depended on the degrees of TiO2 pore size and uniformity of TiO2 films.

  16. Solvent-free ZnO dye-sensitised solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, E.; Anta, J.A. [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Fernandez-Lorenzo, C.; Alcantara, R.; Martin-Calleja, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) based on commercial nanostructured zinc oxide combined with imidazolium-based room temperature ionic-liquid electrolytes are characterized. The electrolytes are based on a binary mixture of two ionic liquids, one of them used as source of iodide ions. The composition of this solvent-free electrolyte is optimized with respect to the concentration of iodine and iodide and the effect of additives such as lithium and tert-butylpyridine (TBP) on the photovoltaic performance and the recombination rate is analyzed and discussed. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 3.4% at 1 sun illumination has been obtained for cells of 0.64 cm{sup 2} active area with the best performing compositions. Diffusion limitations due to slow transport processes are analyzed and discussed. (author)

  17. Functionalized zinc porphyrin as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Giribabu; Ch Vijay Kumar; M Raghavender; K Somaiah; P Yella Reddy; P Venkateswara Rao

    2008-09-01

    A new photosensitizer having two rhodanine acetic acid groups at meso-positions of a zinc porphyrin [meso-Rhod-Zn-Rhod] has been synthesized and characterized by UV-Visible, 1H NMR, MALDI-MS, fluorescence spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. The new photosensitizer was tested in dye-sensitized solar cells with three different liquid redox electrolytes and compared its efficiency () with dyad. Both dyad and triad were also tested in DSSC using a polymer gel redox electrolyte and observed low efficiency because of small short circuiting current i.e. ISc though the IPCE is significantly high. The probable reason for the low efficiency small ISc has been attributed to the internal resistance of the cell.

  18. Improving Electron Transfer from Dye to TiO2 by Using CdTe Nanostructure Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Farshad; Sabet, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2015-08-01

    In this work, TiO2 P25 was deposited successfully on the FTO glass by electrophoresis method. Different chemical methods were served for deposition of nanosized CdTe such as successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and drop-cast. Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from prepared electrodes, Pt as a counter electrode, dye solution, and electrolyte. The effects of chemical deposition methods were investigated on the surface quality, optical properties, and solar cell efficiency. It was observed that deposition method has an important role on the solar cell performance. It was also seen that deposition method affects directly on surface thickness and the amount of dye adsorption. In fact, each deposition method creates different surfaces, and hence, they act variously in electron transfer across the electrode surface. Among different deposition methods that were used in this experimental work, SILAR method showed the best performance and the surface that was created by this method could transfer the electrons across the electrode faster than the other ones. But this chemical method cannot improve solar cell efficiency due to some different reasons that we mentioned in this paper.

  19. Charge Transfer Dynamics of Highly Efficient Cyanidin-3-O- Glucoside Sensitizer for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, E. C.; Yuliarto, B.; Suyatman; Dipojono, H. K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the novel efficiency achievement of black rice-based natural dye- sensitized solar cells. The higher dye concentration, the longer dye extraction as well as dye immersion onto a TiO2 film, and the co-adsorption addition are key strategies for improved-cell performance compared to the highest previous achievement. The black rice dye containing 1.38 mM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside has been extracted without purification for 3 weeks at dark condition and room temperature. The anatase TiO2 photoanode was dipped into dye solution within 4 days. Its electrode was firmly sealed to be a cell and was filled by I-/I3- electrolyte using vacuum technique. As a result, the overall solar-to-energy conversion efficiency was 1.49% at AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW.cm-2). The voltametric analysis has reported the interfacial electronic band edges of TiO2-Dye-Electrolyte. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has shown the kinetic of interfacial electron transfer dynamics among TiO2-dye-electrolyte. The cell has the transfer resistance (Rt) of 12.5 ω, the recombination resistance (Rr) of 266.8 ω, effective electron diffusion coefficients (Dn) of 1.4 × 10-3 cm2/s, Dye-TiO2 effective electron transfer (τd) of 26.6 μs, effective diffusion length (Ln)of 33.78 μm, chemical capacitance (Cμ) of 12.43 μF, and electron lifetime (τn) of 3.32 ms.

  20. Preparation of a Phosphor/TiO2 nanoparticle composite layer for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seong Gwan; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-08-01

    The conversion luminescence of a phosphor from the ultraviolet region to the visible region can enhance the light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), because many dyes can only absorb visible light. To explore the influence of phosphor additives on the conversion efficiency of DSSC, we introduce the nanocrystalline YAG:Eu phosphors into TiO2 photoelectrodes. The photoluminescence measurement showed that a broad solar spectrum including the ultraviolet region could be reabsorbed by the dye N-719 via conversion luminescence due to the phosphor. With the introduction of the phosphor, both the photocurrent and the photovoltage of the DSSC could be improved due to the enhanced light harvesting and the elevated energy levels of the oxides. With the optimal concentration of phosphor doping in the electrode, the cells light-to-electricity conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 1.14 compared to that for a cell without phosphor doping.