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Sample records for dye polymer thin

  1. Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Gozhyk, I; Rabbani, H; Djellali, N; Forget, S; Chenais, S; Ulysse, C; Brosseau, A; Gauvin, S; Zyss, J; Lebental, M

    2014-01-01

    The demonstration of an electrically pumped organic laser remains a major issue of organic optoelectronics for several decades. Nowadays, hybrid pumping seems a promising compromise where the organic material is optically pumped by an electrically pumped inorganic device on chip. This technical solution requires therefore an optimization of the organic gain medium under optical pumping. Here, we report a detailed study of gain features of dye-doped polymer thin films, in particular we introduce the gain efficiency $K$, in order to facilitate comparison between material and experimental conditions. First, we measure the bulk gain by the means of a pump-probe setup, and then present in details several factors which modify the actual gain of the layer, namely the confinement factor, the pump polarization, the molecular anisotropy, and the re-absorption. The usual model to evaluate the gain leads to an overestimation by more than one order of magnitude, which stresses the importance to design the devices accordin...

  2. Relative humidity sensing using dye-doped polymer thin-films on metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Madhuri; Ding, Boyang; Blaikie, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensors based on optical resonances sustained in sub-wavelength thick dye-doped polymer coatings on reflecting surfaces. As a result of coupling between dye molecular absorption and Fabry-Perot resonances in the air-coating-surface cavity, the absorption spectra of such thin-film structures show a strong resonant peak under certain illumination conditions. These resonances are sensitive to the structural and material properties of the thin-film, metal underlayer and ambient conditions and hence can be used for gas and vapor sensing applications. Specifically, we present our proof of principle experimental results for humidity sensing using a thin-film structure comprising Rhodamine6G-doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films on silver substrates. Depending on the PVA film thickness, dye-concertation and angle of incidence, the resonant absorption peak can undergo either red-shift or blue-shift as RH level increases in the range 20% to 60%. Also, the absorption magnitude at certain wavelengths near to resonance show almost linear reduction which can be used as the sensing signal. Our simulation studies show a very good agreement with the experimental data. The spectral and temporal sensitivity of this thin-film structure is attributed to the changes in the thickness of the PVA layer which swells by absorbing water molecules

  3. Influence of metallic and semiconducting nanostructures on the optical properties of dye-doped polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enculescu, M., E-mail: mdatcu@infim.ro; Matei, E.

    2016-09-01

    Dye-doped polymer thin films were obtained by spin-coating of 8% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions (in ethanol). Ni or ZnO nanowires were incorporated in Rhodamine 6G doped polymer films (10{sup −4} M dye concentration). Optical and morphological properties of simple dye-doped polymer films and films containing metallic or semiconducting nanostructures were investigated. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to image the nanowires. The presence of Ni nanowires induces a small shift (2–3 nm) to longer wavelengths on the emission band of Rh 6G doped PVP film. The ZnO nanowires' presence was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. An enhancement of the emission of the dye doped polymer is induced by the semiconducting structures. - Highlights: • Rhodamine 6G doped polyvinylpyrrolidone thin films were obtained by spin-coating. • Ni or ZnO nanowires were incorporated in Rhodamine 6G doped polymer films. • Ni nanowires' presence induces a shift to shorter wavelengths on the emission band. • Enhancement of dye-doped polymer emission induced by the semiconducting structures.

  4. Multimode distributed feedback laser emission in a dye-doped optically pumped polymer thin-film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, F.; Gindre, D.; Nunzi, J.-M.; Denis, C.; Dumarcher, V.; Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.; Kretsch, K. P.; Rocha, L.

    2004-11-01

    We report on particular features of thin film distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. Devices are optically pumped using a Lloyd-mirror interferometer. For a given DFB grating period, the number of lasing modes is film thickness dependent. Spectral content of the devices is analysed using planar waveguide theory. An excellent agreement between the theoretical transverse electric mode structure and the laser emission spectrum is found.

  5. Nanoimprinted polymer photonic crystal dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron; Buss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Optically pumped polymer photonic crystal band-edge dye lasers are presented. The photonic crystal is a rectangular lattice providing laser feedback as well as an optical resonance for the pump light. The lasers are defined in a thin film of photodefinable Ormocore hybrid polymer, doped...... with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. A compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (352 nm, 5 ns pulses) is used to pump the lasers from above the chip. The laser devices are 450 nm thick slab waveguides with a rectangular lattice of 100 nm deep air holes imprinted into the surface. The 2-dimensional rectangular...... lattice is described by two orthogonal unit vectors of length a and b, defining the P and X directions. The frequency of the laser can be tuned via the lattice constant a (187 nm - 215 nm) while pump light is resonantly coupled into the laser from an angle () depending on the lattice constant b (355 nm...

  6. Polymer dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    , elektronstrålelithografi og Röntgenstrålelithografi. Andre polymerer er også blevet formgivet via ”nanoimprint” lithografi for at skabe laserresonatorer. En række lasere, både baseret på et flydende forstærkningsmedium og et faststof forstærkningsrmedium er blevet udviklet. Laserne giver både lys i flere ”modes” og i een......Formålet med dette Ph.D. arbejde har været at udvikle miniaturiserede polymer farvestoflasere, egnet til at blive integreret i mikrochips som også indeholder andre polymerstrukturer – som for eksempel kan findes i ”Laboratorie-på-en-chip” kredsløb. Lasernes funktion skal være at levere lys til...... meget følsomme sensorformål, og at undgå at skulle opliniere eksterne lyskilder til sensorer på polymerchips. En enkelt type gennemsigtig ”resist” (SU-8) er blevet brugt til at udvikle en række laserresonatorer i polymer. ”Resisten” er blevet formgivet via en række lithografiske teknikker: UV lithografi...

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  8. Worm-like mesoporous TiO2 thin films templated using comb copolymer for dye-sensitized solar cells with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Park, Cheol Hun; Jung, Jung Pyo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-12-01

    A comb copolymer consisting of hydrophobic poly(2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl] ethyl methacrylate) (PBEM) and hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) is synthesized via one-pot free radical polymerization. The PBEM-POEM comb copolymer is used as an agent to direct the structure toward one consisting of worm-like mesoporous TiO2 (WM-TiO2) films. The selective, preferential interaction between the titania precursor and the hydrophilic POEM chains is responsible for the formation of a well-organized worm-like mesostructure. The morphology of the WM-TiO2 films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In particular, the effects of film thickness on the optical and electrochemical properties are systematically investigated. The introduction of the WM-TiO2 layer between the nanocrystalline TiO2 (NC-TiO2) layer and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass results in increased transmittance of visible light due to an antireflective property, decreased interfacial resistance and suppressed charge recombination at the interfaces of NC-TiO2/FTO glass. As a result, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a polymer electrolyte is improved from 5.3% to 6.6% at an optimum film thickness (310 nm). The obtained efficiency represents a higher efficiency for the N719-based DSSC with a solvent-free, polymer electrolyte.

  9. AZO dye-doped photorefractive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, B.; Meerholz, K.; Sandalphon; Peyghambarian, N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center; Kippelen, B. [Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique, Strasbourg (France)

    1994-12-31

    The authors report the studies of the photorefractive properties of the two polymer composites based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK). The polymers were obtained by doping PVK with 2,4,7 trinitro-9-fluorenone as a sensitizer agent and two different azo dyes as nonlinear chromophores. Best results were obtained for the polymer doped with 2,5-dimethyl-4-p-nitrophenylazoanisole, which showed a maximum diffraction efficiency of 34% at 40 V/{micro}m external electric field strength in 105 {micro}m thick samples. The influence of different geometries of the hologram writing-retrieval on the diffraction efficiency is described. Net amplification of one of the writing beams in two-beam coupling within the material has been observed. Recording of the holograms of 2-dimensional objects in real time has been demonstrated with good resolution and image brightness. All the results were obtained with a low power visible laser diode emitting at 675 nm.

  10. Adsorption of azo dyes on polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panić Vesna V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymeric adsorbents for the removal of azo dyes from solution has been reviewed. Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of azo dyes as pollutants from wastewaters of textile, paper, printing, leather, pharmaceutical and other industries has been addressed by the researchers. The wider use of already available adsorbents is restricted due to their high costs which lead to investigation and development of new materials that can be cheaper, eficient and easy regenerated. The aim of this article is to present to the readers the widespread investigations in recent years of synthetic and natural polymers as adsorbents and potential replacement of conventional adsorbents. This review presents only the data obtained using raw, hydrogel, grafted and crosslinked forms of synthetic and nature based polymers, and the discussion is limited to these polymer-based materials and their adsorption properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43009 i br. 172062.

  11. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  12. Enhancement of polymer dye lasers by multifunctional photonic crystal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser.......The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser....

  13. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Kerasidou, A. P.; Sone, B. T.; Diallo, A.; Mthunzi, P.; Iliopoulos, K.; Nkosi, M.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-06-01

    Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10-21 m2 V-2 or 0.72 × 10-13 esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  14. Dye linked conjugated homopolymers: using conjugated polymer electroluminescence to optically pump porphyrin-dye emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.T.; Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2004-01-01

    . Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue......Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were......-green emission and the zinc-porphyrin linked homopolymers emit near-infrared/infrared light. This was demonstrated to be due to electroluminescence pumping of the zinc-porphyrin moieties that were covalently linked to homopolymer material. When only one zinc-porphyrin dye was incorporated into the backbone...

  15. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  16. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerender, P.; Saxena, Vibha; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  17. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  18. A comparative study of polymer-dye interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an anionic dye Methyl Orange and two poly cations namely, Poly (N-vinyl-4-methylpyridiniumiodide, (PC1 & Poly (vinylbenzyltriphenylphosphoniumchloride, (PC2 has been investigated by spectrophotometric method. The polymers are observed to induce metachromasy in the dye as evidenced from the considerable blue shift in the absorption maximum of the dye. The interaction constant and thermodynamic parameters of interaction have been determined by absorbance measurements at the metachromatic band. The effect of additives such as ionic salts, alcohols, urea and polyelectrolytes on the reversal of metachromasy has been studied and used to determine the stability of the metachromatic complex and to understand the nature of binding.

  19. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  20. A Hybrid Tandem Solar Cell Combining a Dye-Sensitized and a Polymer Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Liangzheng; Ye, Jiajiu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell was assambled by connecting a dye sensitized solar cell and a polymer solar cell in series. A N719 sensitized TiO2 was used as photocathode in dye-sensitized subcell, and a MEH-PPV/PCBM composite was used as active layer in the polymer subcell. The polymer subcell fabricated on the counter electrode of the dye sensitized solar cell. A solution processed TiO(x) layer was used as electron collection layer of the polymer sub cell and the charge recombination layer. The effects of the TiO(x) interlayer and the spectral overlap between the two sub cells have been studied and optimized. The results shows that a proper thickness of the TiO(x) layer is needed for tandem solar cells. Thick TiO(x) will enhance the series resistance, but too thin TiO(x), layer will damage the hole blocking effect and its hydrophilic. The resulting optimized tandem solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.28% with a V(oc) of 0.95 V under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination.

  1. Universality for directed polymers in thin rectangles

    CERN Document Server

    Auffinger, Antonio; Corwin, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the fluctuations of the free energy of positive temperature directed polymers in thin rectangles (N,N^{\\alpha}), \\alpha < 3/14. For general weight distributions with finite fourth moment we prove that the distribution of these fluctuations converges as N goes to infinity to the GUE Tracy-Widom distribution.

  2. Electrospinning of ultra-thin polymer fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, C.R.; Bergshoef, M.M.; Martin i Batlle, C.; Schönherr, H.; Vancso, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The electrospinning technique was used to spin ultra-thin fibers from several polymer/solvent systems. The diameter of the electrospun fibers ranged from 16 nm to 2 μm. The morphology of these fibers was investigated with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an optical microscope. Polyethylene oxide

  3. Development of a Chemiresistor Sensor Based on Polymers-Dye Blend for Detection of Ethanol Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. L. dos Reis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The conductive blend of the poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene and polystyrene sulfonated acid (PEDOT-PSS polymers were doped with Methyl Red (MR dye in the acid form and were used as the basis for a chemiresistor sensor for detection of ethanol vapor. This Au│Polymers-dye blend│Au device was manufactured by chemical vapor deposition and spin-coating, the first for deposition of the metal electrodes onto a glass substrate, and the second for preparation of the organic thin film forming ~1.0 mm2 of active area. The results obtained are the following: (i electrical resistance dependence with atmospheres containing ethanol vapor carried by nitrogen gas and humidity; (ii sensitivity at 1.15 for limit detection of 26.25 ppm analyte and an operating temperature of 25 °C; and (iii the sensing process is quickly reversible and shows very a low power consumption of 20 μW. The thin film morphology of ~200 nm thickness was analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, where it was observed to have a peculiarly granulometric surface favorable to adsorption. This work indicates that PEDOT-PSS doped with MR dye to compose blend film shows good performance like resistive sensor.

  4. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  5. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen;

    2009-01-01

    Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...... covered by the HeLa cells used as model system. Design parameters relating to photonic crystal sensing of large objects are identified and discussed. The lasers are chemically modified to bind cells and molecules with flexible UV activated linker molecules.......Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface...

  6. Optical properties of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarova, Stefka N.; Sultanova, Nina G.; Petrova, Tzveta; Dragostinova, Violeta; Nikolov, Ivan

    2009-10-01

    In this report three types of optical polymer thin films deposited on glass substrates are investigated. Transmission spectra of the polymer samples are obtained in the range from 400 nm to 1500 nm. A laser microrefractometer has been used to measure the refractive indices of the examined materials at 406, 656, 910 and 1320 nm. Dispersion properties of the polymer films are analyzed on the base of the Cauchy-Schott's and Sellmeier`s approximations. Dispersion coefficients are calculated and dispersion charts in the visible and near infrared spectral regions are presented and compared. Abbe numbers of mean and partial dispersion of the polymer films are obtained. Calculation of refractive indices at many laser emission wavelengths in the considered spectral range is accomplished.

  7. Optical study of dye-containing fluorinated polyimide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Della Mea, G.; Ischia, M.; Campostrini, R.

    Thin films of dye-containing fluorinated polyimide have been obtained by adding the dye powder to the polyamic acid resin and by spin coating the resulting solution on silica and silicon substrates. 6FDA (4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride) and DAB (diaminobenzophenone) have been used as precursor monomers and rhodamine B as dye. The influence of the rhodamine-B molecule on the completeness of the imidization process has been studied by coupled thermogravimetric and mass-spectrometric analyses (TG-MS) of pure and doped polyamic acid resin and by FT-IR analysis of samples before and after curing. Optical emission, excitation and absorption spectra have been collected in order to study spectroscopic and aggregation characteristics of rhodamine as a function of the deposition parameters.

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongo, S., E-mail: sidiki@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kerasidou, A.P. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Sone, B.T.; Diallo, A. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Iliopoulos, K. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504 Patras (Greece); Nkosi, M. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We studied the linear and nonlinear optical properties of hybrid Bixa Orellana dye doped PMMA thin film. • We investigated the linear optical properties by means of UV/Vis, FTIR and Fluorescence. • We used Tauc - Lorentz model to evaluate linear optical parameters (n &k) with relative maximum of 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm for n is observed while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080. • We evaluated nonlinear third order susceptibility which was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. - Abstract: Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  9. Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhihs, S.; Kovalovs, A.; Tishkunovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2011-06-01

    The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.

  10. Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluhihs, S; Kovalovs, A; Tishkunovs, A; Chate, A, E-mail: s_gluhih@inbox.lv [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Azenes 16/22, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.

  11. Light harvesting by dye linked conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troensegaard Nielsen, K.

    2006-06-15

    The fact that the fossil fuel is finite and that the detrimental long-term effects of letting CO2 into our atmosphere exist, have created an enormous interest in developing new, cheap, renewable and less polluting energy resources. One of the most obvious abundant sources of energy in the solar system is the sun. Unfortunately the well developed silicon solar cells are very costly to produce. In an attempt to produce cheap and flexible solar cells, plastic solar cells have received a lot of attention in the last decades. There are still a lot of parameters to optimize if the plastic solar cell shall be able to compete with the silicon solar cells. One of the parameters is to ensure a high degree of charge carrier separation. Charge carrier separation can only happen at heterojunctions, which cover for example the interfaces between the polymers and the electrodes or the interface between an n-conductor and a p-conductor. The facts that the charge carrier separation only happens at the heterojunctions limits the thickness of the active layer in solar cells and thereby the effectiveness of the solar cells. In this project the charge carrier separation is attempted optimized by making plastic solar cells with a molecular heterojunction. The molecular heterojunction has been obtained by synthesizing a three domain super molecular assembly termed NPN. NPN consists of two poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl)ethynylene] chains (N-domains) coupled to the [10,20-bis(3,5-bistert-butylphenyl]-5,15-dibromoporphinato]zinc(II) (P-domain). It is shown that the N domains in NPN work as effective light harvesting antennas for the P domain and effectively transfer electrically generated excitons in the N domain to the P domain. Unfortunately the P domain does not separate the charge carriers but instead works as a charge carrier trap. This results in a performance of solar cells made of NPN that is much lower than the performance of solar cells made of pure poly[1-(2,5-dioctyltolanyl

  12. Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Dye-doped polymer photonic crystal (PhC) lasers fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography are studied for their reproducibility and stability characteristics. We introduce a phase shift in the PhC lattice that substantially improves the yield of single wavelength emission. Single mode...... emission and reproducibility of laser characteristics are important if the lasers are to be mass produced in, e. g., optofluidic sensor chips. The fabrication yield is above 85% with highly reproducible wavelengths (within 0.5%), and the temperature dependence on the wavelength is found to be -0.045 or -0...

  13. Micro-fabricated solid state dye lasers based on a photo-definable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Balslev, Søren; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present a solid polymer dye laser based on a single-mode planar waveguide. The all-polymer device is self-contained in the photodefinable polymer SU-8 and may therefore easily be placed on any substrate and be integrated with polymer-based systems. We use as the active medium for the laser...

  14. Ab initio study of energy-level alignments in polymer-dye blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasveer, W.F.; Bobbert, P.A.; Michels, M.A.J.; Langeveld-Voss, B.M.W.; Schoo, H.F.M.; Bastiaansen, J.J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polymers with a small amount of dye blended in offer an attractive possibility to change the color of the emitted light by changing the dye. We present ab initio calculations within density-functional theory of the HOMO/ LUMO energies for dipyrrolomethane dyes, polyphenylenevinylene and polyfluorene

  15. Ab initio study of energy-level alignments in polymer-dye blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasveer, W.F.; Bobbert, P.A.; Michels, M.A.J.; Langeveld-Voss, B.M.W.; Schoo, H.F.M.; Bastiaansen, J.J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polymers with a small amount of dye blended in offer an attractive possibility to change the color of the emitted light by changing the dye. We present ab initio calculations within density-functional theory of the HOMO/ LUMO energies for dipyrrolomethane dyes, polyphenylenevinylene and

  16. Ab initio study of energy-level alignments in polymer-dye blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasveer, W. F.; Bobbert, P. A.; Michels, M. A. J.; Langeveld-Voss, B. M. W.; Schoo, H. F. M.; Bastiaansen, J. J. A. M.

    2003-11-01

    Polymers with a small amount of dye blended in offer an attractive possibility to change the color of the emitted light by changing the dye. We present ab initio calculations within density-functional theory of the HOMO/LUMO energies for dipyrrolomethane dyes, polyphenylenevinylene and polyfluorene. Special attention is paid to the trends in these energies with variation of the sidegroups of the dyes as observed in cyclic-voltammetry measurements. From the energy-level alignments between dye and polymer we can understand and predict electron and hole trapping, crucial processes for the functioning of light-emitting devices based on these blends.

  17. Two-Photon Absorption-Induced Emission Properties of Dye HMASPS Doped Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 周广勇; 任燕; 杨胜军; 许心光; 邵宗书; 蒋民华

    2002-01-01

    The 0.01M two-photon absorption dye trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)styryl]-N-methyl-pyridinium p-toluene sulfonate (HMASPS) doped polymer has been prepared. When pumped by the picosecond pulse from the pulsed mode-locked Nd: YAG laser, the polymer emits more intense upconverted fluorescence and superradiance compared to the solution sample of the dye. The two-photon pumped lasing with oscillating pulses has also been obtained. Compared to the dye in its solution state, the emission spectra of the polymer are all blueshifted.The polymer has a long upconverted fluorescent lifetime of about 4.041 ± 0.04 ns.

  18. An efficient and rapid thin-layer chromatography method for the identification of 32 dye substances in hair dye products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H J; Yang, Y W; Zhu, Y

    2014-08-01

    The use of dye substances in hair dye products has led to controversial public and scientific discussions about their impact on human health. This study aimed to explore a rapid method for identification of dye substances in hair dye products. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was conducted in this study. We developed basic data of 32 dye substances by 4 developing solvents and 2 indicator sprays. The dye substances were identified by comparing the Rf values and colors between samples and reference substances. Thirty samples were identified by the established method. 22 hair dye substances were detected in 16 formula known samples, 15 hair dye substances were detected in 14 formula unknown samples. Four laboratories participated in the validation and the results showed good interlaboratory reproducibility. The developed TLC method is simple, rapid, reliable and can be finely used for identification of dye substances in hair dye products. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Optical Parameters and Absorption of Azo Dye and Its Metal-Substituted Compound Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏斌; 吴谊群; 顾冬红; 干福熹

    2003-01-01

    We determine the complex refractive indices N ( N = n - ik), dielectric constants ε(ε = ε1 - iε2), and absorption coefficients α of a new azo dye [2-(6-methyl-2-benzothiazolyazo)-5-diethylaminophenol(MBADP)]-doped polymer and its nickel- and zinc-substituted compounds(Ni-MBADP and Zn-MBADP) spin-coated thin films from a scanning ellipsometer in the wavelength 400-700 nm region. Metal chelation strongly (about one times) enhances the optical and dielectric parameters at the peaks and results in a large bathochromic shift (50-60nm) of absorption band. Bathochromic shift of Ni-MBADP is about 10nm larger than that of Zn-MBADP due to different spatial configurations formed in the metal-azo complexes.

  20. Fluorescent Polymer Nanoparticles Based on Dyes: Seeking Brighter Tools for Bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Andreas; Klymchenko, Andrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Speed, resolution and sensitivity of today's fluorescence bioimaging can be drastically improved by fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) that are many-fold brighter than organic dyes and fluorescent proteins. While the field is currently dominated by inorganic NPs, notably quantum dots (QDs), fluorescent polymer NPs encapsulating large quantities of dyes (dye-loaded NPs) have emerged recently as attractive alternative. These new nanomaterials, inspired from the fields of polymeric drug delivery vehicles and advanced fluorophores, can combine superior brightness with biodegradability and low toxicity. Here, we describe the strategies for synthesis of dye-loaded polymer NPs by emulsion polymerization and assembly of pre-formed polymers. Superior brightness requires strong dye loading without aggregation caused quenching (ACQ). Only recently several strategies of dye design were proposed to overcome ACQ in polymer NPs: aggregation induced emission (AIE), dye modification with bulky side groups and use of bulky hydrophobic counterions. The resulting NPs now surpass the brightness of QDs by ~10-fold for comparable size and start reaching the level of the brightest conjugated polymer NPs. Other properties, notably photostability, color, blinking as well as particle size and surface chemistry are also systematically analyzed. Finally, major and emerging applications of dye-loaded NPs for in vitro and in vivo imaging are reviewed. PMID:26901678

  1. Design and synthesis of polymer-functionalized NIR fluorescent dyes--magnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lakshmi, Jeeva Lavanya; Dolmanan, Surani Bin; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Ho, Vincent H B; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Hariharan, Anushya; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail; Zhang, Yong; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

    2013-08-27

    The fluorescent probes having complete spectral separation between absorption and emission spectra (large Stokes shift) are highly useful for solar concentrators and bioimaging. In bioimaging application, NIR fluorescent dyes have a greater advantage in tissue penetration depth compared to visible-emitting organic dyes or inorganic quantum dots. Here we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of an amphiphilic polymer, poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhyride)-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) IR-820 dye and its conjugates with iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Our results demonstrate that the Stokes shift of unmodified dye can be tuned (from ~106 to 208 nm) by the functionalization of the dye with polymer and MNPs. The fabrication of bimodal probes involves (i) the synthesis of NIR fluorescent dye (IR-820 cyanine) functionalized with ethylenediamine linker in high yield, >90%, (ii) polymer conjugation to the functionalized NIR fluorescent dye, and (iii) grafting the polymer-conjugated dyes on iron oxide MNPs. The resulting uniform, small-sized (ca. 6 nm) NIR fluorescent dye-magnetic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a wider emissive range (800-1000 nm) and minimal cytotoxicity. Our preliminary studies demonstrate the potential utility of these NPs in bioimaging by means of direct labeling of cancerous HeLa cells via NIR fluorescence microscopy and good negative contrast enhancement in T2-weighted MR imaging of a murine model.

  2. Multimode laser emission from dye-doped hollow polymer optical fibre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Linslal; Jaison Peter; S Mathew; M Kailasnath

    2014-02-01

    Well-resolved multimode laser emission was observed for the first time from a freestanding microring cavity based on Rhodamine B dye-doped hollow polymer optical fibre by transverse pumping. Fibres with different diameters such as 180, 460, 640 and 800 m were fabricated from a dye-doped hollow polymer preform. A blueshift in the mode structure was observed with decrease in fibre diameter leading to wide range tunability of the laser emission.

  3. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.

    2011-04-01

    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm 2 the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm 2 the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm 2). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  4. Comparison of historic Grübler dyes with modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titford, M

    2007-08-01

    The aniline dye industry was created in 1856 when William Perkin prepared the dye, mauve, from coal tar. Following that discovery, several dye manufacturing businesses were formed in Western Europe, most successfully in Germany. It was to these companies that early investigators turned to obtain these new dyes for the developing field of biology. In 1880, Dr. Georg Grübler started a company in Germany to supply the needs of biologists. Grübler dyes developed a reputation for excellence. In the study reported here, 29 samples of 12 Grübler dyes were compared to modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography. The dyes studied were basic fuchsine, acid fuchsine, safranine, pyronine, aniline blue, ponceau, gentian violet, methylene blue, orange G, malachite green, and Sudan III and IV. I found that these early Grübler dyes closely resembled modern day counterparts; however, the use of synonyms was confusing and some of the fat stains were mislabeled by modern criteria. The chromatograms of some dyes exhibited smearing, probably representing multiple closely related dye species. The study of old dyes provides interesting comparisons with modern counterparts as the center of dye manufacturing is moving from Europe and the United States to Asia.

  5. Water-Induced Blister Formation in a Thin Film Polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Bampoulis, Pantelis; Dietrich, E.; Jansen, H.P.; Zhang, Xuehua; Kooij, Ernst S.; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2015-01-01

    A failure mechanism of thin film polymers immersed in water is presented: the formation of blisters. The growth of blisters is counterintuitive as the substrates were noncorroding and the polymer does not swell in water. We identify osmosis as the driving force behind the blister formation. The

  6. Water induced blister formation in a thin film polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Bampoulis, Pantelis; Dietrich, E.; Jansen, H.P.; Zhang, Xuehua; Kooij, Ernst S.; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2015-01-01

    A failure mechanism of thin film polymers immersed in water is presented: the formation of blisters. The growth of blisters is counterintuitive as the substrates were noncorroding and the polymer does not swell in water. We identify osmosis as the driving force behind the blister formation. The

  7. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of thin biodegradable polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubb, D.M.; Toftmann, B.; Haglund Jr., R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of the biodegradable polymer poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were deposited using resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD). The output of a free-electron laser was focused onto a solid target of the polymer, and the films were deposited using 2.90 (resonant with O-H str...

  8. Water-Induced Blister Formation in a Thin Film Polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Bampoulis, P.; Dietrich, E.; Jansen, H.P.; Zhang, X.; Kooij, E.S.; Lohse, D.; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.

    2015-01-01

    A failure mechanism of thin film polymers immersed in water is presented: the formation of blisters. The growth of blisters is counterintuitive as the substrates were noncorroding and the polymer does not swell in water. We identify osmosis as the driving force behind the blister formation. The dyna

  9. Water induced blister formation in a thin film polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Bampoulis, P.; Dietrich, E.; Jansen, H.P.; Zhang, Xuehua; Kooij, E.S.; Lohse, D.; Zandvliet, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    A failure mechanism of thin film polymers immersed in water is presented: the formation of blisters. The growth of blisters is counterintuitive as the substrates were noncorroding and the polymer does not swell in water. We identify osmosis as the driving force behind the blister formation. The dyna

  10. Phase equilibria in polymer blend thin films: a Hamiltonian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souche, M; Clarke, N

    2009-12-28

    We propose a Hamiltonian formulation of the Flory-Huggins-de Gennes theory describing a polymer blend thin film. We then focus on the case of 50:50 polymer blends confined between antisymmetric walls. The different phases of the system and the transitions between them, including finite-size effects, are systematically studied through their relation with the geometry of the Hamiltonian flow in phase space. This method provides an easy and efficient way, with strong graphical insight, to infer the qualitative physical behavior of polymer blend thin films.

  11. Phase Equilibria in Thin Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Binder, K.; Albano, E. V.

    Within self-consistent field theory and Monte Carlo simulations the phase behavior of a symmetrical binary AB polymer blend confined into a thin film is studied. The film surfaces interact with the monomers via short ranged potentials. One surface attracts the A component and the corresponding semi-infinite system exhibits a first order wetting transition. The surface interaction of the opposite surface is varied as to study the crossover from capillary condensation for symmetric surface fields to interface localization/delocalization transition for antisymmetric surface fields. In the former case the phase diagram has a single critical point close to the bulk critical point. In the latter case the phase diagram exhibits two critical points which correspond to the prewetting critical points of the semi-infinite system. Only below a triple point there is a single two-phase coexistence region. The crossover between these qualitatively different limiting behaviors occurs gradually, however, the critical temperature and the critical composition exhibit a non-monotonic dependence on the surface field. The dependence of the phase behavior for antisymmetric boundaries is studied as a function of the film thickness and the strength of the surface interactions. Upon reducing the film thickness or decreasing the strength of the surface interactions we can change the order of the interface localization/delocalization transition from first to second. The role of fluctuations is explored via Monte Carlo simulations of a coarse grained lattice model. Close to the (prewetting) critical points we observe 2D Ising critical behavior. Also, there is a rich crossover behavior between Ising critical, tricritical and mean field behavior. At lower temperatures capillary waves of the AB interface lead to a pronounced dependence of the effective interface potential on the lateral system size.

  12. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  13. New Insights Into Dye-sensitized Solar Cells With Polymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nei De Freitas J.; Nogueira A.F.; De Paoli M.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes or gel polymer electrolytes are interesting alternatives to substitute liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The interest in this research field is growing continuously, reflected in the increase in the number of papers published each year concerning these materials. This feature article presents a brief review of the history and development of polymer electrolytes aiming at applications in DSSC. Recent improvements achieved by modifications of the com...

  14. Organic dyes with intense light absorption especially suitable for application in thin-layer dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, Alessio; Calamante, Massimo; Mordini, Alessandro; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Sinicropi, Adalgisa; Basosi, Riccardo; Fabrizi de Biani, Fabrizia; Taddei, Maurizio; Colonna, Daniele; Di Carlo, Aldo; Reginato, Gianna; Zani, Lorenzo

    2014-11-21

    Three new thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole-based organic dyes have been designed and synthesized for employment as DSSC sensitizers. Alternation of the electron poor thiazolothiazole unit with two propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) groups ensured very intense light absorption in the visible region (ε up to 9.41 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) in THF solution). The dyes were particularly suitable for application in transparent and opaque thin-layer DSSCs (TiO2 thickness: 5.5-6.5 μm, efficiencies up to 7.71%), thus being good candidates for production of solar cells under simple fabrication conditions.

  15. Nonlinear optical properties of a self-organized dye thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Kang; Yizhong Yuan; Zhenrong Sun; Zugeng Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ A self-organized thin film of a cyanine dye is fabricated by the spin-coating technique and is characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray diffraction, ellipsometer,and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nonlinear optical properties of the thin films are investigated by degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The cyanine dye thin film sample exhibits high optical nonlinearities (χ(3) = 2.55 × 10-12 esu), and the mechanism is analyzed by the exciton coupling theory.

  16. Patterning Multicomponent Polymer Thin Films via Dynamic Thermal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet

    Bottom-up patterning is gaining increased importance owing to the physical limitations and rising costs of top-down patterning. One example of bottom-up patterning is self-assembling polymer thin films. Although there are several pathways to facilitate polymer thin film self-assembly, this presentation will focus on dynamic thermal field based processes for patterning multicomponent polymer thin films. Dynamic thermal field processing is an attractive roll­to­roll (R2R) amenable directed self­assembly (DSA) method for molecular level organization of multicomponent polymer systems such as block copolymer thin films over large areas without requiring guiding templates. The talk will first outline how parameters such as magnitude of the temperature gradient, velocity of annealing, thermal expansion, and molecular weight of the polymer can be optimized to finely tune the morphology of the block copolymer thin films and also elucidate their associated physical mechanisms. The second part of the talk will outline application of dynamic thermal field processes for fabricating functional nanomaterials and discuss the recent advancements achieved using these processes.

  17. Investigation of nonionic diazo dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farzana Ahmad; Muhammad Jamil; Young Jae Jeon; Lee Jin Woo; Jae Eun Jung; Jae Eun Jang

    2012-04-01

    Sudan black B (SBB) was used to investigate as the nonionic diazo dye-doped in polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) display, by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) method. The maximum absorbance, contrast ratio, dichroic ratio and the order parameter of nonionic diazo dye in nemetic host (TL203) were investigated using UV–Vis polarized spectroscopy. The orientation of the dye molecules was controlled by electric field, which enabled the contrast ratio of the dye to be obtained by electrically switching. The change occurring on droplet morphologies and electro-optical properties of PDLC film with the change in contents of Sudan black dye and liquid crystals (LC) contents was investigated. We found an increase in LC droplet sizes with the increase of diazo dye and LC contents. Moreover the addition of small amount of nonionic diazo dye reduced the threshold voltage (Vth), increased off-state transmittance, enhanced the contrast ratio and decreased the response time of dye-doped PDLC. Additionally the change in transition temperature of LC and changes in LC droplet morphologies with the addition of dye were also observed. Such changes were observed with the images taken by polarized optical microscope (POM). The detail discussions on such behaviours were also made.

  18. Improved power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using side chain liquid crystal polymer embedded in polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Woosum [Department of Chemistry Education, and Department of Frontier Materials Chemistry, and Institute for Plastic Information and Energy Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Wook, E-mail: jlee@donga.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Gal, Yeong-Soon [Polymer Chemistry Lab, College of General Education, Kyungil University, Hayang 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Ra, E-mail: mrkim2@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Ho, E-mail: shjin@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, and Department of Frontier Materials Chemistry, and Institute for Plastic Information and Energy Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP) embedded in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)-based polymer electrolytes (PVdF-co-HFP:side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP)) was prepared for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The polymer electrolytes contained tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), iodine (I{sub 2}), and 8 wt% PVdF-co-HFP in acetonitrile. DSSCs comprised of PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes displayed enhanced redox couple reduction and reduced charge recombination in comparison to those of the conventional PVdF-co-HFP-based polymer electrolyte. The significantly increased short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}, 10.75 mA cm{sup −2}) of the DSSCs with PVdF-co-HFP:SCLCP-based polymer electrolytes afforded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.32% and a fill factor (FF) of 0.64 under standard light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2} irradiation of AM 1.5 sunlight. - Highlights: • We developed the liquid crystal polymer embedded on polymer electrolyte for DSSCs. • We fabricated the highly efficient DSSCs using polymer electrolyte. • The best PCE achieved for P1 is 5.32% using polymer electrolyte.

  19. Versatile solution for growing thin films of conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Julio M; Tran, Henry D; Tung, Vincent C; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander K; Wong, Rain P; Yang, Yang; Kaner, Richard B

    2010-11-16

    The method employed for depositing nanostructures of conducting polymers dictates potential uses in a variety of applications such as organic solar cells, light-emitting diodes, electrochromics, and sensors. A simple and scalable film fabrication technique that allows reproducible control of thickness, and morphological homogeneity at the nanoscale, is an attractive option for industrial applications. Here we demonstrate that under the proper conditions of volume, doping, and polymer concentration, films consisting of monolayers of conducting polymer nanofibers such as polyaniline, polythiophene, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) can be produced in a matter of seconds. A thermodynamically driven solution-based process leads to the growth of transparent thin films of interfacially adsorbed nanofibers. High quality transparent thin films are deposited at ambient conditions on virtually any substrate. This inexpensive process uses solutions that are recyclable and affords a new technique in the field of conducting polymers for coating large substrate areas.

  20. The elastic mechanical response of supported thin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Peter C; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F

    2014-12-23

    Nanoindentation studies of the mechanical properties of sufficiently thin polymer films, supported by stiff substrates, indicate that the mechanical moduli are generally higher than those of the bulk. This enhancement of the effective modulus, in the thickness range of few hundred nanometers, is indicated to be associated with the propagation and impingement of the indentation tip induced stress field with the rigid underlying substrate; this is the so-called "substrate effect". This behavior has been rationalized completely in terms of the moduli and Poisson's ratios of the individual components, for the systems investigated thus far. Here we show that for thin supported polymer films, in general, information regarding the local chain stiffness and local vibrational constants of the polymers provides an appropriate rationalization of the overall mechanical response of polymers of differing chemical structures and polymer-substrate interactions. Our study should provide impetus for atomistic simulations that carefully account for the role of intermolecular interactions on the mechanical response of supported polymer thin films.

  1. Investigation of the preparation and properties of organic dye/metal oxide composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Steffen; Neumann, F.; Klages, Claus-Peter

    1994-11-01

    In this study the growth, structure and physical, particularly optical properties of composite thin films (copper-phthalocyanine-SiO2) with different dye contents are investigated by means of optical spectroscopy (UV-IR), electron probe micro analysis, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements and compared with the properties of pure dye thin films of different thicknesses and dye/metal oxide multilayer structures, respectively. The composite thin films show spectral shifts and changes in the extension and the intensity of the typical absorption bands in the visible spectral range depending on the dye concentration in the composites. This behavior is accompanied by pronounced color changes, e.g. from blue-green to green in the CuPc-SiO2 system. The results show, that the CuPc- SiO2 composite properties are mainly influenced by the size and kind of dye aggregates in the films (monomer, dimer) and not by interaction of dye molecules with the metal oxide matrix.

  2. Convective polymer assembly for the deposition of nanostructures and polymer thin films on immobilized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J.; Björnmalm, Mattias; Gunawan, Sylvia T.; Guo, Junling; LiangPresent Address: Csiro Process Science; Engineering, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia, Kang; Tardy, Blaise; SekiguchiPresent Address: Graduate School Of Chemical Sciences; Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, Shota; Noi, Ka Fung; Cui, Jiwei; EjimaPresent Address: Institute Of Industrial Science, The University Of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2014-10-01

    We report the preparation of polymer particles via convective polymer assembly (CPA). Convection is used to move polymer solutions and cargo through an agarose gel that contains immobilized template particles. This method both coats and washes the particles in a process that is amenable to automation, and does not depend on passive diffusion or electrical currents, thus facilitating incorporation of fragile and nanoscale objects, such as liposomes and gold nanoparticles, into the thin polymer films. Template dissolution leads to the formation of stable polymer particles and capsules.We report the preparation of polymer particles via convective polymer assembly (CPA). Convection is used to move polymer solutions and cargo through an agarose gel that contains immobilized template particles. This method both coats and washes the particles in a process that is amenable to automation, and does not depend on passive diffusion or electrical currents, thus facilitating incorporation of fragile and nanoscale objects, such as liposomes and gold nanoparticles, into the thin polymer films. Template dissolution leads to the formation of stable polymer particles and capsules. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental/instrumental information and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04348k

  3. Preparation of Dis-Azo Dyes Derived from p-Aminophenol and Their Fastness Properties for Synthetic Polymer-Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otutu, J. O.; Okoro, D.; Ossai, E. K.

    The preparation and properties of a series of dis-azo dyes derived from p-aminophenol is described. The influence on colour, dyeing fastness properties of the dyes on synthetic polymer-fibres is reported. Most of the dyes synthesized afford better light fastness and better wet (wash, perspiration) fastness on PET than on nylon 6 fabric. The structure of each compound was confirmed by using infrared, UV-VIS and elemental analysis.

  4. Enhanced transduction of photonic crystal dye lasers for gas sensing via swelling polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2011-01-01

    We present the enhanced transduction of a photonic crystal dye laser for gas sensing via deposition of an additional swelling polymer film. Device operation involves swelling of the polymer film during exposure to specific gases, leading to a change in total effective refractive index. Experimental...... in its application to other intracavity-based detection schemes to enable gas sensing. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  5. Preparation of Thin Metal Layers on Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Siegel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous gold layers of increasing thickness were prepared by the vacuum deposition method on pristine and plasma modified sheets of  PE, PET and PTFE. Various surface profiles were obtained. The surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The continuity of the metal layer on the polymer surface was validated by measuring its electrical resistance. Changes in the wettability of the plasma treated polymers were evaluated by measuring the aging curves. These were obtained as the dependence of contact angle on ageing time. 

  6. Structuring of Thin-Film Polymer Mixtures upon Solvent Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, C.; Michels, J. J.; van der Schoot, P.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the impact of solvent evaporation on the dynamics of isothermal phase separation of ternary polymer solutions in thin films. In the early stages we obtain a spinodal length scale that decreases with time under the influence of ongoing evaporation. After that rapid demixing

  7. Optimization of chitosan and β-cyclodextrin molecularly imprinted polymer synthesis for dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z; Lazaridis, Nikolaos K; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2013-01-02

    In this study, two types of novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared, for toxic and carcinogenic dyes adsorption. Substrates of the polymeric matrix of the two MIPs were β-cyclodextrin and chitosan. The conditions in the polymerization/imprinting stage and in the rebinding/adsorption step were optimized. The effect of a range of parameters (polymer, cross-linker, and initiator concentrations, reaction time and pH) on the selectivity and adsorption capacity of the dye-MIPs were investigated. Their dye rebinding properties were demonstrated by equilibrium batch experiments (fitting with Freundlich model) and their kinetic rates were exported by the pseudo-first order model. Additionally, a thermodynamic evaluation was carried out through the determination of enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. The selectivity of MIPs was elucidated by their different rebinding capabilities in a trichromatic mixture (composed of related structurally dyes). Regeneration/reuse of the dye-loaded polymers was evaluated via sequential adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploiting Fast Exciton Diffusion in Dye-Doped Polymer Nanoparticles to Engineer Efficient Photoswitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymchuk, Kateryna; Prodi, Luca; Reisch, Andreas; Mély, Yves; Altenhöner, Kai; Mattay, Jochen; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2015-06-18

    Photoswitching of bright fluorescent nanoparticles opens new possibilities for bioimaging with superior temporal and spatial resolution. However, efficient photoswitching of nanoparticles is hard to achieve using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to a photochromic dye, because the particle size is usually larger than the Förster radius. Here, we propose to exploit the exciton diffusion within the FRET donor dyes to boost photoswitching efficiency in dye-doped polymer nanoparticles. To this end, we utilized bulky hydrophobic counterions that prevent self-quenching and favor communication of octadecyl rhodamine B dyes inside a polymer matrix of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide). Among tested counterions, only perfluorinated tetraphenylborate that favors the exciton diffusion enables high photoswitching efficiency (on/off ratio ∼20). The switching improves with donor dye loading and requires only 0.1-0.3 wt % of a diphenylethene photochromic dye. Our nanoparticles were validated both in solution and at the single-particle level. The proposed concept paves the way to new efficient photoswitchable nanomaterials.

  9. High efficiency dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells based on ionic liquid polymer gel electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Exnar, Ivan; Grätzel, Michael

    2002-12-21

    An ionic liquid polymer gel containing 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) has been employed as quasi-solid-state electrolyte in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells with an overall conversion efficiency of 5.3% at AM 1.5 illumination.

  10. Switchable random laser from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai; Wang, Feng; Liu, Liying; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Lei

    2007-01-01

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) film has been fabricated for random lasing action. In this PDLC film, the sizes of most liquid crystal (LC) droplets ranged from 200 to 500 nm. When the sample is optically pumped, ultrahigh Q (>10 000) lasing modes and a collimated laser beam can

  11. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as label free evanescent cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    . The lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP) in Ormocore hybrid polymer doped with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. The lasers emit in the chip plane at a wavelength around 595 nm when pumped with 5 ns pulses from a compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. We investigate...

  12. Self-trapping mechanism in green phosphorescent dye-doped polymer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhwal, Devinder; Rait, S S; Verma, A; Kumar, A; Bhatnagar, P K; Mathur, P C [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Onoda, M, E-mail: devindermadhwal@gmail.co [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Hyogo, Himeji (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    The mechanism for exciting electroluminescence (EL) in a green phosphorescent dye, iridium(III)tris(2-(4-tolyl)pyridinato-N,C{sup 2}) (Ir(mppy){sub 3}), doped in a host blue-emitting conducting polymer, poly[9,9-di-n-hexyl-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl] (PFO), has been studied. Photoluminescence measurements have been made on PFO/Ir(mppy){sub 3} (0-12%) composites to rule out the possibility of singlet exciton energy transfer from the host polymer to the green dye. EL measurements have also been made to study the behavior of the composites in the presence of dc bias. The dominant mechanism for energy transfer from PFO to Ir(mppy){sub 3} is found to be self-trapping of the charge carriers in the dye molecules, due to the extremely low LUMO and high HOMO levels as compared with PFO, thereby producing EL in the green region.

  13. Analysis and Identification of Acid-Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel D.

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a very simple and effective technique that is used by chemists by different purposes, including the monitoring of the progress of a reaction. TLC can also be easily used for the analysis and identification of various acid-base indicator dyes.

  14. Analysis and Identification of Acid-Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel D.

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a very simple and effective technique that is used by chemists by different purposes, including the monitoring of the progress of a reaction. TLC can also be easily used for the analysis and identification of various acid-base indicator dyes.

  15. Nanodiamond-polymer nanoparticle composites and their thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, N. F.; Rao, J. P.; Geckeler, K. E.

    2014-04-01

    Nanodiamonds obtained from detonation processes have received a great deal of attention during the past decades because of their unique properties and applications. The dispersion of nanodiamond particles can be achieved by different methods including the use of polymer nanoparticles. Here, we describe the dispersion of nanodiamonds in conjunction with sonication using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) nanoparticles with a particle size range of 23.3-61.3 nm, providing a good, economic, and efficient method for the dispersion. The average particle size was found to be 37.5 nm, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The interaction between the nanodiamonds and polymer nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and the effect of the polymer nanoparticle concentration, sonication time, and frequency on the dispersion process of nanodiamonds is highlighted. In addition, we prepared thin films of nanodiamond-polymer composites with different nanodiamond contents that showed good nanodiamond dispersion. The thin film can act as a UV filter and is transparent in the visible region. The thin films of nanodiamond-poly(vinylpyrrolidone) nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  16. Dye sensitized photovoltaic cells: Attaching conjugated polymers to zwitterionic ruthenium dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.

    2006-01-01

    and the complex was adsorbed onto the surface before evaporation of gold electrodes. Alternative devices were obtained by spincoating of the polymer solution onto PEDOT:PSS covered indium-doped tin oxide substrates. PEC solar cells gave the best results and the main finding was that the polymer chain served...

  17. Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agan, S.; Ay, F.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2005-02-01

    Due to the increasingly important role of some polymers in optical waveguide technologies, precise measurement of their optical properties has become important. Typically, prism coupling to slab waveguides made of materials of interest is used to measure the relevant optical parameters. However, such measurements are often complicated by the softness of the polymer films when stress is applied to the prism to couple light into the waveguides. In this work, we have investigated the optical properties of three different polymers, polystyrene (PS), polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), and benzocyclobutane (BCB). For the first time, the dependence of the refractive index, film thickness, and birefringence on applied stress in these thin polymer films was determined by means of the prism coupling technique. Both symmetric trapezoid shaped and right-angle prisms were used to couple the light into the waveguides. It was found that trapezoid shaped prism coupling gives better results in these thin polymer films. The refractive index of PMMA was found to be in the range of 1.4869 up to 1.4876 for both TE and TM polarizations under the applied force, which causes a small decrease in the film thickness of up to 0.06 μm. PMMA waveguide films were found not to be birefringent. In contrast, both BCB and PS films exhibit birefringence albeit of opposing signs.

  18. Nanostructure investigation of polymer solutions, polymer gels, and polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonjoo

    This thesis discusses two systems. One is structured hydrogels which are hydrogel systems based on crosslinked poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) containing micelles which form nanoscale pores within the PDMAEMA hydrogel. The other is nanoporous block copolymer thin films where solvent selectivity is exploited to create nanopores in PS-b-P4VP thin films. Both of these are multicomponent polymer systems which have nanoscale porous structures. 1. Small angle neutron scattering of micellization of anionic surfactants in water, polymer solutions and hydrogels. Nanoporous materials have been broadly investigated due to the potential for a wide range of applications, including nano-reactors, low-K materials, and membranes. Among those, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) have attracted a large amount of interest because these materials resemble the "lock and key" paradigm of enzymes. MIPs are created by crosslinking either polymers or monomers in the presence of template molecules, usually in water. Initially, functional groups on the polymer or the monomer are bound either covalently or noncovalently to the template, and crosslinking results in a highly crosslinked hydrogel. The MIPs containing templates are immersed in a solvent (usually water), and the large difference in the osmotic pressure between the hydrogel and solvent removes the template molecules from the MIP, leaving pores in the polymer network containing functionalized groups. A broad range of different templates have been used ranging from molecules to nanoscale structures inclucing stereoisomers, virus, and micelles. When micelles are used as templates, the size and shape before and after crosslinking is an important variable as micelles are thermodynamic objects whose structure depends on the surfactant concentration of the solution, temperature, electrolyte concentration and polymer concentration. In our research, the first goal is to understand the micellization of anionic

  19. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  20. Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hejun [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan 250100 (China); Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637000 (China); Kan, Taotao [CNOOC Energy Technology and Services-oilfield Technology Services Co., Tanggu, Tianjin 300452 (China); Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Xiaodong [Shandong Provincial Analysis and Test Center, Jinan 250100 (China); Zheng, Liqiang, E-mail: lqzheng@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic of adsorption of dyes onto PDVB-IL was investigated. • PDVB-IL has a high adsorption capacity to treat dyes solution. • Higher adsorption capacity is due to the functional groups of PDVB-IL. • Molecular structure of dyes influences the adsorption capacity. -- Abstract: A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25 °C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1–8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent.

  1. Electrodeposited polymer encapsulated nickel sulphide thin films: frequency switching material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sumanta, E-mail: sumantajana85@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mukherjee, Nillohit [Centre of Excellence for Green Energy and Sensor Systems, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Chakraborty, Biswajit [Department of Chemistry, Vivekananda Mahavidyalay, Burdwan 713103, WB (India); Mitra, Bibhas Chandra [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India); Mondal, Anup, E-mail: anupmondal2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, WB (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyvinylpyrrolidone encapsulated NiS thin films were synthesized electrochemically. The light induced frequency switching study of the synthesized material was carried out and it was observed that the films performed well as a switching device under 1 Sun illumination. This pulse generation within an insulating polymer encapsulated semicondctor matrix (PVP NiS) might be due to surface covering which leads to reduction of recombination process. Highlights: • PVP-NiS thin films were electrochemically synthesized. • Encapsulation of PVP causes surface modification of NiS by reducing surface states. • The synthesized thin films were used as frequency switching material which generates ~ 50 Hz frequency under 1 Sun irradiation. Abstract: Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) encapsulated nickel sulfide (NiS) thin films have been synthesized electrochemically from aqueous solution of hydrated nickel chloride (NiCl₂, 6H₂O), thioacetamide (CH₃C(S) NH₂) (TAA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Surface modification of nickel sulfide (NiS) thin films was achieved by this polymer encapsulation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-radiation (EDAX) techniques were used for the characterization of thin films. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed the formation of polymer encapsulated semiconductor. Frequency switching generation study shows that the encapsulated material could be used as a frequency switching device that generates a frequency ~ 50 Hz under 1 Sun illumination. Encapsulation with PVP causes surface modification that reduces the surface states and barrier height. As a result, the width of the depletion region decreases. So the number of electron-hole pairs increases. Consequently, the number of excitons and exciton related emission increases and this leads to reduction of recombination process and shows photo induced

  2. Surface and interface properties of industrially relevant polymers Thin polymer films

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarini, M

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of some important properties of thin polymer films focusing on two main aspects: the morphologies induced on spin coated polymer films, and swelling and absorption phenomena. Chapter 2 provides an introduction on the theoretical aspects relevant in the field of Polymer Physics: the mixing properties of polymers and solvent, the glass transition temperature, diffusion, surface effects and surface tension, and spin coating. Chapter 3 focuses on the experimental techniques used in this work: Ellipsometry, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, Optical Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Moreover, a description of the material studied is provided. In Chapter 4 a first characterisation of the system investigated is carried out: water absorption and glass transition temperature are measured for bulk material in different moist condition. The refracting indices and the densities of the polymer films are experimentally determined. In Chapter 5 we describe a systematic inves...

