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Sample records for dye micelle hydrogels

  1. Radiochromic leuco dye micelle hydrogels: I. Initial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin; Avvakumov, Nikita

    2009-01-01

    This investigation reports the use of surfactants and colorless leuco triarylmethane dyes to form a new class of radiochromic micelle hydrogels for three-dimensional (3D) water-equivalent dosimetry. Gelatin gel samples with several surfactants and leuco dyes were prepared and evaluated for optical transparency, dose sensitivity and diffusion rates. The addition of Triton X-100, a non-ionic surfactant, at levels exceeding the critical micelle concentration provides a transparent hydrogel in which the water insoluble leuco Malachite Green (LMG) can dissolve. During irradiation, the LMG dye precursor converts to Malachite Green (MG + ). The most sensitive reported LMG gel formulation contains 0.3 mM LMG leuco dye, 16 mM trichloroacetic acid, 7 mM Triton X-100 and 4% w/w gelatin. A diffusion coefficient of 0.14 mm 2 h -1 was determined for MG + in this gel by fitting the time-dependent degradation of the transmission profile after irradiating half of the sample. The diffusion rate was three times lower than the standard radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) gel. The primary feature of this 3D hydrogel is that it introduces transparent, radiochromic, micelle hydrogels. The radiochromic response to dose is instantaneous and images are stable for several hours. A dosimetric characterization revealed that the dose response is reproducible to within 10% over five separate batches and independent of both energy and dose rate. Uniform pre-irradiation of samples to 5 Gy provided a subsequent near linear response to greater than 110 Gy. LMG gels when read with a fast optical CT scanner can provide full 3D dose distributions in less than 30 min post-irradiation. LMG micelle gels scanned with a 633 nm light source are a promising system for quantitative water- or tissue-equivalent 3D dose verification in the 5-100 Gy dose range. These gels are useful for the scanning of larger volume dosimeters (i.e. >15 cm diameter) since they are easily prepared with inexpensive ingredients

  2. Photophysical properties of pyronin dyes in reverse micelles of AOT

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    Bayraktutan, Tuğba; Meral, Kadem; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-01-15

    The photophysical properties of pyronin B (PyB) and pyronin Y (PyY) in reverse micelles formed with water/sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane were investigated by UV–vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. This study was carried out a wide range of reverse micelle sizes, with hydrodynamic radii ranging from 1.85 to 9.38 nm. Significant photophysical parameters as band shifts, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined to understand how photophysical and spectroscopic features of the dye compounds were affected by the variation of reverse micelle sizes. In this regard, control of reverse micelle size by changing W{sub 0}, the molar ratio of water to surfactant, allowed tuning the photophysical properties of the dyes in organic solvent via reverse micelle. Non-fluorescent H-aggregates of pyronin dyes were observed for the smaller reverse micelles whereas an increase in the reverse micelle size induced an increment in the amount of dye monomers instead of dye aggregates. Thus, the fluorescence intensities of the dyes were improved by increasing W{sub 0} due to the predomination of the fluorescent dye monomers. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yields also increased. The fluorescence lifetimes of the dyes in the reverse micelles were determined by the time-resolved fluorescence decay studies. Evaluation of the fluorescence lifetimes calculated for pyronin dyes in the reverse micelles showed that the size of reverse micelle affected the fluorescence lifetimes of pyronin dyes. -- Highlights: • The photophysical properties of pyronin dyes were examined by spectroscopic techniques. • Optical properties of the dyes were tuned by changing of W{sub 0} values. • The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield values of the dyes in reverse micelles were discussed.

  3. Mechano-responsive hydrogels crosslinked by reactive block copolymer micelles

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    Xiao, Longxi

    Hydrogels are crosslinked polymeric networks that can swell in water without dissolution. Owing to their structural similarity to the native extracelluar matrices, hydrogels have been widely used in biomedical applications. Synthetic hydrogels have been designed to respond to various stimuli, but mechanical signals have not incorporated into hydrogel matrices. Because most tissues in the body are subjected to various types of mechanical forces, and cells within these tissues have sophisticated mechano-transduction machinery, this thesis is focused on developing hydrogel materials with built-in mechano-sensing mechanisms for use as tissue engineering scaffolds or drug release devices. Self-assembled block copolymer micelles (BCMs) with reactive handles were employed as the nanoscopic crosslinkers for the construction of covalently crosslinked networks. BCMs were assembled from amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) partially modified with acrylate. Radical polymerization of acrylamide in the presence of micellar crosslinkers gave rise to elastomeric hydrogels whose mechanical properties can be tuned by varying the BCM composition and concentration. TEM imaging revealed that the covalently integrated BCMs underwent strain-dependent reversible deformation. A model hydrophobic drug, pyrene, loaded into the core of BCMs prior to the hydrogel formation, was dynamically released in response to externally