  3. Thin films of photoactive polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderer, Matthias A; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Wang, Weinan; Kaune, Gunar; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2009-03-09

    The morphology inside photoactive blended films of two conjugated homopolymers poly [(1-methoxy)-4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) is investigated. For both homopolymers a linear dependence of the installed film thickness from the concentration of the polymer solution used in spin coating is probed. This dependence allows preparation of an efficient series of blended films with constant thickness and different blending ratios. Information about the lateral structure inside the films is gained from grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering. At the calculated critical blending ratio the smallest lateral separation between adjacent domains is found representing the highest surface contact between both homopolymers in the films. The presence of wetting layers at both interfaces as detected with X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy is promising for photovoltaic applications. UV/Vis spectroscopy complements the structural investigation.

  4. Thin Polymer Layers with Superparamagnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Trommer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic particles were widely used in medical applications as well as for magnetic sensors and actuators. Generally, the size of the particles is in the range of 10–20 nm. To use such particles in large-scale applications, a simple processing as well as the use of commercially available particles is required. Therefore superparamagnetic nanoparticles available on the market were incorporated in flexible polymer films and the magnetic properties of the films were investigated. At ambient temperature no significant hysteresis was observed, indicating the superparamagnetic properties. Films containing up to 25% nanoparticles were prepared. The films show a saturation magnetization of 13.8 Am2/kg and a coercivity of 7 Oe at ambient temperature.

  5. Thin film calorimetry of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Salamon, William

    2000-03-01

    Polystryene and polymethylmethacrylate films for thicknesses ranging from 50nm to 500nm using a direct calorimetric technique (Lai et al, App. Phys. Lett. 67, p9(1995)). Samples were deposited on Ni foils(2-2.5um) and placed in a high vacuum oven. Calibrated heat pulses were input to the polymer films by current pulses to the Ni substrate and temperature changes were determined from the change in Ni resistance. Pulses producing temperature jumps of 3-8K were used and signal averaging over pulses reduced noise levels enough to identify glass transitions down to 50nm. Molecular weight dependence of thick films Tg was used as a temperature calibration.

  6. Reconfigurable Solid-state Dye-doped Polymer Ring Resonator Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Fan, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents wavelength configurable on-chip solid-state ring lasers fabricated by a single-mask standard lithography. The single- and coupled-ring resonator hosts were fabricated on a fused-silica wafer and filled with 3,3′-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3), Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and 3,3′-Diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide (CY5)-doped polymer as the reconfigurable gain media. The recorded lasing threshold was ~220 nJ/mm2 per pulse for the single-ring resonator laser with R6G, marking the lowest threshold shown by solid-state dye-doped polymer lasers fabricated with a standard lithography process on a chip. A single-mode lasing from a coupled-ring resonator system with the lasing threshold of ~360 nJ/mm2 per pulse was also demonstrated through the Vernier effect. The renewability of the dye-doped polymer was examined by removing and redepositing the dye-doped polymer on the same resonator hosts for multiple cycles. We recorded consistent emissions from the devices for all trials, suggesting the feasibility of employing this technology for numerous photonic and biochemical sensing applications that entail for sustainable, reconfigurable, and low lasing threshold coherent light sources on a chip. PMID:26674508

  7. Polymer Substrates For Lightweight, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Substrates survive high deposition temperatures. High-temperature-resistant polymers candidate materials for use as substrates of lightweight, flexible, radiation-resistant solar photovoltaic cells. According to proposal, thin films of copper indium diselenide or cadmium telluride deposited on substrates to serve as active semiconductor layers of cells, parts of photovoltaic power arrays having exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios. Flexibility of cells exploited to make arrays rolled up for storage.

  8. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  9. Chirality of Sulforhodamine Dye Molecules Incorporated in DNA Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-13

    of the aqueous solution, but is soluble in simple organic solvents. Thin film formation by spin coating is markedly easier with organic solvents...filter. Solutions of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt % SRh to DNA/CTMA were prepared. Thin films produced by spin coating were typically 1.5 m thick...The spin - coating process started by com- pletely flooding the substrate, followed by spreading the so- lution for 8 s at 300 rpm, a spin of 1 min at

  10. Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid polymer photonic crystal band-edge lasers are chemically activated to covalently bind bio-molecules or for HeLa cell attachment using an anthraquinone (AQ) UV activated photolinker. The lasers change emission wavelength linearly with inhomogeneous cell coverage....

  11. Hybrid AgNP–TiO2 thin film based photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayraj V. Vaghasiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses two major issues in the plasmonic dye solar cell; (i protection of plasmonic nanoparticles from electrolyte attack and (ii design of appropriate molecular dye to harvest photon near the plasmonic resonance. This report reveals the synthesis of D-π-A carbazole dye and incorporation of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs into TiO2 film using Ag–TiO2 gel. We have designed and synthesized an efficient D-π-A carbazole dye molecule whose absorption maxima matches the plasmonic resonance of AgNPs leading to augmented near field effect, enhancing photon harvesting property of dye molecule. This article also describes a strategy to incorporate AgNPs into the TiO2 photoelectrode by Ag–TiO2 gel. The plasmonic photoanode was characterized using SEM and optical spectroscopy. Dye solar cells were characterized by J–V characteristics and electrochemical impedance technique in order to take insight into photovoltaic performance and electron transfer kinetic. This engineered DSSC achieves 45% enhancement in current due to the plasmon enhanced near field effect at thin film (3 μm.

  12. Thin aligned organic polymer films for liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, K E

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the possibility of producing alignment layers for liquid crystal devices by cross-linking thin films containing anisotropic polymer bound chromophores via irradiation with polarised ultraviolet light. Photocross-linkable polymers find use in microelectronics, liquid crystal displays, printing and UV curable lacquers and inks; so there is an increasing incentive for the development of new varieties of photopolymers in general. The synthesis and characterisation of two new photopolymers that are suitable as potential alignment layers for liquid crystal devices are reported in this thesis. The first polymer contains the anthracene chromophore attached via a spacer unit to a methacrylate backbone and the second used a similarly attached aryl azide group. Copolymers of the new monomers with methyl methacrylate were investigated to establish reactivity ratios in order to understand composition drift during polymerisation.

  13. Single-mode solid-state polymer dye laser fabricated with standard I-line UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Mironov, Andrej; Nilsson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G.......We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G....

  14. Optimization of polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Changneng; WANG Miao; ZHOU Xiaowen; LIN Yuan; FANG Shibi; LI Xueping; XIAO Xuri; CEN Kuang

    2004-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on polymer electrolytes consisting of polyethylene oxide (PEO) with the additions of nano-TiO2 and ionic liquid of MPII (1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide) were studied. By using a composite polymer electrolyte of PEO:LiI:TiO2:MPII:I2 = 3:3:3:7:1 (in mol ratio), the solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.2% under 100 Mw·cm-2 was obtained, which was 8 times higher than that of the cell using polymer electrolyte without any additives. The effect of the additives was attributed to the increase of ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes.

  15. Convergence to Self-Similar Regimes in Thin Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas; Raphaël, Elie; Elie Raphaël Team; Kari Dalnoki-Veress Team

    2013-03-01

    The surface of a thin liquid film with nonconstant curvature is unstable, as the Laplace pressure drives a flow mediated by viscosity. Recent experiments and theory applied to stepped polymer films have shown excellent agreement and provide a technique for the study of polymer confinement, the glass transition, and slip at the fluid substrate interface to name a few. The thin film equation governs the evolution of the free surface profile in the lubrication approximation. Despite many efforts, this equation remains only partially solved. We present an analytical and numerical study of the thin film equation. Linearising this equation enables us to derive the Green's function of the problem and therefore obtain a complete set of solutions. We show that the solutions of the problem with equilibrium boundary conditions uniformly converge in time towards a first kind self-similar universal attractor. A numerical study enables us to extend our results to the nonlinear thin film equation. Laboratoire Physico-Chimie Théorique, UMR CNRS 7083 Gulliver. ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005, Paris, France.

  16. Fluorescence energy transfer in quantum dot/azo dye complexes in polymer track membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromova, Yulia A.; Orlova, Anna O.; Maslov, Vladimir G.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Baranov, Alexander V.

    2013-10-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer in complexes of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with molecules of heterocyclic azo dyes, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol and 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol, formed at high quantum dot concentration in the polymer pore track membranes were studied by steady-state and transient PL spectroscopy. The effect of interaction between the complexes and free quantum dots on the efficiency of the fluorescence energy transfer and quantum dot luminescence quenching was found and discussed.

  17. Photoinduced charge and energy transfer in dye-doped conjugated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, D.; Bastiaansen, J.J.A.M.; Langeveld-Voss, B.M.W.; Sweelssen, J.; Koetse, M.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Conjugated polymer-molecular dye blends of MDMO-PPV (poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]) and PF1CVTP (poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl-alt-2,5-bis(2-thienyl-1-cyanovinyl)-1-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-4-methoxybenzene-5″,5″-diyl]) with three dipyrrometheneboron difluoride

  18. Influence of Methyl Substituents on Azo-Dye Photoalignment in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulich, V. S.; Murawski, An. A.; Muravsky, Al. A.; Agabekov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Photoalignment of azo dyes derived from salicylic acid in thin films (80-200 nm) was studied upon irradiation with polarized light (λmax = 457 nm). It is shown that different trends of molecular reorientation, i.e., in the layer plane or orthogonal to it, are observed depending on the position of the methyl substituent in the dye structure. A new distribution parameter Z that allows the portion of molecules reoriented in the layer plane during exposure to be determined is introduced. The novel azo dye potassium 3,7-bis[1-(4-hydroxy-3-carboxylate)phenylazo]-5,5'-dioxodibenzothiophene was synthesized. Its molecules are photoaligned in the layer plane upon irradiation with polarized light.

  19. Lattice cluster theory for dense, thin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F

    2015-04-07

    While the application of the lattice cluster theory (LCT) to study the miscibility of polymer blends has greatly expanded our understanding of the monomer scale molecular details influencing miscibility, the corresponding theory for inhomogeneous systems has not yet emerged because of considerable technical difficulties and much greater complexity. Here, we present a general formulation enabling the extension of the LCT to describe the thermodynamic properties of dense, thin polymer films using a high dimension, high temperature expansion. Whereas the leading order of the LCT for bulk polymer systems is essentially simple Flory-Huggins theory, the highly non-trivial leading order inhomogeneous LCT (ILCT) for a film with L layers already involves the numerical solution of 3(L - 1) coupled, highly nonlinear equations for the various density profiles in the film. The new theory incorporates the essential "transport" constraints of Helfand and focuses on the strict imposition of excluded volume constraints, appropriate to dense polymer systems, rather than the maintenance of chain connectivity as appropriate for lower densities and as implemented in self-consistent theories of polymer adsorption at interfaces. The ILCT is illustrated by presenting examples of the computed profiles of the density, the parallel and perpendicular bonds, and the chain ends for free standing and supported films as a function of average film density, chain length, temperature, interaction with support, and chain stiffness. The results generally agree with expected general trends.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO:In thin film as photoanode for DSSC using natural fruit dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Hanifiah, Mohd Khairul Fikri Mohd [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Amin, Intan Azanni Mohd [Department of Eectrical, Electronic and Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Shahimin, Mukhzeer Mohamad [Semiconductor Photonics and Integrated Lightwave Systems (SPILS), Tun Abdul Razak Laser Laboratory (TAREL), School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Dye synthesized solar cell (DSSC) is the third generation solar cell and is considered as low cost solar cell as it does not involved neither complicated fabrication process nor expensive materials. DSSC is made of two conductive glasses, photoanode, counter electrode, electrolyte and dye. Previously, majority of the researchers have been using titanium dioxide and ruthenium as the photoanode and dye respectively. This project is carried out to produce a lower cost DSSC by using natural fruit as the dye and exploring the potential of zinc oxide (ZnO) and indium (In) as the photoanode. The morphology of the thin film surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy which shows that the increment of indium dopant changes the rough surface texture of the thin film and directly reduces the empty spaces between the particles. Theoretically, this structure can help to reduce the light reflection on the solar cell surface. The thin ZnO:In films are immersed in 3 different fruit dyes (plum, apple and orange). The electrical properties of the DSSCs are displayed in the I-V curves and from this research, it shows that the highest efficiency of DSSC is gained from the dopant combination of ZnO{sub 0.8}In{sub 0.2} for all the dyes. The best efficiency of this research is the DSSC using plum dye with 0.34% compared to apple dye and orange dye which give 0.23% and 0.19% respectively.

  1. Collective fluorescence switching of counterion-assembled dyes in polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Andreas; Didier, Pascal; Richert, Ludovic; Oncul, Sule; Arntz, Youri; Mély, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S.

    2014-06-01

    The current challenge in the field of fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for bioimaging is to achieve extreme brightness and external control of their emission using biodegradable materials. Here we propose a new concept of fluorescent polymer NPs, doped with ionic liquid-like salts of a cationic dye (octadecyl rhodamine B) with a bulky hydrophobic counterion (fluorinated tetraphenylborate) that serves as spacer minimizing dye aggregation and self-quenching. The obtained 40-nm poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) NPs containing up to 500 dyes are brighter than quantum dots and exhibit photo-induced reversible on/off fluorescence switching, never reported for dye-doped NPs. We show that this collective switching of hundreds of dyes is due to ultrafast excitation energy transfer and can be used for super-resolution imaging. These NPs, being spontaneously endocytosed by living cells, feature high signal-to-noise ratio and absence of toxicity. The counterion-based concept opens the way to a new class of nanomaterials for sensing, imaging and light harvesting.

  2. Low resistivity molybdenum thin film towards the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vuong Son; Tran Thi Ha; Luong T Thu Thuy; Nguyen Ngoc Ha; Nguyen Duc Chien; Mai Anh Tuan

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the optimization of the molybdenum thin film electrode as the back contact of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The molybdenum thin film was grown on the glass substrate by direct current sputtering techniques of which the sputtering power was 150Wat 18 sccm flow rate of Ar. At such sputtering parameters, the Mo film can reach the lowest resistivity of 1.28E−6 cm at 400 nm thick. And the reflection of Mo membrane was 82%. This value is considered as a very good result for preparation of the back contact of DSSC.

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Thin plastic radiochromic dye films as ionizing radiation dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenfil-Burgos, A. E.; Uribe, R. M.; de la Piedad, A.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, A.

    Radiochromic dye films were fabricated by casting polyvinyl butyral (PVB) in weakly acidic solution with the leucocyanide of pararosaniline. Calibrated films of 10-25 μm thickness were useful over a response range of about 10 3-10 5 Gy, by applying spectrophotometric analysis at the wavelength of the maximum of the radiation-induced absorption band (550 nm). The effects of temperature, pressure, and humidity during curing of the films pointed to the need for carefully controlling these parameters. For casting films at the high altitude of Mexico City (≈ 2500 meters), the optimum conditions are 45-75% r.h. and 20-25° C for a drying period of 72 to 92 hours, when the solvent is a mixture of ethanol and 2-methoxyethanol. The response of films fabricated in this way were compared with those of commercially available PVB and Nylon films. The effects of temperature, humidity, and period of storage on the response of these films were studied in the range from -5 to 60° C and from 11.8 to 96.6% r.h. for up to four months between irradiation and spectral analysis, and within nominal experimental uncertainty (≈ 10%), we found that all the radiochromic films studied can be stored for extended periods under steady-state conditions in the temperature range from -5 to 30° C and from 11.8-75.6% r.h. without correction factors for instability, but under extreme conditions of moisture at elevated temperatures the radiochromic image showed a fading effect on storage.

  5. Deformation Hysteresis of Electrohydrodynamic Patterning on a Thin Polymer Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingzhen; Li, Ben Q; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Chen, Xiaoliang; Xu, Feng

    2016-07-13

    Electrohydrodynamic patterning is a technique that enables micro/nanostructures via imposing an external voltage on thin polymer films. In this investigation, we studied the electrohydrodynamic patterning theoretically and experimentally, with special interest focused on the equilibrium state. It is found that the equilibrium structure height increases with the voltage. In addition, we have observed, and believe it to be the first time, a hysteresis phenomenon exists in the relationship between the voltage and structure height. With an increase in the voltage, a critical value (the first critical voltage) is noticed, above which the polymer film would increase dramatically until it comes into contact with the template. However, with a decrease in the voltage, a smaller voltage (the second critical voltage) is needed to detach the polymer from the template. The mismatch of the first and second critical voltages distorts the voltage-structure height curve into an "S" shape. Such a phenomenon is verified for three representative templates and also by experiments. Furthermore, the effects of some parameters (e.g., polymer film thickness and dielectric constant) on this hysteresis phenomenon are also discussed.

  6. Room temperature synthesis of a Zn(II) metal-organic coordination polymer for dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Alireza; Gharib, Maniya; Najafi, Mahnaz; Janczak, Jan

    2016-03-01

    A new one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer, [Zn(4,4‧-bpy)(H2O)4](ADC)·4H2O (1) (4,4‧-bpy=4,4‧-bipyridine and H2ADC=acetylenedicarboxylic acid), was synthesized at room temperature. The crystal structure of the coordination polymer was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was also characterized by FT-IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activity of 1 was evaluated in the color removal of Bismarck brown as a representative of dye pollutant in water under mild conditions. Coordination polymer 1 exhibited good catalytic activity and stability in the decolorization of Bismarck brown and could be easily recovered and reused for at least three cycles.

  7. Polymer quantization of a self-gravitating thin shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziprick, Jonathan; Gegenberg, Jack; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2016-11-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of self-gravitating thin shell collapse by solving the polymerized Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We obtain the energy spectrum and solve the time-dependent equation using numerics. In contradistinction to the continuum theory, we are able to consistently quantize the theory for super-Planckian black holes, and find two choices of boundary conditions which conserve energy and probability, as opposed to one in the continuum theory. Another feature unique to the polymer theory is the existence of negative energy stationary states that disappear from the spectrum as the polymer scale goes to 0. In both theories the probability density is positive semidefinite only for the space of positive energy stationary states. Dynamically, we find that an initial Gaussian probability density develops regions of negative probability as the wave packet approaches R =0 and bounces. This implies that the bouncing state is a sum of both positive and negative eigenstates.

  8. Fracture and Delamination of Chromium Thin Films on Polymer Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordill, M. J.; Taylor, A.; Schalko, J.; Dehm, G.

    2010-04-01

    New emerging technologies in the field of flexible electronic devices require that metal films adhere well and flex with polymer substrates. Common thin film materials used for these applications include copper (Cu) with an adhesion interlayer of chromium (Cr). Copper can be quite ductile and easily move with the polymer substrate. However, Cr is more brittle and fractures at lower strains than Cu. This study aims to examine the fracture and subsequent buckling and delamination of strained Cr films on polyimide (PI). In-situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) straining is used to systematically study the influence of film thickness on fracture and buckling strains. Film fracture and delamination depend on film thickness, and increases in crack and buckle density with decreasing thickness are explored by a shear lag model.

  9. Polymer Quantization of a Self-Gravitating Thin Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Ziprick, Jonathan; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of self-gravitating thin shell collapse by solving the polymerized Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We obtain the energy spectrum and solve the time dependent equation using numerics. In contradistinction to the continuum theory, we are able to consistently quantize the theory for super-Planckian black holes, and find two choices of boundary conditions which conserve energy and probability, as opposed to one in the continuum theory. Another feature unique to the polymer theory is the existence of negative energy stationary states that disappear from the spectrum as the polymer scale goes to zero. In both theories the probability density is positive semi-definite only for the space of positive energy stationary states. Dynamically, we find that an initial Gaussian probability density develops regions of negative probability as the wavepacket approaches $R=0$ and bounces. This implies that the bouncing state is a sum of both positive and negative eigenstates.

  10. Relation Between Glass Transition Temperatures in Polymer Nanocomposites and Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropka, Jamie; Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2009-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we examine within a percolation model whether there is a quantitative equivalence in the glass transition temperatures of polymer thin films and polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Our results indicate that while the qualitative behaviors of these systems are similar, a quantitative equivalence cannot be established in general. However, we propose a phenomenological scaling collapse of our results which suggests a simple framework by which the results of the thin films may be used to quantitatively predict the properties of PNCs. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Micro-indentation relaxation measurements in polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, D. M.; Lu, Y.

    1997-07-01

    A micro-indenter consisting of a piezo-electric driven flat cylindrical punch has been used to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of polystyrene films as thin as 50 μm. The measured viscoelastic response was sensitive to the bonding of the polystyrene to an underlying silicon substrate for films which were thinner than one indenter diameter. The instrument therefore was shown to have practical use in measuring the dynamic mechanical response of polymer films, and the strength of bonding between disparate materials.

  12. Random lasing in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Shi, Rui-xin; Wu, Xiaojiao; Wu, Jie; Dai, Qin

    2016-09-01

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was designed and fabricated, and random lasing action was studied. A mixture of laser dye, nematic liquid crystal, chiral dopant, and PVA was used to prepare the dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film by means of microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix ranged from 30 μm to 40 μm, the size of the liquid crystal droplets was small. Under frequency doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical excitation, a plurality of discrete and sharp random laser radiation peaks could be measured in the range of 575-590 nm. The line-width of the lasing peak was 0.2 nm and the threshold of the random lasing was 9 mJ. Under heating, the emission peaks of random lasing disappeared. By detecting the emission light spot energy distribution, the mechanism of radiation was found to be random lasing. The random lasing radiation mechanism was then analyzed and discussed. Experimental results indicated that the size of the liquid crystal droplets is the decisive factor that influences the lasing mechanism. The surface anchor role can be ignored when the size of the liquid crystal droplets in the polymer matrix is small, which is beneficial to form multiple scattering. The transmission path of photons is similar to that in a ring cavity, providing feedback to obtain random lasing output. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378042), the Colleges and Universities in Liaoning Province Outstanding Young Scholars Growth Plans, China (Grant No. LJQ2015093), and Shenyang Ligong University Laser and Optical Information of Liaoning Province Key Laboratory Open Funds, China.

  13. The local segmental dynamics of polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, C. M.; Casalini, Riccardo; Prevosto, Daniele; Labardi, Massimiliano; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric

    The local segmental dynamics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in multi-layered films with polycarbonate was investigated using dielectric spectroscopy. The segmental relaxation time decreased with layer thickness down to 4 nm. However, two measures of the cooperativity of the dynamics, the breadth of the relaxation dispersion and the dynamic correlation volume, were unaffected by the film thickness. This absence of an effect of geometric confinement on the cooperativity, even when the confinement length scale approaches the correlation length scale, requires an asymmetric correlation volume; i.e., correlating regions having a string-like nature. To further probe the effect of layering on the segmental dynamics, we measured the segmental dynamics of poly(vinylacetate) thin films in contact with variously an aluminum interface, an incompatible polymer, and air (free surface). From local dielectric relaxation measurements using an AFM tip, the dynamics were observed to be faster in all thin film configurations compared to the bulk. However, no differences were observed for the various interfaces; capping the thin films with a rigid material accelerated the segmental motions equivalently to that for an air interface. This insensitivity of the dynamics to the nature of the interface affords a means to engineer thin films while maintaining desired mechanical properties. Work at NRL supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Piezoelectric characteristics of PZT thin films on polymer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Do, Younh-Ho; Oh, Seung-Min; Rahayu, Rheza; Kim, Yiyein; Kang, Chong-Yun; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2012-02-01

    The goal of piezoelectric energy harvesting is to improve the power efficiency of devices. One of the approaches for the improvement of power efficiency is to apply the large strain on the piezoelectric materials and then many scientists approached using thin films or nano-structured piezoelectric materials to obtain flexibility. However, the conventional thin film processes available for the fabrication of piezoelectric materials as PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) are not compatible with flexible electronics because they require high processing temperatures (>700^oC) to obtain piezoelectricity. Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is attractive heat process for the low-temperature crystallization, because of its material selectivity and short heating time. In this study, the amorphous PZT thin films were deposited on polymer substrate by rf-sputtering. To crystallize the amorphous films, the ELA was carried out with various conditions as function of the applied laser energy density, the number of pulse, and the repetition rate. To evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics, piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) and electrometer are used. As a result, we obtained the crystallized PZT thin film on flexible substrate and obtained flexible piezoelectric energy harvester.

  15. Hybrid Thin Films Based Upon Polyoxometalates-Polymer Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Na; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) and polyoxometalates (POMs) have been used individually as building blocks for design and synthesis of novel functional materials. POM nanoclusters, the assemblies of transition metal oxides with well-defined atomic coordination structure, have been recently explored as novel nanomaterials... for catalysis, semiconductors, and even anti-cancer treatment due to their unique chemical, optical and electrical characteristics. We have explored the blending of inorganic POM nanocluster with BCPs into hierarchaically structured inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposites. Using polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) thin films as the template, we have observed that the spatial organization of BCP thin films is modified by molybdenum based POM nanocluster to form 2D in-plane hexagonal ordered or 3D ordered network of POM-BCP assemblies, depending on the concentration ratio of POM to PS-b-PEO. The dielectric properties of such hybrid thin films can be enhanced by embedded POMs but show a strong dependence on the supramolecular structures of POM-polymer complexes. The assembly of nanoclusters in BCP-templated thin films could pave a new path to design new hybrid nanocomposites with uniquely combined functionality and material properties.

  16. Numerical simulations of electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglum, Joshua Christopher

    Recently developed needleless electrospinning and electrolithography are two successful techniques that have been utilized extensively for low-cost, scalable, and continuous nano-fabrication. Rational understanding of the electrohydrodynamic principles underneath these nano-manufacturing methods is crucial to fabrication of continuous nanofibers and patterned thin films. This research project is to formulate robust, high-efficiency finite-difference Fourier spectral methods to simulate the electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films. Two thin-film models were considered and refined. The first was based on reduced lubrication theory; the second further took into account the effect of solvent drying and dewetting of the substrate. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based spectral method was integrated into the finite-difference algorithms for fast, accurately solving the governing nonlinear partial differential equations. The present methods have been used to examine the dependencies of the evolving surface features of the thin films upon the model parameters. The present study can be used for fast, controllable nanofabrication.

  17. A UV-prepared linear polymer electrolyte membrane for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiyka, M., E-mail: imperiyka@gmail.com [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kufra Campus, University of Benghazi, Al Kufrah (Libya); Ahmad, A.; Hanifah, S.A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Polymer Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bella, F. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of LiClO{sub 4} and LiFS{sub 3}SO{sub 3} on poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based solid polymer electrolyte and its photoelectrochemical performance in a dye sensitized solar cell consisting of FTO/TiO{sub 2}–dye/P(GMA)–LiClO{sub 4}–EC/Pt were investigated. The electrochemical stability of films was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The highest ionic conductivities obtained were 4.2×10{sup −5} and 3.7×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} for the film containing 30 wt% LiClO{sub 4} and 25 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The polymer electrolytes showed electrochemical stability windows up to 3 V and 2.8 V for LiClO{sub 4} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, respectively. The assembled dye-sensitized solar cell showed a sunlight conversion efficiency of 0.679% (J{sub sc}=3 mA cm{sup −2}, V{sub oc}=0.48 V and FF=0.47), under light intensity of 100 mW cm{sup −2}.

  18. Wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation of disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Using transmittance imaging microscopy we measure the wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). The reversible and irreversible inverse quantum efficiencies (IQEs) are found to be constant over the spectral region investigated, with the average reversible IQE being $\\overline{B}_\\alpha= 8.70 (\\pm 0.38)\\times 10^5$ and the average irreversible IQE being $\\overline{B}_\\epsilon= 1.396 (\\pm 0.031)\\times 10^8$. The large difference between the IQEs is hypothesized to be due to the reversible decay channel being a direct decay mechanism of the dye, while the irreversible decay channel is an indirect mechanism, with the dye first absorbing light, then heating the surrounding environment causing polymer chain scission and cross linking. Additionally, the DO11/PMMA's irreversible IQE is found to be among the largest of those reported for organic dyes, implying that the system is highly photostable. We also find that the recovery rate i...

  19. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Mg(OH2-PAM Inorganic-Organic Composite Polymer in Removing Reactive Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Ern Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of inorganic-organic composite polymer was prepared. Magnesium hydroxide and polyacrylamide was composed in a composite matrix to prepare Mg(OH2-PAM (MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymer. The characteristics of MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymer was investigated in terms of chemical, physical, physical, thermal and morphological properties through FT-IR, conductivity, intrinsic viscosity, TGA and TEM, respectively. Results showed that the properties of MHPAM composite polymers varied with the compositions in the composite polymers. Different compositions of MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymers were applied in removing reactive dye from aqueous solution. MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymer with Mg(OH2 : PAM ratio of 90 : 10 gave the best dye removal (% where it was able to remove 98% of reactive dye at pH 11.00 with a dosage of 500 mg/L. Kinetics study was carried out using different dye concentration and it was found that the experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order model better compared to pseudo-first-order model.

  20. Design of amino terminated hyperbranched polymer modified SBA-15 as adsorbent for dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin; Xiong, Jiaqing; Jiao, Chenlu; Chen, Yuyue; Lin, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the potential of amino terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP) modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 (HBP-SBA) as adsorbent for the removal of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous media. The HBP-SBA adsorbent can be facilely synthesized through two steps: carboxyl functionalization of SBA-15 (obtaining CA-SBA) via one-pot co-condensation, and further graft of HBP onto CA-SBA. As an intermediate, CA-SBA contains abundant carboxyl groups with an uniform distribution, which not only form efficiently the chemical bond with amino group by grafting HBP, but also contribute to adsorption by providing active adsorption sites. The results demonstrate HBP-SBA adsorbent that contains nanonetwork with substantial adsorption sites is successfully fabricated, showing high adsorption capacity and quick adsorption rate for dyes. Compared with SBA-15 and CA-SBA, HBP-SBA gets better adsorption property, and the maximum adsorption capacities are 399.5 mg/g for cationic dye and 609.7 mg/g for anionic dye, respectively.

  1. Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Performances of Pyridine Based Monomer and Polymer Capped ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Raj, Tilak; Singh, Amarpal; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-06-01

    The present research work describes the comparative analysis and performance characteristics of 4-pyridine based monomer and polymer capped ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. The N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene) propaneamine (4,monomer) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5, polymer) dyes were synthesized through one step condensation reaction between 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 1 and N, N-dimethylpropylamine 2/polyamine 3. Products obtained N, N-dimethyl-N4-((pyridine-4yl)methylene)propaneamine (4) and polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base (5) were purified and characterized using 1H, 13C NMR, mass, IR and CHN spectroscopy. Both the dyes 4 and 5 were further coated over ZnO nanoparticles and characterized using SEM, DLS and XRD analysis. Absorption profile and emission profile was monitored using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. A thick layer of these inbuilt dye linked ZnO nanoparticles of dyes (4) and (5) was pasted on one of the conductive side of ITO glass followed with a liquid electrolyte and counter electrode of the same conductive glass. Polyamine-4-pyridyl Schiff base polymer (5) decorated dye sensitized solar cell has shown better exciting photovoltaic properties in the form of short circuit current density (J(sc) = 6.3 mA/cm2), open circuit photo voltage (V(oc) = 0.7 V), fill factor (FF = 0.736) than monomer decorated dye sensitized solar cell. Polymer dye (5) based ZnO solar cell has shown a maximum solar power to electrical conversion efficiency of 3.25%, which is enhanced by 2.16% in case of monomer dye based ZnO solar cell under AM 1.5 sun illuminations.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of organic dyes adsorbed on pulsed laser deposited silver thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, E.; Neri, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universitá di Messina, V.le F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina, Italy. (Italy); Valenti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universitá di Messina, V.le F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina, Italy. (Italy); Ossi, P.M., E-mail: paolo.ossi@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34-3, 20133 Milano, Italy. (Italy); Trusso, S.; Ponterio, R.C. [CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici Sede di Messina, V.le F. Stagno d’Alcontres 37, I-98158 Messina, Italy. (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The results of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study performed on representative organic and inorganic dyes adsorbed on silver nanostructured thin films are presented and discussed. Silver thin films were deposited on glass slides by focusing the beam from a KrF excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse duration 25 ns) on a silver target and performing the deposition in a controlled Ar atmosphere. Clear Raman spectra were acquired for dyes such as carmine lake, garanza lake and brazilwood overcoming their fluorescence and weak Raman scattering drawbacks. UV–visible absorption spectroscopy measurements were not able to discriminate among the different chromophores usually referred as carmine lake (carminic, kermesic and laccaic acid), as brazilwood (brazilin and brazilein) and as garanza lake (alizarin and purpurin). SERS measurements showed that the analyzed samples are composed of a mixture of different chromophores: brazilin and brazilein in brazilwood, kermesic and carminic acid in carmine lake, alizarin and purpurin in garanza lake. Detection at concentration level as low as 10{sup −7} M in aqueous solutions was achieved. Higher Raman intensities were observed using the excitation line of 632.8 nm wavelength with respect to the 785 nm, probably due to a pre-resonant effect with the molecular electronic transitions of the dyes.

  3. Dynamics and structure formation in thin polymer melt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Herminghaus, Stephan [Max-Planck-Institut for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Neto, Chiara [Department of Applied Mathematics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Schlagowski, Stefan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Podzimek, Daniel [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Konrad, Renate [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Mantz, Hubert [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Jacobs, Karin [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2005-03-09

    The stability of thin liquid coatings plays a fundamental role in everyday life. We studied the stability conditions of thin (3 to 300 nm) liquid polymer films on various substrates. The key role is played by the effective interface potential {phi} of the system air/film/substrate, which determines the dewetting scenario in case the film is not stable. We describe in this study how to distinguish a spinodal dewetting scenario from heterogeneous and homogeneous dewetting by analysing the emerging structures of the film surface by e.g. Minkowski measures. We also include line tension studies of tiny droplets, showing that the long-range part of {phi} does affect the drop profile, but only very close to the three phase boundary line. The dynamic properties of the films are characterized via various experimental methods: the form of the dewetting front, for example, was recorded by scanning probe microscopy and gives insight into the boundary condition between the liquid and the substrate. We further report experiments probing the viscosity and the glass transition temperature of nm-thick films using e.g. ellipsometry. Here we find that even short-chained polymer melts exhibit a significant reduction of the glass transition temperature as the film thickness is reduced below 100 nm.

  4. Adsorption Profile of Basic Dye onto Novel Fabricated Carboxylated Functionalized Co-Polymer Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa F. Elkady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-Styrene co-polymer was prepared by solution polymerization and fabricated into nanofibers using the electrospinning technique. The nanofiber polarization was enhanced through its surface functionalization with carboxylic acid groups by simple chemical modification. The carboxylic groups’ presence was dedicated using the FT-IR technique. SEM showed that the nanofiber attains a uniform and porous structure. The equilibrium and kinetic behaviors of basic violet 14 dye sorption onto the nanofibers were examined. Both Langmuir and Temkin models are capable of expressing the dye sorption process at equilibrium. The intraparticle diffusion and Boyd kinetic models specified that the intraparticle diffusion step was the main decolorization rate controlling the process.

  5. Solution-processable, photo-stable, low-threshold, and broadly tunable thin film organic lasers based on novel high-performing laser dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, María. A.; Morales-Vidal, Marta; Ramírez, Manuel G.; Villalvilla, José M.; Boj, Pedro G.; Quintana, José A.; Retolaza, A.; Merino, S.

    2015-09-01

    Thin film organic lasers (TFOLs) represent a new generation of inexpensive, mechanically flexible devices with demonstrated applicability in numerous applications in the fields of spectroscopy, optical communications and sensing requiring an organic, efficient, stable, wavelength-tunable and solution-processable laser material. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser is a particularly attractive TFOL because it shows single mode emission, low pump energy, easy integration with other devices, mechanical flexibility and potentially low production cost. Here, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and DFB laser applications of novel high performing perylene dyes and p-phenylenevinylene (PV) oligomers, both dispersed in thermoplastic polymers, used as passive matrixes, are reported. Second-order DFB lasers based on these materials show single mode emission, wavelength tunability across the visible spectrum, operational lifetimes of >105 pump pulses, larger than previously reported PV oligomers or polymers, and thresholds close to pumping requirements with light-emitting diodes.

  6. Long distance energy transfer in a polymer matrix doped with a perylene dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Franziska; Lochbrunner, Stefan

    2011-02-28

    Exciton migration over long distances is a key issue for various applications in organic electronics. We investigate a disordered material system which has the potential for long exciton diffusion lengths in combination with a high versatility. The perylene bisimide dye Perylene Red is incorporated in a polymer matrix with a high concentration. The dye molecules represent active sites with a narrow energy distribution for the electronically excited states. Excitons can be efficiently exchanged between them by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The narrow energy distribution reduces drastically the trapping probability of the excitons compared to polymers and allows for long transfer distances. To characterize the mobility of the excitons and their diffusion length the dye Oxazine 1 is added as an acceptor in low concentration and the transfer probability to the acceptor is determined by measuring the reduction of Perylene Red fluorescence. The quenched quantum yield is measured for dye concentrations varying from 0.05 M to 0.15 M for Perylene Red and from 0.3 mM to 3 mM for Oxazine 1. The experimental results are compared to a model which assumes that excitons can diffuse through the material by FRET between Perylene Red sites and are trapped at an acceptor with a final hetero FRET step. We find a quite good match between theory and experiment though the observed diffusion constant is about two times smaller than the calculated one. The exciton diffusion length extracted from the data is 30 nm for a Perylene Red concentration of 0.1 M and demonstrates that long distance energy transfer is possible in this disordered material system.

  7. Modeling thin-film piezoelectric polymer ultrasonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M. G.; Sorichetti, P. A.; Santiago, G. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a model suitable to design and characterize broadband thin film sensors based on piezoelectric polymers. The aim is to describe adequately the sensor behavior, with a reasonable number of parameters and based on well-known physical equations. The mechanical variables are described by an acoustic transmission line. The electrical behavior is described by the quasi-static approximation, given the large difference between the velocities of propagation of the electrical and mechanical disturbances. The line parameters include the effects of the elastic and electrical properties of the material. The model was validated with measurements of a poly(vinylidene flouride) sensor designed for short-pulse detection. The model variables were calculated from the properties of the polymer at frequencies between 100 Hz and 30 MHz and at temperatures between 283 K and 313 K, a relevant range for applications in biology and medicine. The simulations agree very well with the experimental data, predicting satisfactorily the influence of temperature and the dielectric properties of the polymer on the behavior of the sensor. Conversely, the model allowed the calculation of the material dielectric properties from the measured response of the sensor, with good agreement with the published values.

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous conjugated polymer counter electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torabi, Naeimeh; Behjat, Abbas, E-mail: abehjat@yazd.ac.ir; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, we report platinum-free dye-sensitized solar cells that were fabricated using a grown porous poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) counter electrode. The growing of the porous P3MT was performed by an electrochemical deposition method. This method is easy and affordable unlike the common expensive deposition methods. The morphology of P3MT films was studied by scanning electron microscopy images. It was observed that polymer layers grown with a current density of 2 mA/cm{sup 2} have a clear porous and rough structure as compared to layers grown with a lower current density. To understand the reaction kinetics and the catalytic activities of the counter electrodes with P3MT for 3I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} redox reaction, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed. Based on the analysis of CV, it was shown that this layer can be used as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The electro deposition conditions during the growth of polymer layers such as current density, the morphology of polymer films and the duration of polymerization have a significant role in the current–voltage characterization of the fabricated solar cells. The performance of the fabricated solar cells was improved by optimization of these parameters. The highest efficiency of 2.76% was obtained by using porous P3MT in the counter electrode. - Highlights: • Poly-3-methyl-thiophene (P3MT) layers were grown using electrochemical deposition method. • By controlling the growth conditions, porous P3MT can be produced. • Grown P3MT layers can be used as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. • The growth rate of P3MT layers plays an essential role in the cell performance.

  9. Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ay, Feridun; Kocabas, Askin; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla; Agan, Sedat

    2004-01-01

    The use of thin polymer films in optical planar integrated optical circuits is rapidly increasing. Much interest, therefore, has been devoted to characterizing the optical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films. This study focuses on measuring the elasto-optical properties of three differen

  10. Electric Transport Phenomena of Nanocomposite Organic Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jira, Nicholas C.; Sabirianov, Ildar; Ilie, Carolina C.

    We discuss herein the nanocomposite organic thin film diodes for the use of plasmonic solar cells. This experimental work follows the theoretical calculations done for plasmonic solar cells using the MNPBEM toolbox for MatLab. These calculations include dispersion curves and amount of light scattering cross sections for different metallic nanoparticles. This study gives us clear ideas on what to expect from different metals, allowing us to make the best choice on what to use to obtain the best results. One specific technique for light trapping in thin films solar cells utilizes metal nanoparticles on the surface of the semiconductor. The characteristics of the metal, semiconductor interface allows for light to be guided in between them causing it to be scattered, allowing for more chances of absorption. The samples were fabricated using organic thin films made from polymers and metallic nanoparticles, more specifically Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer and silver or gold nanoparticles. The two fabrication methods applied include spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The transport properties are obtained by analyzing the I-V curves. We will also discuss the resistance, resistivity, conductance, density of charge carriers. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant.

  11. Evolution of non-equilibrium entanglement networks in spincast thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; McGraw, Joshua; Fowler, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Measuring the rheology of non-equilibrium thin polymer films has received significant attention recently. Experiments are typically performed on thin polymer films that inherit their structure from spin coating. While the results of several rheological experiments paint a clear picture, details of molecular configurations in spincast polymer films are still unknown. Here we present the results of crazing measurements which demonstrate that the effective entanglement density of thin polymer films changes as a function of annealing toward a stable equilibrium value. The effective entanglement density plateaus with a time scale on the same order as the bulk reptation time.

  12. Experimental tests of the correlated chromophore domain model of self-healing in a dye-doped polymer

    CERN Document Server

    Ramini, Shiva K; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Temperature dependent photodegradation and recovery studies of Dipserse Orange 11 (DO11) dye dissolved in poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene polymer hosts are used as a test of the recently proposed correlated chromophore domain model.[1] This model posits that dye molecules form domains or aggregates. The nature of aggregation or how it mediates self healing is not yet well understood. In this paper we present qualitative evidence that supports the hypothesis that the dye molecules undergo a change to a tautomer state with higher dipole moment and hydrogen bond with the amines and keto oxygens of the polymer. Groupings of such molecules in a polymer chain form what we call a domain, and interactions between molecules in a domain make them more robust to photodegradation and mediate self healing.

  13. Comparative Studies of the Adsorption of Direct Dye on Activated Carbon and Conducting Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raffiea Baseri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the feasibility of removing Direct Blue 71 from aqueous solution by different adsorbents such as activated carbon (TPAC and Poly pyrrole polymer composite (PPC prepared from Thevetia Peruviana. Batch mode adsorption was performed to investigate the adsorption capacities of these adsorbents by varying initial dye concentration, temperature, agitation time and pH. The performance of TPAC was compared with PPC. Among the adsorbents, PPC had more adsorption capacity (88.24% than TPAC (58.82% at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L and at 30°C. The experimental data best fitted with pseudo second order kinetic model. The adsorption data fitted well for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorbents were also evaluated. The carbon embedded in conducting polymers matrix show better adsorptive properties than activated carbon.

  14. Structure and Morphology Control in Thin Films of Conjugated Polymers for an Improved Charge Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyang Wang; Yaozhuo Xu; Xinhong Yu; Rubo Xing; Jiangang Liu; Yanchun Han

    2013-01-01

    The morphological and structural features of the conjugated polymer films play an important role in the charge transport and the final performance of organic optoelectronics devices [such as organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV), etc.] in terms of crystallinity, packing of polymer chains and connection between crystal domains. This review will discuss how the conjugated polymer solidify into, for instance, thin-film structures, and how to control the molecula...

  15. Structure and Morphology Control in Thin Films of Conjugated Polymers for an Improved Charge Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyang Wang; Yaozhuo Xu; Xinhong Yu; Rubo Xing; Jiangang Liu; Yanchun Han

    2013-01-01

    The morphological and structural features of the conjugated polymer films play an important role in the charge transport and the final performance of organic optoelectronics devices [such as organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV), etc.] in terms of crystallinity, packing of polymer chains and connection between crystal domains. This review will discuss how the conjugated polymer solidify into, for instance, thin-film structures, and how to control the molecula...

  16. Study of viscous flow during thin film polymer coating and drawing of continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Suraiya

    1997-01-01

    This study involves both theoretical and experimental thin polymer coating on wire as well as drawing of wire by hydrodynamic pressure technique. Hydrodynamic pressure technique is a relatively new and innovative technique for wire drawing and thin polymer coating. The wire submerged in polymer melt inside the pressure unit of different geometry, when pulled developed hydrodynamic pressure in the melt. This pressure is largely responsible for wire drawing or coating. Most of the theoretic...

  17. Functionalized dye encapsulated polymer nanoparticles attached with a BSA scaffold as efficient antenna materials for artificial light harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Bikash; Bhattacharyya, Santanu; Patra, Amitava

    2016-09-21

    A potential strategy for a new generation light harvesting system is multi-chromophoric donor-acceptor pairs where light energy is absorbed by an antenna complex and subsequently transfers its energy to the acceptor via energy transfer. Here, we design a system of a functionalized polymer nanoparticle-protein scaffold for efficient light harvesting and white light generation where a dye doped polymer nanoparticle acts as a donor and a dye encapsulated BSA protein acts as an acceptor. Analysis reveals that 91.3% energy transfer occurs from the dye doped polymer nanoparticle to the dye encapsulated BSA protein. The antenna effect of this light harvesting system is found to be 31 at a donor to acceptor ratio of 0.82 : 1 which is unprecedented. The enhanced effective molar extinction coefficient of the acceptor dye is potential for the light harvesting system. Bright white light emission with a quantum yield of 14% under single wavelength excitation is obtained by changing the ratio of donor to acceptor. Analysis reveals that the efficient energy transfer in this polymer-protein assembly may open up new possibilities in designing artificial light harvesting systems for future applications.

  18. Soap opera : polymer-surfactant interactions on thin film surfaces /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, B. H. (Byram H.); Johal, M. S. (Malkiat S.); Wang, H. L. (Hsing-Lin); Robinson, J. M. (Jeanne M.)

    2001-01-01

    Surfactants are macromolecules with unique properties. They commonly contain a polar head group with a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain. These properties allow surfactants to solubilize greases and other nonpolar molecules. One particular way that this is accomplished is through the formation of micelles. Micelles are formed at the critical micelle concentration (cmc), which varies depending upon the nature of the surfactant and also the media in which the surfactant resides. These micelles can take a variety of shapes, but are generally characterized by surrounding the grease with the nonpolar hydrocarbon chains, exposing only the polarized head groups to the media, usually water. This property of easy solubilization has made surfactants a very attractive industrial agent, They are used most conventionally as industrial cleaning agents and detergents. However, they also have lesser-known applications in conjunction with polymers and other macromolecular mixtures, often creating a system with novel properties, such as increased solubilization and smoother mixture consistency. A recently developed field has investigated the self-assembly of polymers and polyelectrolytes onto thin film surfaces. There are many reasons for studying this process, such as for second harmonic generation purposes and bioassays. In this study, the interaction between the anionic polyelectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and two surfactants of opposite charge, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Dodecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (DTAB), in their assembly onto thin film surfaces was investigated. The kinetics of adsorbance onto the thin films was examined, followed by construction of 10-bilayer films using an alternating layer of the cationic polyelectrolyte poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) to provide the electrostatic means for the PAZO/surfactant combination to assemble onto the thin film. The kinetics of adsorption is being

  19. On near-free-surface dynamics of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dongping

    In the present studies of four projects we developed several novel techniques to investigate near-free-surface dynamics of thin polymer films. In the first project, we studied the dynamical properties of the first 2-3 nm region of glassy isotactic poly (methyl methacrylate) (i-PMMA) films by means of the nano surface hole relaxation technique. We found that for the measured surface relaxation times there is a strong substrate property dependence, which can propagate into i-PMMA films for a distance of more than 100nm. An unexpected molecular weight (Mw) dependence of the near surface relaxation time is found for thick i-PMMA films, which, together with the finding that the free surface could be assigned a local surface glass transition temperature of ˜40K below bulk T g, indicates a viscous liquid regime while the rest of the underneath bulk part is in the glassy state. In the second project, the nano gold sphere embedding technique was used to study the nearfree-surface dynamics of polystyrene (PS) films within wide temperature and time windows. Three sections of measurements are conducted in this project. In the first section, we studied the Mw dependence of the near-free-surface dynamics of PS films and found that at temperatures above bulk Tg there exists a Mw dependence which can be explained using the Rouse dynamics for melt polymers. However, at a temperature of 16K below bulk T g no w M dependence is discernible, which is in contrast to that for i-PMMA films where even at a temperature of ˜36K below bulk Tg a Mw dependence of the near free surface dynamics is still observed. In the second section of this work, we studied the nano gold sphere embedding behavior within a wide temperature and time window, and for the first time the depth dependence of the near-free-surface dynamics with the nanometer scale resolution was observed. By an embedding-model-free data analysis the results show that when the measurement temperature is above a temperature of ˜378K

  20. Dye Adsorption Behavior of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Glutaraldehyde/β-Cyclodextrin Polymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemati, Dj.; Aliouche, Dj.

    2014-05-01

    Crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol/glutaraldehyde (PVA/GA) membranes were prepared, and attempts to obtain hydrophilic crosslinked PVA membranes were made by adding various amounts of β-cyclodexrin (β-CD), which is a typical cyclic oligosaccharide able to form inclusion complexes with organic host molecules (host-guest complexes). Thus, membranes of PVA/GA/β-CD were synthesized. The membranes were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling measurements. The ability of cyclodextrin to include a wide variety of chemicals was also exploited for the dye adsorption to show the potentialities of the membranes in textile liquid waste processing. Adsorption of reactive methyl orange, and methylene blue dyes on PVA/GA/β-CD membranes was consequently studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy at wavelengths of 547, 463, and 660 nm. Adsorption reached equilibrium after 24 h. Results indicated that there is no covalent bond formation between PVA and β-CD; the β-CD is completely mixed into the PVA matrix polymer. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing amounts of cyclodextrin; the maximum adsorption capacity was obtained with 8% β-CD. Therefore, the change in adsorption capacities may be due to the dye structure effect, and the negative value of free energy indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption.

  1. Temperature Controlled Lateral Pattern Formation in Confined Polymer Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao-li; David G. Bucknall

    2004-01-01

    The thermal induced topography change in a model system consisting of a polymer film on a Si substrate capped by a thin metal layer has been studied by using AFM. Regular lateral patterns over large areas were observed on the surface when the system was heated to a sufficiently high temperature. 2D-FFT analysis to the AFM images indicates that the patterns are isotropic and have well defined periodicities. The periodicities of the characteristic patterns are found to depend strongly on the annealing temperature. The study of the kinetics of the formation reveals that such a topography forms almost instantaneously once the critical temperature is reached. It is suggested that this wave-like surface morphology is driven by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch of the different layers. This method for generating regular wave-like patterns could be used as a general method for patterning various organic materials into micro/nanostructures.

  2. Thin Film Polymer Composite Scintillators for Thermal Neutron Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Mabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polystyrene composite scintillators containing LiF6 and organic fluors have been fabricated and tested as thermal neutron detectors. Varying fluorescence emission intensities for different compositions are interpreted in terms of the Beer-Lambert law and indicate that the sensitivity of fluorescent sensors can be improved by incorporating transparent particles with refractive index different than that of the polymer matrix. Compositions and thicknesses were varied to optimize the fluorescence and thermal neutron response and to reduce gamma-ray sensitivity. Neutron detection efficiency and neutron/gamma-ray discrimination are reported herein as functions of composition and thickness. Gamma-ray sensitivity is affected largely by changing thickness and unaffected by the amount of LiF6 in the film. The best neutron/gamma-ray discrimination characteristics are obtained for film thicknesses in the range 25–150 μm.

  3. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, S., E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, R. [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, D. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, F34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV-visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} and short-circuit current density J{sub sc} are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  4. Selective recognition and discrimination of water-soluble azo dyes by a seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zerong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Mingliang; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-01

    A seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and nitrogen physisorption studies. The results revealed that the imprinted polymers have distinct-binding affinities from those of structurally similar azo dyes. Analysis of the UV-Vis spectral response patterns of the seven dye analytes against the imprinted polymer array suggested that the different selectivity patterns of the array were closely connected to the imprinting process. To evaluate the effectiveness of the array format, the binding of a series of analytes was individually measured for each of the seven polymers, made with different templates (including one control polymer synthesized without the use of a template). The response patterns of the array to the selected azo dyes were processed by canonical discriminant analysis. The results showed that the molecularly imprinted array was able to discriminate each analyte with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the azo dyes in two real samples, spiked chrysoidin in smoked bean curd extract and Fanta lime soda (containing tartrazine), were successfully classified by the array.

  5. Deformation in Thin Glassy Polymer Films from Surface towards Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mithun; de Silva, Johann P.; Cross, Graham L. W.

    Polymer thin glassy films occupy an important place in last two decades of condensed matter research, concerning its surprising surface mobility and spatially dependent structural relaxation. However, ranges of cleverly designed indirect measurements on confined polymer glassy films already probed its mechanical properties; it is still a challenging task to directly probe such small confined volume through conventional mechanical testing. We have designed confined layer compression testing with a precisely designed and aligned flat probe during nanoindentation, which was further accompanied with atomic force microscopy. Due to natural confinement from the surrounding material, we show that a state of `uniaxial strain' is created beneath the probe under small axial strains. By this methodology we are able to directly probe uniaxial flows under both anelastic and plastic conditions while doing controlled creep studies at different positions in the film starting from surface towards interior. Depending on the extent of deformation, we found ranges of effects, such as densification, anelastic yield, and plastic yield. Enhanced creep rate upon deformation supports the idea of `deformation induced mobility'. Work performed at Trinity College Dublin.

  6. Microstructure Evolution during Solvent Evaporation from Thin Film Polymer Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Nigel; Souche, Mireille; Buxton, Gavin

    2009-03-01

    We present simulations of the phase separation dynamics in a thin film polymer blend solution subject to solvent evaporation [1]. If the upper and lower surfaces are neutral with respect to the different components, we find that as the solvent diffuses through the film, and evaporates from the surface, phase separation becomes energetically favourable progressively throughout the film. This produces an ordering front which propagates through the film and leaves an ordered lateral morphology in its wake. In order to understand microstructure evolution if the surface interactions are strong enough that the film initially separates into a two layers, we have perfomed a linear analysis of the Marangoni instability of a deformable interface between two fluid layers of finite depths, submitted to a gradient of solvent concentration induced by the evaporation [2]. Qualitative comparison with experimental observations of spin-coating processes of solution of two immiscible polymers are then performed, yielding satisfactory agreement.[0pt] [1] G. A. Buxton and N.Clarke, Europhysics Letters, 78, 56006, 2007.[0pt] [2] M. Souche and N. Clarke, European Physical Journal E, in press.

  7. Control of polymer-packing orientation in thin films through synthetic tailoring of backbone coplanarity

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Mark S.

    2013-10-22

    Controlling solid-state order of π-conjugated polymers through macromolecular design is essential for achieving high electronic device performance; yet, it remains a challenge, especially with respect to polymer-packing orientation. Our work investigates the influence of backbone coplanarity on a polymer\\'s preference to pack face-on or edge-on relative to the substrate. Isoindigo-based polymers were synthesized with increasing planarity by systematically substituting thiophenes for phenyl rings in the acceptor comonomer. This increasing backbone coplanarity, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of representative trimers, leads to the narrowing of polymer band gaps as characterized by ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Among the polymers studied, regiosymmetric II and TII polymers exhibited the highest hole mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), while in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), TBII polymers that display intermediate levels of planarity provided the highest power conversion efficiencies. Upon thin-film analysis by atomic force microscropy (AFM) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), we discovered that polymer-packing orientation could be controlled by tuning polymer planarity and solubility. Highly soluble, planar polymers favor face-on orientation in thin films while the less soluble, nonplanar polymers favor an edge-on orientation. This study advances our fundamental understanding of how polymer structure influences nanostructural order and reveals a new synthetic strategy for the design of semiconducting materials with rationally engineered solid-state properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Low-temperature Preparation of Photocatalytic TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Substrates by Direct Deposition from Anatase Sol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 sol was synthesized under mild conditions (75C and ambient pressure) by hydrolysis of titaniumn-butoxide in abundant acidic aqueous solution and subsequent reflux to enhance crystallization. At room temperature and in ambient atmosphere, crystalline TiO2 thin films were deposited on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), SiO2-coated PMMA and SiO2-coated silicone rubber substrates from the as-prepared TiO2 sol by a dip-coating process. SiO2 layers prior to TiO2 thin films on polymer substrates could not only protect the substrates from the photocatalytic decomposition of the TiO2 thin films but also enhance the adhesion of the TiO2 thin films to the substrates. Field-emission type scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) investigations revealed that the average particle sizes of the nanoparticles composing the TiO2 thin films were about 35~47 nm. The TiO2 thin films exhibited high photocatalytic activities in the degradation of reactive brilliant red dye X-3B in aqueous solution under aerated conditions. The preparation process of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on the polymer substrates was quite simple and a low temperature route.

  9. Elasto-Optical Properties of Thin Polymer Films by Prism Coupling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Feridun; Agan, Sedat; Kocabas, Askin; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-05-01

    Reliable measurement of stress dependent refractive index of thin polymer films has been achieved. The effect of the applied stress on the refractive index and birefringence of the films was investigated. The out-of-plane elastic moduli of the thin polymer films were deduced by using the same prism coupling setup. Three dimensional finite element method (FEM) analysis was used to obtain the principal stresses for each polymer film and combining them with the stress dependent refractive index measurements, the elasto-optic coefficients of the polymer films were determined, for the first time.

  10. Structure and Morphology Control in Thin Films of Conjugated Polymers for an Improved Charge Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and structural features of the conjugated polymer films play an important role in the charge transport and the final performance of organic optoelectronics devices [such as organic thin-film transistor (OTFT and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV, etc.] in terms of crystallinity, packing of polymer chains and connection between crystal domains. This review will discuss how the conjugated polymer solidify into, for instance, thin-film structures, and how to control the molecular arrangement of such functional polymer architectures by controlling the polymer chain rigidity, polymer solution aggregation, suitable processing procedures, etc. These basic elements in intrinsic properties and processing strategy described here would be helpful to understand the correlation between morphology and charge transport properties and guide the preparation of efficient functional conjugated polymer films correspondingly.

  11. Nanocrystalline porous TiO2 electrode with ionic liquid impregnated solid polymer electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod K; Kim, Kang-Wook; Kim, Ki-Il; Park, Nam-Gyu; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2008-10-01

    This communication reports the detailed fabrication of electrodes and solid polymer electrolyte with ionic liquid (IL) as an electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Thick porous TiO2 film has been obtained by spreading and sintering TiO2 colloidal paste using "doctor blade" and characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD. The polymer electrolyte was PEO:KI/I2 incorporated with 1-ethyl 3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMImSCN) as IL. Dispersal of IL in the polymer electrolyte improved the ionic conductivity and cell efficiency.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun polymer blends as electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Hae; Choi, Hyung-Ju; Hwang, Won-Pil; Kim, Jung-Heon; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Du-Hyun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Solchem Co., Ltd., Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung-il [Solchem Co., Ltd., Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Un [EAGUN WINDOW and DOOR SYSTEMS Co., Ltd., Incheon 967-3 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    We prepared electrospun polymer nanofibers by the electrospinning method and investigated about their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrospun poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and PVDF-HFP/polystyrene (PS) blend nanofibers were prepared and examined the uptake, the ionic conductivity, and the porosity by impedance measurement and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The best results of V{sub oc}, J{sub sc}, FF, and efficiency of the DSSC devices using the electrospun PVDF-HFP/PS(3:1) blend nanofibers were 0.76 V, 11.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.66, and 5.75% under AM 1.5. (author)

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells and solar module using polymer electrolytes: Stability and performance investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilian Nei de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results on solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell research using a polymer electrolyte based on a poly(ethylene oxide derivative. The stability and performance of the devices have been improved by a modification in the method of assembly of the cells and by the addition of plasticizers in the electrolyte. After 30 days of solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2 no changes in the cell's efficiency were observed using this new method. The effect of the active area size on cell performance and the first results obtained for the first solar module composed of 4.5 cm2 solid-state solar cells are also presented.

  14. A Polymer Film Dye Laser with Spatially Modulated Emission Controlled by Transversely Distributed Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurab V. Wardosanidze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial modulation of laser emission controlled by the structure of excitation light field was demonstrated. A dye doped polymer film as an active medium was sandwiched between two laser mirrors forming a laser cell. The pumping was performed by an interference pattern formed with two mutually coherent beams of the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm and located in the plane of the laser cell. The laser emission was observed normally on the plane of the cell. The cross section of the obtained laser emission was modulated in intensity with an interval between maximums depending on the period of the pumping interference pattern. Thus, the emitted light field qualitatively looks like diffraction from an elementary dynamic hologram, that is, a holographic diffraction grating.

  15. Water-based thixotropic polymer gel electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Jeong; Yoo, Kichoen; Kim, Jae-Yup; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Bongsoo; Kim, Honggon; Kim, Jong Hak; Cho, Jinhan; Ko, Min Jae

    2013-05-28

    For the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), it is important to replace the conventional organic solvents based electrolyte with environmentally friendly and stable ones, due to the toxicity and leakage problems. Here we report a noble water-based thixotropic polymer gel electrolyte containing xanthan gum, which satisfies both the environmentally friendliness and stability against leakage and water intrusion. For application in DSSCs, it was possible to infiltrate the prepared electrolyte into the mesoporous TiO2 electrode at the fluidic state, resulting in sufficient penetration. As a result, this electrolyte exhibited similar conversion efficiency (4.78% at 100 mW cm(-2)) and an enhanced long-term stability compared to a water-based liquid electrolyte. The effects of water on the photovoltaic properties were examined elaborately from the cyclic voltammetry curves and impedance spectra. Despite the positive shift in the conduction band potential of the TiO2 electrode, the open-circuit voltage was enhanced by addition of water in the electrolyte due to the greater positive shift in the I(-)/I3(-) redox potential. However, due to the dye desorption and decreased diffusion coefficient caused by the water content, the short-circuit photocurrent density was reduced. These results will provide great insight into the development of efficient and stable water-based electrolytes.

  16. Photoluminescence characteristics of dye-doped polymer nanofibers excited by surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminose, Ryohei; Ishii, Yuya; Aihara, Takuma; Takeda, Ayumi; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2013-09-01

    Grating inscription in azo-dye doped polymers is an interesting phenomenon because of its high diffraction performance and applicability to real-time 3D displays. Although some of these materials were investigated under no external electric field with symmetric optical alignments in preceding studies, they often showed a phase shift of periodic modulation of refractive index from the interference fringe formed by irradiation beams, resulting in asymmetric energy exchange between two coupled beams. The mechanism of the behavior has been usually attributed to the molecular motions triggered by trans-cis isomerization, but their details are still unknown. Therefore, studies on temporal evolution of the process and their translation into physical meaning are necessary. In order to investigate the evolution of grating inscription and phase shift, several methods have been developed. In this study, we analyzed the coupled wave equations proposed by Kogelnik, and derived general solution applicable to the system with both phase and amplitude gratings with arbitrary phase relationship. We showed that the analysis based on the equation can give a direct evidence of the phase shift between the phase and amplitude gratings if it exists. This method was applied to the fringe pattern inscribed in thick films of PMMA doped with an azo-carbazole dye, showing that observed signals indicated the phase deviation between two types of gratings.

  17. Nonlinear optical properties of natural laccaic acid dye studied using Z-scan technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zongo, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the nonlinear optical properties, including the optical limiting behaviour for five different concentrations of laccaic acid dye in solution and a thin film obtained through doping in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer...

  18. Intricacies of Polymer Dewetting: Nanoscaled Architectures for the Tailored Control of Polystyrene Thin Film Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Justin; Sen, Mani; Chen, Zhizhao; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya; Koga, Tadanori; Satija, Sushil

    Recently, structural properties of polymer thin films have garnered attention for their relevance in the fields of organic photovoltaics and biosensors. The dewetting of polymer films poses an obstacle in the face of widespread implementation. For this study, we show that adsorbed polymer chains on a substrate surface play crucial roles in film stability. Polystyrene (PS) thin films (20 nm in thickness) with different molecular weights (Mw) on silicon (Si) substrates were used as a model. The PS films were annealed at high temperatures for several days, and Mw dependence on film stability was evidenced. At the same time, the annealed PS films were leached with a good solvent and the residue films (i.e., irreversibly adsorbed layers) were characterized by x-ray reflectivity (XR). We reveal strong correlation between film stability and two different interfacial structures of the adsorbed polymer chains: their opposing wettability against chemically identical free polymer chains results in a wetting-dewetting transition at the adsorbed polymer-free polymer interface. This is a unique aspect of polymer thin film stability and may be generalizable to other polymer systems regardless of the magnitude of solid-polymer attractive interactions. We acknowledge the financial support of NSF Grant (CMMI-1332499).

  19. Efficient transparent thin dye solar cells based on highly porous 1D photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colodrero, Silvia; Lopez-Lopez, Carmen; Miguez, Hernan [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, C/Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Forneli, Amparo; Pelleja, Laia [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) Avda., Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Palomares, Emilio [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) Avda., Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Avda. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-03-21

    A working electrode design based on a highly porous 1D photonic crystal structure that opens the path towards high photocurrents in thin, transparent, dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. By enlarging the average pore size with respect to previous photonic crystal designs, the new working electrode not only increases the device photocurrent, as predicted by theoretical models, but also allows the observation of an unprecedented boost of the cell photovoltage, which can be attributed to structural modifications caused during the integration of the photonic crystal. These synergic effects yield conversion efficiencies of around 3.5% by using just 2 {mu}m thick electrodes, with enhancements between 100% and 150% with respect to reference cells of the same thickness. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Low-voltage Driving Phototransistor Based on Dye-sensitized Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaoqi; Cai, Chuanbing

    2012-01-01

    Photo-gated transistors based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin film are established. A transistor-like transport behavior characterized by the linear increase, saturated plateau, and breakdown-like increase in the voltage-current curve is achievable with a low driven bias for the present device. The response current exhibits a linear dependence on the intensity of gated light, and the measured maximum photosensitivity is approximately 0.1 A/W. The dynamic responses for various light frequencies and their dependences on the load resistances are investigated as well. The cut-off frequency of ~50 Hz is abstracted, indicating the potential application for economical and efficient light switch or optical communication unit. The dc photo-gated response is explained by the energy level diagram, and is numerically simulated by an equivalent circuit model, suggesting a clear correlation between photovoltaic and photoconductive behaviors as well as their optical responses.

  1. Prism coupling technique investigation of elasto-optical properties of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Feridun; Kocabas, Askin; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla; Agan, Sedat

    2004-12-01

    The use of thin polymer films in optical planar integrated optical circuits is rapidly increasing. Much interest, therefore, has been devoted to characterizing the optical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films. This study focuses on measuring the elasto-optical properties of three different polymers; polystyrene, polymethyl-methacrylate, and benzocyclobutane. The out-of-plane elastic modulus, refractive index, film thickness, and birefringence of thin polymer films were determined by means of the prism coupling technique. The effect of the applied stress on the refractive index and birefringence of the films was investigated. Three-dimensional finite element method analysis was used so as to obtain the principal stresses for each polymer system, and combining them with the stress dependent refractive index measurements, the elasto-optic coefficients of the polymer films were determined. It was found that the applied stress in the out-of-plane direction of the thin films investigated leads to negative elasto-optic coefficients, as observed for all the three thin polymer films.

  2. Assessment of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in the preconcentration of disperse red 73 dye prior to photoelectrocatalytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jefferson Honorio; Aissa, Alejandra Ben; Bessegato, Guilherme Garcia; Fajardo, Laura Martinez; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Pividori, María Isabel; Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor, Maria

    2016-12-08

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a research hotspot due to their two important characteristics: target recognition and magnetic separation. This paper presents the preparation, characterization, and optimization of an MMIP for the preconcentration of disperse red 73 dye (DR73) and its subsequent efficient degradation by photoelectrocatalytic treatment. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed homogeneous distribution of the particles. Excellent encapsulation of magnetite was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A study of dye binding showed that the dye was retained more selectively in the MIP, compared to the NIP. The release of DR73 from the imprinted polymers into methanol and acetic acid was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The extracts showed higher absorbance values for MMIP, compared to MNIP, confirming greater adsorption of dye in the MMIP material. The extracts were then subjected to photoelectrocatalytic treatment. LC-MS/MS analysis following this treatment showed that the dye was almost completely degraded. Hence, the combination of MMIP extraction and photoelectrocatalysis offers an alternative way of selectively removing an organic contaminant, prior to proceeding with its complete degradation.

  3. PHOTORESPONSIVE BEHAVIOR OF AZOBENZENE-BASED (METH)ACRYLIC (CO)POLYMERS IN THIN-FILMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAITJEMA, HJ; VONMORGEN, GL; TAN, YY; CHALLA, G

    1994-01-01

    The reversible photoisomerization and the thermal isomerization of azobenzene-based (Az.b.) groups covalently bound to (meth)acrylic (co)polymers were investigated in thin films. For the amorphous polymers it was found that a broad range of the thermal cis --> trans isomerization rates could be obta

  4. Side-group size effects on interfaces and glass formation in supported polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Song, Jake; Hsu, David D.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies on glass-forming polymers near interfaces have emphasized the importance of molecular features such as chain stiffness, side-groups, molecular packing, and associated changes in fragility as key factors that govern the magnitude of Tg changes with respect to the bulk in polymer thin films. However, how such molecular features are coupled with substrate and free surface effects on Tg in thin films remains to be fully understood. Here, we employ a chemically specific coarse-grained polymer model for methacrylates to investigate the role of side-group volume on glass formation in bulk polymers and supported thin films. Our results show that bulkier side-groups lead to higher bulk Tg and fragility and are associated with a pronounced free surface effect on overall Tg depression. By probing local Tg within the films, however, we find that the polymers with bulkier side-groups experience a reduced confinement-induced increase in local Tg near a strongly interacting substrate. Further analyses indicate that this is due to the packing frustration of chains near the substrate interface, which lowers the attractive interactions with the substrate and thus lessens the surface-induced reduction in segmental mobility. Our results reveal that the size of the polymer side-group may be a design element that controls the confinement effects induced by the free surface and substrates in supported polymer thin films. Our analyses provide new insights into the factors governing polymer dynamics in bulk and confined environments.

  5. Panchromatic "Dye-Doped" Polymer Solar Cells: From Femtosecond Energy Relays to Enhanced Photo-Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, Giulia; Sai Santosh Kumar, R; Maiuri, Margherita; Fang, Junfeng; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Alcocer, Marcelo J P; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cerullo, Giulio; Petrozza, Annamaria; Snaith, Henry J

    2013-02-07

    There has been phenomenal effort synthesizing new low-band gap polymer hole-conductors which absorb into the near-infrared (NIR), leading to >10% efficient all-organic solar cells. However, organic light absorbers have relatively narrow bandwidths, making it challenging to obtain panchromatic absorption in a single organic semiconductor. Here, we demonstrate that (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b0]dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadia-zole)] (PCPDTBT) can be "photo-sensitized" across the whole visible spectrum by "doping" with a visible absorbing dye, the (2,2,7,7-tetrakis(3-hexyl-5-(7-(4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-9,9-spirobifluorene) (spiro-TBT). Through a comprehensive sub-12 femtosecond-nanosecond spectroscopic study, we demonstrate that extremely efficient and fast energy transfer occurs from the photoexcited spiro-TBT to the PCPDTBT, and ultrafast charge injection happens when the system is interfaced with ZnO as a prototypal electron-acceptor compound. The visible photosensitization can be effectively exploited and gives panchromatic photoresponse in prototype polymer/oxide bilayer photovoltaic diodes. This concept can be successfully adopted for tuning and optimizing the light absorption and photoresponse in a broad range of polymeric and hybrid solar cells.

  6. Lasing features of dye-doped pendant drops added with polymer particles: spectral blueshift and intensity enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普小云; 张曙; 陈超华; 李荣基

    2002-01-01

    When micrometre-sized polymer particles were added into a dye-doped pendant drop that acted as a quasi-two-dimensional circular resonator, we found a blueshift of the peak wavelength of its lasing spectrum. The lasing outputwas also enhanced by the particles. The spectral blueshift was explained by a model of dye lasing in a circular cavity.The model includes losses of the scattering particles, medium absorption, and radiation leakage. An optimum particledensity for maximum lasing output was deduced. The results are consistent with our experimental findings.

  7. Thiourea incorporated poly(ethylene oxide) as transparent gel polymer electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, Nagaraj; Velayutham, David; Sorrentino, Andrea; Anandan, Sambandam

    2017-06-01

    A new series of transparent gel polymer electrolytes are prepared by adding various weight percent of thiourea coupled with poly(ethylene oxide) for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Coupling of thiourea in the presence of iodine undergoes dimerization reaction to produce formamidine disulfide. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy shows that the interactions of thiourea and formamidine disulfide with electronegative ether linkage of poly(ethylene oxide) results in conformational changes of gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry experiments reveal an increment in ionic conductivity and tri-iodide diffusion coefficient, for thiourea modified gel polymer electrolytes. Finally, the prepared electrolytes are used as a redox mediator in dye-sensitized solar cells and the photovoltaic properties were studied. Apart from transparency, the gel polymer electrolytes with thiorurea show higher photovoltaic properties compared to bare gel polymer electrolyte and a maximum photocurrent efficiency of 7.17% is achieved for gel polymer electrolyte containing 1 wt% of thiourea with a short circuit current of 11.79 mA cm-2 and open circuit voltage of 834 mV. Finally, under rear illumination, almost 90% efficiency is retained upon compared to front illumination.

  8. Organic dopant added polyvinylidene fluoride based solid polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of phenothiazine (PTZ) as dopant on PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was studied for the fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The different weight percentage (wt%) ratios (0, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte films were prepared by solution casting method using DMF as a solvent. The following techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and AC-impedance analysis have been employed to characterize the prepared polymer electrolyte films. The FT-IR studies revealed the complex formation between PVDF/KI/I2 and PTZ. The crystalline and amorphous nature of polymer electrolytes were confirmed by DSC and XRD analysis respectively. The ionic conductivities of polymer electrolyte films were calculated from the AC-impedance analysis. The undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited the ionic conductivity of 4.68×10-6 S cm-1 and this value was increased to 7.43×10-5 S cm-1 when PTZ was added to PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. On comparison with different wt% ratios, the maximum ionic conductivity was observed for 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. A DSSC assembled with the optimized wt % of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.92%, than the undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte (1.41%) at similar conditions. Hence, the 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was found to be optimal for DSSC applications.

  9. Nonwettable Thin Films from Hybrid Polymer Brushes can be Hydrophilic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    2006 Hybrid brushes composed of two liquid polymers, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and a highly branched ethoxylated polyethylenimine (EPEI), were...liquid polymers, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and a highly branched ethoxylated polyethylenimine (EPEI; Figure 1). We demonstrate here that hybrid... ethoxylated (highly branched, symmetrical polymer; about 80% of the primary and secondary amines are ethoxylated ), 37% solution in water (EPEI Mw

  10. Nanosize copper encapsulated carbon thin films on a dye-sensitized solar cell cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Wang, H Paul; Liao, Chang-Yu

    2010-07-01

    Deposition of the nanosize copper encapsulated carbon (Cu@C) thin film onto the cathode has been studied to enhance efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the Cu@C are suggestive of existence of metallic copper (Cu) nanoparticles in the thin film. The UV-visible spectrum of the Cu@C coated on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) shows a red shift (probably due to the longitudinal resonance) as the size of Cu in the Cu@C increases. Moreover, the images observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicate that the Cu@C nanoparticles are well dispersed on ITO. By extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, a decrease of the coordination number (CN) of Cu-Cu with decreasing sizes of Cu in the Cu@C is observed. Interestingly, an enhanced efficiency of the DSSC with the Cu@C nanoparticles coated ITO cathode by 50% is found if compared with the relatively expensive Pt electrode. As the size of Cu in the Cu@C on ITO decreases (e.g., 20 --> 7 nm), the efficiency of the DSSC can be increased by 80% approximately.

  11. Zinc-Based Semiconductors/Polymer Thin Films Junction for Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Souad Al-bat’hi; K. A. Buhari; Latiff, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of ZnO and ZnTe semiconductors were deposited on ITO conducting glass substrates by sputtering and electrodeposition techniques, respectively. On the other hand, thin films of ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte were prepared by solution cast technique. The polymer is a blend of 50 wt% polyethylene oxide and 50 wt% chitosan. To provide redox couple (I−/I3−), the polymer was complexed with ammonium iodide NH4I with addition of few crystals of iodine I2. Ammonium iodide NH4I was...

  12. Zinc-Based Semiconductors/Polymer Thin Films Junction for Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Souad Al-bat’hi; K. A. Buhari; M. I. Latiff

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of ZnO and ZnTe semiconductors were deposited on ITO conducting glass substrates by sputtering and electrodeposition techniques, respectively. On the other hand, thin films of ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte were prepared by solution cast technique. The polymer is a blend of 50 wt% polyethylene oxide and 50 wt% chitosan. To provide redox couple (I−/I3−), the polymer was complexed with ammonium iodide NH4I with addition of few crystals of iodine I2. Ammonium iodide NH4I was...

  13. Nanostructured thin film polymer devices for constant-rate protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernards, Daniel A; Lance, Kevin D; Ciaccio, Natalie A; Desai, Tejal A

    2012-10-10

    Herein long-term delivery of proteins from biodegradable thin film devices is demonstrated, where a nanostructured polymer membrane controls release. Protein was sealed between two poly(caprolactone) films, which generated the thin film devices. Protein release for 210 days was shown in vitro, and stable activity was established through 70 days with a model protein. These thin film devices present a promising delivery platform for biologic therapeutics, particularly for application in constrained spaces.

  14. Surface-mounted MOF templated fabrication of homochiral polymer thin film for enantioselective adsorption of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang; Fu, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Min; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-26

    A self-polymerized chiral monomer 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) has been introduced into the pores of an achiral surface-mounted metal organic framework (SURMOF), and then the homochiral poly(l-DOPA) thin film has been successfully formed after UV light irradiation and etching of the SURMOF. Remarkably, such a poly(l-DOPA) thin film exhibited enantioselective adsorption of naproxen. This study opened a SURMOF-templated approach for preparing porous polymer thin films.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Thin Film Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Kumta, Prashant N.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of thin film electrodes with polymer electrolytes to form a complete thin film lithium-ion battery. Thin film batteries of the type, LiCoO2 [PAN, EC, PC, LiN(CF3SO2)2] SnO2 have been fabricated. The results of the synthesis and characterization studies will be presented and discussed.

  16. Sensitizing mechanism and adsorption properties of dye-sensitized TiO sub 2 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Hu Zhi Xue; Wang Kong Jia

    2002-01-01

    The dye-sensitized TiO sub 2 complex films were prepared by the dye coat onto TiO sub 2 surfaces, and the sensitizing mechanism and adsorption properties of the dye-sensitized TiO sub 2 complex films were investigated. The influence of the application conditions of dye adsorbed on TiO sub 2 films on the amount of dye adsorption was discussed. Experimental results show that the concentration, the temperature of dye solutions and the dipping time of TiO sub 2 films in the dye solutions have a significant influence on the amount of dye adsorption. Cell test indicates that the conversion efficiency of light to electricity increases with the amount of dye adsorption

  17. A novel structural Fenton-like nanocatalyst with highly improved catalytic performance for generalized preparation of iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanghui; Peng, Xiaomen; Li, Hongping; Wang, Jianzhi; Zhou, Lincheng; Zhao, Tianqi; Huang, Zhihao; Jiang, Haifei

    2015-05-01

    FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles with a soap-bubble-like shell have been synthesized, and the materials exhibit excellent Fenton catalytic performance. More importantly, FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles as catalysts and precursors could catalyze organic dye molecules to form iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

  18. Synthesis and characterization thin films of conductive polymer (PANI) for optoelectronic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, Amer N.; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi; Ahmed, Nasser M.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we report preparation and investigation of structural and optical properties of polyaniline conducting polymer. By using sol-gel in spin coating technique to synthesize thin films of conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI). Conducting polymer polyaniline was synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers. The thin films were characterized by technique: Hall effect, High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyaniline conductive polymer exhibit amorphous nature as confirmed by HR-XRD. The presence of characteristic bonds of polyaniline was observed from FTIR spectroscopy technique. Electrical and optical properties revealed that (p-type) conductivity PANI with room temperature, the conductivity was 6.289×10-5 (Ω.cm)-1, with tow of absorption peak at 426,805 nm has been attributed due to quantized size of polyaniline conducting polymer.

  19. Synthesis and characterization thin films of conductive polymer (PANI) for optoelectronic device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarad, Amer N., E-mail: amer78malay@yahoo.com.my; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi, E-mail: kamarul@usm.my; Ahmed, Nasser M., E-mail: nas-tiji@yahoo.com [Nano-optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory School of physics, University of Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work we report preparation and investigation of structural and optical properties of polyaniline conducting polymer. By using sol-gel in spin coating technique to synthesize thin films of conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI). Conducting polymer polyaniline was synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers. The thin films were characterized by technique: Hall effect, High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyaniline conductive polymer exhibit amorphous nature as confirmed by HR-XRD. The presence of characteristic bonds of polyaniline was observed from FTIR spectroscopy technique. Electrical and optical properties revealed that (p-type) conductivity PANI with room temperature, the conductivity was 6.289×10{sup −5} (Ω.cm){sup −1}, with tow of absorption peak at 426,805 nm has been attributed due to quantized size of polyaniline conducting polymer.

  20. Heat transport in polymer thin films for micro/nano-manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ming-Tsung

    The rapid growth in micro/nanotechnology has opened a great opportunity for polymer thin films and polymer nanocomposites. Thermal management or thermal effects in those applications need to be carefully examined. For example, the local heating in electron-beam lithography, emersion lithography, and scanning near field optical lithography may cause the degradation of photoresists and reduce the resolution. The development of many organic electronics, polymer micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) devices, and polymer nanocomposites may require the knowledge of heat transport in micro/nano-sized polymers. Thermolithography, a novel lithography, uses controlled localized heating to transfer patterns and requires the thermal conductivity data to control. It is of considerable scientific and technological interests for study heat transport in polymer thin films. Unlike bulk polymers that can be measured using commercially available instruments, polymer thin films are difficult to measure. In this manuscript, we develop the measurement techniques suitable for measuring thermal conductivity of polymer thin films and polymer nanocomposites. Using a microfabricated membrane-based device, we study the heat conduction in photoresists at difference process stages. This data is used in our thermolithography study, where we use microheater to study the kinetic of crosslinking reaction of photoresist. The feasibility of thermolithography and potential three dimensional micro/nano-fabrication is presented. The uniqueness of thermolithography is also demonstrated by patterning amorphous fluoropolymers. A modified hot-wire technique is used to measure the thermal conductivity of graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) reinforced nanocomposites, one of the promising candidates for multifunctional materials. Thermal interface resistance in GNP nanocomposites is investigated, which shows a strong effect on energy transport in the nanocomposites and can be diminished through surface treatment.

  1. Performance of a Polymer Flood with Shear-Thinning Fluid in Heterogeneous Layered Systems with Crossflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential of a polymer flood for mobility control requires an accurate model on the viscosities of displacement fluids involved in the process. Because most polymers used in EOR exhibit shear-thinning behavior, the effective viscosity of a polymer solution is a highly nonlinear function of shear rate. A reservoir simulator including the model for the shear-rate dependence of viscosity was used to investigate shear-thinning effects of polymer solution on the performance of the layered reservoir in a five-spot pattern operating under polymer flood followed by waterflood. The model can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the comparative studies of different polymer flooding scenarios with respect to shear-rate dependence of fluids’ viscosities. Results of cumulative oil recovery and water-oil ratio are presented for parameters of shear-rate dependencies, permeability heterogeneity, and crossflow. The results of this work have proven the importance of taking non-Newtonian behavior of polymer solution into account for the successful evaluation of polymer flood processes. Horizontal and vertical permeabilities of each layer are shown to impact the predicted performance substantially. In reservoirs with a severe permeability contrast between horizontal layers, decrease in oil recovery and sudden increase in WOR are obtained by the low sweep efficiency and early water breakthrough through highly permeable layer, especially for shear-thinning fluids. An increase in the degree of crossflow resulting from sufficient vertical permeability is responsible for the enhanced sweep of the low permeability layers, which results in increased oil recovery. It was observed that a thinning fluid coefficient would increase injectivity significantly from simulations with various injection rates. A thorough understanding of polymer rheology in the reservoir and accurate numerical modeling are of fundamental importance for the exact estimation

  2. New fabrication process of long-life dye-sensitized solar cells by in situ gelation of quasi-solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Fu; Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo; Lin, Cian-Li; Huang, Hsin-Kai; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Leakage of liquid electrolyte and damage to dye-sensitized solar devices due to ultraviolet irradiation typically result in the poor long-term stability of liquid-electrolyte-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this study, a simple in situ gelation (ISG) process is developed for the quasi-solid-state electrolyte (QSE) in DSSCs using polyvinyl butyral (PVB), a polymer used worldwide in laminated glass. The diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities of the QSEs are analyzed, and the optimal ionic conductivity is found to be approximately 2.64 × 10-3 S cm-1, which is approximately six orders of magnitude higher than that of the original PVB thin film. The ISG-QSE devices exhibit a high conversion efficiency of 4.86% at 100 mW cm-2; this is approximately 98% of the efficiency of corresponding liquid electrolyte (LSE) cells. Moreover, the devices can maintain a remarkable 98% of their original efficiency after 2100 working hours owing to the addition of 5% UV absorber to the ISG electrolyte. In addition, the ISG-electrolyte-based DSSCs can drive a 5 × 5 cm2 electrochromic (EC) device, demonstrating the potential for the application of this combination in "smart windows" in the future.

  3. Investigating the crystal growth behavior of biodegradable polymer blend thin films using in situ atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the crystal growth behavior of biodegradable polylactide (PLA)/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) blend thin films using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Currently, polymer thin films have received increased research...

  4. High Seebeck effects from conducting polymer: Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) based thin-film device with hybrid metal/polymer/metal architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, Michael G [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Hu, Bin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Conductive polymers are of particular interest for thermoelectric applications due to their low thermal conductivity and relatively high electrical conductivity. In this study, commercially available conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) was used in a hybrid metal/polymer/metal thin film design in order to achieve a high Seebeck coefficient with the value of 252lV/k on a relatively low temperature scale. Polymer film thickness was varied in order to investigate its influence on the Seebeck effect. The high Seebeck coefficient indicates that the metal/polymer/metal design can develop a large entropy difference in internal energy of charge carriers between high and low-temperature metal electrodes to develop electrical potential due to charge transport in conducting polymer film through metal/polymer interface. Therefore, the metal/polymer/metal structure presents a new design to combine inorganic metals and organic polymers in thin-film form to develop Seebeck devices

  5. Relaxation and Flow of Polymer Thin Films in Isothermal Temperature Jump Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, G.; Banach, M. J.; Vaia, R. A.

    2000-03-01

    The dynamic behavior of thin polymer films is of interest in fabrication of microelectronics, optoelectronics and for the coatings industry. It is known that polymer relaxation is effected by film thickness and by the particular substrate/polymer pair. Recently, we have used a spectroscopic ellipsometer to investigate the glass transition in thin films. In addition to information on modification of thermal transitions, the spectroscopic ellipsometer allows for direct observation of the isothermal dimensions of a thin polymer film as a function of time following a rapid temperature change. Recent results will be presented on the observation of time dependence in film-normal thickness and normalized, in-plane, lateral dimension (explained in talk) as well as simple fits to this relaxation behavior in terms of a normalized viscosity and relaxation time. Initial results support a highly asymmetric initial thermal expansion followed by close to isotropic relaxation and anisotropic flow. These features may elucidate models for chain orientation in thin polymer films. Beaucage, G.; Composto, R.; Stein, R.S. (1993). J. Poly. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed., 31 319. Kovacs, A. J.; Hutchinson, J. M.; Aklonis, J. J. (1977) in "The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials", Ed. P. H. Gaskell, Taylor and Francis, London. Banach, M. J.; Clarson, S. J.; Beaucage, G.; Kramer, E. J.; Benkoski, J.; Vaia, R. Submitted Macromolecules (1999). Beaucage, G.; Banach, M. J.; Vaia, R. A. Submitted Macromolecules (1999).

  6. Resist Pattern Inspection Using Fluorescent Dye-Doped Polystyrene Thin Films in Reactive-Monolayer-Assisted Thermal Nanoimprint Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Shoichi; Sato, Yuko; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescent dye-doped polystyrene (PS) thin films were studied for defect inspection of PS resist patterns by fluorescence microscopy in reactive-monolayer-assisted thermal nanoimprint lithography using a photoreactive monolayer. A fluorescent dye of N,N '-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide doped in a PS resist thin film maintained an almost identical fluorescence intensity after annealing at a temperature necessary for thermal nanoimprinting. To avoid degradation of a dye doped in a resist film owing to exposure to ultraviolet light for preparing a PS graft layer on the photoreactive monolayer, a double coating method for preparing a dye-doped PS resist layer on the PS graft layer was adopted. It was demonstrated by the fluorescent microscopic defect inspection that resist pattern defects due to unleveled residual layers after thermal nanoimprinting were significantly decreased by adding low-molecular-weight PS (5,100 g mol-1) to high-molecular-weight PS (360,000 g mol-1). The rheological study revealed that the low-molecular-weight PS obviously functioned as a plasticizer, which flattened residual layers and decreased their thickness.

  7. Characterization of Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    The field of polymer solar cells has undergone an extensive development in recent years after the invention of semiconducting polymers in 1991. Efficiencies have gradually increased to above 10 %, and high throughput processing methods such as roll-to-roll coating allow for production of thousands...... of solar cells with low embedded time, material, and energy consumption as compared to silicon solar cells. Consequently, different demonstration products of small mobile gadgets based on polymer solar cells have been produced, which are fully competitive with conventional energy technologies, illustrating...... process where oxygen and water diffusion from the atmosphere, morphology evolution, and photo-bleaching of the polymer are some of the dominant processes. Encapsulation by foils consisting of multi-layer polymer stacks is a conventional way to reduce the diffusion into the solar cell, by which the life...

  8. Pulsed laser interference patterning of polyimide grating for dye-doped polymer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Soon Yie; Tou, Teck Yong; Yap, Seong Ling; Yap, Seong Shan

    2016-07-01

    Direct laser interference patterning of polyimide (PI) films was performed by using a pulsed 355-nm laser. At laser fluence of 0.4 J/cm2, gratings with spatial periods of 3.8 μm to 344 nm were created. The highest aspect ratio of the grating structure (0.8) was obtained for the 344-nm grating. An all-polymer dye laser was then fabricated by spin-coating a layer of disodium fluorescein (DF)-doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film on bare and patterned PI substrate. Green laser emission was obtained when transversely pumped by a 355-nm laser. The lasing threshold reduced by ˜10 times for the sample with 344-nm grating while the laser intensity was ˜18 times higher. The enhancements are ascribed to the 344-nm grating structures, which act as an efficient distributed feedback resonator and distributed Bragg reflector grating for DF-doped PVA emitting at ˜563 nm, on top of being a passive light-trapping structures.

  9. Phthaloylchitosan-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthaloylchitosan-based gel polymer electrolytes were prepared with tetrapropylammonium iodide, Pr4NI, as the salt and optimized for conductivity. The electrolyte with the composition of 15.7 wt.% phthaloylchitosan, 31.7 wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC, 3.17 wt.% propylene carbonate (PC, 19.0 wt.% of Pr4NI, and 1.9 wt.% iodine exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.27 × 10−3 S cm−1. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC fabricated with this electrolyte exhibits an efficiency of 3.5% with JSC of 7.38 mA cm−2, VOC of 0.72 V, and fill factor of 0.66. When various amounts of lithium iodide (LiI were added to the optimized gel electrolyte, the overall conductivity is observed to decrease. However, the efficiency of the DSSC increases to a maximum value of 3.71% when salt ratio of Pr4NI : LiI is 2 : 1. This cell has JSC, VOC and fill factor of 7.25 mA cm−2, 0.77 V and 0.67, respectively.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of porous structured ZnO thin film for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N., E-mail: anandhan-kn@rediffmail.com; Mummoorthi, M. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 (India); Dharuman, V. [Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/eosin yellow (ZnO/EY) thin films were potentiostatically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Effect of eosin yellow dye on structural, morphological and optical properties was studied. X-ray diffraction patterns, micro Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal hexagonal wurtzite structure with less atomic defects in 101 plane orientation of the ZnO/EY film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show flower for ZnO and porous like structure for ZnO/EY thin film, respectively. DSSC was constructed and evaluated by measuring the current density verses voltage curve.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of porous structured ZnO thin film for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Mummoorthi, M.; Dharuman, V.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/eosin yellow (ZnO/EY) thin films were potentiostatically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Effect of eosin yellow dye on structural, morphological and optical properties was studied. X-ray diffraction patterns, micro Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal hexagonal wurtzite structure with less atomic defects in 101 plane orientation of the ZnO/EY film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show flower for ZnO and porous like structure for ZnO/EY thin film, respectively. DSSC was constructed and evaluated by measuring the current density verses voltage curve.

  12. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  13. Coupled effects of substrate adhesion and intermolecular forces on polymer thin film glass-transition behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Keten, Sinan

    2013-10-15

    Intermolecular noncovalent forces between polymer chains influence the mobility and glass-transition temperature (Tg), where weaker interchain interactions, all else being the same, typically results in lower bulk polymer Tg. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that this relation can become invalid for supported ultrathin films when the substrate-polymer interaction is extremely strong and the polymer-polymer interactions are much weaker. This contrasting trend is found to be due to a more pronounced substrate-induced appreciation of the film Tg for polymers with weaker intermolecular interactions and low bulk Tg. We show that optimizing this coupling between substrate adhesion and bulk Tg maximizes thin film Tg, paving the way for tuning film properties through interface nanoengineering.

  14. Performance of polymer electrolyte based on chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) for plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraidah, M. H.; Teo, L. P.; Au Yong, C. M.; Shah, Shahan; Arof, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide) powders have been mixed in different weight ratios. To each mixture, a fixed amount of ammonium iodide has been added. All mixtures have been dissolved in 1% acetic acid solution to form polymer blend electrolyte films by the solution cast technique. X-ray diffraction indicates that the polymer blend electrolytes are amorphous. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows shifting of the amine, carboxamide and Csbnd Osbnd C bands to lower wavenumbers indicating the occurrence of complexation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the electrical properties of the samples. The ionic conductivity for 55 wt.% chitosan-45 wt.% NH4I electrolyte system is 3.73 × 10-7 S cm-1 at room temperature and is increased to 3.66 × 10-6 S cm-1 for the blended film (16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I film. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated by sandwiching the polymer electrolyte between the TiO2/dye photoelectrode and Pt counter electrode. DSSCs fabricated exhibits short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.71 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58 V and efficiency of 0.78% with configuration ITO/TiO2/N3 dye/(16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I(+I2)/Pt/ITO and Jsc of 2.84 mA cm-2, Voc of 0.58 V and efficiency of 1.13% with configuration ITO/TiO2 + Ag nanoparticles/N3 dye/(16.5 wt.% chitosan-38.5 wt.% PEO)-45 wt.% NH4I(+I2)/Pt/ITO.

  15. Anchoring Strength of Thin Aligned-Polymer Films Formed by Liquid Crystalline Monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Takeshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Ikehata, Seiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2003-04-01

    We have evaluated the polar anchoring strength of a thin molecule-aligned polymer film formed by a liquid crystalline monomer. The polymer film was obtained by photopolymerization of the monomer oriented by a rubbed polyimide alignment layer in a chamber filled with N2 gas. We fabricated a nematic liquid crystal cell using the thin aligned-polymer films as alignment layers, and then evaluated the anchoring strength of the polymer by measuring the optical retardation curve of the cell driven by voltages. The experimental result showed that the anchoring strength was one order of magnitude lower than that of a conventional rubbed polyimide alignment layer, and decreased with increasing the cure temperature of the monomer film.

  16. Azaisoindigo conjugated polymers for high performance n-type and ambipolar thin film transistor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan

    2016-09-28

    Two new alternating copolymers, PAIIDBT and PAIIDSe have been prepared by incorporating a highly electron deficient azaisoindigo core. The molecular structure and packing of the monomer is determined from the single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both polymers exhibit high EAs and highly planar polymer backbones. When polymers are used as the semiconducting channel for solution-processed thin film transistor application, good properties are observed. A–A type PAIIDBT exhibits unipolar electron mobility as high as 1.0 cm2 V−1 s−1, D–A type PAIIDSe exhibits ambipolar charge transport behavior with predominately electron mobility up to 0.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 and hole mobility to 0.2 cm2 V−1 s−1. The robustness of the extracted mobility values are also commented on in detail. Molecular orientation, thin film morphology and energetic disorder of both polymers are systematically investigated.

  17. A thin polymer insulator for Josephson tunneling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    The use of an organic monolayer formed from a vapor as an insulating barrier for thin film Josephson junctions is considered, and the effect of an organic monolayer on the transition temperature of a thin film superconductor is investigated. Also analyzed are the geometric factors which influence Josephson junctions and Josephson junction interferometers.

  18. Thin film conductive polymer for microactuator and micromuscle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.P.; Hong, K.; Trevino, J.; Northrup, M.A.

    1994-04-14

    Conductive polymer/polyimide bimorphic microcantilevers have been actuated vertically (out-of-plane) upon the volumetric changes induced by electrochemical doping of the polymer. The microcantilevers that are 200-500 {mu}m in length and 50-100 {mu}m in width can be fully extended from a circularly-curled geometry, and thus generate more than 100 {mu}m displacement. Dynamically the microcantilevers have been driven as fast as 1.2 Hz and the polymer was stable for over a week stored in air and light. Residual stresses in the polymer film is estimated to be as high as 254 MPa, and actuation stresses are as high as 50 MPa.

  19. Quantifying residual stress in nanoscale thin polymer films via surface wrinkling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Young; Chastek, Thomas Q; Fasolka, Michael J; Ro, Hyun Wook; Stafford, Christopher M

    2009-04-28

    Residual stress, a pervasive consequence of solid materials processing, is stress that remains in a material after external forces have been removed. In polymeric materials, residual stress results from processes, such as film formation, that force and then trap polymer chains into nonequilibrium stressed conformations. In solvent-cast films, which are central to a wide range of technologies, residual stress can cause detrimental effects, including microscopic defect formation and macroscopic dimensional changes. Since residual stress is difficult to measure accurately, particularly in nanoscale thin polymer films, it remains a challenge to understand and control. We present here a quantitative method of assessing residual stress in polymer thin films by monitoring the onset of strain-induced wrinkling instabilities. Using this approach, we show that thin (>100 nm) polystyrene films prepared via spin-coating possess residual stresses of approximately 30 MPa, close to the crazing and yield stress. In contrast to conventional stress measurement techniques such as wafer curvature, our technique has the resolution to measure residual stress in films as thin as 25 nm. Furthermore, we measure the dissipation of residual stress through two relaxation mechanisms: thermal annealing and plasticizer addition. In quantifying the amount of residual stress in these films, we find that the residual stress gradually decreases with increasing annealing time and plasticizer amounts. Our robust and simple route to measure residual stress adds a key component to the understanding of polymer thin film behavior and will enable identification of more effective processing routes that mitigate the detrimental effects of residual stress.

  20. Application of thin film cellulose composite membrane for dye wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2016-09-22

    The use of low cost membranes with high salt/dye selectivity and high flux is ideal for an economic and eco-friendly treatment of dye wastewater. Here, regenerated cellulose membranes prepared from trimethylsilyl cellulose are studied for treating artificial dye effluents. In the experiments using a feed containing Congo Red and high NaCl concentration, the membrane featured impressive dye removal with zero salt rejection combined with high flux. More interestingly, the membrane reached as much as 600 LMH flux at 80 °C and 4 bar while maintaining high dye rejection close to 98%. In prolonged experiments up to 75 h the membrane exhibited good antifouling behavior with nearly 100% flux recovery. This study may provide a promising alternative of dye effluent treatment where high amounts of monovalent salts are present. © 2016

  1. Dual Functional Polymer Interlayer for Facilitating Ion Transport and Reducing Charge Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chiao; Li, Shao-Sian; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Liang-Yih; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2016-12-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) present low-cost alternatives to conventional wafer-based inorganic solar cells and have remarkable power conversion efficiency. To further enhance performance, we propose a new DSSC architecture with a novel dual-functional polymer interlayer that prevents charge recombination and facilitates ionic conduction, as well as maintaining dye loading and regeneration. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (p(VDF-TrFE)) was coated on the outside of a dye-sensitized TiO2 photoanode by a simple solution process that did not sacrifice the amount of adsorbed dye molecules in the DSSC device. Light-intensity-modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy revealed that the proposed p(VDF-TrFE)-coated anode yielded longer electron lifetime and improved the injection of photogenerated electrons into TiO2, thereby reducing the electron transport time. Comparative cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy based on a ferrocene-ferrocenium external standard material demonstrated that p(VDF-TrFE) enhanced the power conversion efficiency from 7.67% to 9.11%. This dual functional p(VDF-TrFE) interlayer is a promising candidate for improving the performance of DSSCs and can also be employed in other electrochemical devices.

  2. Chain relaxation in thin polymer films: turning a dielectric type-B polymer into a type-A' one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Mathieu; Paul, Wolfgang

    2017-02-22

    A molecular dynamics simulation study of chain relaxation in a thin polymer film is presented, studying the dielectric response of a random copolymer of cis and trans 1,4-polybutadiene, a type B polymer without net chain dipole moment, confined between graphite walls. We stress the orientational effect of the attractive walls, inducing polarization in the vicinity of the walls, while the center of the film stays bulk-like. This polarization leads to a net dipole moment of the adsorbed chains, which is perpendicular to their end-to-end vector, which we termed as type A' behavior. In this situation, the dipole moment relaxes only upon desorption of the chains from the wall, a dynamic process which occurs on timescales much longer than the bulk relaxation time of the polymer.

  3. Synthesis of nanostructured CuInS{sub 2} thin films and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhuang, Mixue; Liu, Zhen; Wei, Aixiang [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); Luo, Fazhi [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); The Fifth Electronics Research Institute of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Jun [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); Zhejiang University, State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanostructure thin films were successfully synthesized on FTO conductive glass substrates by solvothermal method. It is found that the surface morphology and microstructure of CIS thin films can be tailored by simply adjusting the concentration of oxalic acid. CIS nanostructure films with texture of ''nanosheet array'' and ''flower-like microsphere'' were obtained and used as Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The nanosheet array CIS was found to have a better electrocatalytic activity than the flower-like microsphere one. DSSCs based on nanosheet array CIS thin film counter electrode show conversion efficiency of 3.33 %, which is comparable to the Pt-catalyzed DSSCs. The easy synthesis, low cost, morphology tunable and excellent electrocatalytic property may make the CuInS{sub 2} nanostructure competitive as counter electrode in DSSCs. (orig.)

  4. Zinc-Based Semiconductors/Polymer Thin Films Junction for Photovoltaic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Al-bat’hi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of ZnO and ZnTe semiconductors were deposited on ITO conducting glass substrates by sputtering and electrodeposition techniques, respectively. On the other hand, thin films of ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte were prepared by solution cast technique. The polymer is a blend of 50 wt% polyethylene oxide and 50 wt% chitosan. To provide redox couple (I−/I3−, the polymer was complexed with ammonium iodide NH4I with addition of few crystals of iodine I2. Ammonium iodide NH4I was added to the solution in different amounts (wt% weight ratios to supply the charge carriers for the polymer electrolytes. The highest ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was 1.18×10−5 S cm−1 at room temperature. Structural and optical properties of the semiconductor thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The XRD shows crystalline structures for both ZnO and ZnTe thin films. The UV-Vis shows direct energy gaps EZnO of 3.1 eV and EZnTe of 2.2 eV. The polymer film was sandwiched between the ZnO and ZnTe semiconductors to form ITO/ZnO/polymer/ZnTe/ITO double-junction photovoltaic cell, and the photovoltaic properties were studied. The highest open-circuit voltage oc, short-circuit current density sc, and fill factor FF of the fabricated cells are 0.5 V, 55 μA cm−2, and 27%, respectively.

  5. A 'Plug and Play' Method to Create Water-dispersible Nanoassemblies Containing an Amphiphilic Polymer, Organic Dyes and Upconverting Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafeh, Khaled M; Asadirad, Amir M; Li, Jason Woodson; Wilson, Danielle; Wu, Tuoqi; Branda, Neil R

    2015-11-14

    In this protocol, we first describe a procedure to synthesize lanthanide doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). We then demonstrate how to generate amphiphilic polymers in situ, and describe a protocol to encapsulate the prepared UCNPs and different organic dye molecules (porphyrins and diarylethenes) using polymer shells to form stable water-dispersible nanoassemblies. The nanoassembly samples containing both the UCNPs and the diarylethene organic dyes have interesting photochemical and photophysical properties. Upon 365 nm UV irradiation, the diarylethene group undergoes a visual color change. When the samples are irradiated with visible light of another specific wavelength, the color fades and the samples return to the initial colorless state. The samples also emit visible light from the UCNPs upon irradiation with 980 nm near-infrared light. The emission intensity of the samples can be tuned through alternate irradiation with UV and visible light. Modulation of fluorescence can be performed for many cycles without observable degradation of the samples. This versatile encapsulation procedure allows for the transfer of hydrophobic molecules and nanoparticles from an organic solvent to an aqueous medium. The polymer helps to maintain a lipid-like microenvironment for the organic molecules to aid in preservation of their photochemical behavior in water. Thus this method is ideal to prepare water-dispersible photoresponsive systems. The use of near-infrared light to activate upconverting nanoparticles allows for lower energy light to be used to activate photoreactions instead of more harmful ultraviolet light.

  6. An organic dye-polymer (phenol red-poly (vinyl alcohol)) composite architecture towards tunable -optical and -saturable absorption characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Sreeja; Illyaskutty, Navas; Sreedhanya, S.; Philip, Reji; Muneera, C. I.

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that blending an organic dye (guest/filler), with a vinyl polymer (host template), is an inexpensive and simple approach for the fabrication of multifunctional photonic materials which could display an enhancement in the desirable properties of the constituent materials and, at the same time provide novel synergistic properties for the guest-host system. A new guest-host nanocomposite system comprising Phenol Red dye and poly (vinyl alcohol) as guest and host template, respectively, which exhibits tunable optical characteristics and saturable absorption behavior, is introduced. The dependence of local electronic environment provided by the polymer template and the interactions of the polymer molecules with the encapsulated guest molecules on the observed optical/nonlinear absorption behavior is discussed. An understanding of the tunability of the optical/ photophysical processes, with respect to the filler content, as discussed herein could help in the design of improved optical materials for several photonic device applications like organic light emitting diodes and saturable absorbers.

  7. Gel polymer electrolyte based on LiBOB and PAN for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arof, A. K.; Jun, H. K.; Sim, L. N.; Kufian, M. Z.; Sahraoui, B.

    2013-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated using metal complex N3 dye coupled with LiBOB and PAN-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). Conductivity of the GPE at room temperature was 1.2 × 10-2 S cm-1. The deconvoluted vibration spectra at different temperatures between 1000 and 970 cm-1 show the existence of ion pairs and free ions. Overall efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE system is 0.65% and 48% respectively. The cell with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE system appears to be stable under varied light intensity attributed to the presence of redox couple mediator in the GPE. Impedance measurements show that the DSSC with LiBOB-BMII-PAN-I2 GPE has longer electron lifetime which suggests a lower electron recombination rate.

  8. Dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells fabricated by screen-printed TiO2 thin film with addition of polystyrene balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Han; Jin Mao Chen; Xiao Wen Zhou; Yuan Lin; Jing Bo Zhang; Jian Guang Jia

    2008-01-01

    The screen-printed nanoporous TiO2 thin film was employed to fabricate dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells using CuI as hole-transport materials. The solar cell based on nanoporous TiO2 thin film with large pores formed by the addition of polystyrene balls with diameter of 200 nm to the TiO2 paste exhibits photovoltaic performance enhancement, which is attributed to the good contact of CuI with surface of dye-sensitized thin film due to easy penetration of CuI in the film withlarge pores.

  9. Effect of The Addition of PEG and PVA Polymer for Gel Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) with Chlorophyll as Dye Sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seni, Ramadhanti S.; Puspitasari, Nurrisma; Endarko

    2017-07-01

    Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a third-generation solar cell that consists of a working electrode, electrolyte and counter electrode. One of the most important parts of DSSC is an electrolyte that roles as a medium and regenerates the electron transport of electrons in the dye. However, the liquid electrolyte has a lack of stability in long-term use and easily evaporate or leak in DSSC. Therefore, this study aims to investigate an effect of the addition of polymer material such as PEG 1000, 4000 and PVA 60000 for fabricating a gel electrolyte to solve the problems of liquid electrolyte. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles used in this study was prepared using co-precipitation (CPT) method which produces TiO2 anatase phase with a crystal size of 11.1 nm. DSSC has been successfully conducted and analyzed to evaluate its performance. The results showed that the efficiency of DSSC cells using gel electrolyte prepared with PVA 60000 was better than a liquid electrolyte, PEG 1000, 4000, with the efficiency could be obtained at 0.083, 0.018, 0.033, and 0.054%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the addition PEG and/or PVA could be enhanced the performance of DSSC due to gel electrolyte produced current and voltage more stable compared to the liquid electrolyte.

  10. Controllable Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Constructed as Efficient Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Weng Chong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A controllable electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211% attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3 to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glasses.

  11. Physics and technology of optical storage in polymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren; Ujhelyi, F.

    2001-01-01

    system based on polarization holography is described. A storage density of greater than 10MB/cm2 has been achieved so far, with a potential increase to 100MB/cm(2) using multiplexing techniques and software correction. Finally the role of surface relief in azobenzene polymers on irradiation...

  12. Novel thin film polymer foaming technique for low and ultra low-k dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, B.; Koops, G.H.; Vegt, van der N.F.A.; Wessling, M.; Wubbenhorst, M.; Turnhout, van J.

    2001-01-01

    The results presented show a novel route for the preparation of thin ultra-low-k polymer films based on commercial and "non-exotic" (non-expensive) polyimide by a foaming technique. Dependent on the glass transition temperature of the polyimide mechanically and thermally stable (> 300 °C) films havi

  13. Flexible fluidic microchips based on thermoformed and locally modified thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmüller, R.; Giselbrecht, S.; Blitterswijk, van C.; Dambrowsky, N.; Gottwald, E.; Mappes, T.; Rolletschek, A.; Saile, V.; Trautmann, C.; Weibezahn, K.-F.; Welle, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamentally new approach for the manufacturing and the possible applications of lab on a chip devices, mainly in the form of disposable fluidic microchips for life sciences applications. The new technology approach is based on a novel microscale thermoforming of thin polymer

  14. Full-field dye concentration measurement within saturated/unsaturated thin slabs of porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, D.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology; Glass, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents a full-field dye concentration measurement technique that extends our experimental capabilities to the measurement of transient dye concentration fields within steady state flow fields under unsaturated or saturated conditions. Simple light absorption theory provides a basis for translating images into high resolution dye concentration fields. A series of dye pulse experiments that demonstrate the combined use of the full-field saturation and dye concentration techniques was conducted at four different degrees of saturation. Each of these experimental sequences was evaluated with respect to mass balance, the results being within 5% of the known dye mass input. An image windowing technique allowed us to see increased dispersion due to decreasing moisture content, tailing of concentration at the rear of the dye pulse and slight velocity changes of the dispersive front due to changes in moisture content. The exceptional resolution of dye concentration in space and time provided by this laboratory technique allows systematic experimentation for examining basic processes affecting solute transport within saturated/unsaturated porous media. Future challenges for this work will be to use these techniques to analyze more complex systems involving heterogeneities, scaling laws, and detailed investigations of the relationship between transverse and longitudinal dispersion in unsaturated media.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with composite gel polymer electrolytes containing nanosized Al2O3 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Nawon; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-12-01

    Polymeric ionic liquid, poly(1-methyl 3-(2-acryloyloxy propyl) imidazolium iodide) (PMAPII) containing iodide ions is synthesized and used as a matrix polymer for preparing the composite polymer electrolytes. The composite gel polymer electrolytes are prepared by utilizing PMAPII, organic solvent containing redox couple and aluminum oxide nanoparticle for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMAPII is highly compatible with organic solvents and thus there is no phase separation between the PMAPII and organic solvents. This makes it be possible to directly solidify the liquid electrolyte in the cell and maintain good interfacial contacts between the electrolyte and electrodes. The addition of 10 wt.% Al2O3 nanoparticle to gel polymer electrolyte provides the most desirable environment for ionic transport, resulting in the improvement of the photovoltaic performance of DSSC. The quasi-solid-state DSSC assembled with optimized composite gel polymer electrolyte containing 10 wt.% Al2O3 nanoparticle exhibits a relatively high conversion efficiency of 6.51% under AM 1.5 illumination at 100 mA cm(-2) and better stability than DSSC with liquid electrolyte.

  16. Undulatory delamination of thin polymer films on gold surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chah, Soonwoo; Noolandi, Jaan; Zare, Richard N

    2005-10-20

    Using two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance measurements, we have observed the formation of traveling waves in the delamination of thin films of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) exposed to methanol. Films were spin-coated on a gold surface and the methanol was added to the top surface. The stress-induced instability caused by the swelling of the PDMS thin film when its edge is pinned to the gold surface leads to wrinkle formation and propagation at the interface. The periodic pattern is thought to be the result of an Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld (ATG) instability.

  17. Recent trends in electrospinning of polymer nanofibers and their applications in ultra thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheman, Abdul; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Mohammad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Fabrication of polymer derived electrospun nanofibers by electrospinning as chromatographic sorbent bed for ultra-thin layer chromatography (UTLC) is a very demanding topic in analytical chemistry. This review presents an overview of recent development in the fabrication of polymer derived electrospun nanofibers and their applications to design UTLC plates as stationary phases for on-plate identification and separation of analytes from their mixture solutions. It has been reported that electrospun fiber based stationary phases in UTLC have enhanced separation efficiency to provide separation of analyte mixture in a shorter development time than those of traditional particle-based TLC stationary phases. In addition, electrospun UTLC is cost effective and can be modified for obtaining different surface selectivities by changing the polymer materials to electrospun devices. Electrospun UTLC plates are not available commercially till date and efforts are being rendered for their commercialization. The morphology and diameter of electrospun nanofibers are highly dependent on several parameters such as type of polymer, polymer molecular weight, solvent, viscosity, conductivity, surface tension, applied voltage, collector distance and flow rate of the polymer solution during electrospinning process. Among the aforementioned parameters, solution viscosity is an important parameter which is mainly influenced by polymer concentration. This review provides evidence for the fabrication of UTLC plates containing electrospun polymer nanofibers. Furthermore, the future prospects related to electrospinning and its application in obtaining of different types of electrospun nanofibers are discussed. The present communication is aimed to review the work which appeared during 2009-2014 on the application of polymer derived electrospun nanofibers in ultra thin layer chromatography.

  18. Making Glasses Conduct: Electrochemical Doping of Redox-Active Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudouris, Bryan

    Optoelectronically-active macromolecules have been established as promising materials in myriad organic electronic applications (e.g., organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices). To date, however, the majority of the work surrounding these materials has focused on materials with a great deal of conjugation along their macromolecular backbones and with varying degrees of crystalline structure. Here, we describe an emerging class of macromolecular charge conductors, radical polymers, that: (1) do not contain conjugation and (2) are completely amorphous glasses. Radical polymers contain non-conjugated macromolecular backbones and stable radical sites along the side chains of the electronically-active materials. In contrast to conjugated polymer systems, these materials conduct charge in the solid state through oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions along these pendant groups. Specifically, we demonstrate that controlling the chemical functionality of the pendant groups and the molecular mobility of the macromolecular backbones significantly impacts the charge transport ability of the pristine (i.e., not doped) radical polymers species. Through proper control of these crucial parameters, we show that radical polymers can have electrical conductivity and charge mobility values on par with commonly-used conjugated polymers. Importantly, we also highlight the ability to dope radical polymers with redox-active small molecule species. This doping, in turn, increases the electrical conductivity of the glassy radical polymer thin films in a manner akin to what is observed in traditional conjugated polymer systems. In this way, we establish a means by which to fabricate optically-transparent and colorless thin film glasses capable of conducting charge in a rather rapid manner. We anticipate that these fundamental insights will prove crucial in developing new transparent conducting layers for future electronic applications.

  19. Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Zhimin; Li, Sean

    2011-03-22

    The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T) and thickness (h)-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h) is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS) thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h) decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*), at which thickness Ef(T,h) deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.

  20. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Sangawar; P S Chikhalikar; R J Dhokne; A U Ubale; S D Meshram

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of activated charcoal and polyvinyl chloride chains.

  1. The scanning probe microscopy study of thin polymer films

    CERN Document Server

    Harron, H R

    1995-01-01

    spherulites fibrils was influenced by the chemical nature of the solvent Results reported here confirm that the fibril structure and spherulite size was significantly affected by the chemical nature of the plasticizing solvent. Detailed observations of the spherulites are included herein. A tapping mode AFM was used in conjunction with the usual contact mode AFM to image the fine spherulitic lamellae structure. It was found that the AFM operated in the tapping mode was less destructive than when operated in the contact mode and gave higher resolution images of the lamellae structure. The lamellae were found to be structurally very similar to the features observed in the study using STM indicating that under certain circumstances, the STM was less destructive over the 'insulating' polymer than the contact mode AFM. technique. Furthermore, images of the crystalline film contained elongated units that were attributed to the lamellae formations that form the basic building blocks of polymer spherulites. The study...

  2. Method for dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA); Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-05-19

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  3. Dialysis on microchips using thin porous polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2007-09-04

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and form a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  4. Application of ultra-thin polymer coating on metallic wires

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Juan

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the coating of fine wires using hydrodynamic pressure technique has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. One of the principal aims of the project is to establish the minimum possible coating thickness on fine wires which can be applied by means of hydrodynamic technique. Models based on steady, uniform and laminar flow of Newtonian as well as non-Newtonian fluid for polymer coating for the process of plasto-hydrodynamic wire coating in a stepped bore unit have be...

  5. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-09

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  6. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S.; Ramesh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10-3 S cm-1 is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm-2, 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively.

  7. Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Based Non-Volatile Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications using 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmirzaei, Mohammad Hassan; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2015-12-11

    Gel polymer electrolytes using imidazolium based ionic liquids have attracted much attention in dye-sensitized solar cell applications. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), sodium iodide (NaI), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as ionic liquid (IL), ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are used for preparation of non-volatile gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) system (HPC:EC:PC:NaI:MPII) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The highest ionic conductivity of 7.37 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) is achieved after introducing 100% of MPII with respect to the weight of HPC. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolytes is studied in this work. XRD patterns of gel polymer electrolytes are studied to confirm complexation between HPC polymer, NaI and MPII. Thermal behavior of the GPEs is studied using simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSSCs are fabricated using gel polymer electrolytes and J-V centeracteristics of fabricated dye sensitized solar cells were analyzed. The gel polymer electrolyte with 100 wt.% of MPII ionic liquid shows the best performance and energy conversion efficiency of 5.79%, with short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor of 13.73 mA cm(-2), 610 mV and 69.1%, respectively.

  8. Activation energy for mobility of dyes and proteins in polymer solutions: from diffusion of single particles to macroscale flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozański, Krzysztof; Wiśniewska, Agnieszka; Kalwarczyk, Tomasz; Hołyst, Robert

    2013-11-27

    We measure the activation energy Ea for the diffusion of molecular probes (dyes and proteins of radii from 0.52 to 6.9 nm) and for macroscopic flow in a model complex liquid-aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol. We cover a broad range of polymer molecular weights, concentrations, and temperatures. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and rheometry experiments reveal a relationship between the excess of the activation energy in polymer solutions over the one in pure solvent ΔEa and simple parameters describing the structure of the system: probe radius, polymer hydrodynamic radius, and correlation length. ΔEa varies by more than an order of magnitude in the investigated systems (in the range of ca. 1-15 kJ/mol) and for probes significantly larger than the polymer hydrodynamic radius approaches the value measured for macroscopic flow. We develop an explicit formula describing the smooth transition of ΔEa from the diffusion of molecular probes to macroscopic flow. This formula is a reference for the quantitative analysis of specific interactions of moving nano-objects with their environment as well as active transport. For instance, the power developed by a molecular motor moving at constant velocity u is proportional to u2exp(Ea/RT).

  9. Optical phase-conjugation in erioglaucine dye-doped thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Geethakrishnan; P K Palanisamy

    2006-02-01

    Optical phase-conjugation (OPC) has been demonstrated in erioglaucine (acid blue 9) dye-doped gelatin films via continuous-wave degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) using a low-power He-Ne laser at 633 nm. DFWM and holographic processes are found to contribute to the observed phase-conjugate signal. A maximum phase-conjugate beam reflectivity of about 0.24% has been observed in these dye-doped gelatin films.

  10. Imaging studies of temperature dependent photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 dye-doped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Hung, Sheng-Ting; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2016-07-01

    Using confocal transmission imaging microscopy, we measure the temperature dependence of photodegradation and self-healing in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS). In both dye-doped polymers, an increase in sample temperature results in a greater photodegradation rate and degree of degradation, while also resulting in a slower recovery rate and larger recovery fraction. These results confirm the temperature dependence predictions of the modified correlated chromophore domain model (mCCDM) [B. R. Anderson and M. G. Kuzyk, Phys. Rev. E 89, 032601 (2014)]. Additionally, using quantitative fitting of the imaging data for DO11/PMMA, we determine the domain density parameter to be ρ = 1.19 (±0.25) × 10-2 and the domain free energy advantage to be λ = 0.282 ± 0.015 eV, which are within the uncertainty of the values previously determined using amplified spontaneous emission as the probe method [S. K. Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013)]. Finally, while we find photodegradation and self-healing of DO11/PS to be qualitatively consistent with the mCCDM, we find that it is quantitatively incompatible with the mCCDM as recovery in DO11/PS is found to behave as a stretched (or double) exponential as a function of time.

  11. Engineering the Crystalline Morphology of Polymer Thin Films via Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyuncheol; Arnold, Craig; Priestley, Rodney

    Thin-film growth via physical vapor deposition (PVD) has been successfully exploited for the delicate control of film structure for molecular and atomic systems. The application of such a high-energetic process to polymeric film growth has been challenged by chemical degradation. However, recent development of Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique opened up a way to deposit a variety of macromolecules in a PVD manner. Here, employing MAPLE technique to the growth of semicrystalline polymer thin films, we show the engineering of crystalline film morphology can be achieved via manipulation of substrate temperature. This is accomplished by exploiting temperature effect on crystallization kinetics of polymers. During the slow film growth crystallization can either be permitted or suppressed, and crystal thickness can be tuned via temperature modulation. In addition, we report that the crystallinity of polymer thin films may be significantly altered with deposition temperature in MAPLE processing. We expect that this ability to manipulate crystallization kinetics during polymeric film growth will open the possibility to engineer structure in thin film polymeric-based devices in ways that are difficult by other means.

  12. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  13. Ultraviolet and infrared femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on thin polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Moreno, Pablo [Grupo de Investigacion en Microprocesado de Materiales con Laser, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Perez-Hernandez, Jose A. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados Ultracortos Ultraintensos, CLPU, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-23

    This work demonstrates the formation of femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by multipulse irradiation with the fundamental and 3rd harmonic of a linearly polarized Ti:sapphire laser (795 and 265 nm) on thin films of the polymers poly (ethylene terephthalate), poly (trimethylene terephthalate), and poly (carbonate bisphenol A) prepared by spin-coating. LIPSS, inspected by atomic force microscopy, are formed upon multiple pulse UV and IR irradiation with wavelength-sized period in a narrow range of fluences below the ablation threshold. Control and tunability of the size and morphology of the periodic structures become thus possible ensuring photochemical integrity of polymer films.

  14. Organic thin film transistors with polymer brush gate dielectrics synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, J.C.; Whiting, G.L.; Khodabakhsh, S.

    2008-01-01

    , synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), were used to fabricate low voltage OFETs with both evaporated pentacene and solution deposited poly(3-hexylthiophene). The semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in these systems were studied with a variety of methods including scanning force microscopy......Low operating voltage is an important requirement that must be met for industrial adoption of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We report here solution fabricated polymer brush gate insulators with good uniformity, low surface roughness and high capacitance. These ultra thin polymer films...

  15. Polymer Thin Film Buckling: Wrinkling and Strain Localizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Yuri; Croll, Andrew B.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    2011-03-01

    Out of plane deformations of thin films are observed in everyday life, e.g. wrinkled aging human skin or folded fabrics. Recently, these deformations are being pursued for fabricating unique patterned surfaces. In this study, the transition from wrinkling, a low-strain buckling behavior, to localized deformations such as fold and delamination, is investigated for polystyrene films with thickness ranging from 5nm to 180nm. The thin films are attached to a uniaxially strained polydimethysiloxane substrate and the strain is released incrementally to apply increasing compressive strain to the attached film. The wavelength and the amplitude of local out-of-plane deformation are measured as global compression is increased to distinguish between wrinkling, folding, and delamination. The transition from wrinkling to strain localizing events is observed by tracking the statistics of amplitude distribution sampled across a large lateral area. A critical strain map is constructed to denote the strain regimes at which wrinkle, fold, and delamination occur. NSF-DMR 0907219.

  16. Thin-film solid-state proton NMR measurements using a synthetic mica substrate: Polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderHart, David L.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; Lavery, Kristopher A.; Dennis, Cindi L.; Rao, Ashwin B.; Lin, Eric K.

    2009-11-01

    Solid-state proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements are performed successfully on polymer blend thin films through the use of synthetic mica as a substrate. When used as a substrate, synthetic fluorophlogopite mica with its proton-free, diamagnetic character, allows for adequate measurement sensitivity while minimally perturbing the proton thin-film spectra, especially relative to more commonly available natural micas. Specifically, we use multiple-pulse techniques in the presence of magic-angle spinning to measure the degree of mixing in two different polymer blend thin films, polystyrene/poly(xylylene ether) and poly(1-methyladamantyl methacrylate) (PMAdMA)/triphenylsulfonium perfluorobutanesulfonate (TPS-PFBS), spin-coated onto mica substrates. Our earlier studies had focused on bulk systems where NMR signals are stronger, but may not be representative of thin films of the same systems that are relevant to many applications such as photoresist formulations in the electronics industry. The superiority of synthetic over natural paramagnetic mica is demonstrated by the maintenance of resolution and spinning sideband intensities (relative to bulk samples) for the synthetic mica samples. In contrast, degraded resolution and large spinning sidebands are shown to typify spectra of the natural mica samples. This approach can be applied to many other proton measurements of solid thin films, thereby greatly extending the types of systems to be investigated. Magnetic susceptibility measurements are also reported for all micas used.

  17. TWO-LAYER MODEL DESCRIPTION OF POLYMER THIN FILM DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-dong Peng; Ran-xing Nancy Li; Chi-hang Lam; Ophelia K.C.Tsui

    2013-01-01

    Experiments in the past two decades have shown that the glass transition temperature of polymer films can become noticeably different from that of the bulk when the film thickness is decreased below ca.100 nm.It is broadly believed that these observations are caused by a nanometer interfacial layer with dynamics faster or slower than that of the bulk.In this paper,we examine how this idea may be realized by using a two-layer model assuming a hydrodynamic coupling between the interfacial layer and the remaining,bulk-like layer in the film.Illustrative examples will be given showing how the two-layer model is applied to the viscosity measurements of polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate films supported by silicon oxide,where divergent thickness dependences are observed.

  18. Film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, J S; Stamm, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films prepared from solution. As a model system we used binary blends of statistical poly(styrene-co-p-bromostyrene) copolymers of different degrees of bromination. Ultra-thin-film samples differing in miscibility and film thickness were prepared via spin coating of common toluene solutions onto silicon (100) substrates. The resulting morphologies were investigated with scanning force microscopy, reflectometry and grazing-incidence scattering techniques using both X-rays and neutrons in order to obtain a picture of the sample structure at and below the sample surface. (orig.)

  19. Polymer dielectric materials for organic thin-film transistors: Interfacial control and development for printable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choongik

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have been extensively studied for organic electronics. In these devices, organic semiconductor-dielectric interface characteristics play a critical role in influencing OTFT operation and performance. This study begins with exploring how the physicochemical characteristics of the polymer gate dielectric affects the thin-film growth mode, microstructure, and OTFT performance parameters of pentacene films deposited on bilayer polymer (top)-SiO2 (bottom) dielectrics. Pentacene growth mode varies considerably with dielectric substrate, and correlations are established between pentacene film deposition temperature, the thin-film to bulk microstructural phase transition, and OTFT device performance. Furthermore, the primary influence of the polymer dielectric layer glass transition temperature on pentacene film microstructure and OTFT response is shown for the first time. Following the first study, the influence of the polymer gate dielectric viscoelastic properties on overlying organic semiconductor film growth, film microstructure, and TFT response are investigated in detail. From the knowledge that nanoscopically-confined thin polymer films exhibit glass transition temperatures that deviate substantially from those of the corresponding bulk materials, pentacene (p-channel) and cyanoperylene (n-channel) films grown on polymer gate dielectrics at temperatures well-below their bulk glass transition temperatures (Tg(b)) have been shown to exhibit morphological/microstructural transitions and dramatic OTFT performance discontinuities at well-defined temperatures (defined as the polymer "surface glass transition temperature," or Tg(s)). These transitions are characteristic of the particular polymer architecture and independent of film thickness or overall film cooperative chain dynamics. Furthermore, by analyzing the pentacene films grown on UV-curable polymer dielectrics with different curing times (hence, different degrees of

  20. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Bio-Polymer Graphite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddam Kamarudin, M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Munirah Abdullah, Nur; Abdullah, M. F. L.

    2017-08-01

    Waste cooking oil is used as the main substances in producing graphite biopolymer thin films. Biopolymer is produce from the reaction of bio-monomer and cross linker with the ratio of 2:1 and addition of graphite with an increment of 2% through a slip casting method. The morphological surface properties of the samples are observed by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It is shown that the graphite particle is well mixed and homogenously dispersed in biopolymer matrix. Meanwhile, the mechanical response of materials by monitoring the change in the material properties in terms of frequency and temperature of the samples were determined using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The calculated cross-linked density of biopolymer composites revealed the increment of graphite particle loading at 8% gives highest results with 260.012 x 103 M/m3.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte thin films by spin-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; Niranjana, M.; Devendrappa, H.

    2016-05-01

    Solid Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; Synthesized by Co-precipitation method) thin films have prepared at a different weight percent using the spin-coating method. The complexation of the NPs with the polymer blend was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The variation in film morphology was examined by polarized optical micrographs (POMs). The thermal behavior of blends was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by differential thermal analyses (DTA). A single glass transition temperature for each blend was observed, which supports the existence of compatibility of such system. The obtained results represent that the ternary based thin films are prominent materials for battery and optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Surface imprinted thin polymer film systems with selective recognition for bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, David R; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2012-03-09

    Molecularly imprinted polymers are synthetic antibody mimics formed by the crosslinking of organic or inorganic polymers in the presence of an analyte which yields recognitive polymer networks with specific binding pockets for that biomolecule. Surface imprinted polymers were synthesized via a novel technique for the specific recognition of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Thin films of recognitive networks based on 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) as the functional monomer and varying amounts of either N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) or poly(ethylene glycol) (400) dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA) as the crosslinking agent were synthesized via UV free-radical polymerization and characterized. A clear and reproducible increase in recognition of the template BSA was demonstrated for these systems at 1.6-2.5 times more BSA recognized by the MIP sample relative to the control polymers. Additionally, these polymers exhibited selective recognition of the template relative to competing proteins with up to 2.9 times more BSA adsorbed than either glucose oxidase or bovine hemoglobin. These synthetic antibody mimics hold significant promise as the next generation of robust recognition elements in a wide range of bioassay and biosensor applications.

  3. Bias-stress-induced instability of polymer thin-film transistor based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, YR; Liao, R.; Lai, PT; Yao, RH

    2012-01-01

    A polymer thin-film transistor (PTFT) based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is fabricated by a spin-coating process and characterized. Its bias-stress-induced instability during operation is investigated as a function of time and temperature. For negative gate-bias stress, the carrier mobility remains unchanged, the off-state current decreases, and the threshold voltage shifts toward the negative direction. On the other hand, for negative drain-bias stress, the carrier mobility decreases sli...

  4. Ion-beam modifications of the surface morphology and conductivity in some polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramakrishna Murthy; E Venkateshwar Rao

    2002-10-01

    Studies on the surface micromorphology and surface conductivity in thin polymer films of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) in both as-grown and ion-implanted polymer films have been carried out to reveal certain specific features of the ordered state in these materials. Optical microscopic investigations revealed the existence and enhanced formation in number of spherulites and dendrites in ionimplanted films relative to the as-grown films. The number and rate of formation of spherulites indicated an increase in the degree of crystallinity in these films. Measurements of surface conductivity of as-grown and ion-implanted polymer films, employing four-point probe method, indicated a decrease in electrical conductivity on ion-implantation. Photomicrographic analysis of the PVA and PEO thin film surfaces, has enabled to propose a temperature–stress induced mechanism of crystallization in conjunction with the surface conductivity measurements. The decrease in surface conductivity on ion-implantation in both PVA and PEO thin films, is attributed to a decrease in mobility of macromolecular charged species due to an increase in degree of crystallinity as has been observed by optical microscopy.

  5. Optical behavior of silver nanoparticles embedded in polymer thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, M.; Pourcin, F.; Margeat, O.; Le Rouzo, J.; Berginc, G.; Sauvage, R.-M.; Ackermann, J.; Escoubas, L.

    2016-09-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is challenging for the control of the light matter interaction phenomena. In this context, our work is focused on optical characterization and modeling of polymer thin films layers with inclusions of previously chemically synthesized NPs. Through the presence of metallic NPs in polymer thin films, the optical properties are assumed to become tunable. Thin film layers with inclusions of differently shaped and sized silver NPs, such as nanospheres and nanoprisms, are optically characterized to get the scattering, the reflection and the absorption of the layers. One step and two step seed based methods of silver ions reduction are used for the chemical synthesis of nanospheres and nanoprisms. The plasmonic resonance peaks of these colloidal solutions range from 360 to 1300 nm. A poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer matrix is chosen for its light non-absorbing and NP-stabilizing properties. Knowledge on the shape and size of the NPs embedded in the spin coated layers is obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. The optical properties include spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements to get the reflectance, the transmittance, the absorptance and the optical indices n and k of the heterogeneous layers. A redshift in absorption is measured between deposited nanospheres and other shaped NPs. FDTD simulations allow calculation of far and near field properties. The visualization of the NP interactions and the electric field enhancement, on and around the NPs, are studied to improve the understanding of the far field properties.

  6. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya

    2012-06-19

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films. The axial position of the dye molecules across the thickness of the film was determined with a resolution of 12 nm by analyzing astigmatic fluorescence images. The average relaxation times of the rotating molecules do not depend on the overall thickness of the film between 20 and 110 nm. The relaxation times also do not show any dependence on the axial position within the films for the film thickness between 70 and 110 nm. In addition to the rotating molecules we observed a fraction of spatially diffusing molecules and completely immobile molecules. These molecules indicate the presence of thin (<5 nm) high-mobility surface layer and low-mobility layer at the interface with the substrate. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Nano-Sized Zero Valent Iron and Covalent Organic Polymer Composites for Azo Dye Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Byun, Jeehye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2014-01-01

    Having superior reductive properties and large surface areas, nanosized zero valent iron (nZVI) is ideal for the degradation of chemicals such as azo dyes and trichloroethylene (TCE). However, immobilization of nZVI is a key parameter in its effectiveness as a chemical degradation agent. In this ......Having superior reductive properties and large surface areas, nanosized zero valent iron (nZVI) is ideal for the degradation of chemicals such as azo dyes and trichloroethylene (TCE). However, immobilization of nZVI is a key parameter in its effectiveness as a chemical degradation agent...

  8. Research on the electronic and optical properties of polymer and other organic molecular thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The main goal of the work is to find materials and methods of optimization of organic layered electroluminescent cells and to study such properties of polymers and other organic materials that can be used in various opto-electronic devices. The summary of results obtained during the first year of work is presented. They are: (1) the possibility to produce electroluminescent cells using a vacuum deposition photoresist technology for commercial photoresists has been demonstrated; (2) the idea to replace the polyaryl polymers by other polymers with weaker hole conductivity for optimization of electroluminescent cells with ITO-Al electrodes has been suggested. The goal is to obtain amorphous processable thin films of radiative recombination layers in electroluminescent devices; (3) procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum-deposited poly (p-phenylene) (PPP) films on various substrates have been developed; (4) it was found for the first time that the fluorescence intensity of PPP films depends on the degree of polymerization; (5) the role of interfaces between organic compounds, on one side, and metals or semiconductors, on the other side, has been studied and quenching of the fluorescence caused by semiconductor layer in thin sandwiches has been observed; (6) studies of the dynamics of photoexcitations revealed the exciton self-trapping in quasi-one-dimensional aggregates; and (7) conditions for preparation of highly crystalline fullerene C{sub 60} films by vacuum deposition have been found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers have been prepared.

  9. Development of Thin-film Dye-sensitized Photoactive Materials on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    a rapid inert gas dehydration and ultrasonic agitation detachment method. The free-standing arrays, comprised of hexagonally closed-packed...17 Figure 12. (a) Without methanol wetting, (b) with methanol wetting, (c...2. the effective surface area of the electrodes available for dye anchoring, 3. the transport kinetics of electrons to the substrate, 4. the

  10. Sorption isotherms, kinetic and optimization process of amino acid proline based polymer nanocomposite for the removal of selected textile dyes from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sharista; Anand, K; Gengan, R M; Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Maity, Arjun

    2016-12-01

    In this article, adsorption and kinetic studies were carried out on three textile dyes, namely Reactive Blue 222 (RB 222), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145). The dyes studied in a mixture were adsorbed under various conditions onto PRO-BEN, a bentonite modified with a new cationic proline polymer (l-proline-epichlorohydrin polymer). The proline polymer was characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. The PRO-BEN composite was characterized by FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS) (zeta potential), TEM imaging, SEM/EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (characterize the binding energy). During adsorption studies, factors involving pH, temperature, the initial concentrations of the dyes and the quantity of PRO-BEN used during adsorption were established. The results revealed that the adsorption mechanism was categorized by the Langmuir type 1 isotherm. The adsorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model indicated that adsorption did not only depend on the intraparticle diffusion of the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters verified that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs free energy values indicated that physisorption had occurred. Successful adsorption of dyes from an industrial effluent was achieved. Desorption studies concluded that PRO-BEN desorbed the dyes better than alumina. This can thereby be viewed as a recyclable remediation material. The PRO-BEN composite could be a cost efficient alternative towards the removal of organic dyes in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure and interaction of polymer thin films with supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirard, Stephen Michael

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of colloid stability in CO2 as well as the interaction of CO2 with polymer thin films is necessary for the intelligent design of CO2-based processes for future materials applications. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was used to measure the thickness and optical properties of nanoscale poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) films exposed to compressed CO2 . Both the sorption and CO2-induced dilation of the thin films were measured simultaneously with SE and deviations between the thin films and the corresponding bulk films may be attributed to excess CO 2 at the free interface as well as the influence of film confinement and the compressible nature of CO2 on the orientation and mobility of the polymers. SE was also used to measure sorption equilibrium and kinetics and CO2-induced dilation of polyimide (6FDA-DAM:DABA 2:1) thin films to determine how a gas separation membrane's structure affects its susceptibility to CO2-induced plasticization. Both thermal annealing and chemical crosslinking reduced the polymer dilation to prevent large increases in the CO2 diffusion coefficient at high CO2 pressures. The CO2 permeability and polymer free volume strongly depend on the annealing temperature, and different effects are observed for the crosslinked and uncrosslinked membranes and for the thick and thin membranes. Neutron reflectivity (NR) and SE were used to characterize the structure of end-grafted d-PDMS brushes on SiOx wafers exposed to compressed CO2. NR revealed two distinct regions in the segment density profile as a function of distance from the surface. The thickness and volume fraction profiles for the brush change much more with solvent quality than has been seen in previous studies with incompressible solvents, due to the high asymmetry in the intermolecular interactions, as well as the large compressibility and free volume differences between the polymer segments and the solvent. Turbidity versus time measurements

  12. Synthesis and characterization of natural dye and counter electrode thin films with different carbon materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Tien-Li; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chien, Shu-Hua; Jiang, Lii-Jenq

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to deal with the film of the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the preparation, structure and characteristics of the extract of natural dye. This study adopts different commercial carbon materials such as black lead, carbon black and self-made TiO2-MWCNT compound nanoparticle as the film of the counter electrodes. Moreover, for the preparation of natural dyes, anthocyanins and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mulberry and pomegranate respectively. Furthermore, the extracted anthocyanins and chlorophyll are blended into cocktail dye to complete the preparation of natural dye. Results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the single-layer TiO2-MWCNT counter electrode film and the cocktail dye of the DSSCs is 0.462%.

  13. Surface Modification of Aerosol-Assisted CVD Produced TiO2 Thin Film for Dye Sensitised Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPei Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple and convenient method for the preparation of Ag/TiO2 thin films supported on indium tin oxide, which was achieved by sonochemical deposition of Ag+ on aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposited TiO2 thin films. Posttreatment was performed on the film by immersion in HCl. The as-prepared composite film was characterised by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements and J-V characterisation showed approximately fivefold increase in photocurrent density generation and approximately sevenfold enhancement in dye sensitiser solar cell (DSSC conversion efficiency, which was achieved after modification of the TiO2 film with HCl posttreatment and Ag particle deposition. The improved photocurrent density of 933.30 μA/cm2, as well as DSSC power conversion efficiency of 3.63% with high stability, is an indication that the as-synthesised thin film is a potential candidate for solar energy conversion applications.

  14. Graphene tailored polymer gel electrolytes for 9.1%-efficiency quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing

    2017-04-01

    Pursuit of technological implementation with enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency and power generation ability in the dark is a persistent objective for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We launch here three strategies of designing graphene tailored polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with an electron-conducting feature, aiming at reserving I-/I3- redox couples into three-dimensional (3D) PGE framework, reducing I3- species within the PGE and shortening the diffusion length of redox couples. The 3D PGE provides framework for I-/I3- diffusion like in a liquid system, whereas graphene experiences to form interconnected channels along polyelectrolyte backbones. The results demonstrate that a power conversion efficiency of 9.1% is yielded on the resultant quasi-solid-state DSSCs by optimizing synthesis strategies.

  15. Evaluation of several commercial synthetic polymers as flocculant aids for removal of highly concentrated C.I. Acid Black 210 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrim, A Y; Tizaoui, C; Hilal, N

    2010-10-15

    The removal of C.I. Acid Black 210 dye from highly concentrated solutions was studied using a coagulation/flocculation process. Aluminium sulphate was used as a primary coagulant and five commercial polymers were used as flocculant aids. The five commercial polymers were ACCEPTA 2058 (poly-diallyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride), ACCEPTA 2047 (high molecular mass (MM) anionic polyacrylamide), ACCEPTA 2111 (high MM cationic polyacrylamide), ACCEPTA 2105 (Low-medium MM cationic polyacrylamide) and ACCEPTA 2037 (Composite of high MM cationic polyacrylamide-inorganic salt(s)). The five polymers behaved differently and they showed maximum colour removal increment in the order: ACCEPTA 2058 > ACCEPTA 2037 > ACCEPTA 2111 approximately = ACCEPTA 2047 > ACCEPTA 2105. Results also showed that the aluminium sulphate is important as primary coagulant and settling time has significant effect on the dye removal. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of the optical response in a biodegradable polymer/azo-dye film by the addition of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Costanzo, Guadalupe; Ribba, Laura; Goyanes, Silvia; Ledesma, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    A new biodegradable photoresponsive material was developed using poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as the matrix material and Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) as photoisomerizable azo-dye. It was observed that the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) leads to a new phenomenon consisting of an enhancement of the optical anisotropy in a wide range of temperatures. In particular, the optical anisotropy increases 100% at room temperature. Moreover, the material containing MWCNTs shows a faster optical response that is evidenced as an increase in the growth rate of optical anisotropy. Spectroscopic data is provided to study the interaction among DO3, MWCNTs and PLA. The enhancement of optical anisotropy obtained with the addition of MWCNTs was related to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of each material. Maximum optical anisotropy was obtained 15 °C below the Tg for both materials. Results are interpreted in terms of the interactions among DO3, MWCNTs and PLA and the packing density of the dye into the polymer chains. In memory of Professor Iñaki Mondragon.

  17. Bichromatic coherent random lasing from dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals controlled by pump light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).

  18. Thin-film dye sensitization and impurity effects on TiO2 and SrTiO3 electrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackor, A.; Schoonman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals of TiO2 and SrTiO3 are sensitized by thin films of a ruthenium surfactant dye, which is able to sustain catalytic oxidation of water upon irradiation with visible light. Calculated turnover numbers exceed 2000. Doping of the crystals with niobium does not improve the suitability of t

  19. Thin-film dye sensitization and impurity effects on TiO2 and SrTiO3 electrodes for the photoelectrolysis of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackor, A.; Schoonman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals of TiO2 and SrTiO3 are sensitized by thin films of a ruthenium surfactant dye, which is able to sustain catalytic oxidation of water upon irradiation with visible light. Calculated turnover numbers exceed 2000. Doping of the crystals with niobium does not improve the suitability of

  20. Highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on hexylimidazolium iodide ionic polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ low-temperature polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqiang; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Juan; Hou, Shuo; Zhang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are fabricated using a novel ionic polymer electrolyte containing hexylimidazolium iodide (HII) ionic polymer prepared by in situ polymerization of N,N‧-bis(imidazolyl) hexane and 1,6-diiodohexane without an initiator at low temperature (40 °C). The as-prepared HII ionic polymer has a similar structure to alkylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid, and the imidazolium cations are contained in the polymer main chain; so, it can act simultaneously as the redox mediator in the electrolyte. By incorporating an appropriate amount of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (DMII) in HII ionic polymer (DMII/HII ionic polymer = 0.7:1, weight ratio), the conductivity of the ionic polymer electrolyte is greatly improved due to the formation of Grotthuss bond exchange. In addition, in situ synthesis of ionic polymer electrolyte guarantees a good pore-filling of the electrolyte in the TiO2 photoanode. As a result, the solid-state DSC based on the ionic polymer electrolyte containing HII ionic polymer and DMII without iodine achieves a conversion efficiency of 6.55% under the illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5), which also exhibits a good at-rest stability at room temperature.

  1. Exciton transport in thin-film cyanine dye J-aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Valleau, Stéphanie; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the study of exciton dynamics in J-aggregated monolayers of fluorescent dyes. The excitonic evolution is described by a Monte-Carlo wave function approach which allows for a unified description of the quantum (ballistic) and classical (diffusive) propagation of an exciton on a lattice in different parameter regimes. The transition between the ballistic and diffusive regime is controlled by static and dynamic disorder. As an example, the model is applied to three cyanine dye J-aggregates: TC, TDBC, and U3. Each of the molecule-specific structure and excitation parameters are estimated using time-dependent density functional theory. The exciton diffusion coefficients are calculated and analyzed for different degrees of film disorder and are correlated to the physical properties and the structural arrangement of molecules in the aggregates. Further, exciton transport is anisotropic and dependent on the initial exciton energy. The upper-bound estimation of the exciton diffusion ...

  2. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using Cr doped Cu-Zn-Se type chalcopyrite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D. Paul; Venkateswaran, C. [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India); Ganesan, S.; Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Maruthamuthu, P. [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kovendhan, M. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Chalcopyrites are a versatile class of semiconductors known for their potential in photovoltaic applications. Considering the well established CuInSe{sub 2} as a prototype system, a new compound of the chalcopyrite type, Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-y}Se{sub 2-{delta}}, by replacing In with Zn, has been prepared (both undoped and 2% Cr doped) by the metallurgical method. Thin films have been deposited by the thermal evaporation technique using the stabilized polycrystalline compounds as charge. Structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties of the films are analyzed and reported. Use of these films as electrodes in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Preparation of dye-adsorbing ZnO thin films by electroless deposition and their photoelectrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Satoshi; Nishikiori, Hiromasa

    2013-09-25

    Dye-adsorbing ZnO thin films were prepared on ITO films by electroless deposition. The films were formed in an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate, dimethylamine-borane, and eosin Y at 328 K. The film thickness was 1.2-2.0 μm. Thinner and larger-plane hexagonal columns were produced from the solution containing a higher concentration of eosin Y. A photocurrent was observed in the electrodes containing such ZnO films during light irradiation. The photoelectrochemical performance of the film was improved by increasing the concentration of eosin Y because of increases in the amount of absorbed photons and the electronic conductivity of ZnO.

  4. Characterization of spray-deposited ZnO thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amala Rani, A.; Ernest, Suhashini

    2016-07-01

    ZnO films have been prepared on glass plates with concentrations of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 M each consisting of 50 ml of solution using the spray pyrolysis technique. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed by means of the obtained film for 0.1 M which was also coated above the ITO substrate. N-719, iodide and platinum-coated ITO glass plates were used as the dye, electrolyte and counter electrode, respectively. XRD confirms that the structure of the film was polycrystalline having wurtzite structure. The surface with pores was found from the FESEM studies. The DSSC shows an optical transmittance of approximately 70 % in the visible region. The photoluminescence study reveals the electronic structure of the material. The efficiency of the DSSC measured for a 0.1 M ZnO thin film by sensitizing every 2 h was η = 0.51, 0.80, 0.54, 1.12, 2.11, 2.71, 3.15 and 3.20 %, respectively.

  5. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  6. Structural studies of thin films of semiconducting nanoparticles in polymer matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: tiziana.diluccio@portici.enea.it; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Laera, Anna Maria [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy); Antisari, Marco Vittori [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 S. Maria di Galeria (Roma) (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Ordered films of nanoscale materials are issue of wide interest for applications in several fields, such as optics, catalysis, and bioelectronics. In particular, semiconducting nanoparticles incorporation in a processable polymer film is an easy way to manipulate such materials for their application. We deposited thin layers of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles embedded in a thermoplastic cyclo-olephin copolymer (COC) with elevated optical transparency and highly bio-compatible. The nanoparticles were obtained by thiolate precursors previously dispersed in the polymer upon thermal treatment at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 deg. C depending on the desired size. The precursor/polymer solutions were spin-coated in order to get thin films. The spinning conditions were changed in order to optimise the layer thickness and uniformity. The samples were mainly characterised by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The thinnest layer we have deposited is 8 nm thick, as evaluated by XRR. The HRTEM measurements showed that the nanoparticles have quasi-spherical shape without evident microstructural defects. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the annealing temperature, e.g. at 232 deg. C the size of the CdS nanoparticles is about 4-5 nm.

  7. Design and fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices inspired from secondary lamellae of fish gills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prasoon; Gandhi, Prasanna S.; Majumder, Mainak

    2016-04-01

    Gills are one of the most primitive gas, solute exchange organs available in fishes. They facilitate exchange of gases, solutes and ions with a surrounding water medium through their functional unit called secondary lamella. These lamellae through their extraordinary morphometric features and peculiar arrangement in gills, achieve remarkable mass transport properties. Therefore, in the current study, modeling and simulation of convection-diffusion transport through a two dimensional model of secondary lamella and theoretical analysis of morphometric features of fish gills were carried out. Such study suggested an evolutionary conservation of parametric ratios across fishes of different weights. Further, we have also fabricated a thin microvascularised PDMS matrices mimicking secondary lamella by use of micro-technologies like electrospinning. In addition, we have also demonstrated the fluid flow by capillary action through these thin microvascularised PDMS matrices. Eventually, we also illustrated the application of these thin microvascularied PDMS matrices in solute exchange process under capillary flow conditions. Thus, our study suggested that fish gills have optimized parameteric ratios, at multiple length scale, throughout an evolution to achieve an organ with enhanced mass transport capabilities. Thus, these defined parametric ratios could be exploited to design and develop efficient, scaled-up gas/solute exchange microdevices. We also proposed an inexpensive and scalable method of fabrication of thin microvascularised polymer matrices and demonstrated its solute exchange capabilities under capillary flow conditions. Thus, mimicking the microstructures of secondary lamella will enable fabrication of microvascularised thin polymer systems through micro manufacturing technologies for potential applications in filtration, self-healing/cooling materials and bioengineering.

  8. Improvement of N-phthaloylchitosan based gel polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells using a binary salt system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, S N F; Azzahari, A D; Selvanathan, V; Yahya, R; Careem, M A; Arof, A K

    2017-02-10

    A binary salt system utilizing lithium iodide (LiI) as the auxiliary component has been introduced to the N-phthaloylchitosan (PhCh) based gel polymer electrolyte consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrapropylammonium iodide (TPAI), and iodine (I2) in order to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with efficiency of 6.36%, photocurrent density, JSC of 17.29mAcm(-2), open circuit voltage, VOC of 0.59V and fill factor, FF of 0.62. This efficiency value is an improvement from the 5.00% performance obtained by the DSSC consisting of only TPAI single salt system. The presence of the LiI in addition to the TPAI improves the charge injection rates and increases the iodide contribution to the total conductivity and both factors contribute to the increase in efficiency of the DSSC. The interaction behavior between polymer-plasticizer-salt was thoroughly investigated using EIS, FTIR spectroscopy and XRD.

  9. Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T and thickness (h-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*, at which thickness Ef(T,h deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.

  10. Effect of chain end group on surface glass transition temperature of thin polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiqun; Yang, Chang Zheng; Tanaka, Keiji; Takahara, Atsushi; Kajiyama, Tisato

    2001-04-01

    Surface glass transition behaviors of proton end capped poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP-H) and perfluoroalkyl end capped poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP-C 2C 8F) thin films were investigated based on temperature-dependent lateral force microscopic (TDLFM) measurement. It is found that the species of chain end groups have significant influence on the surface glass transition temperature of the thin polymer film. For both samples, it is revealed that the surface glass transition temperatures decrease significantly in comparison to the bulk ones, and the magnitude order of reduction in surface Tg for P2VP-C 2C 8F is larger than that for P2VP-H. The apparent activation energy of surface α-relaxation calculated from the Arrhenius plot is ca. 292±40 and 212±40 kJ/mol for P2VP-H and P2VP-C 2C 8F, respectively, and is much smaller than the bulk one. The depression of the surface Tg for thin polymer films is explained by the excess free volume induced by the enrichment of chain end groups at the surface.

  11. Mimicking conjugated polymer thin-film photophysics with a well-defined triblock copolymer in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazard, Johanna; Ono, Robert J; Bielawski, Christopher W; Barbara, Paul F; Vanden Bout, David A

    2013-04-25

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are promising materials for use in electronic applications, such as low-cost, easily processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Improving OPV efficiencies is hindered by a lack of a fundamental understanding of the photophysics in CP-based thin films that is complicated by their heterogeneous nanoscale morphologies. Here, we report on a poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(3-hexylthiophene) rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer. In good solvents, this polymer resembles solutions of P3HT; however, upon the addition of a poor solvent, the two P3HT chains within the triblock copolymer collapse, affording a material with electronic spectra identical to those of a thin film of P3HT. Using this new system as a model for thin films of P3HT, we can attribute the low fluorescence quantum yield of films to the presence of a charge-transfer state, providing fundamental insights into the condensed phase photophysics that will help to guide the development of the next generation of materials for OPVs.

  12. Flexible fluidic microchips based on thermoformed and locally modified thin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmüller, R; Giselbrecht, S; van Blitterswijk, C; Dambrowsky, N; Gottwald, E; Mappes, T; Rolletschek, A; Saile, V; Trautmann, C; Weibezahn, K-F; Welle, A

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents a fundamentally new approach for the manufacturing and the possible applications of lab on a chip devices, mainly in the form of disposable fluidic microchips for life sciences applications. The new technology approach is based on a novel microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films as core process. The flexibility not only of the semi-finished but partly also of the finished products in the form of film chips could enable future reel to reel processes in production but also in application. The central so-called 'microthermoforming' process can be surrounded by pairs of associated pre- and postprocesses for micro- and nanopatterned surface and bulk modification or functionalisation of the formed films. This new approach of microscale thermoforming of thin polymer film substrates overlaid with a split local modification of the films is called 'SMART', which stands for 'substrate modification and replication by thermoforming'. In the process, still on the unformed, plane film, the material modifications of the preprocess define the locations where later, then on the spatially formed film, the postprocess generates the final local modifications. So, one can obtain highly resolved modification patterns also on hardly accessible side walls and even behind undercuts. As a first application of the new technology, we present a flexible chip-sized scaffold for three dimensional cell cultivation in the form of a microcontainer array. The spatially warped container walls have been provided with micropores, cell adhesion micropatterns and thin film microelectrodes.

  13. Bending and Fracture in Thin Polymer Films during Capillary Origami Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Timothy; Croll, Andrew

    Capillary origami uses liquid tension to bend thin films into useful shapes and structures. The ability to scale this process to the microscopic range has led to growing interest in capillary origami and many potential applications. Clearly, the creation of three dimensional structures from flat sheets depends deeply on a combination of properties: fluid tensions, film thickness, film modulus and importantly the film's fracture properties. Fractures in a film are a critical component of macroscopic origami but macroscopic methods for creating these fractures are not possible at the microscopic scale. We present an experimental investigation of the interplay of capillary forces and material properties in the creation of controlled fractures in thin polymer films. Specifically, we use capillary forces to lift and bend a thin polymer film to the point of fracture using a variety of film thicknesses and material properties and attempt to model the basic underlying physics. We observe the creation of delaminations and fractures at pre-determined sites that can be tailored to specific shapes to be utilized in capillary origami.

  14. Thin film thermistor with positive temperature coefficient of resistance based on phase separated blends of ferroelectric and semiconducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Thomas; Sharifi Dehsari, Hamed; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; Groen, Wilhelm A.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that ferroelectric memory diodes can be utilized as switching type positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors. The diode consists of a phase separated blend of a ferroelectric and a semiconducting polymer stacked between two electrodes. The current through the semiconducting polymer depends on the ferroelectric polarization. At the Curie temperature the ferroelectric polymer depolarizes and consequently the current density through the semiconductor decreases by orders of magnitude. The diode therefore acts as switching type PTC thermistor. Unlike their inorganic counterparts, the PTC thermistors presented here are thin film devices. The switching temperature can be tuned by varying the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric polymer.

  15. Brush-Coated Nanoparticle Polymer Thin Films: structure-mechanical-optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-08-15

    Our work was devoted to understanding the structure and properties of a class of thin film polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). PNCs are composed of polymer hosts into which nanoparticles (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, C60, nanotubes) are incorporated. PNCs exhibit a diverse range of functional properties (optical, electronic, mechanical, biomedical, structural), determined in part by the chemical composition of the polymer host and the type of nanoparticle. The properties PNCs rely not only on specific functional, size-dependent, behavior of the nanoparticles, but also on the dispersion, and organizational order in some cases, inter-nanoparticle separation distances, and on relative interactions between the nanoparticles and the host. Therefore the scientific challenges associated with understanding the interrelations between the structure and function/properties of PNCs are far more complex than may be understood based only on the knowledge of the compositions of the constituents. The challenges of understanding the structure-function behavior of PNCs are further compounded by the fact that control of the dispersion of the nanoparticles within the polymer hosts is difficult; one must learn how to disperse inorganic particles within an organic host. The goal of this proposal was to develop an understanding of the connection between the structure and the thermal (glass transition), mechanical and optical properties of a specific class of PNCs. Specifically PNCs composed of polymer chain grafted gold nanoparticles within polymer hosts. A major objective was to understand how to develop basic principles that enable the fabrication of functional materials possessing optimized morphologies and combinations of materials properties.

  16. Ultrafast All-Optical Phenomena and Devices Using Conjugated Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Andrew Wayne

    The Su-Schrieffer-Heeger formalism predicts shifts of oscillator strength from the valence and conduction bands to new sub-gap absorptions for both degenerate and nondegenerate ground state conjugated polymers. Photoinduced absorption studies on polyacetylene confirmed this behavior in degenerate ground state polymers. The shift in oscillator strength to form solitons takes place in less than one optical phonon period (family) with similar time scale for the creation of polarons and with time decays on the order of 10-1000 ps. These fast (and large) changes in the optical absorption spectrum suggest that the materials are excellent candidates for use in nonlinear optical devices and systems. Thin film waveguides are the obvious first choice. We have used the focused light attenuated total reflection technique (FLATR) to measure both the sign and the magnitude of the change in the complex index of refraction of a conjugated polymer in a waveguide configuration. In poly(3-hexylthiophene) we observe a picosecond decrease in the refractive index correlated with the subgap induced absorption. The magnitude of the picosecond modulation is | n_2 | ~eq 1 times 10^{ -4} (MW/cm^2)^{ -1}. Optical devices based on waveguiding are inherently serial devices. These sorts of devices would find use in general purpose digital optical computers and switching application for telecommunications. We have explored the possibility of using an engineered polymer in a parallel processing architecture. The final project in this thesis describes a femtosecond optical correlator based on degenerate four-wave mixing in the conjugated polymer poly (1,6 heptadiester) (PHDE). PHDE is a degenerate ground state polymer with a backbone similar to trans-polyacetylene. This material was synthesized to retain the ultrafast time response of polyacetylene and large optical nonlinearities. Additionally, side groups were added to yield solubility in organic solvents and improve environmental stability. Our

  17. Open-circuit voltage enhancement on the basis of polymer gel electrolyte for a highly stable dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Congcong; Jia, Lichao; Guo, Siyao; Han, Song; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2013-08-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have received considerable attention owing to their low preparation cost and easy fabrication process. However, one of the drawbacks that limits the further application of DSSC is their poor stability, arising from the leakage and volatilization of the liquid organic solvent in the electrolyte. Therefore, to improve the long-term stability of DSSC, polymer gel electrolyte was studied to replace the conventional liquid electrolyte in this work. The results show that compared to liquid electrolyte, DSSC with polymer gel electrolyte has a smaller short-circuit current (Jsc), which decreases with the increase of the polymer gelator. Nevertheless, with the employment of the polymer gel electrolyte, there is a significant enhancement of open-circuit voltage (Voc), and it increases with the increase of the polymer gelator content. The highest Voc, up to 0.873 V, can be obtained for DSSC with a 30% polymer gelator content. The impact of the polymer gel electrolyte on the photovoltaic performance of DSSC, especially on Voc, was studied by analyzing the charge-transfer kinetics in the polymer gel electrolyte. Furthermore, the influence of the polymer gel electrolyte on the long-term stability of DSSC was also investigated.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND LUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES OF THE DYE-DOPED POLYMER LANGMUIR-BLODGETT FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-peng Zheng; Rui-feng Zhang; Jin-man Huang; Ying Wu; Yu-guang Ma; Tie-jin Li; Jia-cong Shen

    1999-01-01

    1,1,4,4-Tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) was successfully introduced into the polymer multilayer films by means of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Results of UV-VIS spectra and X-ray diffraction showed that the uniform films had a layer structure similar to the superlattice of organic multiple quantum wells. The electroluminescence (EL) devices fabricated from the doped polymer LB films emitted blue light.Compared with the casting films, the photoluminescence (PL) and EL spectra showed that the exciton energy shifts to higher and the half-width of the emission peak becomes narrower due to exciton confinement effect.

  19. Enhanced performance of blue polymer light-emitting diodes by a self-assembled thin interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Ho; Lee, Wonjoo; Cai, Gangri; Baek, Su Jin; Han, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2008-09-01

    High efficiency and long lifetime, blue polymer light-emitting diodes were obtained by adding a thin interlayer, which was fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique between poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) hole transporting and emissive polymer layers in the device configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS (65 nm)/interlayer (10-30 nm)/emissive polymer (70 nm)/BaF2 (2 nm)/Ca (50 nm)/Al (300 nm). The interlayer, (PPV/PSS)n, consisted of self-assembled multilayers of the conjugated polymer, poly (p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), and the polyelectrolyte, poly (styrene sulfonic acid) (PSS). Electroluminescence (EL) characteristics such as luminescence and current efficiency of the devices were enhanced by the addition of the interlayer. Furthermore, the devices with interlayer showed longer lifetime than those without interlayer. The maximum device performance was obtained from the device with (PPV/PSS)3 interlayer.

  20. Vacuum-integrated electrospray deposition for highly reliable polymer thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Lee, Younjoo; Yi, Yeonjin

    2012-10-01

    Vacuum electrospray deposition (ESD) equipment was designed to prepare polymer thin films. The polymer solution can be injected directly into vacuum system through multi-stage pumping line, so that the solvent residues and ambient contaminants are highly reduced. To test the performance of ESD system, we fabricated organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs) by injecting polymer solution directly onto the substrate inside a high vacuum chamber. The OPVC fabricated has the structure of Al∕P3HT:PCBM∕PEDOT:PSS∕ITO and was optimized by varying the speed of solution injection and concentration of the solution. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the optimized OPVC is 3.14% under AM 1.5G irradiation without any buffer layer at the cathode side. To test the advantages of the vacuum ESD, we exposed the device to atmosphere between the deposition steps of the active layer and cathode. This showed that the PCE of the vacuum processed device is 24% higher than that of the air exposed device and confirms the advantages of the vacuum prepared polymer film for high performance devices.

  1. Effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha, E-mail: malanchg@usc.edu [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 925 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, the effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The polymerizations of 4-vinyl pyridine and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate were studied using copper(II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) as the transition metal salts. It was found that the surface coverages of both poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) were decreased on CuCl{sub 2}, while the surface coverage of only P4VP was decreased on FeCl{sub 3}. The decreased polymer surface coverage was found to be due to quenching of the propagating radicals by the salt, which led to a reduction of the oxidation state of the metal. The identification of this reaction mechanism allowed for tuning of the effectiveness of the salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage through the adjustment of processing parameters such as the filament temperature. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the ability of transition metal salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage could be extended to the fabrication of patterned cross-linked coatings, which is important for many practical applications such as sensors and microelectronics.

  2. Numerical Self-Consistent Field Theory of Flat and Curved Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantawansri, Tanya L.; Garcia-Cervera, Carlos J.; Ceniceros, Hector D.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2008-03-01

    Using self-consistent field theory, we explore the numerical methods and boundary conditions involved in modeling the self-assembly of inhomogeneous polymer thin films deposited on flat and curved substrates. The model is simulated using a fourth-order accurate spectral collocation method first used by Cochran et al. [Macromolecules 2006, 39, 2449-2451] to model bulk polymeric systems, but where we apply finite difference approximations and non-periodic boundary conditions for the film in the direction normal to the substrate. Boundary conditions are employed to model experimentally relevant substrate conditions such as a ``neutral'' or attractive bounding surface. For a neutral surface where the substrate has no preferential attraction to either polymer segment, it is appropriate to utilize Neumann boundary conditions, while a surface with a preferential attraction can be modeled using Robins or mixed boundary conditions.

  3. Polymer waveguide grating sensor integrated with a thin-film photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fuchuan; Xiao, Jing; Xie, Antonio Jou; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a planar waveguide grating sensor integrated with a photodetector (PD) for on-chip optical sensing systems which are suitable for diagnostics in the field and in-situ measurements. III-V semiconductor-based thin-film PD is integrated with a polymer based waveguide grating device on a silicon platform. The fabricated optical sensor successfully discriminates optical spectral characteristics of the polymer waveguide grating from the on-chip PD. In addition, its potential use as a refractive index sensor is demonstrated. Based on a planar waveguide structure, the demonstrated sensor chip may incorporate multiple grating waveguide sensing regions with their own optical detection PDs. In addition, the demonstrated processing is based on a post-integration process which is compatible with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. Potentially, this leads a compact, chip-scale optical sensing system which can monitor multiple physical parameters simultaneously without need for external signal processing.

  4. Growth and characterization of CdS thin films on polymer substrates for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongseob; Kim, Eung Kwon; Lee, Suho; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2014-05-01

    In this work, cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on flexible polymer substrates such as polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The r.f. magnetron sputtering, which is cost-effective scalable technique, was used for the film deposition. The structural and optical properties of the films grown at different sputtering pressures were investigated. When the CdS film was deposited at lower pressure, the crystallinity and the preferred orientation toward c-axis in hexagonal phase was improved. However, the optical transmittance was reduced as the sputtering pressure was decreased. Compared with the glass substrate, CdS films grown on polymer substrates were exhibited some wore structural and optical characteristics. CdTe thin film solar cell applied to sputtered CdS as a window layer showed a maximum efficiency of 11.6%.

  5. Layered conductive polymer on nylon membrane templates for high performance, thin-film supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian Harvey; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible Thin-film Electrochemical Capacitors (ECs) are emerging technology that plays an important role as energy supply for various electronics system for both present era and the future. Intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) are promising pseudo-capacitive materials as they feature both good electrical conductivity and high specific capacitance. This study focuses on the construction and characterization of ultra-high surface area porous electrodes based on coating of nano-sized conductive polymer materials on nylon membrane templates. Herein, a novel nano-engineered electrode material based on nylon membranes was presented, which allows the creation of super-capacitor devices that is capable of delivering competitive performance, while maintaining desirable mechanical characteristics. With the formation of a highly conductive network with the polyaniline nano-layer, the electrical conductivity was also increased dramatically to facilitate the charge transfer process. Cyclic voltammetry and specific capacitance results showed promising application of this type of composite materials for future smart textile applications.

  6. Polymer thin-film transistor based on a high dielectric constant gate insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wen; Peng Jun-Biao; Yang Kai-Xia; Lan Lin-Feng; Niu Qiao-Li; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper full polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) based on Poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN) as the gate dielectric and poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as the semiconductor layer were investigated by using different channel width/length ratios. Relatively high dielectric constant of the polymer dielectric layer (6.27) can remarkably reduce the threshold voltage of the transistors to below-3 V. Hole field-effect mobility of MEH-PPV of the PTFTs was about 4.8 × 10-4 cm2/Vs, and on/off current ratio was larger than 102, which was comparable with that of transistors with widely used Poly (4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) or SiO2 as gate dielectrics.

  7. Neutral color tuning of polymer electrochromic devices using an organic dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Otley, Michael T; Kumar, Amrita; Li, Mengfang; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Asemota, Chris; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-08-04

    Herein, we present a facile, one-step method to color tune electrochromic devices (ECDs) that switch between two neutral colors via in situ electrochemical polymerization of electroactive monomers in the presence of a small molecule organic yellow dye using all commercially available materials. These devices exhibited photopic contrasts of ca. 30% without background correction when assembled on flexible PET-ITO substrates. In addition, devices exhibited switching speeds as low as 1 second, color uniformity, and stability. Large defect free ECDs of 100 cm(2) were fabricated exceeding the active switch area required for goggles, lenses, and small display applications.

  8. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF OXOVANADIUM(IV BASED ON S-METHYLISOTHIOSEMICARBAZIDE AS DYES FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cocu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the properties as dyes of coordination compounds synthesized by us previously (8-(1',2'-naphthyl-1-R-3-methyl-6-thiomethyl-4,5,7-triazanona-1,3,5,7-tetraenato-1,1'-diolato(--O1, O1', N4, N7-vanadil, where R=CH3 (1 , C6H5 (2, which can be used for colouring thermoplastic masses. The compounds have a high photostability (7 points, thermostability (>250° and an intensity of colour that give a low consumption (0.006-0.010g.

  9. Three dimensional phase field study on the thickness effect of ferroelectric polymer thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The electromechanical behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)[P(VDF -TrFE)]ferroelectric thin film was investigated using the three dimensional(3D) phase-field method. Various energetic contributions,including elastic,electrostatic,and domain wall energy were taken into account in the variational functional of the phase field model.Evolution of the microscopic domain structures of P(VDF-TrFE) polymer film was simulated.Effects of the in-plane residual stress,the film thickness and externa...

  10. Nanoscale investigations on interchain organization in thin films of polymer-liquid crystal blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Le Borgne, D.; Ventalon, V.; Seguy, I.; Moineau-Chane Ching, K. I.; Bedel-Pereira, E.

    2017-07-01

    Optimized nanomorphology in organic thin active layers is crucial for good performance in organic solar cells. However, the relation between morphology and electronic properties at nanoscale remains not completely understood. Here, we study the effect of film thickness and temperature annealing on the ordering of poly(3-hexylthiophene) chains when the polymer is blended with a columnar liquid crystalline molecule. Electronic absorption, atomic force microscopy measurements, and Raman spectroscopy show that morphology and chain ordering of the blend depend on the film thickness. We highlight the benefit of using a liquid crystal in organic blends, opening the way to use simple processing methods for the fabrication of organic electronic devices.

  11. [Synthesis and Characterization of a Sugar Based Electrolyte for Thin-film Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The work performed during the current renewal period, March 1,1998 focused primarily on the synthesis and characterization of a sugar based electrolyte for thin-film polymer batteries. The initial phase of the project involved developing a suitable sugar to use as the monomer in the polymeric electrolyte synthesis. The monomer has been synthesized and characterized completely. Overall the yield of this material is high and it can be produced in relatively large quantity easily and in high purity. The scheme used for the preparation of the monomer is outlined along with pertinent yields.

  12. Electrochemical Synthesis of a Microporous Conductive Polymer Based on a Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chunjing

    2014-05-22

    A new approach to preparing 3D microporous conductive polymer has been demonstrated in the electrochemical synthesis of a porous polyaniline network with the utilization of a MOF thin film supported on a conducting substrate. The prepared porous polyaniline with well-defined uniform micropores of 0.84 nm exhibits a high BET surface area of 986 m2 g−1 and a high electric conductivity of 0.125 S cm−1 when doped with I2, which is superior to existing porous conducting materials of porous MOFs, CMPs, and COFs.

  13. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  14. Glass-to-Rubber Transition of Polymer Thin Films and Their Surface Dynamical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.P.Wang; H.F.Zhang; Xudong Xiao; Ophelia K.C.Tsui

    2000-01-01

    @@ Glass-to-rubber transition temperature, Tg' of polystyrene(PS) (Mw=500K, Mw/Mn=1.03)thin films (thickness, d= 100 to 2000 A) deposited on Si with native oxide was determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry(VASE. We observed that the Tg of the polymer films decreased monotonically as the film thickness was decreased. It had previously been proposed that this was due to a highly mobile surface rubbery layer that existed even well below Tg' We used atomic force microscopic(AFM)adhesion measurement as a direct probe to investigate the surface dynamical properties of the PS samples and a thin film ofpoly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA) (Mw= 148K, Mw/Mn=17, and Tg bullk=50℃). By comparing the AFM results and those obtained from shear modulus measurements of a bulk sample, we found no enhancement in the molecular relaxation at the free surface of these samples.

  15. Electrical four-point probing of spherical metallic thin films coated onto micron sized polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Sigurd R., E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no; Stokkeland, August Emil; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying, E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kristiansen, Helge [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway); Njagi, John; Goia, Dan V. [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5814 (United States); Redford, Keith [Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway)

    2016-07-25

    Micron-sized metal-coated polymer spheres are frequently used as filler particles in conductive composites for electronic interconnects. However, the intrinsic electrical resistivity of the spherical thin films has not been attainable due to deficiency in methods that eliminate the effect of contact resistance. In this work, a four-point probing method using vacuum compatible piezo-actuated micro robots was developed to directly investigate the electric properties of individual silver-coated spheres under real-time observation in a scanning electron microscope. Poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres with a diameter of 30 μm and four different film thicknesses (270 nm, 150 nm, 100 nm, and 60 nm) were investigated. By multiplying the experimental results with geometrical correction factors obtained using finite element models, the resistivities of the thin films were estimated for the four thicknesses. These were higher than the resistivity of bulk silver.

  16. Chemical solution deposition of YBCO thin film by different polymer additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T.; Li, G.; Pu, M.H.; Sun, R.P.; Zhou, H.M.; Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)], E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-09-15

    A polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition approach has been proposed for the preparation of YBCO thin film. Different additives like PVB (polyvinyl butyral), PEG (polyethylene glycol) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) have been used to adjust the final viscosity of the precursor solution and thus the film formation. In this fluorine-free approach, YBCO has been deposited on single crystal substrates with metal acetates being starting materials. Biaxially textured YBCO thin films have been obtained. However, different additives lead to different microstructure. Dense, smooth and crack-free YBCO film prepared with PVB as additive yields sharp superconducting transition around T{sub c} = 90 K as well as high J{sub c} (0 T, 77 K) over 3 MA/cm{sup 2}.

  17. Chemical solution deposition of YBCO thin film by different polymer additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. T.; Li, G.; Pu, M. H.; Sun, R. P.; Zhou, H. M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, C. H.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-09-01

    A polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition approach has been proposed for the preparation of YBCO thin film. Different additives like PVB (polyvinyl butyral), PEG (polyethylene glycol) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) have been used to adjust the final viscosity of the precursor solution and thus the film formation. In this fluorine-free approach, YBCO has been deposited on single crystal substrates with metal acetates being starting materials. Biaxially textured YBCO thin films have been obtained. However, different additives lead to different microstructure. Dense, smooth and crack-free YBCO film prepared with PVB as additive yields sharp superconducting transition around Tc = 90 K as well as high Jc (0 T, 77 K) over 3 MA/cm 2.

  18. Improved Adhesion of Gold Thin Films Evaporated on Polymer Resin: Applications for Sensing Surfaces and MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Moazzez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present and analyze a method to improve the morphology and mechanical properties of gold thin films for use in optical sensors or other settings where good adhesion of gold to a substrate is of importance and where controlled topography/roughness is key. To improve the adhesion of thermally evaporated gold thin films, we introduce a gold deposition step on SU-8 photoresist prior to UV exposure but after the pre-bake step of SU-8 processing. Shrinkage and distribution of residual stresses, which occur during cross-linking of the SU-8 polymer layer in the post-exposure baking step, are responsible for the higher adhesion of the top gold film to the post-deposition cured SU-8 sublayer. The SU-8 underlayer can also be used to tune the resulting gold film morphology. Our promoter-free protocol is easily integrated with existing sensor microfabrication processes.

  19. Fullerenes as adhesive layers for mechanical peeling of metallic, molecular and polymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Maria B; Slater, Anna G; Mangham, Barry; Champness, Neil R; Beton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    We show that thin films of C60 with a thickness ranging from 10 to 100 nm can promote adhesion between a Au thin film deposited on mica and a solution-deposited layer of the elastomer polymethyldisolaxane (PDMS). This molecular adhesion facilitates the removal of the gold film from the mica support by peeling and provides a new approach to template stripping which avoids the use of conventional adhesive layers. The fullerene adhesion layers may also be used to remove organic monolayers and thin films as well as two-dimensional polymers which are pre-formed on the gold surface and have monolayer thickness. Following the removal from the mica support the monolayers may be isolated and transferred to a dielectric surface by etching of the gold thin film, mechanical transfer and removal of the fullerene layer by annealing/dissolution. The use of this molecular adhesive layer provides a new route to transfer polymeric films from metal substrates to other surfaces as we demonstrate for an assembly of covalently-coupled porphyrins.

  20. Manipulation of MWCNT Concentration in MWCNT/TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC using multiwalled carbon nanotube/titanium dioxide (MWCNT/TiO2 was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method. In this method, it has been performed under various acid treatments MWCNT concentration level at (a 0.00 g, (b 0.01 g, (c 0.02 g, and (d 0.03 g. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was used to study surface roughness of the MWCNT/TiO2 thin films. The average roughness results for 0.00 g, 0.01 g, 0.02 g, and 0.03 g were 10.995, 18.308, 24.322, and 25.723 nm, respectively. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM analysis showned the inner structural design of the MWCNT/TiO2 particles. The TiO2 nanoparticles covered almost all the area of MWCNT particles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM gave the morphological surface structure of the thin films. The thin films formed in good distribution with homogenous design. The DSSC with MWCNT/TiO2 electrode containing 0.03 g MWCNT were resulted in the highest efficiency of 2.80% with short-circuit current density Jsc of 9.42 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.65 V.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cell derived from nano-porous polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Ndoni, Sokol

    Nano-porous cross-linked polybutadiene has been used as the template which has good wetting properties with various inorganic precursors. A novel and facile nanocasting process has been developed to fabricate of a thin film with 10-nm wide titania network which is compact, inter-connected, and co...

  2. A multifunctional polymer-graphene thin-film transistor with tunable transport regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosciatti, Thomas; Haar, Sébastien; Liscio, Fabiola; Ciesielski, Artur; Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo

    2015-03-24

    Here we describe a strategy to fabricate multifunctional graphene-polymer hybrid thin-film transistors (PG-TFT) whose transport properties are tunable by varying the deposition conditions of liquid-phase exfoliated graphene (LPE-G) dispersions onto a dielectric surface and via thermal annealing post-treatments. In particular, the ionization energy (IE) of the LPE-G drop-cast on SiO2 can be finely adjusted prior to polymer deposition via thermal annealing in air environment, exhibiting values gradually changing from 4.8 eV up to 5.7 eV. Such a tunable graphene's IE determines dramatically different electronic interactions between the LPE-G and the semiconducting polymer (p- or n-type) sitting on its top, leading to devices where the output current of the PG-TFT can be operated from being completely turned off up to modulable. In fact upon increasing the surface coverage of graphene nanoflakes on the SiO2 the charge transport properties within the top polymer layer are modified from being semiconducting up to truly conductive (graphite-like). Significantly, when the IE of LPE-G is outside the polymer band gap, the PG-TFT can operate as a multifunctional three terminal switch (transistor) and/or memory device featuring high number of erase-write cycles. Our PG-TFT, based on a fine energy level engineering, represents a memory device operating without the need of a dielectric layer separating a floating gate from the active channel.

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cell using 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan incorporated polyvinyl alcohol polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (CNBF) on ionic conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol/KI/I2 (PVA/KI/I2) electrolytes was investigated in the present study. The pure and CNBF incorporated PVA/KI/I2 electrolyte films were prepared by solution casting method using dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent. These polymer electrolyte films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and impedance analysis. The ionic conductivities of polymer electrolyte films were calculated from impedance analysis. The pure PVA/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited the ionic conductivity of 1.649 × 10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature and this value was significantly increased to 1.490 × 10-4 S cm-1 when CNBF was incorporated into the PVA/KI/I2 electrolyte. This might be due to the decrease in the crystallinity of the polymer and increase in the ionic mobility of charge carriers. The performance of the DSSCs using both pure and CNBF incorporated PVA/KI/I2 electrolytes were compared. A DSSC fabricated with CNBF incorporated PVA/KI/I2 electrolyte showed an improved power conversion efficiency of 3.89 % than that of the pure PVA/KI/I electrolyte (1.51 %). These results suggest that CNBF incorporated PVA/KI/I2 electrolyte could be used as a potential electrolyte for DSSC.

  4. The shape effect of Au particles on random laser action in disordered media of Rh6G dye doped with PMMA polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiajia; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Shutong; Zhang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Random laser actions in a disordered media based on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer doped with Rh6G dye and Au nanoparticles have been demonstrated. It was observed that the shape of Au nanoparticles can tune the spectral central position of the random laser action. It was also seen that the shape of Au nanoparticles strongly affects the pump threshold. Comparing nanosphere- and nanorod-based systems, the nanorod-based one exhibited a lower threshold.

  5. Gold nanoworms immobilized graphene oxide polymer brush nanohybrid for catalytic degradation studies of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogha, Navin Kumar; Gosain, Saransh; Masram, Dhanraj T.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we report gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on poly (dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes immobilized reduced graphene oxide (Au/PDMAEMA/RGO) as catalyst for degradation kinetic studies of Rhodamine B (RB), Methyl Orange (MO) and Eosine Y (EY) dyes, having an excellent catalytic activity, as evident by the apparent rate constant (kapp), which is found to be 21.8, 26.2, and 8.7 (×10-3 s-1), for RB, MO and EY respectively. Au/PDMAEMA/RGO catalyst is easy to use, highly efficient, recyclable, which make it suitable for applications in waste water management. Foremost, synthesis of PDMAEMA brushes on graphene oxide is accomplished by Atom transfer radical polymerization method (ATRP), whereas AuNPs are synthesized by simple chemical reduction method.

  6. Polymer Thin Films and Interfaces; a Layer-by-Layer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald; Lipson, Jane

    2013-03-01

    In this talk we discuss new ways to model polymer films and interfaces, including properties such as density and concentration gradients, interfacial tension, and surface enrichment. We build on recent work where we developed a very simple equation of state approach for polymer thin films, and successfully applied it to determine thermodynamic properties and even to make predictions for the thickness-dependent depression of the thin film glass transition temperature. In that very simplified mean field model, the film properties across the entire interface region were treated as a ``whole sample'' average. Here, we take the next step, and develop a layer-by-layer equation of state model wherein details of the interface region are captured by allowing properties to vary from one discretized layer (within which properties are uniform) to the next. The model can be solved by imposing hydrostatic equilibrium in each layer, which then leads to predictions for the corresponding density gradient and other key interface properties. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  7. A Rapid Method of Assessing the Photocatalytic Activity of Thin TiO2 Films Using an Ink Based on the Redox Dye 2,6-Dichloroindophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mills

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An indicator ink based on the redox dye 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP is described, which allows the rapid assessment of the activity of thin, commercial photocatalytic films, such as Activ. The ink works via a photoreductive mechanism, DCIP being reduced to dihydro-DCIP within ca. 7.5 minutes exposure to UVA irradiation of moderate intensity (ca. 4.8 mW cm−2. The kinetics of photoreduction are found to be independent of the level of dye present in the ink formulation, but are highly sensitive to the level of glycerol. This latter observation may be associated with a solvatochromic effect, whereby the microenvironment in which the dye finds itself and, as a consequence, its reactivity is altered significantly by small changes in the glycerol content. The kinetics of photoreduction also appear linearly dependent on the UVA light intensity with an observed quantum efficiency of ca. 1.8×10−3.

  8. Bis(thienothiophenyl) diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers with various branched alkyl side chains and their applications in thin-film transistors and polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jicheol; Park, Gi Eun; Lee, Dae Hee; Um, Hyun Ah; Lee, Tae Wan; Cho, Min Ju; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2015-02-11

    New thienothiophene-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole and thiophene-containing π-extended conjugated polymers with various branched alkyl side-chains were successfully synthesized. 2-Octyldodecyl, 2-decyltetradecyl, 2-tetradecylhexadecyl, 2-hexadecyloctadecyl, and 2-octadecyldocosyl groups were selected as the side-chain moieties and were anchored to the N-positions of the thienothiophene-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole unit. All five polymers were found to be soluble owing to the bulkiness of the side chains. The thin-film transistor based on the 2-tetradecylhexadecyl-substituted polymer showed the highest hole mobility of 1.92 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) due to it having the smallest π-π stacking distance between the polymer chains, which was determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells incorporating [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the n-type molecule and the additive 1,8-diiodooctane (1 vol %) were also constructed from the synthesized polymers without thermal annealing; the device containing the 2-octyldodecyl-substituted polymer exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 5.8%. Although all the polymers showed similar physical properties, their device performance was clearly influenced by the sizes of the branched alkyl side-chain groups.

  9. Structure-processing-property correlations in thin films of conjugated polymer nanocomposites and blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeram, Arvind

    Conjugated polymers have found several applications in recent years, in energy conversion and storage devices such as organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, batteries, and super capacitors. Thin films of polymers used for these applications need to be mechanically and thermally stable to withstand the harsh operating conditions. Although there is significant information on the optoelectronic properties of many of these polymers, there are only few studies on their mechanical properties. There is little information in the literature on how processing of these films influence mechanical properties. In the first part of this study, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) films were prepared by thermolytic conversion of poly[p -phenylene (tetrahydrothiophenium)ethylene chloride] precursor films, at different temperatures and the kinetics of reaction was investigated using thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films, studied using nanoindentation, showed a dependence on the extent of conversion and chemical composition of the films. The presence of chemical defects (e.g., carbonyl groups, detected using FTIR spectroscopy), was also found to have a noticeable effect on the modulus and hardness of the films. The storage modulus, E', and plasticity decreased with an increase in conversion, whereas the loss modulus, E", showed the opposite trend. Both the precursor and the fully-converted PPV films were found to have significantly lower E" than E', consistent with the glassy nature of the polymers at room temperature. In the second part of the study, polyacetylene films were synthesized by acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precursor films. The kinetics of this reaction was monitored by thermogravimetry. The chemical structure of the conjugated polymer films was characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy. Polyacetylene films incorporated with 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid

  10. Thin metal film-polymer composite for efficient optoacoustic generation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwa; Guo, L. Jay

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) conversion of metal film absorbers is known to be inefficient because of their low thermal expansion and high light reflectance, as compared to polymeric materials containing light absorbing fillers. Specifically, the PA signal for metal films is typically an order of magnitude lower than those for PDMS-based composites consisting of carbon materials such as carbon blacks, carbon nanotubes, and carbon fibers. However, the carbon-PDMS composites have several disadvantages, e.g., difficulty in controlling film thickness, aggregation of the carbon fillers, and poor patternablility. To overcome these issues and achieve comparable PA amplitudes, a polymer-metal film composite was developed consisting of a thin metal absorber and adjacent transparent polymer layers. The proposed structure shows efficient PA conversion. The measured PA amplitude of the metal film composite is an order of magnitude higher than that of metal-only samples, and comparable to those of the carbon-PDMS composites. The enhanced PA conversion is accomplished by using metal film of a few tens of nanometers, which greatly facilitates heat transfer from the metal film to the surrounding polymers. Moreover, integrating the metal film composite with a photonic cavity can compensate light absorption loss of the thinner metal film. Theoretical and experimental analysis is conducted for understanding the mechanism behind such improvement. This strategy could be implemented for spatial PA signal patterns, especially for deep tissue PA imaging of implants or image-guiding tools. Furthermore, this approach also provides a guideline for designing photoacoustic transmitters and contrast agents.

  11. Nanoparticles Stabilize Thin Polymer Films: A Fundamental Study to Understand the Phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael E. Mackay

    2009-03-04

    A new understanding of thermodynamics at the nanoscale resulted in a recently discovered first order phase transition that nanoparticles in a polymer film will all segregate to the supporting substrate. This is an unusual phase transition that was predicted using a modeling technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories and required the equivalent of many computational years on one computer. This project is a collaboration between Prof. Michael Mackay's group and Dr. Amalie Frischknecht (Sandia National Laboratories) where experimental observation and theoretical rationalization and prediction are brought together. Other discoveries were that this phase transition could be avoided by changing the nanoparticle properties yielding control of the assembly process at the nanoscale. In fact, the nanoparticles could be made to assemble to the supporting substrate, to the air interface or not assemble at all within a thin polymer film of order 100 nm in thickness. However, when the assembly process is present it is so robust that it is possible to make rough liquid films at the nanoscale due to nanoparticles assembling around three-dimensional objects. From this knowledge we are able to design and manufacture new coatings with particular emphasis on polymer-based solar cells. Careful control of the morphology at the nanoscale is expected to provide more efficient devices since the physics of these systems is dictated at this length scale and assembly of nanoparticles to various interfaces is critical to operation.

  12. Programming Surface Energy Driven Marangoni Convection in Polymer Thin Films to Generate Topographic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Bin; Janes, Dustin; Arshad, Talha; Katzenstein, Joshua; Prisco, Nathan; McGuffin, Dana; Bonnecaze, Roger; Ellison, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The Marangoni effect describes how fluid flows in response to gradients in surface energy. We recently developed a method for photochemically preprograming spatial surface energy patterns in glassy polystyrene (PS) thin films. UV irradiation through a mask selectively dehydrogenates the PS, thus increasing surface energy in the UV exposed regions compared to the unexposed regions. After heating the film to the liquid state, transport of polymer occurs from regions of low surface energy to regions of high surface energy. This method can be harnessed to rapidly manufacture polymer films possessing prescribed three-dimensional topographies reflective of the original light exposure pattern. To quantify and verify this phenomenon, a theoretical model that gives a more thorough understanding of the physics of this process, its limits and ways to apply it efficiently for various target metrics will also be presented along with comparisons between theoretical predictions and experimental observations. Finally, while PS dehydrogenation can be used to produce a variety of topographical patterns, judicious selection of the photosensitizing compounds in an otherwise transparent polymer expands the use of this method to more readily available light sources.

  13. Mass Transfer in Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanocomposite Thin Films of Redox Polymers and Oxidoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr L. Simonian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer in nanocomposite hydrogel thin films consisting of alternating layers of an organometallic redox polymer (RP and oxidoreductase enzymes was investigated. Multilayer nanostructures were fabricated on gold surfaces by the deposition of an anionic self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, followed by the electrostatic binding of a cationic redox polymer, poly[vinylpyridine Os(bis-bipyridine2Clco-allylamine], and an anionic oxidoreductase. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared external reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS, ellipsometry and electrochemistry were employed to characterize the assembly of these nanocomposite films. Simultaneous SPR/electrochemistry enabled real time observation of the assembly of sensing components, changes in film structure with electrode potential, and the immediate, in situ electrochemical verification of substrate-dependent current upon the addition of enzyme to the multilayer structure. SPR and FTIR-ERS studies also showed no desorption of polymer or enzyme from the nanocomposite structure when stored in aqueous environment occurred over the period of three weeks, suggesting that decreasing in substrate sensitivity were due to loss of enzymatic activity rather than loss of film compounds from the nanostructure.

  14. In-situ ATR-FTIR for characterization of thin biorelated polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, M., E-mail: mamuller@ipfdd.de [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF Dresden), Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technical University of Dresden (TUD), Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Torger, B. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF Dresden), Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technical University of Dresden (TUD), Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bittrich, E. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF Dresden), Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kaul, E.; Ionov, L. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF Dresden), Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technical University of Dresden (TUD), Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Uhlmann, P. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF Dresden), Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Stamm, M. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF Dresden), Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technical University of Dresden (TUD), Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    We present and review in-situ-attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic data from thin biorelated polymer films useful for the modification and functionalization of polymer and inorganic materials and discuss their applications related to life sciences. A special ATR mirror attachment operated by the single-beam-sample-reference (SBSR) concept and housing a homebuilt thermostatable flow cell was used, which allows for appropriate background compensation and signal to noise ratio. ATR-FTIR data on the reactive deposition of dopamine on inorganic model surfaces are shown. Information on the structure and deposition pathway for such bioinspired melanin-like films is provided. ATR-FTIR data on thermosensitive polymer brushes of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) is then presented. The thermotropic hydration and hydrogen bonding behavior of PNIPAAM brush films is described. Finally, ATR-FTIR data on biorelated polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) are given together with details on PEM growth and detection. Applications of these latter films for biopassivation/activation and local drug delivery are addressed.

  15. Energy harvesting using ionic electro-active polymer thin films with Ag-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S. V.; Arvind, K.; Bharath, P.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we employ the phenomenon of bending deformation induced transport of cations via the polymer chains in the thickness direction of an electro-active polymer (EAP)-metal composite thin film for mechanical energy harvesting. While EAPs have been applied in the past in actuators and artificial muscles, promising applications of such materials in hydrodynamic and vibratory energy harvesting are reported in this paper. For this, functionalization of EAPs with metal electrodes is the key factor in improving the energy harvesting efficiency. Unlike Pt-based electrodes, Ag-based electrodes have been deposited on an EAP membrane made of Nafion. The developed ionic metal polymer composite (IPMC) membrane is subjected to a dynamic bending load, hydrodynamically, and evaluated for the voltage generated against an external electrical load. An increase of a few orders of magnitude has been observed in the harvested energy density and power density in air, deionized water and in electrolyte solutions with varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) as compared to Pt-based IPMC performances reported in the published literature. This will have potential applications in hydrodynamic and residual environmental energy harvesting to power sensors and actuators based on micro-and nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) for biomedical, aerospace and oceanic applications.

  16. Synthesis of Thin Film Composite Metal-Organic Frameworks Membranes on Polymer Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Barankova, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Since the discovery of size-selective metal-organic frameworks (MOF) researchers have tried to manufacture them into gas separation membranes. ZIF-8 became the most studied MOF for membrane applications mainly because of its simple synthesis, good chemical and thermal stability, recent commercial availability and attractive pore size. The aim of this work is to develop convenient methods for growing ZIF thin layers on polymer supports to obtain defect-free ZIF membranes with good gas separation properties. We present new approaches for ZIF membranes preparation on polymers. We introduce zinc oxide nanoparticles in the support as a secondary metal source for ZIF-8 growth. Initially the ZnO particles were incorporated into the polymer matrix and later on the surface of the polymer by magnetron sputtering. In both cases, the ZnO facilitated to create more nucleation opportunities and improved the ZIF-8 growth compared to the synthesis without using ZnO. By employing the secondary seeded growth method, we were able to obtain thin (900 nm) ZIF-8 layer with good gas separation performance. Next, we propose a metal-chelating polymer as a suitable support for growing ZIF layers. Defect-free ZIF-8 films with a thickness of 600 nm could be obtained by a contra-diffusion method. ZIF-8 membranes were tested for permeation of hydrogen and hydrocarbons, and one of the highest selectivities reported so far for hydrogen/propane, and propylene/propane was obtained. Another promising method to facilitate the growth of MOFs on polymeric supports is the chemical functionalization of the support surface with functional groups, which can complex metal ions and which can covalently bond the MOF crystals. We functionalized the surface of a common porous polymeric membrane with amine groups, which took part in the reaction to form ZIF-8 nanocrystals. We observed an enhancement in adhesion between the ZIF layer and the support. The effect of parameters of the contra-diffusion experiment

  17. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Philip Anthony; Shatabdi Porel; D Narayana Rao; T P Radhakrishnan

    2005-11-01

    Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which form perfectly polar assemblies in their crystalline state are found to organize as uniaxially oriented crystallites in vapor deposited thin films on glass substrate. Optical second harmonic generation from these films is investigated. A simple protocol is developed for the in-situ fabrication of highly monodisperse silver nanoparticles in a polymer film matrix. The methodology can be used to produce free-standing films. Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated.

  18. Hydrodynamic effects on phase separation morphologies in evaporating thin films of polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumpouli, Garyfalia A.; Yiantsios, Stergios G.

    2016-08-01

    We examine effects of hydrodynamics on phase separation morphologies developed during drying of thin films containing a volatile solvent and two dissolved polymers. Cahn-Hilliard and Flory-Huggins theories are used to describe the free energy of the phase separating systems. The thin films, considered as Newtonian fluids, flow in response to Korteweg stresses arising due to concentration non-uniformities that develop during solvent evaporation. Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of a Peclet number, defined in terms of system physical properties, as well as the effects of parameters characterizing the speed of evaporation and preferential wetting of the solutes at the gas interface. For systems exhibiting preferential wetting, diffusion alone is known to favor lamellar configurations for the separated phases in the dried film. However, a mechanism of hydrodynamic instability of a short length scale is revealed, which beyond a threshold Peclet number may deform and break the lamellae. The critical Peclet number tends to decrease as the evaporation rate increases and to increase with the tendency of the polymers to selectively wet the gas interface. As the Peclet number increases, the instability moves closer to the gas interface and induces the formation of a lateral segregation template that guides the subsequent evolution of the phase separation process. On the other hand, for systems with no preferential wetting or any other property asymmetries between the two polymers, diffusion alone favors the formation of laterally separated configurations. In this case, concentration perturbation modes that lead to enhanced Korteweg stresses may be favored for sufficiently large Peclet numbers. For such modes, a second mechanism is revealed, which is similar to the solutocapillary Marangoni instability observed in evaporating solutions when interfacial tension increases with the concentration of the non-volatile component. This mechanism may lead

  19. Electrochemical co-deposition of conductive polymer-silica hybrid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Moran; Liu, Liang; Mandler, Daniel

    2013-07-14

    Conductive polymers, such as polypyrrole (ppy), have been the subject of numerous studies due to their promising applications in organic solar cells, flexible electronics, electrochromic devices, super capacitors, etc. Yet, their application is still limited as a result of poor processability. Silica has been reported to improve the mechanical strength and adhesion of conductive polymer films. In this work, we propose a controllable electrochemical approach for preparing ppy-silica hybrid thin films from a solution containing both pyrrole and silane monomers. It is known that pyrrole can be electropolymerised using anodic potentials, while silica can be electrodeposited under cathodic potentials. Thus, we studied the formation of ppy-silica hybrid thin films on a stainless steel surface by applying alternating potentials, i.e. cathodic followed by anodic pulses (denoted C + A) or anodic followed by cathodic pulses (denoted A + C). We show that by controlling the deposition potential and time for the cathodic and anodic pulses, the film thickness and composition can be manipulated well as analysed using profilometry and EDX. The element depth profile of the films was characterized using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In essence, for the C + A process, pyrrole diffuses through the cathodically electrodeposited wet silica gel layer and undergoes anodic polymerisation on the substrate, while for the A + C process, silane can be electrodeposited both on top of the anodically electrodeposited conductive ppy films as well as on the stainless steel through the pinholes in the ppy film. This offers a simple approach for tuning the structure of conductive polymer-sol-gel composite films.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition and characterization of polysilanes polymer based thin films and their applications in compound semiconductors and silicon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulachgar, El Hassane

    As the semiconductors industry is moving toward nanodevices, there is growing need to develop new materials and thin films deposition processes which could enable strict control of the atomic composition and structure of thin film materials in order to achieve precise control on their electrical and optical properties. The accurate control of thin film characteristics will become increasingly important as the miniaturization of semiconductor devices continue. There is no doubt that chemical synthesis of new materials and their self assembly will play a major role in the design and fabrication of next generation semiconductor devices. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of thin film using a polymeric precursor as a source material. This process offers many advantages including low deposition cost, hazard free working environment, and most importantly the ability to customize the polymer source material through polymer synthesis and polymer functionalization. The combination between polymer synthesis and CVD process will enable the design of new generation of complex thin film materials with a wide range of improved chemical, mechanical, electrical and optical properties which cannot be easily achieved through conventional CVD processes based on gases and small molecule precursors. In this thesis we mainly focused on polysilanes polymers and more specifically poly(dimethylsilanes). The interest in these polymers is motivated by their distinctive electronic and photonic properties which are attributed to the delocalization of the sigma-electron along the Si-Si backbone chain. These characteristics make polysilane polymers very promising in a broad range of applications as a dielectric, a semiconductor and a conductor. The polymer-based CVD process could be eventually extended to other polymer source materials such as polygermanes, as well as and a variety of other inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers

  1. Interfacial effects in oxide-polymer laminar composite thin film dielectrics for capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Pratyush

    Continuous increase in the density of active components on microelectronic chip/circuit board requires development of new capacitors with smaller size, weight and cost. Miniaturization in the size of capacitors demands development of high energy density dielectric materials, which are the core of parallel plate capacitors. Nano composite dielectrics comprising high polarizibility oxide fillers randomly dispersed in high breakdown strength polymer matrix are considered as a potential high energy density materials for capacitor applications. Large interfacial volume, generated due to introduction of nano fillers in polymer matrix, might have significant positive contribution towards energy storage in nano composites. However, percolation issues associated with nano fillers and generation of large interfacial volume in nano composites, where complex electric field distribution overlaps with interfacialy modified polymer lead to unclear understanding of polymer-filler interfacial interactions in nano composites. Hence, in the current work laminar composite double layered dielectric structures, which provide relatively simple local field distribution at the interface and ideal series connectivity between oxide and polymer, are used as a model system to understand polymer-oxide interfacial interactions. Interfacial effects are reported for both low permittivity (SiO2-Parylene C) and medium permittivity (ZrO2-P(VDF-TrFE)) laminar composite dielectrics. Pyrolytic vapor decomposition polymerization process was used to grow Parylene C thin films on gold and thermally grown SiO2 surfaces. Enhancement in crystallite dimension with post deposition annealing treatments of Parylene C thin films was found to reduce dielectric loss tangent and hence enhance its dielectric properties. Electric field and temperature dependant leakage current analysis suggested hopping as dominant conduction mechanism in Parylene C thin films. Parylene C thin films in laminar composites showed

  2. Large resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of thin film containing J-like aggregates of a bis[4-(-dibutylamino)phenyl]squarylium dye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhongyu Li; Song Xu; Lin Zhu; Kazuo Kasatani

    2012-12-01

    The third-order optical nonlinearity and response of thin film containing J-like aggregates of a bis[4-(-dibutylamino)phenyl]squarylium dye were measured by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique under resonant conditions. The temporal profile of DFWM signal was obtained with a time resolution of 0.3 ps (FWHM), and was found to consist of at least two components, i.e. the coherent instantaneous nonlinear response (electronic response) and the slow response due to the excited state population grating. The effective (3) value of thin squarylium dye film was evaluated to be as high as 1.1 × 10-7 esu, and the figure of merit of third-order nonlinearity ( = (3)/), was calculated to be about 2.1 × 10-13 esu cm.

  3. Statistical optimization and artificial neural network modeling for acridine orange dye degradation using in-situ synthesized polymer capped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Nitesh; Markandeya; Singh, Amrita; Verma, Neeraj K; Ajaria, Nidhi; Patnaik, Satyakam

    2017-05-01

    ZnO NPs were synthesized by a prudent green chemistry approach in presence of polyacrylamide grafted guar gum polymer (pAAm-g-GG) to ensure uniform morphology, and functionality and appraised for their ability to degrade photocatalytically Acridine Orange (AO) dye. These ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NPs were thoroughly characterized by various spectroscopic, XRD and electron microscopic techniques. The relative quantity of ZnO NPs in polymeric matrix has been estimated by spectro-analytical procedure; AAS and TGA analysis. The impact of process parameters viz. NP's dose, contact time and AO dye concentration on percentage photocatalytic degradation of AO dyes were evaluated using multivariate optimizing tools, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Congruity of the BBD statistical model was implied by R(2) value 0.9786 and F-value 35.48. At RSM predicted optimal condition viz. ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NP's dose of 0.2g/L, contact time of 210min and AO dye concentration 10mg/L, a maximum of 98% dye degradation was obtained. ANOVA indicated appropriateness of the model for dye degradation owing to "Prob.>F" less than 0.05 for variable parameters. We further, employed three layers feed forward ANN model for validating the BBD process parameters and suitability of our chosen model. The evaluation of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (ANN1) and Gradient Descent with adaptive learning rate (ANN2) model employed to scrutinize the best method and found experimental values of AO dye degradation were in close to those with predicated value of ANN 2 modeling with minimum error.

  4. Effect of dielectric permittivity on the performance of polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Muhammad A. A.; Khan, Ammar A.; Qasim, Malik M.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

    2016-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a type of organic solar cell often cited for their high efficiency and easy fabrication. Recent studies have shown that modification of the standard liquid electrolyte DSSC architecture by the changing one of the components or the addition of additives often results in the improvement in one of the photovoltaic parameters and hence the overall efficiency. Here we explore a dielectric liquid crystal material which is a known insulator but possesses a high degree of order and optical anisotropy. In the presence of an applied electric field, the equilibrium of positive and negative charges are displaced in opposite directions. In this work, different mixtures with different dielectric anisotropies ranging from negative, zero and positive are formulated. These mixtures are then used to prepare polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) electrolytes and subsequently DSSC devices based on these PDLC electrolytes are fabricated. The morphology of the PDLC is observed through polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and the electrical/photovoltaic characterizations are performed through current density-voltage (J-V) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  5. Novel polymer gel electrolyte with organic solvents for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Yen; Dong, Rui-Xuan; Shih, Po-Ta; Ramamurthy, Vittal; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2014-11-12

    A cross-linked copolymer was previously synthesized from poly(oxyethylene) diamine (POE-amine) and an aromatic anhydride and cured to generate an amide-imide cross-linking structure. The copolymer containing several chemical groups such as POE, amido acids, and imide, enabled to absorb liquid electrolytes in methoxypropionitrile (MPN) for suitable uses in dye-sensitized solar cells. To establish the advantages of polymer gel electrolytes (PGE), the same copolymer was studied by using different electrolyte solvents including propylene carbonate (PC), dimethylformamide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and shown their long-term stability. The morphology of the copolymer after absorbing liquid electrolytes in these solvents was proven the same as a 3D interconnected nanochannels, evidenced field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Among these solvents, PC was selected as the optimized PGE, which demostrated a higher power conversion efficiency (8.31%) than that of the liquid electrolyte (7.89%). In particular, the long-term stability of only a 5% decrease in the cell efficiency after 1000 h of testing was achieved. It was proven the developed copolymer as PGE was versatile for different solvents showing high efficiency and long-term durability.

  6. Highly Conductive Redox-Couple Solid Polymer Electrolyte System: Blend-KI-I2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic conductivity of a redox-couple solid polymer electrolyte system, (1− blend: [0.9KI : 0.1I2] with =0−0.15 in weight fraction, is reported. A blend of poly(ethylene oxide (abbreviated as PEO and succinonitrile in equal weight fraction was used as a polymeric matrix instead of the PEO and succinonitrile because of its low-cost, electrical conductivity superior to the PEO, and thermal stability better than the succinonitrile. The electrolyte with =0.15 showed ionic conductivity of 7×10−4 S cm−1 and iodine ion diffusivity of nearly 4×10−7 cm2 s−1 at 25°C. The conductivity and diffusivity values were nearly two orders of magnitude higher than those of the PEO-KI-I2 due to the improved PEO crystallinity. It also exhibited dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency of 2.2% at 100 mW cm−2, which is twice of the cell prepared using the PEO-KI-I2 only.

  7. Numerical study on injection parameters optimization of thin wall and biodegradable polymers parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C.; Mendes, A.; Carreira, P.; Mateus, A.; Malça, C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the molds industry searches new markets, with diversified and added value products. The concept associated to the production of thin walled and biodegradable parts mostly manufactured by injection process has assumed a relevant importance due to environmental and economic factors. The growth of a global consciousness about the harmful effects of the conventional polymers in our life quality associated with the legislation imposed, become key factors for the choice of a particular product by the consumer. The target of this work is to provide an integrated solution for the injection of parts with thin walls and manufactured using biodegradable materials. This integrated solution includes the design and manufacture processes of the mold as well as to find the optimum values for the injection parameters in order to become the process effective and competitive. For this, the Moldflow software was used. It was demonstrated that this computational tool provides an effective responsiveness and it can constitute an important tool in supporting the injection molding of thin-walled and biodegradable parts.

  8. Effect of Sheet Resistance and Morphology of ITO Thin Films on Polymer Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Narayan Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell fabrication on flexible thin plastic sheets needs deposition of transparent conducting anode layers at low temperatures. ITO thin films are deposited on glass by RF sputtering at substrate temperature of 70∘C and compare their phase, morphology, optical, and electrical properties with commercial ITO. The films contain smaller nanocrystallites in (222 preferred orientation and exhibit comparable optical transmittance (~95% in the wavelength range of 550–650 nm, but high sheet resistance of ~103 Ω/□ (the value being ~36 Ω/□ for commercial ITO.The polymer solar cells with PEDOT: PSS and P3HT: PCBM layers realized on RF sputtered vis-a-vis commercial ITO thin films are shown to display a marginal difference in power conversion efficiency, low fill factor, and low open-circuit voltage but increased short-circuit current density. The decrease in fill factor, open-circuit voltage is compensated by increased short-circuit current. Detailed study is made of increased short-circuit current density.

  9. Effect of interface on surface morphology and proton conduction of polymer electrolyte thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akihiro; Kuroda, Seiichi; Mohamed, Hamdy F M; Tavernier, Bruno

    2013-07-21

    To understand the relationship between surface morphology and proton conduction of polymer electrolyte thin films, perfluorinated ionomer Nafion® thin films were prepared on different substrates such as glassy carbon (GC), hydrophilic-GC (H-GC), and platinum (Pt) as models for the ionomer film within a catalyst layer. Atomic force microscopy coupled with an electrochemical (e-AFM) technique revealed that proton conduction decreased with film thickness; an abrupt decrease in proton conductance was observed when the film thickness was less than ca. 10 nm on GC substrates in addition to a significant change in surface morphology. Furthermore, thin films prepared on H-GC substrates with UV-ozone treatment exhibited higher proton conduction than those on untreated GC substrates. However, Pt substrates exhibited proton conduction comparable to that of GCs for films thicker than 20 nm; a decrease in proton conduction was observed at ∼5 nm thick film but was still much higher than for carbon substrates. These results indicate that the number of active proton-conductive pathways and/or the connectivity of the proton path network changed with film thickness. The surface morphology of thinner films was significantly affected by the film/substrate interface and was fundamentally different from that of the bulk thick membrane.

  10. Thin wetted film cylindrical flow photo reactor for the degradation of Procion blue H-B dye over TiO2 and ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelavannan, M G; Basha, C Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    A thin wetted film cylindrical flow reactor was fabricated for photocatalytic oxidation of Procion blue H-B dye in textile washwater with the suspensions of TiO2 and ZnO. The disappearance of colour and organic reduction were studied in terms of the removal of colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Operating parameters such as effect of pH, UV irradiation with and without catalyst, initial concentration of dye and effect of flow rate were studied and kinetics of Procion blue H-B dye has been studied over TiO2 and ZnO surfaces. Since adsorption is the prerequisite condition for decolorization/degradation of dye molecules in the presence of heterogeneous catalysis, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined to verify the adsorption intensity. The results clearly demonstrated that, the optimum loading of the photocatalyst was found to be 300 and 400 mg/L of TiO2 and ZnO, respectively. The maximum COD reduction efficiency was 68% for TiO2 and 58% for ZnO. On the other hand, the colour removal efficiency was found to be 74% and 69%, respectively for TiO2- and ZnO-assisted systems under optimum conditions. Conclusively, these two semiconductors could degrade Procion blue H-B dye at different time intervals and both isotherms fit well.

  11. Scalable fabrication of multifunctional freestanding carbon nanotube/polymer composite thin films for energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokai; Gittleson, Forrest; Carmo, Marcelo; Sekol, Ryan C; Taylor, André D

    2012-02-28

    Translating the unique properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to the macroscale while simultaneously incorporating additional functionalities into composites has been stymied by inadequate assembly methods. Here we describe a technique for developing multifunctional SWNT/polymer composite thin films that provides a fundamental engineering basis to bridge the gap between their nano- and macroscale properties. Selected polymers are infiltrated into a Mayer rod coated conductive SWNT network to fabricate solar cell transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs), fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and lithium ion battery electrodes. Our TCEs have an outstanding optoelectronic figure of merit σ(dc)/σ(ac) of 19.4 and roughness of 3.8 nm yet are also mechanically robust enough to withstand delamination, a step toward scratch resistance necessary for flexible electronics. Our MEAs show platinum utilization as high as 1550 mW/mg(Pt), demonstrating our technique's ability to integrate ionic conductivity of the polymer with electrical conductivity of the SWNTs at the Pt surface. Our battery anodes, which show reversible capacity of ∼850 mAh/g after 15 cycles, demonstrate the integration of electrode and separator to simplify device architecture and decrease overall weight. Each of these applications demonstrates our technique's ability to maintain the conductivity of SWNT networks and their dispersion within a polymer matrix while concurrently optimizing key complementary properties of the composite. Here, we lay the foundation for the assembly of nanotubes and nanostructured components (rods, wires, particles, etc.) into macroscopic multifunctional materials using a low-cost and scalable solution-based processing technique.

  12. Adsorption of Cationic Laser Dye onto Polymer/Surfactant Complex Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pabitra Kumar Paul; Syed Arshad Hussain; Debajyoti Bhattacharjee; Mrinal Pal

    2011-01-01

    Fabrication of complex molecular films of organic materials is one of the most important issues in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. Soft materials with flexible properties have been given much attention and can be obtained through bottom up processing from functional molecules, where self-assembly based on supramolecular chemistry and designed assembly have become crucial processes and technologies. In this work, we report the successful incorporation of cationic laser dye rhodamine 6G abbreviated as R6G into the pre-assembled polyelectrolyte/surfactant complex film onto quartz substrate by electrostatic adsorption technique. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) was used as polycation and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as anionic surfactant. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic characterization reveals the formation of only H-type aggregates of R6G in their aqueous solution and both H- and J-type aggregates in PAH/SDS/R6G complex layer-by-layber films as well as the adsorption kinetics of R6G onto the complex films. The ratio of the absorbance intensity of two aggregated bands in PAH/SDS/R6G complex films is merely independent of the concentration range of the SDS solution used to fabricate PAH/SDS complex self-assembled films. Atomic force microscopy reveals the formation of R6G aggregates in PAH/SDS/R6G complex films.

  13. Siloxane-Terminated Solubilizing Side Chains: Bringing Conjugated Polymer Backbones Closer and Boosting Hole Mobilities in Thin-Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2011-12-21

    We introduce a novel siloxane-terminated solubilizing group and demonstrate its effectiveness as a side chain in an isoindigo-based conjugated polymer. An average hole mobility of 2.00 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (with a maximum mobility of 2.48 cm 2 V -1 s -1), was obtained from solution-processed thin-film transistors, one of the highest mobilities reported to date. In contrast, the reference polymer with a branched alkyl side chain gave an average hole mobility of 0.30 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a maximum mobility of 0.57 cm 2 V -1 s -1. This is largely explained by the polymer packing: our new polymer exhibited a π-π stacking distance of 3.58 Å, while the reference polymer showed a distance of 3.76 Å. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Effect of compressed TiO2 nanoparticle thin film thickness on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenn Kai; Hsu, Wen Dung; Wu, Tian Chiuan; Meen, Teen Hang; Chong, Wen Jie

    2013-11-05

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as photoanode. Photoanode thin films were prepared by doctor blading method with 420 kg/cm2 of mechanical compression process and heat treatment in the air at 500°C for 30 min. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 NP photoanode is 26.6 μm with an efficiency of 9.01% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2. The efficiency is around two times higher than that of conventional DSSCs with an uncompressed photoanode. The open-circuit voltage of DSSCs decreases as the thickness increases. One DSSC (sample D) has the highest conversion efficiency while it has the maximum short-circuit current density. The results indicate that the short-circuit current density is a compromise between two conflict factors: enlargement of the surface area by increasing photoanode thickness and extension of the electron diffusion length to the electrode as the thickness increases.

  15. The Development of Photocatalyst with Hybrid Material CNT/TiO2 Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Woo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC has big merits of simple manufacturing, low cost, and good applications. However, efficiency of DSSC is quite low compared with other solar cells based on silicon. Ability of electron delivery is important for improving the efficiency; therefore, CNT used as an electrode and transferring electrons and heat significantly easily can be highly expected to contribute to increase conversion efficiency of DSSC. In this paper, CNT was loaded on the photocatalyst of TiO2 thin films in the range from 0 wt% to 0.01 wt%. CNT was treated with 60% nitric acid at 120°C for 6 hrs and performed on ball milling process for 3 hrs. Hybrid material was made of TiO2 paste and CNT predispersed by mixing. To demonstrate the property of each sample, the analytical techniques including a spectrometer for transmission and surface resistance were used. The sample of higher concentration of CNT has low transmission but low resistance, besides we have researched a proper amount of CNT 0.001 wt% that can increase 1.5% conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  16. Ultraviolet laser ablation of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for dye-sensitized back-contact solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Fu, Dongchuan [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Jiang, Ming [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Duan, Jun, E-mail: duans@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Zhang, Fei; Zeng, Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Bach, Udo [ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Department of Materials Engineering and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, 3800 (Australia)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, laser ablation of a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin film on a glass substrate was conducted using a 355 nm Nd:YVO{sub 4} ultraviolet (UV) laser to obtain a 4 × 4 mm microstructure. The microstructure contains a symmetric set of interdigitated FTO finger electrodes of a monolithic back-contact dye-sensitized solar cell (BC-DSC) on a common substrate. The effects of UV laser ablation parameters (such as laser fluence, repetition frequency, and scanning speed) on the size precision and quality of the microstructure were investigated using a 4 × 4 orthogonal design and an assistant experimental design. The incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and the current–voltage characteristics of the BC-DSC base of the interdigitated FTO finger electrodes were also determined. The experimental results show that an FTO film microstructure with high precision and good quality can be produced on a glass substrate via laser ablation with high scanning speed, high repetition frequency, and appropriate laser fluence. - Highlights: ► The ablation width and depth generally depend on the laser fluence. ► The scanning speed and the repetition frequency must match each other. ► Slight ablation of the glass substrate can completely remove F-doped tin oxide.

  17. Non-conjugate potential-stepping phenothiazine and phenoxazine based polymer hole-transport material for dye-sensitized solar cells & increasing void space in porous titanium dioxide: To study diffusion properties of a cobalt mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Kristoffer

    As energy demands increase so has the search for alternative sources of energy. Although, fossil fuels have proven useful in energy production, they are also detrimental due to the negative impact on our environment. Considering the current alternative energy sources, such as wind, hydroelectric, biofuels, etc, one source of alternative energy shines above the rest, solar energy. Solar energy provides a possible solution to the energy demands of our modern world with little effect on the environment. The only waste produced from the solar cell industry is from producing and recycling the cells. After production, solar cells require no resources to function other than solar radiation, and no waste is produced. The sun has been powering life on this planet for billions of years, and bombards the earth with 3x1024 J of energy per year. Only 0.02% of this energy is currently needed to power the world, thus making the sun a viable solution to energy demands, while decreasing current pollution issues. This thesis focuses on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs), in particular, the Grätzel cell, which incorporates thin films of TiO2 as the semiconductor, DSSC's work very similarly to a battery, but instead of using chemical energy to drive electrons through the circuit, it uses photons. Several issues have arisen with these types of solar cells and their use in the modern world. One particular problem is that the iodide/triiodide (I -/I3-) mediator, which currently produces the most efficient DSSCs, is corrosive and volatile. To address this and other issues, a conductive phenothiazine (PTZ) and phenoxazine (POZ) based polymer is hypothesized to be a suitable replacement for the mediator and solvent by acting as a charge separator and hole transport material, without any volatile or corrosive problems. This polymer would hypothetically function similarly to proposed electron transport in DNA. When charges are injected into a DNA strand they are transferred through

  18. Mechanisms of reversible photodegradation in disperse orange 11 dye doped in PMMA polymer

    CERN Document Server

    Embaye, Natnael B; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    We use amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and linear absorption spectroscopy to study the mechanisms of reversible photodegradation of 1-amino-2-methylanthraquinone (disperse orange 11-DO11) in solid poly(methyl methacrylate). Measurements as a function of intensity, concentration, and time suggest that ASE originates in a state (be it a tautomer or a vibronic level) that can form a dimer or some other aggregate upon relaxation, which through fluorescence quenching leads to degradation of the ASE signal. Whatever the degradation route, a high concentration of DO11 is required and the polymer plays a key role in the process of opening a new reversible degradation pathway that is not available at lower concentrations or in liquid solutions. We construct an energy level diagram that describes all measured quantities in the decay and recovery processes and propose a hypothesis of the nature of the associated states.

  19. Toward Higher Energy Conversion Efficiency for Solid Polymer Electrolyte Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Ionic Conductivity and TiO2 Pore-Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Donghoon; Cho, Woohyung; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kang, Yong Soo

    2014-04-03

    Even though the solid polymer electrolyte has many intrinsic advantages over the liquid electrolyte, its ionic conductivity and mesopore-filling are much poorer than those of the liquid electrolyte, limiting its practical application to electrochemical devices such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Two major shortcomings associated with utilizing solid polymer electrolytes in DSCs are first discussed, low ionic conductivity and poor pore-filling in mesoporous photoanodes for DSCs. In addition, future directions for the successful utilization of solid polymer electrolytes toward improving the performance of DSCs are proposed. For instance, the facilitated mass-transport concept could be applied to increase the ionic conductivity. Modified biphasic and triple-phasic structures for the photoanode are suggested to take advantage of both the liquid- and solid-state properties of electrolytes.

  20. Low-loss sharp bends in polymer waveguides enabled by the introduction of a thin metal layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, Mustafa; Pollnau, Markus; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Embodying a thin metallic layer underneath the core of a sharply bent polymer waveguide is shown in this work to considerably reduce the total losses of both the quasi-transverse-electric and quasi-transversemagnetic modes. The computational results show a total loss as low as ~0.02 dB/90° for the q

  1. Complex microstructures of ABC triblock copolymer thin films directed by polymer brushes based on self-consistent field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhibin; Xu, Chang; Qiu, Yu Dong; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Dongshan; Xue, Gi

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and the phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film directed by polymer brushes are investigated by the self-consistent field theory in three dimensions. The polymer brushes coated on the substrate can be used as a good soft template to tailor the morphology of the block copolymer thin films compared with those on the hard substrates. The polymer brush is identical with the middle block B. By continuously changing the composition of the block copolymer, the phase diagrams are constructed for three cases with the fixed film thickness and the brush density: identical interaction parameters, frustrated and non-frustrated cases. Some ordered complex morphologies are observed: parallel lamellar phase with hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 (ll) -HFs), perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface (LAM(⊥)-CI), and perpendicular hexagonally packed cylinders phase with rings at the interface (C2 (⊥)-RI). A desired direction (perpendicular or parallel to the coated surfaces) of lamellar phases or cylindrical phases can be obtained by varying the composition and the interactions between different blocks. The phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film wetted between the polymer brush-coated surfaces is very useful in designing the directed pattern of ABC triblock copolymer thin film.

  2. Polymer-ZnO nanocomposites foils and thin films for UV protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, Haider Mohammed; Yahaya, Muhammad; Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The damage of UV radiation on human eye and skin is extensively studied. In the present work, the nanocomposites foils and thin films have been prepared by using casting method and spin coating, respectively. Nanocomposites were prepared by mixing ZnO nanoparticles with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as polymer matrix. Different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were used as filler in the nanocomposites. UV-Vis spectra showed very low transmittance in UV region that decreases with increase content of ZnO. PVDF/ZnO samples showed the lowest transmittance. The rough surface of PVDF was observed from SEM image. While a homogeneous dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in PMMA were indicated by FESEM images.

  3. Flexible, thin films of graphene-polymer composites for EMI shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Rahim; Habib, Amir; Aftab Akram, Muhammad; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Shah, Attaullah; Sadiq, Muhammad; Hussain, Akhtar

    2017-03-01

    Liquid-phase-exfoliated, pristine graphene nanosheets (GNSs) are dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) to obtain free-standing conducting composite films. The composites are tested for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications in the X-band (8-12 GHz). A constant increase in the electromagnetic attenuation is observed as a function of GNS loading (0-0.12 V f). The EMI shielding effectiveness of about 1 dB for the neat polymer is enhanced to about 14 dB at 0.12 V f GNS as the electromagnetic energy is dissipated due to the GNS conducting network formed inside. Conducting behavior of GNS-TPU composites is confirmed by electrical conductivity measurements along with cyclic voltammetry as the band gap is reduced with a graphene increment. Scanning electron microscopy predicts a homogeneous dispersion of GNS inside composites. For such thin composite films (0.03-0.05 mm), the EMI shielding effectiveness is considerable.

  4. Flexible thin-film polymer waveguides fabricated in an industrial roll-to-roll process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, R; Muellner, P; Kataeva, N; Koeck, A; Trassl, S; Rinnerbauer, V; Schmidegg, K; Hainberger, R

    2013-07-01

    The fabrication of flexible low-loss, thin-film, foil-based polymer waveguides with grating couplers employing a high-volume industrial roll-to-roll process is demonstrated. The embossed waveguides feature propagation losses of less than 1 dB/cm (633 nm, TE polarization), bending losses of 0.4-0.8 dB/360° for bending radii as small as 2 mm, and grating coupling efficiencies of up to 25%. In addition, the waveguides possess a thermo-optic coefficient of -1.58×10(-4) 1/°C. The fabricated waveguides are promising candidates for short-distance data communication as well as for sensing applications.

  5. Tunable Gas Permeability of Polymer-Clay Nano Brick Wall Thin Film Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin films of anionic natural montmorrilonite (MMT) clay and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) have been produced by alternately dipping a plastic substrate into dilute aqueous mixtures containing each ingredient. After 40 polymer-clay layers have been deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below 0.35 cm^3/m^2 . day when the pH of PEI solution is 10. This low permeability is due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar. This brick wall creates an extremely tortuous path at thicknesses below 250 nm and clay concentration above 80 wt%. A 70-bilayer PEI-MMT assembly has an undetectable OTR (packaging and foil replacement for food.

  6. Magnetic Property in large array cobalt antidot thin film using polymer-assisted nanosphere lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Li; Ho, Chi-Chih; Hsieh, Yung-Wu; Juan, Wen-Tau; Lin, Keng-Hui

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a new method to prepare monolayer of close- packed nanospheres (NSs) over large area onto a substrate of any kind utilizing polymer bridging effect. The NSs packing domain can be as large as 1 cmx1 cm which is demonstrated from its diffraction pattern. It was then used as a template to fabricate series of cobalt antidot thin films with different antidot diameter ranging from 100nm to 180nm. Because of the good periodicity and less defects in our nanostructured samples, we would be able to not only qualitatively study their magnetic properties but also quantitatively. As the antidot diameter increases, the surface to bulk volume fraction increases and the surface magnetism becomes more prominent. We found a systematic increase in magnetic coercivity with the antidote diameter, while the saturation magnetization drops at large antidote diameter. Detailed analysis and their implication will be discussed.

  7. Self-destruction and dewetting of thin polymer films the role of interfacial tensions

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, G; Sharma, A

    2003-01-01

    We present real-time optical microscopy observations of the pattern evolution in self-destruction and subsequent dewetting of thin polymer films based on experiments with polydimethylsiloxane films sandwiched between silicon wafers and aqueous surfactant solutions. A clear scenario consisting of four distinct stages has been identified: amplification of surface fluctuations, break-up of the film and formation of holes, growth and coalescence of holes, and droplet formation and ripening. Besides a linear dependence on film viscosity and surface tension, the time tau for film rupture varied significantly with film thickness h (tau approx h sup 5), as expected from theory. While the role of long-range forces is dominant only in the first stage, the later stages are controlled by the combination of interfacial tensions resulting in the contact angle characterizing the three-phase contact line. During the first stage, the characteristic distance of the pattern remains constant, represented by a time-independent wa...

  8. Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO{sub 2} layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, P.; Sengupta, D. [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India); CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India); Kasinadhuni, U. [Department of Engineering Physics, Bengal College of Engineering and Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal (India); Mondal, B. [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India); Mukherjee, K., E-mail: kalisadhanm@yahoo.com [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Thin TiO{sub 2} layer is deposited on conducting substrate using sol–gel based dip coating. • TiO{sub 2} nano-particles are synthesized using hydrothermal route. • Thick TiO{sub 2} particulate layer is deposited on prepared thin layer. • Dye sensitized solar cells are made using thin and thick layer based photo-anode. • Introduction of thin layer in particulate photo-anode improves the cell efficiency. - Abstract: A compact thin TiO{sub 2} passivation layer is introduced between the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate layer and the conducting glass substrate to prepare photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In order to understand the effect of passivation layer, other two DSSCs are also developed separately using TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate and compact thin film based photo-anodes. Nano-particles are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis route and the compact passivation layer is prepared by simply dip coating the precursor sol prepared through wet chemical route. The TiO{sub 2} compact layer and the nano-particles are characterised in terms of their micro-structural features and phase formation behavior. It is found that introduction of a compact TiO{sub 2} layer in between the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate layer and the conducting substrate improves the solar to electric conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell. The dense thin passivation layer is supposed to enhance the photo-excited electron transfer and prevent the recombination of photo-excited electrons.

  9. Impact of regioregularity on thin-film transistor and photovoltaic cell performances of pentacene-containing polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Regioregular pentacene-containing polymers were synthesized with alkylated bithiophene (BT) and cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) as comonomers. Among them, 2,9-conjugated polymers PnBT-2,9 and PnCPDT-2,9 achieved the best performance in transistor and photovoltaic devices respectively. The former achieved the most highly ordered structures in thin films, yielding ambipolar transistor behavior with hole and electron mobilities up to 0.03 and 0.02 cm 2 V -1 s -1 on octadecylsilane-treated substrates. The latter achieved photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies up to 0.33%. The impact of regioregularity and direction of conjugation-extension (2,9 vs. 2,10), on thin-film order and device performance has been demonstrated for the pentacene-containing polymers for the first time, providing insight towards future functional material design. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Limits of single-molecule super-resolution microscopy in thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muzhou; Davanco, Marcelo; Marr, James M.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gilman, Jeffrey W.

    Structural characterization by super-resolution microscopy has become increasingly widespread, particularly in the biological community. The technique is powerful because it can produce real-space images with resolutions of tens of nanometers, while sample preparation is relatively non-invasive. Previous studies have applied these techniques to important scientific problems in the life sciences, but relatively little work has explored the attainable limit of resolution using samples of known structure. In this work, we apply photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) to polymer films that have been nanopatterned using electron-beam lithography. Trace amounts of a rhodamine spiroamide dye are dispersed into nanostructured poly(methyl methacrylate), and UV-induced switching of the fluorophores enables nanoscale localization of single molecules to generate a final composite super-resolution image. Features as small as 50 nm are clearly resolvable. To determine the ultimate resolution limit, we investigate sources of error in the system, particularly from systematic mislocalizations due to the effect of fluorophore orientation on the single-molecule point-spread function.

  11. Experimental elaboration and analysis of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) dyed by natural dyes and conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    KałuŻyński, P.; Maciak, E.; Herzog, T.; Wójcik, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we propose low cost and easy in development fully working dye-sensitized solar cell module made with use of a different sensitizing dyes (various anthocyanins and P3HT) for increasing the absorption spectrum, transparent conducting substrates (vaccum spattered chromium and gold), nanometer sized TiO2 film, iodide and methyl viologen dichloride based electrolyte, and a counter electrode (vaccum spattered platinum or carbon). Moreover, some of the different technologies and optimization manufacturing processes were elaborated for energy efficiency increase and were presented in this paper.

  12. Dynamic-template-directed multiscale assembly for large-area coating of highly-aligned conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Erfan; Zhao, Chuankai; Meng, Yifei; Qu, Ge; Zhang, Fengjiao; Zhao, Xikang; Mei, Jianguo; Zuo, Jian-Min; Shukla, Diwakar; Diao, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Solution processable semiconducting polymers have been under intense investigations due to their diverse applications from printed electronics to biomedical devices. However, controlling the macromolecular assembly across length scales during solution coating remains a key challenge, largely due to the disparity in timescales of polymer assembly and high-throughput printing/coating. Herein we propose the concept of dynamic templating to expedite polymer nucleation and the ensuing assembly process, inspired by biomineralization templates capable of surface reconfiguration. Molecular dynamic simulations reveal that surface reconfigurability is key to promoting template-polymer interactions, thereby lowering polymer nucleation barrier. Employing ionic-liquid-based dynamic template during meniscus-guided coating results in highly aligned, highly crystalline donor-acceptor polymer thin films over large area (>1 cm2) and promoted charge transport along both the polymer backbone and the π-π stacking direction in field-effect transistors. We further demonstrate that the charge transport anisotropy can be reversed by tuning the degree of polymer backbone alignment.

  13. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Laser patterning of thin film PEDOT:PSS on polymer foils is characterized in great detail. • PEDOT:PSS does not need to be fully removed to create electrically insulating patterns. • The underlying polymer foil influences the ablation behavior. - Abstract: Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  14. Molecular Orientation of Conjugated Polymer Chains in Nanostructures and Thin Films: Review of Processes and Application to Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Vohra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting polymers are composed of elongated conjugated polymer backbones and side chains with high solubility and mechanical properties. The combination of these two features results in a high processability and a potential to orient the conjugated backbones in thin films and nanofibers. The thin films and nanofibers are usually composed of highly crystalline (high charge transport and amorphous parts. Orientation of conjugated polymer can result in enhanced charge transport or optical properties as it induces increased crystallinity or preferential orientation of the crystallites. After summarizing the potential strategies to exploit molecular order in conjugated polymer based optoelectronic devices, we will review some of the fabrication processes to induce molecular orientation. In particular, we will review the cases involving molecular and interfacial interactions, unidirectional deposition processes, electrospinning, and postdeposition mechanical treatments. The studies presented here clearly demonstrate that process-controlled molecular orientation of the conjugated polymer chains can result in high device performances (mobilities over 40 cm2·V−1·s−1 and solar cells with efficiencies over 10%. Furthermore, the peculiar interactions between molecularly oriented polymers and polarized light have the potential not only to generate low-cost and low energy consumption polarized light sources but also to fabricate innovative devices such as solar cell integrated LCDs or bipolarized LEDs.

  15. Optimizing Polymer Infusion Process for Thin Ply Textile Composites with Novel Matrix System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen K. Bhudolia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For mass production of structural composites, use of different textile patterns, custom preforming, room temperature cure high performance polymers and simplistic manufacturing approaches are desired. Woven fabrics are widely used for infusion processes owing to their high permeability but their localised mechanical performance is affected due to inherent associated crimps. The current investigation deals with manufacturing low-weight textile carbon non-crimp fabrics (NCFs composites with a room temperature cure epoxy and a novel liquid Methyl methacrylate (MMA thermoplastic matrix, Elium®. Vacuum assisted resin infusion (VARI process is chosen as a cost effective manufacturing technique. Process parameters optimisation is required for thin NCFs due to intrinsic resistance it offers to the polymer flow. Cycles of repetitive manufacturing studies were carried out to optimise the NCF-thermoset (TS and NCF with novel reactive thermoplastic (TP resin. It was noticed that the controlled and optimised usage of flow mesh, vacuum level and flow speed during the resin infusion plays a significant part in deciding the final quality of the fabricated composites. The material selections, the challenges met during the manufacturing and the methods to overcome these are deliberated in this paper. An optimal three stage vacuum technique developed to manufacture the TP and TS composites with high fibre volume and lower void content is established and presented.

  16. Flexible thin-film battery based on solid-like ionic liquid-polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Ardebili, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-performance flexible batteries is imperative for several contemporary applications including flexible electronics, wearable sensors and implantable medical devices. However, traditional organic liquid-based electrolytes are not ideal for flexible batteries due to their inherent safety and stability issues. In this study, a non-volatile, non-flammable and safe ionic liquid (IL)-based polymer electrolyte film with solid-like feature is fabricated and incorporated in a flexible lithium ion battery. The ionic liquid is 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIMDCA) and the polymer is composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP). The electrolyte exhibits good thermal stability (i.e. no weight loss up to 300 °C) and relatively high ionic conductivity (6 × 10-4 S cm-1). The flexible thin-film lithium ion battery based on solid-like electrolyte film is encapsulated using a thermal-lamination process and demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance, in both flat and bent configurations.

  17. Sub-Rouse modes in polymer thin films: Coupling to density and responding to physical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Capaccioli, S.; Prevosto, D.

    2016-05-01

    The presence of sub-Rouse modes in bulk polymers with length scale and relaxation times in between the segmental α-relaxation and the Rouse modes had long been justified by theoretical consideration, and found in many experimental studies. The sub-Rouse modes had been seen directly in creep compliance measurements of polymer thin films by McKenna and co-workers. On decreasing film thickness, the sub-Rouse modes shift to shorter times like the segmental α-relaxation, but the shift of the former is less than the latter. We had used the sub-Rouse modes and the segmental mode to explain the two transitions found by ellipsometry in freestanding high molecular weight PS films by Pye and Roth (PR). The upper transition at a higher temperature originates from the sub-Rouse modes, and the lower transition comes from the segmental α-relaxation. On the other hand, PR suggested that the upper and the lower transitions both came from the segmental α-relaxation, and the upper transition occurs in ~90% of the material. In this paper we use dielectric relaxation data of freestanding films to rule out their suggestion. Furthermore, we demonstrate by experimental evidences that the sub-Rouse modes are coupled to density, and respond to physical aging to validate our interpretation.

  18. Optimizing Polymer Infusion Process for Thin Ply Textile Composites with Novel Matrix System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhudolia, Somen K.; Perrotey, Pavel; Joshi, Sunil C.

    2017-01-01

    For mass production of structural composites, use of different textile patterns, custom preforming, room temperature cure high performance polymers and simplistic manufacturing approaches are desired. Woven fabrics are widely used for infusion processes owing to their high permeability but their localised mechanical performance is affected due to inherent associated crimps. The current investigation deals with manufacturing low-weight textile carbon non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) composites with a room temperature cure epoxy and a novel liquid Methyl methacrylate (MMA) thermoplastic matrix, Elium®. Vacuum assisted resin infusion (VARI) process is chosen as a cost effective manufacturing technique. Process parameters optimisation is required for thin NCFs due to intrinsic resistance it offers to the polymer flow. Cycles of repetitive manufacturing studies were carried out to optimise the NCF-thermoset (TS) and NCF with novel reactive thermoplastic (TP) resin. It was noticed that the controlled and optimised usage of flow mesh, vacuum level and flow speed during the resin infusion plays a significant part in deciding the final quality of the fabricated composites. The material selections, the challenges met during the manufacturing and the methods to overcome these are deliberated in this paper. An optimal three stage vacuum technique developed to manufacture the TP and TS composites with high fibre volume and lower void content is established and presented. PMID:28772654

  19. Development of efficiency improved polymer-modified TiO2 for the photocatalytic degradation of an organic dye from wastewater environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangareswari, Murugan; Meenakshi Sundaram, Mariappan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic activity of polypyrrole-TiO2 nanocomposite was studied experimentally for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under simulating solar light irradiation. To improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight irradiation, conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and its derivatives are generally used as photosensitizers. The PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite was prepared by the chemical oxidative polymerization method. The prepared nanocomposite showed better photocatalytic activity than bare TiO2 under sunlight irradiation for the degradation of MB dye. The prepared nanocomposite was subjected to characterization techniques such as SEM-EDAX, FT-IR, UV-DRS, XRD, TGA and PL spectral analysis. Different influencing operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, irradiation time, pH and amount of PPy-TiO2 nanocomposite used have also been studied. The optical density of the dye degradation was measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The repeatability of photocatalytic activity was also tested. A plausible mechanism was proposed and discussed on the basis of experimental results.

  20. A molecular scale perspective: Monte Carlo simulation for rupturing of ultra thin polymer film melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2017-04-01

    Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to study the rupturing process of thin polymer film under strong confinement. The change in mean square displacement; pair correlation function; density distribution; average bond length and microscopic viscosity are sampled by varying the molecular interaction parameters such as the strength and the equilibrium positions of the bonding, non-bonding potentials and the sizes of the beads. The variation in mean square angular displacement χθ = [ - 2 ] fits very well to a function of type y (t) = A + B *e-t/τ. This may help to study the viscous properties of the films and its dependence on different parameters. The ultra thin film annealed at high temperature gets ruptured and holes are created in the film mimicking spinodal dewetting. The pair correlation function and density profile reveal rich information about the equilibrium structure of the film. The strength and equilibrium bond length of finite extensible non-linear elastic potential (FENE) and non-bonding Morse potential have clear impact on microscopic rupturing of the film. The beads show Rouse or repetition motion forming rim like structures near the holes created inside the film. The higher order interaction as dipole-quadrupole may get prominence under strong confinement. The enhanced excluded volume interaction under strong confinement may overlap with the molecular dispersion forces. It can work to reorganize the molecules at the bottom of the scale and can imprint its signature in complex patterns evolved.

  1. Layered double hydroxides as an effective additive in polymer gelled electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsu-Wen; Cheng, Wei-Yun; Lo, Yu-Chun; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Lu, Shih-Yuan

    2014-10-22

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH), a class of anionic clay materials, were developed as an effective additive for polymer gelled electrolytes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Carbonate and chloride intercalated Zn-Al LDHs, ZnAl-CO3 LDH, and ZnAl-Cl LDH were prepared with coprecipitation methods. The addition of the two LDHs significantly improved, in terms of power conversion efficiency (PCE), over the plain poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) gelled electrolyte and competed favorably with the liquid electrolyte based DSSCs, 8.13% for the liquid electrolyte, 7.48% for the plain PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte, 8.11% for the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte, and 8.00% for the ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs. The good performance in PCEs achieved by the LDH-loaded DSSCs came mainly from the significant boost in open circuit voltages (Voc), from 0.74 V for both the liquid electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs to 0.79 V for both the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP and ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs. The boost in Voc was contributed mainly by the positive shift in redox potential of the redox couple, I(-)/I3(-), as revealed from cyclic voltammetry analyses. As for the long-term stability, PCE retention rates of 96 and 99% after 504 h were achieved by the ZnAl-CO3 LDH/PVDF-HFP and ZnAl-Cl LDH/PVDF-HFP gelled electrolyte based DSSCs, respectively, appreciably better than 92% achieved by the liquid electrolyte based one after 480 h.

  2. Polymer and organic solar cells viewed as thin film technologies: What it will take for them to become a success outside academia

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The polymer and organic solar cell technology is critically presented in the context of other thin film technologies with a specific focus on what it will take to make them a commercial success. The academic success of polymer and organic solar cells far outweigh any other solar cell technology when judging by the number of scientific publications whereas the application of polymer and organic solar cells in real products is completely lacking. This aspect is viewed as a sign of the polymer a...

  3. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Centre (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Khaledi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arifin, Zainudin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application. - Graphical abstarct: Microspherical designed CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides photoanode film has been fabricated from single source precursor [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique for dye sensitized solar cell application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a heterobimetallic Cd–Ti complex. • Fabrication of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} thin film photoelectrode. • Application as dye sensitized photoanode for solar application.

  4. Efficient electron transfer kuramite Cu3SnS4 nanosheet thin film towards platinum-free cathode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Long; Tao, Jie; Shu, Hai-Bo; Tao, Hai-Jun; Tang, Yu-Xin; Shen, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Tao; Pan, Lei

    2017-02-01

    The density-functional theory calculations in this work clearly revealed that the kuramite-structure Cu3SnS4 material possessing the metallic characteristic, result in the higher charge transfer between I3- ions and the Cu3SnS4 surfaces, and the rapid redox transfer reaction of I3-/I- in dye-sensitized solar cells system. Then, a feasible and mild solution method was proposed to in-situ synthesize Cu-rich kuramite-structure Cu3SnS4 thin film on FTO substrate, and the acquired thin film was used directly as counter electrode to assemble dye-sensitized solar cells without any post-treatments. The obtained-Cu3SnS4 nanosheet film had good bonding strength, expanded surface area, low photoelectron charge transfer resistance at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface, and great catalytic activity toward the reduction of I3-/I- ions. Power conversion efficiency of 7.80% was obtained by utilizing Cu3SnS4 nanosheet as counter electrode, which was superior to that of Pt electrode (6.52%). Our results demonstrate the earth-abundant and low-cost kuramite Cu3SnS4 is an alternative Pt-free counter electrode material in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  5. Synthesis of Acenaphthyl and Phenanthrene Based Fused-Aromatic Thienopyrazine Co-Polymers for Photovoltaic and Thin Film Transistor Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2009-08-11

    Dithiophene and fluorene co-polymers containing fused aromatic thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine moieties were synthesized for organic thin film transistor (OTFT) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. Suzuki and Stille polycondensation reactions were used for the polymerization. The band gap (Eg) of the polymers was tuned in the range of 1.15-1.6 eV to match the solar spectrum. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to rationalize the low band gaps. These polymers showed field effect mobility (μ) as high as 0.2 cm2/(V.s) with an on/off ratio as high as 106 in OTFT devices. Interestingly, one polymer in this class also showed ambipolar charge transport. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 1.3% was achieved in bulk heterojunction solar cells, indicating that these materials are promising for OPV applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  6. Soft matter beats hard matter: rupturing of thin metallic films induced by mass transport in photosensitive polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavalli, Nataraja Sekhar; Linde, Felix; Kopyshev, Alexey; Santer, Svetlana

    2013-08-28

    The interface between thin films of metal and polymer materials play a significant role in modern flexible microelectronics viz., metal contacts on polymer substrates, printed electronics and prosthetic devices. The major emphasis in metal-polymer interface is on studying how the externally applied stress in the polymer substrate leads to the deformation and cracks in metal film and vice versa. Usually, the deformation process involves strains varying over large lateral dimensions because of excessive stress at local imperfections. Here we show that the seemingly random phenomena at macroscopic scales can be rendered rather controllable at submicrometer length scales. Recently, we have created a metal-polymer interface system with strains varying over periods of several hundred nanometers. This was achieved by exploiting the formation of surface relief grating (SRG) within the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film upon irradiation with light interference pattern. Up to a thickness of 60 nm, the adsorbed metal film adapts neatly to the forming relief, until it ultimately ruptures into an array of stripes by formation of highly regular and uniform cracks along the maxima and minima of the polymer topography. This surprising phenomenon has far-reaching implications. This is the first time a direct probe is available to estimate the forces emerging in SRG formation in glassy polymers. Furthermore, crack formation in thin metal films can be studied literally in slow motion, which could lead to substantial improvements in the design process of flexible electronics. Finally, cracks are produced uniformly and at high density, contrary to common sense. This could offer new strategies for precise nanofabrication procedures mechanical in character.

  7. Photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated by anodizing method and spin coating and electrochemical impedance properties of DSSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho, E-mail: f10381@ntut.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Manufacturing Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Hao [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10419, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Kao, Mu-Jung [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chien, Shu-Hua [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chou, Cheng-Yi [Graduate Institute of Manufacturing Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-15

    The paper studies the photoelectrode thin film of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by anodizing method, explores the structure and properties of the fabricated photoelectrode thin film, measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC, and finds the electrochemical impedance properties of DSSCs assembled by photoelectrode thin films in different thicknesses. Besides, in order to increase the specific surface area of nanotubes, this paper deposits TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TNP) on the surface of titanium oxide nanotube (TNT). As shown in experimental results, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC fabricated by the study rises to 6.5% from the original 5.43% without TnB treatment, with an increase of photoelectric conversion efficiency by 19.7%. In addition, when the photoelectrode thin film is fabricated with mixture of TNTs and TNP in an optimal proportion of 2:8 and the photoelectrode thin film thickness is 15.5 μm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 7.4%, with an increase of 36.7% from the original photoelectric conversion efficiency at 5.43%. Besides, as found in the results of electrochemical impedance analysis, the DSSC with photoelectrode thin film thickness at 15.5 μm has the lowest charge-conduction resistance (R{sub k}) value 9.276 Ω of recombined electron and conduction resistance (R{sub w}) value 3.25 Ω of electrons in TiO{sub 2}.

  8. Super-resolution fluorescence imaging of nanoimprinted polymer patterns by selective fluorophore adsorption combined with redox switching

    KAUST Repository

    Yabiku, Y.

    2013-10-22

    We applied a super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on selective adsorption and redox switching of the fluorescent dye molecules for studying polymer nanostructures. We demonstrate that nano-scale structures of polymer thin films can be visualized with the image resolution better than 80 nm. The method was applied to image 100 nm-wide polymer nanopatterns fabricated by thermal nanoimprinting. The results point to the applicability of the method for evaluating residual polymer thin films and dewetting defect of the polymer resist patterns which are important for the quality control of the fine nanoimprinted patterns. 2013 Author(s).

  9. Organic Solid-State Tri-Wavelength Lasing from Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal and a Distributed Feedback Laser with a Doped Laser Dye and a Semiconducting Polymer Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minghuan; Liu, Yonggang; Peng, Zenghui; Wang, Shaoxin; Wang, Qidong; Mu, Quanquan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Xuan, Li

    2017-05-07

    Organic solid-state tri-wavelength lasing was demonstrated from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) distributed feedback (DFB) laser with semiconducting polymer poly[-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and laser dye [4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran] (DCM) by a one-step holography technique, which centered at 605.5 nm, 611.9 nm, and 671.1 nm. The temperature-dependence tuning range for the tri-wavelength dye-doped HPDLC DFB laser was as high as 8 nm. The lasing emission from the 9th order HPDLC DFB laser with MEH-PPV as active medium was also investigated, which showed excellent s-polarization characterization. The diffraction order is 9th and 8th for the dual-wavelength lasing with DCM as the active medium. The results of this work provide a method for constructing the compact and cost-effective all solid-state smart laser systems, which may find application in scientific and applied research where multi-wavelength radiation is required.

  10. Enhanced performance in inverted polymer solar cells with D-π-A-type molecular dye incorporated on ZnO buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang Eun; Ryu, Ka Yeon; Hong, Seong-Jin; Bathula, Chinna; Lee, Sang Kyu; Shin, Won Suk; Lee, Jong-Cheol; Choi, Si Kyung; Kim, Joo Hyun; Moon, Sang-Jin

    2013-08-01

    We report the superior characteristics of a ZnO buffer layer covered with a phenothiazine-based, π-conjugated donor-acceptor (D-π-A)-type organic dye (called "d-ZnO"). The use of this system for the performance enhancement of inverted bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs) with the configuration of indium tin oxide/d-ZnO/polymer:PC71 BM/MoO3 /Ag (PC71 BM=[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) is investigated. The layer of organic dyes anchored on the ZnO surface through carboxylate bonding reduces the shunt path on bare ZnO surface and provides better interfacial contacts and energy level alignments between the ZnO layer and the photoactive layer. This phenomenon consequently leads to highly enhanced photovoltaic parameters (fill factor, open-circuit voltage, and short-circuit current density) and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Inverted solar cells containing the d-ZnO layer not only revealed about 34% (PCE: 4.37%) and 18% (PCE: 7.11%) improvement in the PCEs of the representative poly-3(hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and low-band-gap poly{[4,8-bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl-thiophene-5-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl]-alt-[2-(2'-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-4,6-diyl]} (PBDTTT-C-T) polymer systems, respectively, but also showed 2-4 times longer device lifetimes than their counterparts without the organic dye layer. These results demonstrate that this simple approach used in inverted PSCs with a metal oxide buffer layer could become a promising procedure to fabricate highly efficient and stable PSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of mixed coumarin dyes by silver and gold nanoparticles: Towards plasmonic thin-film luminescent solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bashir, S.M., E-mail: elbashireg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics Faculty of Science, Benha University (Egypt); Barakat, F.M.; AlSalhi, M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite films doped with mixed coumarin dyestuffs and noble metal nanoparticles (60 nm silver and 100 nm gold) were prepared by spin coating technique. The effect of silver and gold nanoparticles on the film properties was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. DSC measurements indicated the increase of the glass transition temperature of the films by increasing nanogold concentration, recommending their promising thermal stability towards hot climates. It was found that the fluorescence signals of the mixed coumarin dyes were amplified by 5.4 and 7.15 folds as a result of metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). The research outcomes offered a potential application of these films in solar energy conversion by plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrator (PTLSC). -- Graphical abstract: Plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators. Highlights: • Metal enhanced fluorescence was achieved for mixed coumarin dyes doped in PMMA nanocomposite films. • The amplification of the fluorescence signals is dependent on the concentration of silver and gold nanoparticles. • These films is considered as potential candidates for plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators (PTLSCs)

  12. Positive role of incorporating P-25 TiO2 to mesoporous-assembled TiO2 thin films for improving photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2014-09-15

    In this work, a simple and effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency of the mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticle thin films by incorporating small contents of commercial P-25 TiO2 during the thin film preparation was developed. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method with the aid of a mesopore-directing surfactant, followed by homogeneously mixing with P-25 TiO2 prior to the thin film coating on glass substrate. The mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with 5 wt.% P-25 TiO2 incorporation and calcined at 400°C provided an improved photocatalytic Acid Black (AB) dye degradation efficiency. The increase in number of coated layers to the optimum four layers of the aforementioned film was found to further improve the degradation efficiency. The recyclability test of this 5 wt.% P-25 TiO2-incorporated mesoporous-assembled TiO2 film with four coated layers revealed that it can be reused for multiple cycles without a requirement of post-treatment while the degradation efficiency was retained.

  13. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells composed of liquid crystal embedded, electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) nanofibers as polymer gel electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Kwang; Ban, Taewon; Sakthivel, P; Lee, Jae Wook; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2012-04-01

    In order to overcome the problems associated with the use of liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a new system composed of liquid crystal embedded, polymer electrolytes has been developed. For this purpose, three types of DSSCs have been fabricated. The cells contain electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVdF-co-HFP) polymer gel electrolyte, with and without doping with the liquid crystal E7 and with a liquid electrolyte. The morphologies of the newly prepared DSSCs were explored using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Analysis of the FE-SEM images indicate that the DSSC composed of E7 embedded on e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte has a greatly regular morphology with an average diameter. The ionic conductivity of E7 embedded on e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte was found to be 2.9 × 10(-3) S/cm at room temperature, a value that is 37% higher than that of e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte. The DCCS containing the E7 embedded, e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte was observed to possess a much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE = 6.82%) than that of an e-PVdF-co-HFP nanofiber (6.35%). In addition, DSSCs parameters of the E7 embedded, e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte (V(oc) = 0.72 V, J(sc) = 14.62 mA/cm(2), FF = 64.8%, and PCE = 6.82% at 1 sun intensity) are comparable to those of a liquid electrolyte (V(oc) = 0.75 V, J(sc) = 14.71 mA/cm(2), FF = 64.9%, and PCE = 7.17%, both at a 1 sun intensity).

  14. Electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes for enhanced electrochemical performance of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salian, Girish D.; Lebouin, Chrystelle; Demoulin, A.; Lepihin, M. S.; Maria, S.; Galeyeva, A. K.; Kurbatov, A. P.; Djenizian, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    We report that electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes has a strong influence on the electrochemical properties of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries. Electropolymerization of PMMA-PEG (polymethyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol) was carried out on both the anode (self-supported titania nanotubes) and the cathode (porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting electrode-electrolyte interface was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterizations performed by galvanostatic experiments reveal that the capacity values obtained at different C-rates are doubled when the electrodes are completely filled by the polymer electrolyte.

  15. Wafer-scale fabrication of polymer distributed feedback lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    techniques, a thin film of polymer, doped with rhodamine-6G laser dye, is spin coated onto a Borofloat glass buffer substrate and shaped into a planar waveguide slab with first order DFB surface corrugations forming the laser resonator. When optically pumped at 532 nm, lasing is obtained in the wavelength...

  16. Multifunctional conjugated polymers with main-chain donors and side-chain acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong Wook; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Su-Moon; Lee, Hyo Joong; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2011-11-15

    A novel multifunctional conjugated polymer (RCP-1) composed of an electron-donating backbone (carbazole) and an electron-accepting side chain (cyanoacetic acid) connected through conjugated vinylene and terthiophene has been synthesized and tested as a photosensitizer in two major molecule-based solar cells, namely dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Promising initial results on overall power conversion efficiencies of 4.11% and 1.04% are obtained from the basic structure of DSSCs and OPVs based on RCP-1, respectively. The well-defined donor (D)-acceptor (A) structure of RCP-1 has made it possible, for the first time, to reach over 4% of power conversion efficiency in DSSCs with an organic polymer sensitizer and good operation stability.

  17. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing copper indium sulphide/zinc sulphide quantum dot plasticized cellulose acetate polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsi, N. S.; Effendi, N. A. S.; Zakaria, R.; Ali, A. M. M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of solar cells that have been prepared by mixing quantum dots (QD) in gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) based on plasticized cellulose acetate. Copper indium sulfide/zinc sulfide (CuInS/ZnS) QD was doped into GPEs and was characterized for application in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The addition of QD into GPEs increases the conductivity up to 1.6  ×  10-1 S cm-1 at room temperature made them a promising electrolyte for DSSC. Atomic force microscopy analysis affirmed the uniform distribution of QD into the polymer matrix. The photovoltaic efficiency performance of DSSC using QD-doped GPE electrolyte was found to be increased up to 8.02%.

  18. Effect of Poly(Ether Urethane)Introduction on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-Fang; XIANG Wan-Chun; FANG Shi-Bi; CHEN Shen; ZHOU Xiao-Wen; ZHANG Jing-Bo; LIN Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of poly(ether urethane)(PEUR)into polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide),LiI and I_2,has significantly increased the ionic conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitudes.An increment of I_3~- diffusion coefficient is also observed.All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells are constructed using the polymer electrolytes.It was found that PEUR incorporation has a beneficial effect on the enhancement of open circuit voltage V_(OC) by shifting the band edge of TiO_2 to a negative value.Scanning electron microscope images indicate the perfect interfacial contact between the TiO_2 electrode and the blend electrolyte.

  19. Flexible thin-film battery based on graphene-oxide embedded in solid polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, M.; Berg, S.; Ardebili, H.

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced safety of flexible batteries is an imperative objective due to the intimate interaction of such devices with human organs such as flexible batteries that are integrated with touch-screens or embedded in clothing or space suits. In this study, the fabrication and testing of a high performance thin-film Li-ion battery (LIB) is reported that is both flexible and relatively safer compared to the conventional electrolyte based batteries. The concept is facilitated by the use of solid polymer nanocomposite electrolyte, specifically, composed of polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix and 1 wt% graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The flexible LIB exhibits a high maximum operating voltage of 4.9 V, high capacity of 0.13 mA h cm-2 and an energy density of 4.8 mW h cm-3. The battery is encapsulated using a simple lamination method that is economical and scalable. The laminated battery shows robust mechanical flexibility over 6000 bending cycles and excellent electrochemical performance in both flat and bent configurations. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the LIB provides critical insights into the evolution of mechanical stresses during lamination and bending.Enhanced safety of flexible batteries is an imperative objective due to the intimate interaction of such devices with human organs such as flexible batteries that are integrated with touch-screens or embedded in clothing or space suits. In this study, the fabrication and testing of a high performance thin-film Li-ion battery (LIB) is reported that is both flexible and relatively safer compared to the conventional electrolyte based batteries. The concept is facilitated by the use of solid polymer nanocomposite electrolyte, specifically, composed of polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix and 1 wt% graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The flexible LIB exhibits a high maximum operating voltage of 4.9 V, high capacity of 0.13 mA h cm-2 and an energy density of 4.8 mW h cm-3. The battery is encapsulated using a simple lamination method

  20. Enhanced Fracture Resistance of Flexible ZnO:Al Thin Films in Situ Sputtered on Bent Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong Rak; Eswaran, Senthil Kumar; Lee, Seung Min; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-08-19

    Improving the fracture resistance of inorganic thin films is one of the key challenges in flexible electronic devices. A nonconventional in situ sputtering method is introduced to induce residual compressive stress in ZnO:Al thin films during deposition on a bent polymer substrate. The films grown under a larger prebending strain resulted in a higher fracture resistance to applied strains by exhibiting a ∼ 70% improvement in crack-initiating critical strain compared with the reference sample grown without bending. This significant improvement is attributed to the induced residual stress, which helps to prevent the formation of cracks by counteracting the applied strain.

  1. Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymer templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajkumar; Jung, Ye Eun; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr

    2014-02-03

    An amphiphilic graft copolymer, poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG), consisting of a PEAA backbone and PEG side chains was synthesized via an esterification reaction. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transformed infrared analysis demonstrated esterification between carboxylic acid of PEAA and hydroxyl group of PEG. Small angle X-ray scattering results revealed that the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA increased from 11.3 to 12.8 nm upon using a more polar solvent with a higher affinity for poly(acrylic acid), while the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA disappeared with PEG grafting, indicating structural change to an amorphous state. Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized via a sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG graft copolymer as a structure-directing agent. The hydrophilically-preformed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were selectively confined in the hydrophilic PEG domains of the graft copolymer, and mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films were formed, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of TiO{sub 2} films was tunable by varying the concentrations of polymer solutions and the amount of preformed TiO{sub 2}. A quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with PEAA-g-PEG templated TiO{sub 2} film exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 3.8% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, which was greater than that of commercially-available paste (2.6%) at a similar film thickness (3 μm). The improved performance was due to the larger surface area for high dye loading and organized structure with good interconnectivity. - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG) graft copolymer is synthesized. • Amphiphilic PEAA-g-PEG acts as a structure directing agent. • Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films are prepared by sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG template. • Efficiency of DSSC with templated TiO{sub 2} is greater than with commercial TiO{sub 2} paste.

  2. Tilted Orientation of Photochromic Dyes with Guest-Host Effect of Liquid Crystalline Polymer Matrix for Electrical UV Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Ranjkesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a highly oriented photochromic dye film for an ultraviolet (UV-sensing layer, where spirooxazine (SO derivatives are aligned with the liquid crystalline UV-curable reactive mesogens (RM using a guest-host effect. For effective electrical UV sensing with a simple metal-insulator-metal structure, our results show that the UV-induced switchable dipole moment amount of the SO derivatives is high; however, their tilting orientation should be controlled. Compared to the dielectric layer with the nearly planar SO dye orientation, the photochromic dielectric layer with the moderately tilted dye orientation shows more than seven times higher the UV-induced capacitance variation.

  3. Tilted Orientation of Photochromic Dyes with Guest-Host Effect of Liquid Crystalline Polymer Matrix for Electrical UV Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjkesh, Amid; Park, Min-Kyu; Park, Do Hyuk; Park, Ji-Sub; Choi, Jun-Chan; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2015-12-29

    We propose a highly oriented photochromic dye film for an ultraviolet (UV)-sensing layer, where spirooxazine (SO) derivatives are aligned with the liquid crystalline UV-curable reactive mesogens (RM) using a guest-host effect. For effective electrical UV sensing with a simple metal-insulator-metal structure, our results show that the UV-induced switchable dipole moment amount of the SO derivatives is high; however, their tilting orientation should be controlled. Compared to the dielectric layer with the nearly planar SO dye orientation, the photochromic dielectric layer with the moderately tilted dye orientation shows more than seven times higher the UV-induced capacitance variation.

  4. Breakup of a transient wetting layer in polymer blend thin films: unification with 1D phase equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Sam; Clarke, Nigel

    2013-09-20

    We show that lateral phase separation in polymer blend thin films can proceed via the formation of a transient wetting layer which breaks up to give a laterally segregated film. We show that the growth of lateral inhomogeneities at the walls in turn causes the distortion of the interface in the transient wetting layer. By addressing the 1D phase equilibria of a polymer blend thin film confined between selectively attracting walls, we show that the breakup of a transient wetting layer is due to wall-blend interactions; there are multiple values of the volume fraction at the walls which solve equilibrium boundary conditions. This mechanism of lateral phase separation should be general.

  5. Kinetic Effects on Self-Assembly and Function of Protein-Polymer Bioconjugates in Thin Films Prepared by Flow Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Dongsook [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave Cambridge MA 02142 USA; Huang, Aaron [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave Cambridge MA 02142 USA; Olsen, Bradley D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave Cambridge MA 02142 USA

    2016-11-04

    The self-assembly of nanostructured globular protein arrays in thin films is demonstrated using protein–polymer block copolymers based on a model protein mCherry and the polymer poly(oligoethylene glycol acrylate) (POEGA). Conjugates are flow coated into thin films on a poly(ethylene oxide) grafted Si surface, forming self-assembled cylindrical nanostructures with POEGA domains selectively segregating to the air–film interface. Long-range order and preferential arrangement of parallel cylinders templated by selective surfaces are demonstrated by controlling relative humidity. Long-range order increases with coating speed when the film thicknesses are kept constant, due to reduced nucleation per unit area of drying film. Fluorescence emission spectra of mCherry in films prepared at <25% relative humidity shows a small shift suggesting that proteins are more perturbed at low humidity than high humidity or the solution state.

  6. 高分子染料制备及其在织物涂料染色上的应用%Preparation of the polymer dye and its application on superfine pigment of fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾野梅; 杨海

    2011-01-01

    将活性深蓝K-R接枝到聚乙烯醇侧链上生成的产物先后经过沉降和缩醛化反应制备得黏度、流动性适中的高分子染料,将其用于涤棉织物的染色.通过单因子实验研究了接枝反应时间、反应温度、反应体系pH值对染色织物摩擦牢度、皂洗牢度的影响.通过正交实验确定了接枝反应优化工艺条件:温度75℃,时间3.5h,pH值8.5.%Polyvinyl alcohol and reactive blue K-R dye was used to synthesize a new polymeric dye. This new polymeric dye can be used for dyeing polyester/cotton fabric. In experiments, by rubbing fastness, soaping fastness to detect macromolecular synthesis of dyes and dyeing. By single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the optimum polymer dye synthesis is obtained, namely polymer dey synthesis of optimum; the time is 3. 5h, the temperature is 75℃ and the pH is 8.5.

  7. Improved photovoltage and performance by aminosilane-modified PEO/P(VDF-HFP) composite polymer electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Ying; Wu, Sujuan; Xu, Sheng; Zhou, Conghua; Hu, Hao; Chen, Bolei; Han, Hongwei; Zhao, Xingzhong [Key Laboratory of Acoustic and Photonic Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Department of physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2008-06-30

    A PEO/P(VDF-HFP) composite polymer electrolyte was modified by different amounts of NH{sub 2}-end functional silane (3-amonopropyltriethoxysilane, APTS). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out to examine the configuration changes of the polymer electrolyte. The newly formed Si-O-Si network and interactions influenced the ionic conductivity of the APTS-modified polymer electrolyte and also enhanced the connection of the polymer electrolyte with the electrodes of the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance measurements indicated that the APTS deprotonated the TiO{sub 2} photoanode surface and negatively changed the Fermi energy level and the conduction band edge to the vacuum level. This effectively reduced the interface recombination in the DSSC and improved the open circuit voltage. With moderate APTS content (0.1 M) modification, the DSSC exhibited a 58 mV improvement of photovoltage and an improved performance of 5.08% compared with 3.74% of the original DSSC. (author)

  8. Improved photovoltage and performance by aminosilane-modified PEO/P(VDF-HFP) composite polymer electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jing; Yang Ying; Wu Sujuan; Xu Sheng; Zhou Conghua; Hu Hao; Chen Bolei; Han Hongwei [Key Laboratory of Acoustic and Photonic Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Department of physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhao Xingzhong [Key Laboratory of Acoustic and Photonic Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Department of physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: xzzhao@whu.edu.cn

    2008-06-30

    A PEO/P(VDF-HFP) composite polymer electrolyte was modified by different amounts of NH{sub 2}-end functional silane (3-amonopropyltriethoxysilane, APTS). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out to examine the configuration changes of the polymer electrolyte. The newly formed Si-O-Si network and interactions influenced the ionic conductivity of the APTS-modified polymer electrolyte and also enhanced the connection of the polymer electrolyte with the electrodes of the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance measurements indicated that the APTS deprotonated the TiO{sub 2} photoanode surface and negatively changed the Fermi energy level and the conduction band edge to the vacuum level. This effectively reduced the interface recombination in the DSSC and improved the open circuit voltage. With moderate APTS content (0.1 M) modification, the DSSC exhibited a 58 mV improvement of photovoltage and an improved performance of 5.08% compared with 3.74% of the original DSSC.

  9. Thin and flexible solid-state organic ionic plastic crystal-polymer nanofibre composite electrolytes for device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Patrick C; Ponzio, Florian; Fang, Jian; Lin, Tong; Jin, Liyu; Iranipour, Nahid; Efthimiadis, Jim

    2013-09-07

    All solid-state organic ionic plastic crystal-polymer nanofibre composite electrolytes are described for the first time. The new composite materials exhibit enhanced conductivity, excellent thermal, mechanical and electrochemical stability and allow the production of optically transparent, free-standing, flexible, thin film electrolytes (10's μms thick) for application in electrochemical devices. Stable cycling of a lithium cell incorporating the new composite electrolyte is demonstrated, including cycling at lower temperatures than previously possible with the pure material.

  10. Ultra-thin Solid-State Li-Ion Electrolyte Membrane Facilitated by a Self-Healing Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Justin M; Taynton, Philip; Zhang, Wei; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-11-18

    Thin solid membranes are formed by a new strategy, whereby an in situ derived self-healing polymer matrix that penetrates the void space of an inorganic solid is created. The concept is applied as a separator in an all-solid-state battery with an FeS2 -based cathode and achieves tremendous performance for over 200 cycles. Processing in dry conditions represents a paradigm shift for incorporating high active-material mass loadings into mixed-matrix membranes.

  11. The Effect of Lithium Iodide to the Properties of Carboxymethyl κ-Carrageenan/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Polymer Electrolyte and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rudhziah Che Balian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the solid biopolymer electrolytes based on a carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose blend complexed with lithium iodide of various weight ratios. The complexation of the doping salt with the polymer blend was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ionic conductivity of the film was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 4 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–338 K. The ionic conductivity increased with the increase in lithium iodide concentration as well as temperature. The membrane comprising 30 wt % of lithium iodide was found to give the highest conductivity of 3.89 × 10−3 S·cm−1 at room temperature. The increase in conductivity was associated with the increase in the number as well as the mobility of the charge carries. The conductivity increase with temperature followed the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher model. The fabricated dye-sensitive solar cell, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-LiI (30 wt % +I2/Pt exhibited the highest conversion efficiency of 0.11% at a light intensity of 100 mW·cm−2. This indicated that the biopolymer blend electrolyte system has potential for use in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  12. A Flexible and Thin Graphene/Silver Nanowires/Polymer Hybrid Transparent Electrode for Optoelectronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiang, Yaqiu; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xin; Jiao, Bo; Abbas, Waseem; Hou, Xun

    2016-11-16

    A typical thin and fully flexible hybrid electrode was developed by integrating the encapsulation of silver nanowires (AgNWs) network between a monolayer graphene and polymer film as a sandwich structure. Compared with the reported flexible electrodes based on PET or PEN substrate, this unique electrode exhibits the superior optoelectronic characteristics (sheet resistance of 8.06 Ω/□ at 88.3% light transmittance). Meanwhile, the specific up-to-bottom fabrication process could achieve the superflat surface (RMS = 2.58 nm), superthin thickness (∼8 μm thickness), high mechanical robustness, and lightweight. In addition, the strong corrosion resistance and stability for the hybrid electrode were proved. With these advantages, we employ this electrode to fabricate the simple flexible organic light-emitting device (OLED) and perovskite solar cell device (PSC), which exhibit the considerable performance (best PCE of OLED = 2.11 cd/A(2); best PCE of PSC = 10.419%). All the characteristics of the unique hybrid electrode demonstrate its potential as a high-performance transparent electrode candidate for flexible optoelectronics.

  13. Laser-processing of VO2 thin films synthesized by polymer-assisted-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Gorzkowski, Edward P.; Sutto, Thomas E.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    We investigate a novel route for synthesis and laser-sintering of VO2 thin films via solution-based polymer-assisted-deposition (PAD). By replacing the traditional solvent for PAD (water) with propylene glycol, we are able to control the viscosity and improve the environmental stability of the precursor. The solution stability and ability to control the viscosity makes for an ideal solution to pattern simple or complex shapes via direct-write methods. We demonstrate the potential of our precursor for printing applications by combining PAD with laser induced forward transfer (LIFT). We also demonstrate large-area film synthesis on 4 in. diameter glass wafers. By varying the annealing temperature, we identify the optimal synthesis conditions, obtaining optical transmittance changes of 60% at a 2500 nm wavelength and a two-order-of-magnitude semiconductor-to-metal transition. We go on to demonstrate two routes for improved semiconductor-to-metal characteristics. The first method uses a multi-coating process to produce denser films with large particles. The second method uses a pulsed-UV-laser sintering step in films annealed at low temperatures (<450° C) to promote particle growth and improve the semiconductor-to-metal transition. By comparing the hysteresis width and semiconductor-to-metal transition magnitude in these samples, we demonstrate that both methods yield high quality VO2 with a three-order-of-magnitude transition.

  14. Edge isolation of transparent conductive polymer (TCP) thin films on flexible substrates using UV laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau; Chen, Ming-Fei

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to directly use the writing techniques for the complex electrode edge isolation of transparent conductive polymer (TCP) thin films by a nanosecond pulsed UV laser processing system. The processing parameters including the laser pulse energy, the pulse repetition frequency, and the scan speed of galvanometers were examined to ablate the TCP films deposited on polyethylene terephtalate substrates of 188 microm thick. The thickness of TCP films was approximately 20 nm. The laser pulse repetition frequency and the scan speed of galvanometers were applied to calculate the overlapping rate of laser spots and to discuss the patterning region quality. Surface morphology, edge quality, and width and depth of edge isolated patterning structures after laser ablation process were measured by a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope. In addition, the electrical conductivity of ablated TCP films was measured by a four-point probes instrument. After isolated line patterning was formed, the ablated TCP films with a better edge quality were obtained directly when the overlapping rate of laser spots, the scan speed, and the pulse repetition rate were 83.3%, 200 mm/s, and 40 kHz, respectively. The better surface morphology of electrode pattern structures was also obtained when the scan speed and the pulse repetition rate were 500 mm/s and 40 kHz, respectively.

  15. Reduced graphene oxide/molecular imprinted polymer-organic thin film transistor for amino acid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nurul Farhanah AB.; Musa, Nur Hazwani; Zakaria, Zulkhairi; Von Schleusingen, Mubaraq; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Derman, Nazree; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.

    2017-03-01

    This works reports the electrical performance of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)- organic thin film transistor (OTFT) for amino-acid detection, serine. These biomimetic sensors consider MIP as man-tailored biomimetic recognition sites that play an important role in signal transduction. MIP provides recognition sites compatible with serine molecules was developed by dispersing serine with methylacrylate acid (MAA) as functional monomer and Ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The imprinted polymeric were mixed with reduced graphene oxide to produced sensing layer for the sensor. RGO-MIP layer was introduced between source and drain of OTFT via spin coating as a detecting layer for serine molecules. RGO was introduced into MIP, to allow a highly conductive sensing material thus enhanced selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. By analyzing the electrical performance of the sensors, the performances of OTFT sensor enhanced with RGO/MIP interlayer and OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer when exposed to serine analyte were obtained. The results showed that there were remarkable shifts of drain current (ID) obtained from OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer after exposed to serine analyte. Moreover, the sensitivity of OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer was nearly higher than the OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer. Hence, it proved that RGO successfully enhanced the sensing performance of OTFT sensor.

  16. Composite thin film by hydrogen-bonding assembly of polymer brush and poly(vinylpyrrolidone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuguang; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Li; Hong, Song; Xu, Jian; Chen, Yongming; Li, Chengming

    2006-01-03

    Based on hydrogen-bonding layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly in aqueous solution, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) and a spherical polymer brush with a poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PSQ) core and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hair chains were used to fabricate composite multilayer thin films. Hydrogen bonding as the driving force was confirmed by FT-IR spectrometry. A simple method (Filmetric F20) was introduced to determine the thickness and refractive index of the films. The film thickness was found to be a linear function of the number of bilayers. The average increase in thickness per bilayer is 28.3 nm. The film morphology was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The images obtained from the two instruments show a great resemblance. The films were further calcined to get an inorganic film by removing the organic components, or treated with tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) to remove the PSQ core and get an organic film. The optical properties and morphological changes induced by these treatments were also studied.

  17. A concept for direct deposition of thin film batteries on flexible polymer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenneberg, Jens; Andre, Felix; Bardenhagen, Ingo; Langer, Frederieke; Schwenzel, Julian; Kun, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the preparation and characteristics of all-solid-state thin film batteries (TFB) are described. In contrast to the state-of-the-art TFB preparation processes, only room temperature processes are used. The cathode is based on amorphous molybdenum(VI) oxide (MoO3), for the electrolyte lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) is employed and lithium metal acts as anode active material. The cycling stability and rate performance were examined and are discussed. The material set shows a very high cycling stability and excellent rate capability. Performing 550 full cycles at a current density of 202.5 μA cm-2 (10C) a discharge capacity fade of around 15% could be observed. Furthermore, at higher current densities of 2 μA cm-2 (145C) about one third of the initial discharge capacity remained. Using the proposed technology a shift from inorganic rigid substrates, such as glass to flexible polymer substrates is enabled. The performance of the MoO3/LiPON/Li TFBs on glass and flexible polyimide substrates were tested and are discussed within this paper.

  18. Near-Field Optical Drilling of Sub-λ Pits in Thin Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Mertens, Jan; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2017-06-21

    Under UV illumination, polymer films can undergo chain scission and contract. Using this effect, tightly focused laser light is shown to develop runaway near-field concentration that drills sub-100 nm pits through a thin film. This subwavelength photolithography can be controlled in real time by monitoring laser scatter from the evolving holes, allowing systematic control of the void diameter. Our model shows how interference between the substrate and film together with near-field focusing by the evolving crevice directs this formation and predicts minimum pit sizes in films of 100 nm thickness on gold substrates. The smallest features so far are 60 nm diameter pits using 447 nm light focused onto polystyrene through a ×100 objective (NA = 0.8). Such arrays of pits can be easily used as masks for fabricating more complex nanostructures, such as plasmonic nanostructures and biomicrofluidic devices. This demonstration shows the potential for harnessing near-field feedback in optical direct-writing for nanofabrication.

  19. Sol-gel spin coated well adhered MoO3 thin films as an alternative counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutta, Geeta R.; Popuri, Srinivasa R.; Wilson, John I. B.; Bennett, Nick S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we aim to develop a viable, inexpensive and non-toxic material for counter electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We employed an ultra-simple synthesis process to deposit MoO3 thin films at low temperature by sol-gel spin coating technique. These MoO3 films showed good transparency. It is predicted that there will be 150 times reduction of precursors cost by realizing MoO3 thin films as a counter electrode in DSSCs compared to commercial Pt. We achieved a device efficiency of about 20 times higher than that of the previous reported values. In summary we develop a simple low cost preparation of MoO3 films with an easily scaled up process along with good device efficiency. This work encourages the development of novel and relatively new materials and paves the way for massive reduction of industrial costs which is a prime step for commercialization of DSSCs.

  20. Polymer assisted solution processing of Ti-doped indium oxide transparent conducting thin films for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungchungnam-do 331-717 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Won-Yong [The Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jae-Wook, E-mail: jwkang@jbnu.ac.kr [The Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihoon, E-mail: jihoon.kim@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungchungnam-do 331-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Polymer assisted solution process. • Ti-doped indium oxide (TIO) transparent conducting films. • Replacement of sputtered ITO with polymer-assisted-solution-coated TIO films. • High mobility transparent conducting films. • Application of polymer-assisted-solution-coated TIO films to organic solar cells. - Abstract: We report the preparation and evaluation of Ti-doped indium oxide (TIO) transparent conducting films by a polymer-assisted solution (PAS) process, as well as the evaluation of this type of film as a transparent cathode in an inverted organic solar cell (IOCS). Both Ti- and In-PASs have been synthesized by coordinating Ti- and In-anionic complexes with polyethyleneimine. The final TIO–PAS was formed by mixing Ti-PAS into In-PAS with a Ti concentration between 1 at.% and 7 at.%. The TIO–PAS was spin-coated onto glass substrates to form uniform thin films of Ti-doped indium oxide, which were then annealed at high temperature. The optimum Ti concentration to achieve the best electrical and optical properties of PAS–TIO films was found to be 3 at.%. With the film thickness of 650 nm, PAS–TIO films had a sheet resistance of 65 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance greater than 85%. The feasibility of PAS-coated TIO thin film as a transparent electrode was evaluated by applying it to the fabrication of IOSCs, which showed the energy conversion efficiency of 4.60%.

  1. Syntheses, structures and selective dye adsorption of five formic-based coordination polymers prepared by in-situ hydrolysis of N, N‧-dimethylformamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Meng, Xiang-min; Zhang, Dong-mei; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Mei; Jin, Fan; Fan, Yu-hua

    2017-04-01

    Five functional coordination polymers (formic-based CPs) namely: {[Cu2(CHOO)3(bibp)2]·CHOO}n (1), {[Co2(CHOO)3(bibp)2]·NO3·H2O}n (2), {[Ni2(CHOO)3(bibp)2]·NO3·H2O}n (3) [Co(CHOO)2(bbibp)]n (4) and [Zn(CHOO)2(bbibp)]n (5) (bibp=4,4‧-bis(imidazolyl)biphenyl, bbibp=4,4‧-bis(benzoimidazo-1-yl)biphenyl) have been successfully hydrothermally synthesized using the in-situ hydrolysis of N, N‧-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the source of formate. All of these five polymers were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Complexes 1-3 have the similar three-dimensional 3D kag topological framework built from the bibp ligand as the support member between the neighboring formic planes. Both complexes 4 and 5 have the similar one-dimensional 1D linear chain which is further assembled into 3D supermolecular structure by C-H…O hydrogen bonds. The dyes adsorption experiments have also been investigated systematically. The results show that complexes 2 and 3 exhibit high selective adsorption ability towards anionic dyes in their aqueous solution. Moreover, complex 2 displays good reversibility in the process of the dyes adsorption-release. Meanwhile, the unusual blocking phenomenon was firstly observed when complex 2 was in MO/OIV aqueous solutions with different concentration.

  2. Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition.

  3. Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

  4. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chao-Kuang; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2015-06-01

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoS{sub x}) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoS{sub x} samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoS{sub x} thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoS{sub x} thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoS{sub x} thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoS{sub x} flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). Thus, we report that the MoS{sub x} thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoS{sub x} thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoS{sub x

  5. Thin Films Formed from Conjugated Polymers with Ionic, Water-Soluble Backbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Thomas P; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2015-12-30

    This paper compares the morphologies of films of conjugated polymers in which the backbone (main chain) and pendant groups are varied between ionic/hydrophilic and aliphatic/hydrophobic. We observe that conjugated polymers in which the pendant groups and backbone are matched, either ionic-ionic or hydrophobic-hydrophobic, form smooth, structured, homogeneous films from water (ionic) or tetrahydrofuran (hydrophobic). Mismatched conjugated polymers, by contrast, form inhomogeneous films with rough topologies. The polymers with ionic backbone chains are conjugated polyions (conjugated polymers with closed-shell charges in the backbone), which are semiconducting materials with tunable bad-gaps, not unlike uncharged conjugated polymers.

  6. Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Phase Separation of Polymer-Blend Small-Molecule Semiconductors: Dependence on Molecular Weight and Types of Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Takahiro; Kuribayashi, Miki; Tsuboi, Ami; Satori, Kotaro; Itabashi, Masao; Nomoto, Kazumasa

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated effect of polymer on solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) with polymer-blend semiconductors. Organic TFTs made from a solution of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene with a poly(α-methylstyrene) (PaMS) molecular weight of 20 k or above, exhibited mobility around 0.1 cm2/(V.s). On the other hand, the organic TFTs with a PaMS molecular weight of 2 k or with a poly(isobutyl methacrylate), exhibited much lower mobility. This can be explained in terms of the structure and crystallinity of the films. The results of film structure can be explained by applying the Flory-Huggins theory.

  7. Polymer and organic solar cells viewed as thin film technologies: What it will take for them to become a success outside academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The polymer and organic solar cell technology is critically presented in the context of other thin film technologies with a specific focus on what it will take to make them a commercial success. The academic success of polymer and organic solar cells far outweigh any other solar cell technology w...

  8. Inkjet-based deposition of polymer thin films enabled by a lubrication model incorporating nano-scale parasitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Meissl, Mario J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    Thin film lubrication theory has been widely used to model multi-scale fluid phenomena. Variations of the same have also found application in fluid-based manufacturing process steps for micro- and nano-scale devices over large areas where a natural disparity in length scales exists. Here, a novel inkjet material deposition approach has been enabled by an enhanced thin film lubrication theory that accounts for nano-scale substrate parasitics. This approach includes fluid interactions with a thin flexible superstrate towards a new process called Jet and Coat of Thin-films (JCT). Numerical solutions of the model have been verified, and also validated against controlled experiments of polymer film deposition with good agreement. Understanding gleaned from the experimentally validated model has then been used to facilitate JCT process synthesis resulting in substantial reduction in the influence of parasitics and a concomitant improvement in the film thickness uniformity. Polymer films ranging from 20 to 500 nm mean thickness have been demonstrated with standard deviation of less than 2% of the mean film thickness. The JCT process offers advantages over spin coating which is not compatible with roll-to-roll processing and large area processing for displays. It also improves over techniques such as knife edge coating, slot die coating, as they are limited in the range of thicknesses of films that can be deposited without compromising uniformity.

  9. Suppression of charge recombination by application of Cu2ZnSnS4-graphene counter electrode to thin dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Huafei Guo; Xiuqin Wang; Ningyi Yuan; Jianning Ding

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new mechanism to explain the performance of thin dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC).Near-stoichiometric flower-like Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) microspheres with a high specific surface area was fabricated for use as the photocathode in a DSSC.To improve the extraction and transfer of electrons,graphene was added to the CZTS.A DSSC with a 10-μm TiO2 photoanode layer exhibited a slightly degraded efficiency with a CZTS-graphene photocathode,relative to a Pt counter electrode (CE).Nevertheless,when the thickness of the TiO2 photoanode was reduced to 2 μm,the efficiency of a DSSC with a CZTS-graphene photocathode was greater than that of a Pt-DSSC.It is speculated that,unlike the Pt CE,a CZTS-graphene photocathode not only collects electrons from an external circuit and catalyzes the reduction of the triiodide ions in the electrolyte,but also utilizes unabsorbed photons to produce photo-excited electrons and suppresses charge recombination,thus enhancing the performance of the cell.The use of narrow band gap p-type semiconductors as photocathodes offers a new means of fabricating thin dye-sensitized solar cells and effectively improving the cell performance.

  10. Responsive polymer/gold nanoparticle composite thin films fabricated by solvent-induced self-assembly and spin-coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxiang; Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Dong Ha

    2011-02-15

    Self-assembled poly(4-vinylpyridine)-grafted gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) and polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) block copolymers were fabricated by the introduction of a selective solvent to a common solution. The assembled mixtures were spin-coated onto solid substrates to fabricate composite gold/polymer thin films composed of copolymer-hybridized Au NPs and independent copolymer micelles. The obtained composite Au thin films had variable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands and microscopic morphologies upon vapor annealing with selective solvents because the adsorption and dissolving of solvent molecules into the films could rearrange the copolymer block. The hybrid nanostructured Au thin films may have potential in vapor sensing and organic assays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal Vapor Deposition and Characterization of Polymer-Ceramic Nanoparticle Composite Thin Films and Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Crystal L.

    Thin films composed of the polymer polyvinylidene uoride (PVDF) and the ceramic nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2) were fabricated via thermal vapor deposition. The goal of this research was to improve the amount of TiO2 deposited by varying the temperature and deposition time, to obtain more accurate thickness measurements, and to improve on the electrical properties. The electrical properties analyzed in this study were the dielectric constant, capacitance, breakdown strength and energy density of the capacitors. A starting mixture of PVDF, TiO2, and dimethylformamide (DMF) was prepared prior to deposition, where DMF was used only as a solvent. The elemental composition of the films was determined with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Elemental mapping of the films shows that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the polymer. The ideal initial concentrations (which yield the largest TiO2 concentration) of PVDF and TiO2 were determined to be 83% and 17% respectively by weight. The highest weight percent of Ti was 32.4%, which was made with a deposition temperature of 474°C (corresponding to a current of 27 A) and deposition time of 13 minutes. Thefilm thickness was measured by combining EDS and ImageJ to be 243--46 nm. Parallel plate capacitors were fabricated by combining thermal vapor deposition for the dielectric and sputter coating for the electrodes. For the electrodes, the parallel plates are gold palladium (AuPd) with PVDF:TiO2 as the dielectric. The AuPd electrodes were deposited via sputter coating. Each electrode was sputtered for 100s, which yielded a thickness of 33 nm. The dielectric constant was determined experimentally to be 10.8 and estimated using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximation to be 13.1. The capacitance of these capacitors averaged 30--2 nF. The breakdown voltage of the capacitor was 25--4 V, which corresponds to a breakdown strength of 103 MV/m. Lastly

  12. Photo-electrochemical studies of chemically deposited nanocrystalline meso-porous n-type TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using simple synthesized azo dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, C. G.; Nwanya, A. C.; Ezema, B. E.; Patil, B. H.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Ukoha, P. O.; Lokhande, C. D.; Maaza, Malik; Ezema, Fabian I.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate at room temperature (300 K). Titanium trichloride and sodium hydroxide were used as cationic and anionic sources, respectively. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, electrical and wettability properties. The photoelectrochemical study of TiO2 sensitized with a laboratory synthesized organic dye (azo) was evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte at 40 mW cm-2 light illumination intensity. The photovoltaic characteristics show a fill factor of 0.24 and solar conversion efficiency value of 0.032 % for a TiO2 thickness of 0.96 µm as compared to efficiency of 0.014 % for rose Bengal of the same thickness.

  13. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Mg(OH)2-PAM Inorganic-Organic Composite Polymer in Removing Reactive Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Khai Ern Lee; Norhashimah Morad; Tjoon Tow Teng; Beng Teik Poh

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of inorganic-organic composite polymer was prepared. Magnesium hydroxide and polyacrylamide was composed in a composite matrix to prepare Mg(OH)2-PAM (MHPAM) inorganic-organic composite polymer. The characteristics of MHPAM inorganic-organic composite polymer was investigated in terms of chemical, physical, physical, thermal and morphological properties through FT-IR, conductivity, intrinsic viscosity, TGA and TEM, respectively. Results showed that the properties of MH...

  14. On-column labeling of gram-positive bacteria with a boronic acid functionalized squarylium cyanine dye for analysis by polymer-enhanced capillary transient isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shingo; Massie, Tara L; Maeda, Takeshi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Colyer, Christa L

    2012-03-06

    A new asymmetric, squarylium cyanine dye functionalized by boronic acid ("SQ-BA") was designed and synthesized for on-capillary labeling of gram-positive bacteria to provide for high sensitivity detection by way of a modified form of capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The CE-based separation employed a polymer-enhanced buffer with capillary transient isotachophoresis in a new hybrid method dubbed "PectI." It was found that the addition of various monosaccharides to SQ-BA in a batch aqueous solution greatly enhanced the emission of the boronic acid functionalized dye by a factor of up to 18.3 at a long wavelength (λ(ex) = 630 nm, λ(em) = 660 nm) with a high affinity constant (K = ~10(2.80) M(-1)) superior to other sugar probes. Semiempirical quantum mechanics calculations suggest that the mechanism for this high enhancement may involve the dissociation of initially nonemissive dye associates (stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond) upon complex formation with sugars. The fluorescence emission of SQ-BA was also significantly enhanced in the presence of a gram-positive bacterial spore, Bacillus globigii (Bg), which serves as a simulant of B. anthracis (or anthrax) and which possesses a peptidoglycan (sugar)-rich spore coat to provide ample sites for interaction with the dye. Several peaks were observed for a pure Bg sample even with polyethyleneoxide (PEO) present in the CE separation buffer, despite the polymer's previously demonstrated ability to focus microoorganisms to a single peak during migration. Likewise, several peaks were observed for a Bg sample when capillary transient isotachophoresis (ctITP) alone was employed. However, the new combination of these techniques as "PectI" dramatically and reproducibly focused the bacteria to a single peak with no staining procedure. Using PectI, the trace detection of Bg spores (corresponding to approximately three cells per injection) along with separation efficiency

  15. Identification and design of novel polymer-based mechanical transducers: A nano-structural model for thin film indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian; Sirbuly, Donald J., E-mail: dsirbuly@ucsd.edu [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    Mechanical characterization is important for understanding small-scale systems and developing devices, particularly at the interface of biology, medicine, and nanotechnology. Yet, monitoring sub-surface forces is challenging with current technologies like atomic force microscopes (AFMs) or optical tweezers due to their probe sizes and sophisticated feedback mechanisms. An alternative transducer design relying on the indentation mechanics of a compressible thin polymer would be an ideal system for more compact and versatile probes, facilitating measurements in situ or in vivo. However, application-specific tuning of a polymer's mechanical properties can be burdensome via experimental optimization. Therefore, efficient transducer design requires a fundamental understanding of how synthetic parameters such as the molecular weight and grafting density influence the bulk material properties that determine the force response. In this work, we apply molecular-level polymer scaling laws to a first order elastic foundation model, relating the conformational state of individual polymer chains to the macroscopic compression of thin film systems. A parameter sweep analysis was conducted to observe predicted model trends under various system conditions and to understand how nano-structural elements influence the material stiffness. We validate the model by comparing predicted force profiles to experimental AFM curves for a real polymer system and show that it has reasonable predictive power for initial estimates of the force response, displaying excellent agreement with experimental force curves. We also present an analysis of the force sensitivity of an example transducer system to demonstrate identification of synthetic protocols based on desired mechanical properties. These results highlight the usefulness of this simple model as an aid for the design of a new class of compact and tunable nanomechanical force transducers.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells using polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) nanofibers by electrospinning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hae; Kim, Ji-Un; Lee, Seong-Yeop; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra

    2008-09-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices using polymer electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers were fabricated and investigated the photovoltaic performances. The electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were prepared by various parameters such as; polymer concentrations, applied voltages, and tip to collector distances (TCD) by the electrospinning method. The open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short circuit current (J(SC)), fill factor (FF), and overall power conversion efficiency (eta) of DSSC devices using electro-spun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were 0.7180-0.7420 V, 9.7200-10.8837 mA/cm2, 0.5610-0.6250, and 4.1700-5.0186%, respectively. When 15 wt% of polymer concentration, 14 kV of applied voltage, and 14 cm of TCD is applied to fabricate the PVDF-HFP nanofiber, the electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofiber should be the regular diameter of a nanofiber, the power conversion efficiency of the DSSC device reached 5.0186% as the best result.

  17. pH triggered superior selective adsorption and separation of both cationic and anionic dyes and photocatalytic activity on a fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer based nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Saha, Arka; Panda, Asit Baran; Pal, Sagar

    2015-11-18

    A fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer amylopectin based nanocomposite, with pH responsive superior selective adsorption, separation of both cationic (MB: 599 mg g(-1) at pH 9) and anionic (MO: 558 mg g(-1) at pH 3) dyes and photodegradation properties, has been realized through simultaneous in situ layered titanate formation, exfoliation and polymerization.

  18. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC THIN FILMS WITH NANO—STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TakashiH,Noritaka; ChenGuorong; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of thin film formation of organic materials with nano-strucure has been successfully developed by using vacuum technique is proposed. The diarylethene(C18H18N2S2)was selected as a model compound for the evaluation of this method.Polymer,we found that the tendency of dye dispersion into the polymer is as follows:PC>PBzMA>PMMA>PHPMA,where no dispersion is observed for PHPMA under the condition of 115℃ for 24 hours ,Thin film of polymer alloy composed of PMMA and polystylene(PS) was loaded into a glass ample with diarylethene,and treated for three days at 100℃,Dispersed state of the dye was evaluated by transmission electron microscope,and concluded that the dye is distributed only in PS domains selectively.Photochromic properties of the PS domain will be evaluated by using a scanning nearfield optical microscope.

  19. Enhanced mechanical properties of low-surface energy thin films by simultaneous plasma polymerization of fluorine and epoxy containing polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaman, Mustafa, E-mail: karamanm@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selçuk University, Konya, 42075 (Turkey); Advanced Technology Research & Application Center, Selçuk University, Konya, 42075 (Turkey); Uçar, Tuba [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selçuk University, Konya, 42075 (Turkey)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thin films of poly(hexafluorobutyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) can be deposited by PECVD. • The coated surfaces are hydrophobic due to the long fluorinated side chains. • The hydrophobicity of the coating is observed to be stable under harsh conditions. • Film durability is attributed to the mechanical strength of the films due to their epoxide functionality. - Abstract: Thin films of poly(2,2,3,4,4,4 hexafluorobutyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HFBA-GMA) were deposited on different surfaces using an inductively coupled RF plasma reactor. Fluorinated polymer was used to impart hydrophobicity, whereas epoxy polymer was used for improved durability. The deposition at a low plasma power and temperature was suitable for the functionalization of fragile surfaces such as textile fabrics. The coated rough textile surfaces were found to be superhydrophobic with water contact angles greater than 150° due to the high retention of long fluorinated side chains. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces was observed to be stable after many exposures to ultrasonification tests, which is attributed to the mechanical durability of the films due to their epoxide functionality. FTIR and XPS analyses of the deposited films confirmed that the epoxide functionality of the polymers increased with increasing glycidyl methacrylate fraction in the reactor inlet. The modulus and hardness values of the films also increase with increasing epoxide functionality.

  20. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  1. Air-stable solution-processed n-channel organic thin film transistors with polymer-enhanced morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhengran; Shaik, Shoieb; Bi, Sheng; Li, Dawen, E-mail: dawenl@eng.ua.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Chen, Jihua [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    N,N′-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDIF-CN{sub 2}) is an n-type semiconductor exhibiting high electron mobility and excellent air stability. However, the reported electron mobility based on spin-coated PDIF-CN{sub 2} film is much lower than the value of PDIF-CN{sub 2} single crystals made from vapor phase deposition, indicating significant room for mobility enhancement. In this study, various insulating polymers, including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PαMS), are pre-coated on silicon substrate aiming to enhance the morphology of the PDIF-CN{sub 2} thin film, thereby improving the charge transport and air stability. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that with the pre-deposition of PαMS or PMMA polymers, the morphology of the PDIF-CN{sub 2} polycrystalline films is optimized in semiconducting crystal connectivity, domain size, and surface roughness, which leads to significant improvement of organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) performance. Particularly, an electron mobility of up to 0.55 cm{sup 2}/V s has been achieved from OTFTs based on the PDIF-CN{sub 2} film with the pre-deposition of PαMS polymer.

  2. Second-harmonic generation from thin films of mixtures of an aggregated chiral 4-nitroazobenzene dye and amylose acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoondorp, Monique A.; Schouten, Arend Jan; Hulshof, Johannes; Schudde, Ebe P.; Feringa, Ben L.

    1994-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) from both Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films and solvent-cast films of mixtures of a chiral nonlinear optical (NLO) dye, an ester of palmitic acid and 4-nitro-4'-[(3R)-hydroxypyrrolidinyl]azobenzene (KMES16) and amylose acetate is investigated. Results are discussed concer

  3. Process parameters for fast production of ultra-thin polymer film with electrospray deposition under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Ivo B; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2009-11-15

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) films between 60 and 120nm have been prepared with electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) in 25-45s. The films are robust and exhibit a strong adhesion to the substrate surface. The important electrospray parameters for ultra-thin film formation are droplet size, initial polymer concentration, shear rate at impact, and volume flux. The latter can be understood as a measure for the solvent balance between deposition and evaporation; it affects overall film quality. The droplet size determines the minimum film thickness at which continuous film forms without voids. Polymer concentration affects thin-film smoothness and below a fixed concentration threshold, films cease to appear. For the very first droplets, wetting behavior on the substrate is most important. Subsequently, shear rate determines how voids are filled up and it determines final film smoothness. In addition to the electrospray conditions, substrates that favor wetting and have a capability to conduct charges away from the surface contribute to the formation of well-defined, ultra-thin films.

  4. The influence of an electric field on photodegradation and self healing in disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    The influence of an applied electric field on reversible photodegradation of disperse orange 11 (DO11) doped into PMMA is measured using digital imaging and conductivity measurements. Correlations between optical imaging, which measures photodegradation and recovery, and photoconductivity enables an association to be made between the damaged fragments and their contribution to current, thus establishing that damaged fragments are charged species, or polarizable. Hence, the decay and recovery process should be controllable with the applications of an electric field. Indeed, we find that the dye polymer system is highly sensitive to an applied electric field, which drastically affects the decay and recovery dynamics. We demonstrate accelerated recovery when one field polarity is applied during burning, and the opposite polarity is applied during recovery. This work suggests that the damage threshold can be increased through electric field conditioning; and, the results are qualitatively consistent with the doma...

  5. Preparation and characterization of a micro-porous polymer electrolyte with cross-linking network structure for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, T.C.; Wan, C.C.; Wang, Y.Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China)

    2007-12-14

    A PVdF-HFP/PEG/PEGDMA cross-linking film has been prepared as the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The film can be made porous by controlling the evaporation behavior of solvents. Room temperature ionic conductivity of the micro-porous film exceeds 1 mS/cm. In addition, we also evaluated the significance of cell gap in DSSC by analyzing the impedance spectroscopy of the cell with polymer electrolyte. Finally, by decreasing the film thickness, the DSSC equipped with 11 {mu}m, micro-porous and cross-linked film showed a conversion efficiency over 4% and 5% under 1 and 0.16 Sun, respectively. (author)

  6. Optimization of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell employing a nanocrystal-polymer composite electrolyte modified with water and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Zhou, Cong-Hua; Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Su-Juan; Hu, Hao; Chen, Bo-Lei; Tai, Qi-Dong; Sun, Zheng-Hua; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2009-03-11

    A quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell employing a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PEO-PVDF)/TiO2 gel electrolyte modified by various concentrations of water and ethanol is described. It is shown that the introduction of water and ethanol prevents the crystallization of the polymer matrix, and enhances the free I(-)/I(3)(-) concentration and the networks for ion transportation in the electrolyte, thus leading to an improvement in conductivity. A high energy conversion efficiency of about 5.8% is achieved by controlling the additive concentration in the electrolyte. Optimization of the additive-modified electrolyte performance has been obtained by studying the cross-linking behavior of water and ethanol with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and viscosity measurements, and the electrical conduction behavior of the electrolyte with impedance spectra measurements.

  7. Thermal sensor properties of PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.4 ± 0.1 mol) polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Prakash; S A K Narayan Dass; K Prem Nazeer

    2002-11-01

    Films of polyaniline(EB) doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) from -cresol on glass substrates exhibit considerable metallic properties. Such polymer metallic films have thermal sensitivity superior to ceramic metal (Cermet) films, prepared by metallo organic deposition (MOD) technique on silicon substrates. These PANI(EB)–CSA ( = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3 mol) polymer films were developed through controlled temperature atmosphere 60 ± 2°C for 60 min, and with the help of temperature dependence of resistivity (ρ) values, high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) i.e. values, and figure of merit (ρ ) values of these films, thermal sensitivity were compared from that we observed. Among the three doping ratios the PANI(EB)–CSA$_{0.3 mol}$ film (4.4 m thick) on glass substrate resistivity (ρ) values in the range of 838–1699 .m with high TCR i.e. = 10,291 ppm/°C and figure of merit (ρ ) value in range of 8.62–17.48 m/°C seems to be the best. This paper deals with these superior thermal-sensing properties together with optical studies and surface topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These polymer films offer design advantages in developing ‘thin film polymer thermal sensor’.

  8. Vertical Phase Separation in Small Molecule:Polymer Blend Organic Thin Film Transistors Can Be Dynamically Controlled

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-02-03

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Blending of small-molecule organic semiconductors (OSCs) with amorphous polymers is known to yield high performance organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Vertical stratification of the OSC and polymer binder into well-defined layers is crucial in such systems and their vertical order determines whether the coating is compatible with a top and/or a bottom gate OTFT configuration. Here, we investigate the formation of blends prepared via spin-coating in conditions which yield bilayer and trilayer stratifications. We use a combination of in situ experimental and computational tools to study the competing effects of formulation thermodynamics and process kinetics in mediating the final vertical stratification. It is shown that trilayer stratification (OSC/polymer/OSC) is the thermodynamically favored configuration and that formation of the buried OSC layer can be kinetically inhibited in certain conditions of spin-coating, resulting in a bilayer stack instead. The analysis reveals here that preferential loss of the OSC, combined with early aggregation of the polymer phase due to rapid drying, inhibit the formation of the buried OSC layer. The fluid dynamics and drying kinetics are then moderated during spin-coating to promote trilayer stratification with a high quality buried OSC layer which yields unusually high mobility >2 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the bottom-gate top-contact configuration.

  9. The Orange Side of Disperse Red 1: Humidity-Driven Color Switching in Supramolecular Azo-Polymer Materials Based on Reversible Dye Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelch, Simon; Vapaavuori, Jaana; Rollet, Frédéric-Guillaume; Barrett, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Humidity detection, and the quest for low-cost facile humidity-sensitive indicator materials is of great interest for many fields, including semi-conductor processing, food transport and storage, and pharmaceuticals. Ideal humidity-detection materials for a these applications might be based on simple clear optical readout with no power supply, i.e.: a clear color change observed by the naked eye of any untrained observer, since it doesn't require any extra instrumentation or interpretation. Here, the introduction of a synthesis-free one-step procedure, based on physical mixing of easily available commercial materials, for producing a humidity memory material which can be easily painted onto a wide variety of surfaces and undergoes a remarkable color change (approximately 100 nm blue-shift of λMAX ) upon exposure to various thresholds of levels of ambient humidity is reported. This strong color change, easily visible to as a red-to-orange color switch, is locked in until inspection, but can then be restored reversibly if desired, after moderate heating. By taking advantage of spontaneously-forming reversible 'soft' supramolecular bonds between a red-colored azo dye and a host polymer matrix, a reversible dye 'migration' aggregation appearing orange, and dis-aggregation back to red can be achieved, to function as the sensor. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Efficiency enhancement in dye sensitized solar cells using gel polymer electrolytes based on a tetrahexylammonium iodide and MgI2 binary iodide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, T M W J; Dissanayake, M A K L; Jayasundara, W J M J S R; Albinsson, I; Mellander, B-E

    2012-06-28

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells have drawn the attention of scientists and technologists as a potential candidate to supplement future energy needs. The conduction of iodide ions in quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes and the performance of dye sensitized solar cells containing such electrolytes can be enhanced by incorporating iodides having appropriate cations. Gel-type electrolytes, based on PAN host polymers and mixture of salts tetrahexylammonium iodide (Hex4N(+)I(-)) and MgI2, were prepared by incorporating ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate as plasticizers. The salt composition in the binary mixture was varied in order to optimize the performance of solar cells. The electrolyte containing 120% Hex4N(+)I(-) with respect to weight of PAN and without MgI2 showed the highest conductivity out of the compositions studied, 2.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 25 °C, and a glass transition at -102.4 °C. However, the electrolyte containing 100% Hex4N(+)I(-) and 20% MgI2 showed the best solar cell performance highlighting the influence of the cation on the performance of the cell. The predominantly ionic behaviour of the electrolytes was established from the dc polarization data and all the electrolytes exhibit iodide ion transport. Seven different solar cells were fabricated employing different electrolyte compositions. The best cell using the electrolyte with 100% Hex4N(+)I(-) and 20% MgI2 with respect to PAN weight showed 3.5% energy conversion efficiency and 8.6 mA cm(-2) short circuit current density.

  11. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanju, E-mail: sanju.gupta@wku.edu; Price, Carson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd., Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO){sub 1}, (PPy/ErGO){sub 1}, (PAni/GO){sub 1} and (PPy/GO){sub 1}. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, C{sub s}, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent C{sub s} of ≥350 F g{sup −1} as compared with constituents (∼70 F g{sup −1}) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g{sup −1} that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine

  12. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO1, (PPy/ErGO1, (PAni/GO1 and (PPy/GO1. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, Cs, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent Cs of ≥350 F g−1 as compared with constituents (∼70 F g−1 at discharge current density of 0.3 A g−1 that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting and conducting polymers (semiconducting backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine electrochemical (reactivity of surface ion

  13. Programmable, reversible and repeatable wrinkling of shape memory polymer thin films on elastomeric substrates for smart adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jianliang

    2017-08-09

    Programmable, reversible and repeatable wrinkling of shape memory polymer (SMP) thin films on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates is realized, by utilizing the heat responsive shape memory effect of SMPs. The dependencies of wrinkle wavelength and amplitude on program strain and SMP film thickness are shown to agree with the established nonlinear buckling theory. The wrinkling is reversible, as the wrinkled SMP thin film can be recovered to the flat state by heating up the bilayer system. The programming cycle between wrinkle and flat is repeatable, and different program strains can be used in different programming cycles to induce different surface morphologies. Enabled by the programmable, reversible and repeatable SMP film wrinkling on PDMS, smart, programmable surface adhesion with large tuning range is demonstrated.

  14. Interdiffusion of Thin Polymer Layers Studied by External Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Geert; Brinkhuis, Richard; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Schouten, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polymer interdiffusion can be studied through analysis of the interface between two polymers, using techniques such as small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering for systems where one component has been dispersed in the other and Rutherford backscattering forward recoil spectros

  15. Thin Films Formed from Conjugated Polymers with Ionic, Water-Soluble Backbones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, Thomas P; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the morphologies of films of conjugated polymers in which the backbone (main chain) and pendant groups are varied between ionic/hydrophilic and aliphatic/hydrophobic. We observe that conjugated polymers in which the pendant groups and backbone are matched, either ionic-ionic or h

  16. Self-healing properties of 1-amino, 2,4-dibromo anthraquinone dye doped in PMMA polymer

    CERN Document Server

    Dhakal, Prabodh

    2016-01-01

    We used fluorescence spectroscopic measurements as a probe to study the self-healing properties of anthraquinone derivative molecules doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). 2,4-dibromo anthraquinone dye doped in PMMA recovers after photodegradation. Its dynamics differs from other anthraquinone derivative molecules. This could be due to the relatively heavier bromine atom attached to one of the carbon atoms of the benzene ring. In this paper, we will discuss the self-healing properties of 2,4-dibromo anthraquinone doped in PMMA matrix. We also tested the correlated chromophore domain model (CCrDM) and have characterized the self-healing properties by determining the CCrDM parameters. We also estimated the self-absorption of fluorescence signal by the dye molecule without which the analysis of the self-recovery of the molecule would be incomplete.

  17. Cellular Automata Simulations of Thermal and Electrical Transport Properties of Thin-Film Polymer/CNTs Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Alex; Iannacchione, Germano; Georgiev, Georgi; Cebe, Peggy

    2014-03-01

    A computational algorithm has been developed to simulate the transport properties of oriented and un-oriented thin film nanocomposites of isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) with increasing CNT concentration. Our goal is to be able to design materials with optimal properties using simulations. We use cellular automata approach in Matlab simulation environment. The percolation threshold is reproduced in the simulations, matching experimental data. Upon percolation, the thermal transport in the films increases sharply, more so for the electrical than for the thermal conductivity, due to the larger difference in the electric conductivities of the CNTs and the polymer. To verify the simulation, the thin-film samples were sheared in the melt at 200 C at 1 Hz in a Linkan microscope shearing hot stage. The thermal and electrical conductivity measurements were performed on the same cell arrangement with the transport perpendicular to the thin-film plane using a DC method. The thermal and electrical conductivity are higher for the un-sheared as compared to the sheared samples with stronger temperature dependence for the latter as compared to the former. Our cellular automata simulations provide information about the microstructure-macroscopic property relation in the thin film nanocomposites and can be extended to simulations of other important materials.

  18. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-06

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking π electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP μ-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online μ-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15μg/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of chilli powder and sausage samples were in range of 75.8-108.2% and 73.8-112.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.5% and 1.9-9.4% (n=5), respectively. The proposed method was accurate, reliable and convenient for the online simultaneous analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples

  19. A Novel Polymer Electrolyte Using In-situ Quanternization for All Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a mesoporous network of interconnected TiO2 nanocrystals have attracted wide-spread scientific and technological interest over the past decades due to its low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. Meantime, it also has been considered as potential alternative to conventional photovoltaic devices. In 2001, Gratzel group constructed such kind of DSSC with the conversion efficiency of more than 11%[1]. But this system uses liquid electrolyte with...

  20. Morphological appearances and photo-controllable coloration of dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer coaxial microfibers fabricated by coaxial electrospinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-De; Chen, Che-Pei; Chen, Lin-Jer; Chuang, Yu-Chou; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-02-08

    This study systematically investigates the morphological appearance of azo-chiral dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC)/polymer coaxial microfibers obtained through the coaxial electrospinning technique and examines, for the first time, their photocontrollable reflection characteristics. Experimental results show that the quasi-continuous electrospun microfibers can be successfully fabricated at a high polymer concentration of 17.5 wt% and an optimum ratio of 2 for the feeding rates of sheath to core materials at 25 °C and a high humidity of 50% ± 2% in the spinning chamber. Furthermore, the optical controllability of the reflective features for the electrospun fibers is studied in detail by changing the concentration of the azo-chiral dopant in the core material, the UV irradiation intensity, and the core diameter of the fibers. Relevant mechanisms are addressed to explain the optical-control behaviors of the DDCLC coaxial fibers. Considering the results, optically controllable DDCLC coaxial microfibers present potential applications in UV microsensors and wearable smart textiles or swabs.

  1. Metal-free polymer/MWCNT composite fiber as an efficient counter electrode in fiber shape dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Mujtaba Shah, Syed; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Keskin, Bahadır; Kaleli, Murat; Akyürekli, Salih; Günes, Serap

    2016-09-01

    Highly aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as fiber were modified with a conducting polymer via a simple dip coating method. Modified MWCNT exhibited admirable improvement in electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of tri-iodide in dye sensitized solar cells. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the successful deposition of polymer on MWCNT. Cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the inner mechanism for the charge transfer behaviour. Results from bare and modified electrodes revealed that the MWCNT/(poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite electrode is much better at catalysing the {{{{I}}}3}-/{{{I}}}- redox couple compared to the pristine fiber electrode. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of 5.03% for the modified MWCNT electrodes was comparable with that of the conventional Pt-based electrode. The scientific results of this study reveal that MWCNT/PEDOT:PSS may be a better choice for the replacement of cost intensive electrode materials such as platinum. Good performance even after bending up to 90° and in-series connection to enhance the output voltage were also successfully achieved, highlighting the practical application of this novel device.

  2. From capillary condensation to interface localization transitions in colloid-polymer mixtures confined in thin-film geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Virgiliis, Andres; Vink, Richard L C; Horbach, Jürgen; Binder, Kurt

    2008-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures confined between two parallel repulsive structureless walls are presented and analyzed in the light of current theories on capillary condensation and interface localization transitions. Choosing a polymer-to-colloid size ratio of q=0.8 and studying ultrathin films in the range of D=3 to D=10 colloid diameters thickness, grand canonical Monte Carlo methods are used; phase transitions are analyzed via finite size scaling, as in previous work on bulk systems and under confinement between identical types of walls. Unlike the latter work, inequivalent walls are used here: While the left wall has a hard-core repulsion for both polymers and colloids, at the right-hand wall an additional square-well repulsion of variable strength acting only on the colloids is present. We study how the phase separation into colloid-rich and colloid-poor phases occurring already in the bulk is modified by such a confinement. When the asymmetry of the wall-colloid interaction increases, the character of the transition smoothly changes from capillary condensation type to interface localization type. For very thin films (i.e., for D=3 ) and a suitable choice of the wall-colloid interactions, evidence is found that the critical behavior falls in the universality class of the two-dimensional Ising model. Otherwise, we observe crossover scaling between different universality classes (namely, the crossover from the three-dimensional to the two-dimensional Ising model universality class). The colloid and polymer density profiles across the film in the various phases are discussed, as well as the correlation of interfacial fluctuations in the direction parallel to the confining walls. The broadening of the interface between the coexisting colloid-rich and polymer-rich phases (located parallel to the confining walls) is understood in terms of capillary wave fluctuations. The experimental observability of all these

  3. Polymer Stress-Gradient Induced Migration in Thin Film Flow Over Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouka, Sophia; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis; Tsamopoulos, John

    2014-11-01

    We consider the 2D, steady film flow of a dilute polymer solution over a periodic topography. We examine how the distribution of polymer in the planarization of topographical features is affected by flow intensity and physical properties. The thermodynamically acceptable, Mavrantzas-Beris two-fluid Hamiltonian model is used for polymer migration. The resulting system of differential equations is solved via the mixed FE method combined with an elliptic grid generation scheme. We present numerical results for polymer concentration, stress, velocity and flux of components as a function of the non-dimensional parameters of the problem (Deborah, Peclet, Reynolds and Capillary numbers, ratio of solvent viscosity to total liquid viscosity and geometric features of the topography). Polymer migration to the free surface is enhanced when the cavity gets steeper and deeper. This increases the spatial extent of the polymer depletion layer and induces strong banding in the stresses away from the substrate wall, especially in low polymer concentration. Macromolecules with longer relaxation times are predicted to migrate towards the free surface more easily, while high surface tension combined with a certain range of Reynolds numbers affects the free surface deformations. Work supported by the General Secretariat of Research & Technology of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918) in the framework ``Education and Lifelong Learning'' co-funded by the ESF.

  4. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  5. Spontaneous wrinkling in azlactone-based functional polymer thin films in 2D and 3D geometries for guided nanopatterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Messman, Jamie M.; Stafford, Christopher M.; Kilbey II, S. Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, one step process for developing wrinkling patterns in azlactone-based polymer thin films and brushes in 2D and 3D surfaces. The polymer used in this work wrinkles spontaneously upon deposition and solidification on a substrate without applying any external strain to the substrate, with the mode of deposition defining the direction of the wrinkles. Wrinkle formation is shown to occur on a variety of substrates over large areas. We also find that a very thin brush-like layer of an azlactone-containing block copolymer also exhibits wrinkled topology. Given the spontaneity and versatility of wrinkle formation, we further demonstrate two proofs-of-concept, i) that these periodic wrinkled structures are not limited to planar surfaces, but are also developed in complex geometries including tubes, cones and other 3D structures; and ii) that this one-step wrinkling process can be used to guide the deposition of metal nanoparticles and quantum dots, creating a periodic, nanopatterned film.

  6. Multilayer systems of alternating chalcogenide As Se and polymer thin films prepared using thermal evaporation and spin-coating techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, T.; Wagner, T.; Orava, J.; Krbal, M.; Ilavsky, J.; Vesely, D.; Frumar, M.

    2007-05-01

    We describe preparation and characterization of multilayer planar systems based on alternating chalcogenide As Se and polymer polyamide-imide (PAI) or polyvinyl-butyral (PVB) thin films. We deposited films of thermally evaporated As33Se67 chalcogenide glass periodically alternating with PAI or PVB films. Fifteen layers of As Se+PAI system and 17 layers of As Se+PVB system were deposited. The film thicknesses were approximately 100 nm for all of the film types. Polymer film thicknesses were calculated from profilometric measurements performed by an atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of prepared multilayers and also As Se, PAI and PVB single layers were established using UV vis NIR and ellipsometric spectroscopies. Both, As Se+PAI and As Se+PVB multilayer systems, exhibited the reflection (stop) bands centered near 830 nm. The bandwidth of reflection band of As Se+PAI multilayer was 90 nm while bandwidth of As Se+PVB system increased to 150 nm because PVB films had about 0.2 lower refractive index. A new possibility for the application of chalcogenide thin films appeared as high refractive index materials suitable for fabrication of optical elements (reflectors) for near-infrared region. Changing the films composition and thickness, multilayer systems with tailored position of stop band could be designed and prepared.

  7. Conductive polymer/fullerene blend thin films with honeycomb framework for transparent photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotlet, Mircea; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Tsai, Hsinhan; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-04-21

    Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.

  8. Blue to near-IR energy transfer cascade within a dye-doped polymer matrix, mediated by a photochromic molecular switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryza, Viktoras; Smith, Trevor A; Bieske, Evan J

    2016-02-21

    The spectroscopic properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix doped with a coumarin dye, a cyanine dye, and a photochromic spiropyran dye have been investigated. Before UV irradiation of the matrix, excitation of the coumarin dye results in minimal energy transfer to the cyanine dye. The energy transfer is substantially enhanced following UV irradiation of the matrix, which converts the colourless spiropyran isomer to the coloured merocyanine isomer, which then acts as an intermediate bridge by accepting energy from the coumarin dye and then donating energy to the cyanine dye. This demonstration of a switchable energy transfer cascade should help initiate new research directions in molecular photonics.

  9. Femtosecond Laser Desorption of Thin Polymer Films from a Dielectric Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercadier L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We desorb polymer films from fused silica with a femtosecond laser and characterize the results by atomic force microscopy. Our study as a function of beam geometry and energy reveals two ways of achieving spatially controlled nanodesorption.

  10. Influence of processing and intrinsic polymer parameters on photochemical stability of polythiophene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Tromholt, Thomas; Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic polymer parameters such as regio-regularity, molecular weight, and crystallinity play an important role when studying polymer stability. 18 different batches of poly-3-hexyl-thiophene (P3HT) were degraded in a solar simulator (AM1.5G, 1000 W/m2) and the degradation kinetics were monitored......-to-tail connected thiophene units. Annealing was found to relax the P3HT films and increase conjugation length and, in turn, increase stability observed as a delayed spectral blueshift caused by photochemical degradation. Crystallinity was found to play a minor role in terms of stability. Oxygen diffusion and light...... shielding effects were shown to have a negligible effect on the photochemical degradation rate. The results obtained in this work advance the understanding of polymer stability and will help improve the design of materials used for polymer solar cells resulting in longer lifetimes, which will push...

  11. Determination of the Glass Transition Temperature of Freestanding and Supported Azo-Polymer Thin Films by Thermal Assisted Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernykh Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce and apply the method for determination of the glass transition temperature of the sub-100 nm thick freestanding and supported polymer films based on thermally assisted atomic force microscopy (AFM. In proposed approach changes of the phase of an oscillating AFM cantilever are used to determine glass transition temperature. An anomalous decrease of the glass transition temperature for both free-standing and supported azobenzene-functionalized polymer thin films is shown.

  12. Facile Synthesis of ZnO@TiO2 Core-Shell Nanorod Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanorod thin films grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glasses have been synthesized via facile thermal evaporation. To optimize the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, we fabricated ZnO@TiO2 core-shell composite by a simple dip-coating method immersed in the mixed solution of Ti(OC4H9 and ethanol. Results of solar cell testing showed that ZnO@TiO2 core-shell nanorod thin films on FTO significantly increased open circuit voltage (from 0.47 V to 0.53 V, short circuit current (from 10.78 mA/cm2 to 13.98 mA/cm2, and fill factor (from 51% to 55%. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PEC increased from 3.3% for bare ZnO DSSCs to 4.85% for ZnO@TiO2 core-shell structured DSSCs. This is mainly ascribed to the improvement in light harvesting efficiency, electron transfer, and the effective suppression of charge recombination.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of photoelectrode thin films with different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ho; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Huang, Kuohsiu-David; Chen, Yu-Ling

    2011-08-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of three different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles to fabricate two-layer photoelectrode thin film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The four different TiO2 morphologies are titania nanotubes (Tnt), TiO2 nanoparticles (H220), TiO2 nanoparticle (SP) and commercial DP-25 nanoparticles (P-25). To prepare the thin films of the photoelectrodes, the first layer is coated by H220 TiO2 nanoparticles, and the second is coated by 3 kinds of materials optimally proportionally mixed - P25, SP and Tnt. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs with photoelectrodes fabricated using H220 reached 6.31%. Finally, the TiO2 nanaomaterials with four different morphologies were used to prepare a two layer photoelectrode with the structure of H220/P25-Tnt-SP which was combined with a Pt counter electrode to assemble DSSCs. These DSSCs had photoelectric conversion efficiencies of as high as 7.47%.

  14. PREPARATION OF PHOTOFUNCTIONAL POLYMER THIN FILMS BY LANGMUIR-BLODGETT TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tokuji Miyashita; Tatsuo Taniguchi; Yoshihito Fukasawa

    1999-01-01

    Polymer LB films containing photofuntional groups were prepared by the copolymerization of N-dodecylacrylamide (DDA), which has an excellent property to form a stable monolayer and LB multilayers with photofunctional monomers. Tris(2, 2'-bipyridine) ruthenium complex, Ru(bpy)32+, one of the most wellknown redox-active sensitizer, was incorporated into the DDA copolymer. The photogalvanic effect based on the photoinduced electron transfer using the ruthenium complex in the polymer LB monolayer was discussed.

  15. Conformal organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer thin films by molecular layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Peng, Qing; Parsons, Gregory N

    2011-05-19

    Growing interest in nanoscale organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer materials is driving exploration of new bulk and thin film synthesis reaction mechanisms. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a vapor-phase deposition process, based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) which proceeds by exposing a surface to an alternating sequence of two or more reactant species, where each surface half-reaction goes to completion before the next reactant exposure. This work describes film growth using trimethyl aluminum and heterobifunctional glycidol at moderate temperatures (90-150 °C), producing a relatively stable organic-inorganic network polymer of the form (-Al-O-(C(4)H(8))-O-)(n). Film growth rate and in situ reaction analysis indicate that film growth does not initially follow a steady-state rate, but increases rapidly during early film growth. The mechanism is consistent with subsurface species transport and trapping, previously documented during MLD and ALD on polymers. A water exposure step after the TMA produces a more linear growth rate, likely by blocking TMA subsurface diffusion. Uniform and conformal films are formed on complex nonplanar substrates. Upon postdeposition annealing, films transform into microporous metal oxides with ∼5 Å pore size and surface area as high as ∼327 m(2)/g, and the resulting structures duplicate the shape of the original substrate. These hybrid films and porous materials could find uses in several research fields including gas separations and diffusion barriers, biomedical scaffolds, high surface area coatings, and others.

  16. Enhanced mechanical properties of low-surface energy thin films by simultaneous plasma polymerization of fluorine and epoxy containing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Mustafa; Uçar, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of poly(2,2,3,4,4,4 hexafluorobutyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HFBA-GMA) were deposited on different surfaces using an inductively coupled RF plasma reactor. Fluorinated polymer was used to impart hydrophobicity, whereas epoxy polymer was used for improved durability. The deposition at a low plasma power and temperature was suitable for the functionalization of fragile surfaces such as textile fabrics. The coated rough textile surfaces were found to be superhydrophobic with water contact angles greater than 150° due to the high retention of long fluorinated side chains. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces was observed to be stable after many exposures to ultrasonification tests, which is attributed to the mechanical durability of the films due to their epoxide functionality. FTIR and XPS analyses of the deposited films confirmed that the epoxide functionality of the polymers increased with increasing glycidyl methacrylate fraction in the reactor inlet. The modulus and hardness values of the films also increase with increasing epoxide functionality.

  17. Investigation of the adhesion mechanisms of silicon alloy thin films on polymer substrates by IR ellipsometry. [Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevillon, B. (LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 Palaiseau (France)); Rostaing, J.C. (L' Air Liquide CRCD, 78 Les Loges en Josas (France)); Vallon, S. (LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 Palaiseau (France))

    1993-12-15

    The adhesion mechanisms of plasma-deposited silicon alloys on polymer substrates (polycarbonate) were studied by a new double-modulated IR ellipsometer. This ellipsometer combines the low frequencies typical of Fourier transform spectroscopy with the high frequency (37 kHz) of the phase modulation provided by a photoelastic device. The film adhesion is characterized by the evolution of the vibrational properties of the polymer surface during the early stages of the film preparation. The influence of preliminary plasma treatments on the polymer surface is emphasized. Successive exposure of polycarbonate to Ar and (NH[sub 3], Ar) plasmas induces a substrate activation characterized by the formation of CN bonds at the surface. Then it is shown that the SiH[sub 4] plasma treatment leads to the formation of a very thin SiO[sub x] layer at the substrate surface. The enhancement of the film adhesion appears to be correlated to the presence of a vibration located at 1030 cm[sup -1]. (orig.)

  18. Bending, wrinkling, and folding of thin polymer film/elastomer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Yuri

    This work focuses on understanding the buckling deformation mechanisms of bending, wrinkling, and folding that occur on the surfaces and interfaces of polymer systems. We gained fundamental insight into the formation mechanism of these buckled structures for thin glassy films placed on an elastomeric substrate. By taking advantage of geometric confinement, we demonstrated new strategies in controlling wrinkling morphologies. We were able to achieve surfaces with controlled patterned structures which will have a broad impact in optical, adhesive, microelectronics, and microfluidics applications. Wrinkles and strain localized features, such as delaminations and folds, are observed in many natural systems and are useful for a wide range of patterning applications. However, the transition from sinusoidal wrinkles to more complex strain localized structures is not well understood. We investigated the onset of wrinkling and strain localizations under uniaxial strain. We show that careful measurement of feature amplitude allowed not only the determination of wrinkle, fold, or delamination onset, but also allowed clear distinction between each feature. The folds observed in this experiment have an outward morphology from the surface in contrast to folds that form into the plane, as observed in a film floating on a liquid substrate. A critical strain map was constructed, where the critical strain was measured experimentally for wrinkling, folding, and delamination with varying film thickness and modulus. Wrinkle morphologies, i.e. amplitude and wavelength of wrinkles, affect properties such as electron transport in stretchable electronics and adhesion properties of smart surfaces. To gain an understanding of how the wrinkle morphology can be controlled, we introduced a geometrical confinement in the form of rigid boundaries. Upon straining, we found that wrinkles started near the rigid boundaries where maximum local strain occurred and propagated towards the middle as more

  19. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O.'

    2015-06-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness.

  20. The effect of FeCl{sub 3} on the optical constants and optical band gap of MBZMA-co-MMA polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakuphanoglu, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: fyhan@hotmail.com; Barim, G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey); Erol, I. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    The effects of the FeCl{sub 3} dopant on the optical constants and optical band gap of the methylbenzyl methacrylate (MBZMA)-co-methyl-methacrylate (MMA) polymer thin films have been investigated by the optical characterization. The optical constants of the thin films are changed with FeCl{sub 3} dopant. The refractive index dispersion curves of the thin films are fitted by Cauchy-Sellmeier model and dispersion parameters (a {sub 1} and n {sub 0}) change with FeCl{sub 3} dopant. The magnitude of the refractive index increases with increasing FeCl{sub 3} dopant. The electric susceptibility of the thin film materials was calculated and the electric susceptibility increases with FeCl{sub 3} content. The optical band gap values of the thin films were determined. The obtained band gap values are decreased with FeCl{sub 3} dopant. The FeCl{sub 3} dopant changes the width of localized states in the optical band gaps of the thin films. The optical band E {sub g} of the thin films changes from 3.52 to 3.05 eV with increasing FeCl{sub 3} dopant, while the width of localized states in optical band gap changes from 1101.47 to 596.3 meV. It is concluded that the optical constants and optical band gap of the MBZMA-co-MMA polymer thin films change by the FeCl{sub 3} dopant.

  1. Noninvasive photodetachment of stem cells on tunable conductive polymer nano thin films: selective harvesting and preserved differentiation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jungmok; Heo, June Seok; Kim, Jeonghun; Park, Teahoon; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Han-Soo; Choi, Youjeong; Kim, Hyun Ok; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2013-05-28

    Viable mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were efficiently and selectively harvested by near-infrared (NIR) light using the photothermal effect of a conductive polymer nano thin film. The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated cell culture surfaces were prepared via a simple and fast solution-casting polymerization (SCP) technique. The absorption of PEDOT thin films in the NIR region was effectively triggered cell harvesting upon exposure to an NIR source. By controlling the NIR absorption of the PEDOT film through electrochemical doping or growing PEDOT with different thin film thickness from 70 to 300 nm, the proliferation and harvesting of MSCs on the PEDOT surface were controlled quantitatively. This light-induced cell detachment method based on PEDOT films provides the temporal and spatial control of cell harvesting, as well as cell patterning. The harvested stem cells were found to be alive and well proliferated despite the use of temperature increase by NIR. More importantly, the harvested MSCs by this method preserved their intrinsic characteristics as well as multilineage differentiation capacities. This PEDOT surfaces could be used for repetitive culture and detachment of MSCs or for efficient selection or depletion of a specific subset from heterogeneous population during culture of various tissue-derived cells because there were no photodegradation and photobreakage in the PEDOT films by NIR exposure.

  2. Influence of 2,6 (N-pyrazolyl)isonicotinic acid on the photovoltaic properties of a dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated using poly(vinylidene fluoride) blended with poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, S.; Muthuraaman, B.; Mathew, Vinod; Vadivel, M. Kumara [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus, Guindy, Chennai 600 025 (India); Maruthamuthu, P., E-mail: pmaruthu@yahoo.com [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus, Guindy, Chennai 600 025 (India); Ashokkumar, M. [School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin [Department of Energy, University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus, Guindy, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > 2,6 (N-pyrazolyl)isonicotinic acid (BNIN) has been synthesized through a simple and cost-effective method to produce good yield. > For the first time, attempt is made to use the synthesized BNIN in PVdF-PEO based polymer electrolyte as a plasticizer. > This enhanced the conductivity of polymer and increased the efficiency of DSSCs. > The fabricated solar cell exhibited efficiency as high as 7.3%. > This is comparatively higher than those of the present day DSSCs fabricated with Poly (vinylidine fluoride) polymer electrolyte. - Abstract: A novel method of introducing a synthesized organic nitrogenous compound 2,6 (N-pyrazolyl)isonicotinic acid (BNIN) and its effect on the conduction behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer-blend electrolyte with potassium iodide (KI) and iodine (I{sub 2}) and the corresponding performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were studied. A systematic investigation of the blends using FTIR provides evidence of interaction of BNIN with the polymer. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study proves the miscibility of these polymers. Due to the coordinating and plasticizing effects of BNIN, the ionic conductivity of polymer blend electrolytes is enhanced. The efficiency of DSSC using BNIN doped polymer blend electrolyte was 7.3% under an illumination of 60 mW cm{sup -2} were observed for the best performance of a solar cell in this work.

  3. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun; Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun; Wilson, John I. B.

    2014-03-01

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200 nm)/i-Si(450 nm)/n-Si(200 nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  4. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200 nm)/i-Si(450 nm)/n-Si(200 nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  5. Dynamic wetting on a thin film of soluble polymer: effects of nonlinearities in the sorption isotherm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Julien; Verneuil, Emilie; Ramaioli, Marco; Forny, Laurent; Talini, Laurence; Lequeux, Francois

    2013-10-08

    The wetting dynamics of a solvent on a soluble substrate interestingly results from the rates of the solvent transfers into the substrate. When a supported film of a hydrosoluble polymer with thickness e is wet by a spreading droplet of water with instantaneous velocity U, the contact angle is measured to be inversely proportionate to the product of thickness and velocity, eU, over two decades. As for many hydrosoluble polymers, the polymer we used (a polysaccharide) has a strongly nonlinear sorption isotherm φ(a(w)), where φ is the volume fraction of water in the polymer and aw is the activity of water. For the first time, this nonlinearity is accounted for in the dynamics of water uptake by the substrate. Indeed, by measuring the water content in the polymer around the droplet φ at distances as small as 5 μm, we find that the hydration profile exhibits (i) a strongly distorted shape that results directly from the nonlinearities of the sorption isotherm and (ii) a cutoff length ξ below which the water content in the substrate varies very slowly. The nonlinearities in the sorption isotherm and the hydration at small distances from the line were not accounted for by Tay et al., Soft Matter 2011, 7, 6953. Here, we develop a comprehensive description of the hydration of the substrate ahead of the contact line that encompasses the two water transfers at stake: (i) the evaporation-condensation process by which water transfers into the substrate through the atmosphere by the condensation of the vapor phase, which is fed by the evaporation from the droplet itself, and (ii) the diffusion of liquid water along the polymer film. We find that the eU rescaling of the contact angle arises from the evaporation-condensation process at small distances. We demonstrate why it is not modified by the second process.

  6. Absorbency and conductivity of quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells: A characterization review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2016-10-01

    The application of quasi-solid state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells opens up an interesting research field to explore, which is evident from the increasing amount of publications on this topic. Since 2010, significant progress has been made with new and more complicated quasi-solid-states materials being produced. The optimization of new materials requires specific characterizations. This review presents a comprehensive overview and recent progress of characterization methods for studying quasi-solid-state electrolytes. Emphasis is then placed on the absorbency and conductivity characterizations. Each characterization will be reviewed according to the objective, experimental set-up, summary of important outcomes, and a few case studies worth discussing. Finally, strategies for future characterizations and developments are described.

  7. Thiourea-succinonitrile based polymer matrix for efficient and stable quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Rakhi; Jauhari, Himanshi; Saxena, Kanchan

    2016-05-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are considered to be emerging alternatives to the low cost indoor photovoltaic technologies. However, to make the application of these cells economically feasible, the stability of the cells need to be enhanced. This can be achieved by employing solid or quasi solid state electrolytes to reduce the leakage and sealing problems in DSSCs. In the present work, a gel state electrolyte composition was successfully prepared using thiourea and solid state ionic conductor succinonitrile along with other components. The composition has been used for the fabrication of quasi solid state DSSCs using Eosin B as the sensitizer material. The cells fabricated exhibited consistent photovoltaic properties even after 24 hours of storage under ambient conditions without sealing. The present work therefore, demonstrates a rapid and simple preparation of electrolyte medium for quasi solid state DSSCs.

  8. Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) Polymer Thin Films: Structure-Property Effects on Thermal Degradation and Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharamaiah Jeevendrakumar, Vijay Jain

    Opportunities and challenges for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of polymer thin films stems from their applications in electronics, sensors, and adhesives with demands for control over film composition, conformity and stability. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a subset of the CVD technique that conjoins bulk free-radical polymerization chemistry with gas-phase processing. The novelty of iCVD technique stems from the use of an initiator that can be activated at low energies (150 -- 300 °C) to react with surface adsorbed monomer to form a polymer film. This reduces risk for potential unwarranted side-reactions. Until recently, majority of iCVD research was limited to understanding the deposition kinetics with monomer properties being the principal parameters. However, there is a lack of study on the properties of deposited films which is critical for utilizing the technique in any real-world applications. The work presented here aims to advance investigation in this direction by characterizing the thermal properties of iCVD polymer films with primary focus on the initiators. A detailed characterization of custom-built iCVD system served as ground work for following investigations. Poly(neopentyl methacrylate) (PnPMA) thin films were deposited with tert-butyl peroxide (TBPO) initiators and their Tg, CTE and thermal degradation properties were investigated. iCVD PnPMA films presented low-temperature degradation peaks attributed to weak linkages from H-abstraction and beta-scission reactions of TBPO. To test this hypothesis, PnPMA films were deposited with tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPOB) which is selective towards vinyl addition. Contrary to expected results, TBPOB initiated films showed degradation at lower temperatures compared to TBPO initiated films. It is postulated that with TBPOB, the surface initiator concentration is higher and consequently small oligomeric molecules were formed that degraded easily. Following these investigations, poly

  9. Deposition of a thin film of TiOx from a titanium metal target as novel blocking layers at conducting glass/TiO2 interfaces in ionic liquid mesoscopic TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbin; Masaki, Naruhiko; Jiang, Kejian; Yanagida, Shozo

    2006-12-21

    In dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, charge recombination processes at interfaces between fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), TiO2, dye, and electrolyte play an important role in limiting the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. From this point of view, a high work function material such as titanium deposited by sputtering on FTO has been investigated as an effective blocking layer for preventing electron leakage from FTO without influencing electron injection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that different species of Ti (Ti4+, Ti3+, Ti2+, and a small amount of Ti0) exist on FTO. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements reveal that thin films of titanium species, expressed as TiOx, work as a compact blocking layer between FTO and TiO2 nanocrystaline film, improving Voc and the fill factor, finally giving a better conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells with ionic liquid electrolytes.

  10. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  11. Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L., E-mail: ncordes@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Havrilla, George J. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 μm-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence

  12. Performance characteristics of guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolytes with binary iodide salts for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of guanine as an organic dopant in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer blend electrolyte along with binary iodide salts (potassium iodide (KI) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI)) and iodine (I2). The PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2, PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 and guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolytes were prepared by solution casting technique using DMF as solvent. The PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte showed an ionic conductivity value of 9.99 × 10-5 Scm-1, whereas, it was found to be increased to 4.53 × 10-5 Scm-1 when PEO was blended with PVDF-HFP/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte. However, a maximum ionic conductivity value of 3.67 × 10-4 Scm-1 was obtained for guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 blend electrolyte. The photovoltaic properties of all these polymer electrolytes in DSSCs were characterized. As a consequence, the power conversion efficiency of the guanine incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte based DSSC was significantly improved to 4.98% compared with PVDF-HFP/PEO/KI + TBAI/I2 electrolyte based DSSC (2.46%). These results revealed that the guanine can be an effective organic dopant to enhance the performance of DSSCs.

  13. A Zn(II) coordination polymer and its photocycloaddition product: syntheses, structures, selective luminescence sensing of iron(III) ions and selective absorption of dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fei-long; Shi, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Huan-Huan; Lang, Jian-Ping

    2015-11-21

    One coordination polymer [Zn2(L)2(bpe)2(H2O)2] (1) (L = 4,4'-((1,2-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid; bpe = (E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene) was prepared and structurally determined. Compound 1 has a chain structure in which its pair of bpe ligands is arranged in a head-to-tail manner with their C=C bonds being close enough for a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. Upon exposure to UV light, compound 1 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) [2 + 2] photodimerization to generate one 2D coordination polymer [Zn(L)(rctt-tpcb)0.5(H2O)] (1a) (rctt (regio cis, trans, trans)-tpcb = tetrakis(4-pyridyl)cyclobutane). The tpcb ligands in the crystals of 1a show an intriguing in situ thermal isomerisation. The nanospheres of 1 can be obtained by recrystallization in DMSO/alcohol. The nanospheres of 1a can also be readily produced from the corresponding nanospheres of 1 by the photocyclodimerization method. Compared with those of 1a, the nanospheres of 1 display highly selective sensing of Fe(3+) ions over mixed metal ions through fluorescence quenching. Moreover, the nanospheres of 1a can rapidly adsorb CR (congo red), MB (methylene blue) or RhB (rhodamine B) over MO (methyl orange) from aqueous solutions. This work offers a new photoinduced post-synthetic method for the synthesis of multifunctional MOFs, which show luminescence sensing of Fe(3+) ions and dye adsorption properties.

  14. High Efficiency Tandem Thin-Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells with a Graded Recombination Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Renna, Lawrence A; Bag, Monojit; Page, Zachariah A; Kim, Paul; Choi, Jaewon; Emrick, Todd; Venkataraman, D; Russell, Thomas P

    2016-03-23

    Perovskite-containing tandem solar cells are attracting attention for their potential to achieve high efficiencies. We demonstrate a series connection of a ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite front subcell and a ∼ 100 nm thick polymer:fullerene blend back subcell that benefits from an efficient graded recombination layer containing a zwitterionic fullerene, silver (Ag), and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). This methodology eliminates the adverse effects of thermal annealing or chemical treatment that occurs during perovskite fabrication on polymer-based front subcells. The record tandem perovskite/polymer solar cell efficiency of 16.0%, with low hysteresis, is 75% greater than that of the corresponding ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite single-junction device and 65% greater than that of the polymer single-junction device. The high efficiency of this hybrid tandem device, achieved using only a ∼ 90 nm thick perovskite layer, provides an opportunity to substantially reduce the lead content in the device, while maintaining the high performance derived from perovskites.

  15. Micro-mechanics of nanostructured carbon/shape memory polymer hybrid thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, M.; Xu, B.; Pei, Yutao T.; Lu, H.B.; Fu, Y.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of hybrid shape memory polymer polystrene (PS) based nanocomposites with skeletal structures of CNFs/MWCNTs formed inside. Experimental results showed an increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) with CNF/MWCNT concentrations instead of a decrease of Tg in n

  16. Polymer Layers by Initiated CVD for Thin Film Gas Barrier Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, D.A.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter a thorough description of the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process will be given, concentrating on molecular weight and deposition rate of the deposited polymer, which are essential for largescale application in hybrid gas barriers. Practical applications of coatings by

  17. pH-induced reversal of ionic diode polarity in 300 nm thin membranes based on a polymer of intrinsic microporosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, Yuanyang; Song, Qilei; Mathwig, Klaus; Madrid, Elena; He, Daping; Niemann, Ralf G.; Cameron, Petra J.; Dale, Sara E. C.; Bending, Simon; Carta, Mariolino; Malpass-Evans, Richard; McKeown, Neil B.; Marken, Frank

    2016-01-01

    “Ionic diode” (or current rectification) effects are potentially important for a range of applications including water purification. In this preliminary report, we observe novel ionic diode behaviour of thin (300 nm) membranes based on a polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-EA-TB) supported on a

  18. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering from thin polymer films with lamellar structures - the scattering cross section in the distorted-wave Born approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Busch, Peter; Rauscher, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering of thin polymer films reveals information about the ordering and preferential orientations of the phase-separated microdomains within the films. The grazing-incidence geometry enhances the surface sensitivity; however, the scattering has t...

  19. Reduced glass transition temperatures in thin polymer films: surface effect or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumchen, O; McGraw, J D; Forrest, J A; Dalnoki-Veress, K

    2012-08-03

    We have examined the direct effect of manipulating the number of free surfaces on the measured glass transition temperature T(g) of thin polystyrene films. Thin films in the range 35 nm thickness and refractive index of freestanding films. By noting the change in slope in each of these quantities, a T(g) value can be assigned in quantitative agreement with previously reported results. For thin freestanding films this value is reduced from that of the bulk. The exact same films are then transferred to a Si substrate and the T(g) of the resulting supported film was determined. The T(g) values of the now supported films are the same as the bulk value and the same as previous reports of similar supported films. These experiments unambiguously show that free interfaces are the dominant cause of the T(g) reductions for the film thicknesses studied.

  20. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-06-11

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict such changes as an alternative to fracture mechanics formulations. Our predictions are obtained by assuming that there are no flaws at the onset of loading as opposed to the assumptions of fracture mechanics approaches. We calibrate the crack onset strain and the damage model based on experimental data reported in the literature. We predict crack density and changes in electrical resistance as a function of the damage induced in the films. We implement our model in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT. We obtain fair to good agreement with experiments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Conformal coating of thin polymer electrolyte layer on nanostructured electrode materials for three-dimensional battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Sanketh R; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Zhan, Xiaobo; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2011-01-12

    Various three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures have been proposed to address effective power delivery in micro/nanoscale devices and for increasing the stored energy per electrode footprint area. One step toward obtaining 3D configurations in batteries is the formation of core-shell nanowires that combines electrode and electrolyte materials. One of the major challenges however in creating such architectures has been the coating of conformal thin nanolayers of polymer electrolytes around nanostructured electrodes. Here we show conformal coatings of 25-30 nm poly(methyl methacralate) electrolyte layers around individual Ni-Sn nanowires used as anodes for Li ion battery. This configuration shows high discharge capacity and excellent capacity retention even at high rates over extended cycling, allowing for scalable increase in areal capacity with electrode thickness. Our results demonstrate conformal nanoscale anode-electrolyte architectures for an efficient Li ion battery system.

  2. Use of the shape memory polymer polystyrene in the creation of thin film stretchable sensors for wearable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkinburg, Kyle R.; Nguyen, Thao; Pegan, Jonathan D.; Khine, Michelle; Washington, Gregory N.

    2016-04-01

    The shape memory polymer polystyrene (PS) has been used to create complex hierarchical wrinkling in the fabrication of stretchable thin film bimetallic sensors ideal for wearable based gesture monitoring applications. The film has been bonded to the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and operates as a strain gauge under the general notion of geometric piezoresistivity. The film was subject to tensile, cyclic, and step loading conditions in order to characterize its dynamic behavior. To measure the joint angle of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint on the right index finger, the sensor was adhered to a fitted golf glove above said joint and a motion study was conducted. At maximum joint angle the sensor experienced roughly 23.5% strain. From the study it was found that two simple curves, one while the finger was in flexion and the other while the finger was in extension, were able to predict the joint angle from measured voltage with an average error of 2.99 degrees.

  3. Simultaneous generation of ions and high-order harmonics from thin conjugated polymer foil irradiated with ultrahigh contrast laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I. W.; Kim, I J.; Pae, K. H.; Nam, K. H.; Lee, C.-L.; Yun, H.; Kim, H. T.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, T. J.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, J. [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Daido, H. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2011-10-31

    We report the manufacturing of an (ultra-)thin foil target made of conjugated polymer, poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), and the simultaneous observation of laser-accelerated ions and second harmonic radiation, when irradiated with ultrahigh-contrast laser pulse at a maximum intensity of 4 x 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2}. Maximum proton energy of 8 MeV is achieved along the target normal direction. Strong second harmonic with over 6% energy ratio compared to fundamental is emitted along the specular direction. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the simultaneous generation of protons and high-order harmonics, which demonstrates the feasibility of applications requiring particle and radiation sources at once, effectively using the same laser and target.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption behavior of copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals doped-PMMA polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Dhlamini, M. S.; Neethling, P. H.; Yao, A.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report the femtosecond nonlinear saturable absorption response of synthesized copper phthalocyanine nanocrystals (CPc-NCs)-doped PMMA polymer thin films. The samples were initially characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-Vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The crystalline phase and morphological analysis revealed nanocrystals of monoclinic structure with an average crystallite size between 31.38 nm and 42.5 nm. The femtosecond Z-scan study at 800 nm central wavelength indicated a saturable absorption behavior of which the mechanism is closely related to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the particles. This nonlinear effect could potentially make the CPc-NCs useful in nonlinear optical devices.

  5. Two intriguing hydroxy-copper(II) coordination polymers with bis(triazole) and bicarboxylate ligands: Syntheses, structures and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Zheng, Tian-Rui; Shi, Lu-Lu; Li, Ke; Li, Bao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan

    2017-09-01

    Two intriguing coordination polymers [Cu2(OH)(mbtx)(sip)(H2O)2]n (1) and {[Cu3(OH)2(mbtx)(nip)2]·H2O}n (2) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and characterized by elementary analysis, IR, PXRD, diffuse reflectance spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (mbtx = 1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)benzene, sip = sulfoisophthalate, nip = 5-nitroisophthalate). 1 shows an unusual 3-connected 2D network based on the dimeric hydroxy-copper(II) cluster [Cu2(μ-OH)] with the point symbol of 63. 2 exhibits an unusual 3D network based on 1D hydroxyl-copper(II) chains [Cu3(OH)2]n. 1 and 2 are highly efficient and universal photocatalysts for the degradation of the organic dyes such as methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic mechanism was supposed.

  6. pH-induced vesicle-to-micelle transition in amphiphilic diblock copolymer: investigation by energy transfer between in situ formed polymer embedded gold nanoparticles and fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Chiranjit; Banerjee, Rakesh; Maiti, Saikat; Dhara, Dibakar

    2015-01-01

    The ability to regulate the formation of nanostructures through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers is of immense significance in the field of biology and medicine. In this work, a new block copolymer synthesized by using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization technique from poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether acrylate (PEGMA) and Boc-l-tryptophan acryloyloxyethyl ester (Boc-l-trp-HEA) was found to spontaneously form pH-responsive water-soluble nanostructures after removal of the Boc group. While polymer vesicles or polymerosomes were formed at physiological pH, the micelles were formed at acidic pH (transition. Formation of these nanostructures was confirmed by different characterization techniques, viz. transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and steady-state fluorescence measurements. Further, these vesicles were successfully utilized to reduce HAuCl4 and stabilize the resulting gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These AuNPs, confined within the hydrophobic shell of the vesicles, could participate in energy transfer process with fluorescent dye molecules encapsulated in the core of the vesicles, thus forming a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) pair. Subsequently, following the efficiency of energy transfer between this pair, it was possible to monitor the process of transition from vesicles to micelles. Thus, in this work, we have successfully demonstrated that NSET can be used to follow the transition between nanostructures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers.

  7. Porous (001)-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Athar Ali; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001) facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm) of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101) and (001) was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) under AM1.5 G illumination.

  8. Porous (001-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Athar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001 facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101 and (001 was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE under AM1.5 G illumination.

  9. Device level optimization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)–zinc oxide polymer nanocomposite thin films for ferroelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C K, Subash, E-mail: cksubash08@gmail.com; Valiyaneerilakkal, Uvais; Varghese, Soney [Nanomaterials and Device Research Laboratory, School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Singh, Kulwant [Nanomaterials and Device Research Laboratory, School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Department of ECE, B.K. Birla Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)

    2015-11-28

    Polymer nanocomposite was prepared using poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder, which are ferroelectric in nature. Nanocomposite was prepared in various concentrations(0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 wt. %) using probe ultra-sonication, followed by spin coating and annealing at 120 °C for 2 h to improve the formation of β-phase. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor was fabricated using this optimized thin film as a ferroelectric layer. Device level optimization was carried out by polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis studies of this film, which shows polarization enhancement of composite. Various characterization techniques like atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were used to study the β-phase formation of nancomposite. The capacitance–voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied through varying frequency and temperature. C-V measurements show an increase of 79% in the capacitance of polymer nanocomposite, which can be used for the fabrication of ferroelectric devices.

  10. Spontaneous, Solvent-Free, Polymer-Templated, Solid-Solid Transformation of Thin Metal Films into Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cruz, Olivia; Avila-Gutierrez, Lizeth; Zolotukhin, Mikhail G; Gonzalez, Gonzalo; Monroy, B Marel; Montiel, Raúl; Vera-Graziano, Ricardo; Romero-Ibarra, Josue E; Novelo-Peralta, Omar; Massó Rojas, Felipe Alonso

    2016-09-14

    Metal nanoparticles have unusual optical, electronic, sensing, recognition, catalytic, and therapeutic properties. They are expected to form the basis of many of the technological and biological innovations of this century. A prerequisite for future applications using nanoparticles as functional entities is control of the shape, size, and homogeneity of these nanoparticles and of their interparticle spacing and arrangement on surfaces, between electrodes, or in devices. Here, we demonstrate that thin films of gold, silver, and copper sputter-deposited onto the surface of an organic polymer poly[[1,1':4',1″-terphenyl]-4,4″-diyl(2-bromo-1-carboxyethylidene)] (PTBC) undergo spontaneous solid-solid transformation into nanoparticles. Furthermore, we show that, by varying the thickness of the films, the volume-to-surface ratio of the polymer substrate, and the amount of plasticizer, it is possible to control the rate of transformation and the morphology of the nanoparticles formed. PTBC containing Au nanoparticles was found to enhance the cell adhesion and proliferation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings constitute the first experimental evidence of spontaneous, room-temperature, solid-solid transformation of metal films sputtered onto the surface of an organic polymeric substrate into nanoparticles (crystals).

  11. Photocatalytic Anatase TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Optical Fiber Using Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Choquet, Patrick; Boscher, Nicolas D

    2017-04-06

    Due to the undeniable industrial advantages of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma processes, such as low cost, low temperature, easy implementation, and in-line process capabilities, they have become the most promising next-generation candidate system for replacing thermal chemical vapor deposition or wet chemical processes for the deposition of functional coatings. In the work detailed in this article, photocatalytic anatase TiO2 thin films were deposited at a low temperature on polymer optical fibers using an atmospheric-pressure plasma process. This method overcomes the challenge of forming crystalline transition metal oxide coatings on polymer substrates by using a dry and up-scalable method. The careful selection of the plasma source and the titanium precursor, i.e., titanium ethoxide with a short alkoxy group, allowed the deposition of well-adherent, dense, and crystalline TiO2 coatings at low substrate temperature. Raman and XRD investigations showed that the addition of oxygen to the precursor's carrier gas resulted in a further increase of the film's crystallinity. Furthermore, the films deposited in the presence of oxygen exhibited a better photocatalytic activity toward methylene blue degradation assumedly due to their higher amount of photoactive {101} facets.

  12. Raman micro-spectroscopy for quantitative thickness measurement of nanometer thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, Barbara M.; Lenferink, Aufried T.M.; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Otto, Cees

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of far-field Raman micro-spectroscopy was investigated to determine quantitatively the actual thickness of organic thin films. It is shown that the thickness of organic films can be quantitatively determined down to 3 nm with an error margin of 20% and down to 1.5 nm with an error ma

  13. Polymers for opto-electronic applications: structure and morphology of thin films and their interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hutten, P F; Krasnikov, V.V.; Hadziioannou, G

    2001-01-01

    Organic-organic and metal-organic interfaces are explored. The influence of the morphology of thin films of MEH-phenylene-vinylene oligomer (OPV5):C60 blends on their photovoltaic characteristics is demonstrated. An interdigitating structure is considered to be favorable for efficient operation. The

  14. Nanostructured ZnO-TiO2 thin film oxide as anode material in electrooxidation of organic pollutants. Application to the removal of dye Amido black 10B from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kacemi, Sana; Zazou, Hicham; Oturan, Nihal; Dietze, Matthias; Hamdani, Mohamed; Es-Souni, Mohammed; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidative degradation of diazo dye Amido black 10B (AB10B) as model pollutant in water has been studied using nanostructured ZnO-TiO2 thin films deposited on graphite felt (GrF) substrate as anode. The influence of various operating parameters, namely the current intensity, the nature and concentration of catalyst, the nature of electrode materials (anode/cathode), and the adsorption of dye and ambient light were investigated. It was found that the oxidative degradation of AB10B followed pseudo first-order kinetics. The optimal operating conditions for the degradation of 0.12 mM (74 mg L(-1)) dye concentration and mineralization of its aqueous solution were determined as GrF-ZnO-TiO2 thin film anode, 100 mA current intensity, and 0.1 mM Fe(2+) (catalyst) concentration. Under these operating conditions, discoloration of AB10B solution was reached at 60 min while 6 h treatment needed for a mineralization degree of 91 %. Therefore, this study confirmed that the electrochemical process is effective for the degradation of AB10B in water using nanostructured ZnO-TiO2 thin film anodes.

  15. Structural characterization and thermally stimulated discharge conductivity (TSDC) study in polymer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Sangawar; R J Dhokne; A U Ubale; P S Chikhalikar; S D Meshram

    2007-04-01

    The electrical conductivity of naphthalene doped polystyrene (PS) films (≈ 61.58 m thick) was studied as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. The formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes and strong concentration dependence of carrier mobility point out that the current carriers are transported through doped polymer system via hopping among sites associated with the dopant molecules. The activation energy, a, was calculated from the graph of logvs 103/ plot within low and high temperature regions.

  16. Easily accessible polymer additives for tuning the crystal-growth of perovskite thin-films for highly efficient solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingqing; Wang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Kaicheng; Yu, Hao; Huang, Peng; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Ning; Song, Bo

    2016-03-14

    For perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs), one of the key issues with respect to the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is the morphology control of the perovskite thin-films. In this study, an easily-accessible additive polyethylenimine (PEI) is utilized to tune the morphology of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. With addition of 1.00 wt% of PEI, the smoothness and crystallinity of the perovskite were greatly improved, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A summit PCE of 14.07% was achieved for the p-i-n type Pero-SC, indicating a 26% increase compared to those of the devices without the additive. Both photoluminescence (PL) and alternating current impedance spectroscopy (ACIS) analyses confirm the efficiency results after the addition of PEI. This study provides a low-cost polymer additive candidate for tuning the morphology of perovskite thin-films, and might be a new clue for the mass production of Pero-SCs.

  17. Prestress Driven Improvement in Fracture Behavior of in Situ Sputtered Zinc Oxide Thin Films on Stretched Polymer Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hong Rak; Eswaran, Senthil Kumar; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-07-15

    Flexible electronic devices need to survive bending or stretching operation without mechanical failure. If inorganic thin films are involved in the device structure, the evolution of cracks is a major challenge to overcome. Here, we report a novel way to substantially improve the fracture behavior of films that are based on intentional utilization of residual stress on the films by in situ sputtering on a stretched polymer substrate. The in situ sputtering combined with a stabilization stage yielded ZnO:Al thin films with a nearly 2-fold improvement in crack initiation strain, which indicates greater resistance to bending. The critical strain of the optimal ZnO:Al films was ∼1.83%, which is a significant improvement compared to the current tolerance value of ∼1%. This was accompanied by a ∼300% improvement in fracture energy. We attributed the improved fracture behavior to the presence of residual compressive stresses, which creates a barrier for crack formation by acting opposite to the applied bending strain.

  18. How do evaporating thin films evolve? Unravelling phase-separation mechanisms during solvent-based fabrication of polymer blends

    KAUST Repository

    Wodo, Olga

    2014-10-13

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Solvent-based fabrication is a flexible and affordable approach to manufacture polymer thin films. The properties of products made from such films can be tailored by the internal organization (morphology) of the films. However, a precise knowledge of morphology evolution leading to the final film structure remains elusive, thus limiting morphology control to a trial and error approach. In particular, understanding when and where phases are formed, and how they evolve would provide rational guidelines for more rigorous control. Here, we identify four modes of phase formation and subsequent propagation within the thinning film during solvent-based fabrication. We unravel the origin and propagation characteristics of each of these modes. Finally, we construct a mode diagram that maps processing conditions with individual modes. The idea introduced here enables choosing processing conditions to tailor film morphology characteristics and paves the ground for a deeper understanding of morphology control with the ultimate goal of precise, yet affordable, morphology manipulation for a large spectrum of applications.

  19. Development of advanced catalytic layer based on vertically aligned conductive polymer arrays for thin-film fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shangfeng; Yi, Baolian; Cao, Longsheng; Song, Wei; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Hongmei; Shao, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    The degradation of carbon supports significantly influences the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), particularly in the cathode, which must be overcome for the wide application of fuel cells. In this study, advanced catalytic layer with electronic conductive polymer-polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire as ordered catalyst supports for PEMFCs is prepared. A platinum-palladium (PtPd) catalyst thin layer with whiskerette shapes forms along the long axis of the PPy nanowires. The resulting arrays are hot-pressed on both sides of a Nafion® membrane to construct a membrane electrode assembly (without additional ionomer). The ordered thin catalyst layer (approximately 1.1 μm) is applied in a single cell as the anode and the cathode without additional Nafion® ionomer. The single cell yields a maximum performance of 762.1 mW cm-2 with a low Pt loading (0.241 mg Pt cm-2, anode + cathode). The advanced catalyst layer indicates better mass transfer in high current density than that of commercial Pt/C-based electrode. The mass activity is 1.08-fold greater than that of DOE 2017 target. Thus, the as-prepared electrodes have the potential for application in fuel cells.

  20. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Mesoporous Hybrid Photoanode with Iron Pyrite (FeS2) Thin Films Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Ozer, Oguz Can; Asgin, Mansur; Cebeci, Hulya; Urk, Deniz; Mucur, Selin Pravadili

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TiO2 mesoporous networks can be employed as a new alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By using the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous as photoanodes in DSSC, we demonstrate that the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode is promising alternative to standard FTO/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSC due to larger specific surface area and high electrochemical activity. We also show that iron pyrite (FeS2) thin films can be used as an efficient counter electrode (CE), an alternative to the conventional high cost Pt based CE. We are able to synthesis FeS2 nanostructures utilizing a very cheap and easy hydrothermal growth route. MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with FeS2 CE achieved a high solar conversion efficiency of 7.27% under 100 mW cm‑2 (AM 1.5G 1-Sun) simulated solar irradiance which is considerably (slightly) higher than that of A-CNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with Pt CE. Outstanding performance of the FeS2 CE makes it a very promising choice among the various CE materials used in the conventional DSSC and it is expected to be used more often to achieve higher photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies.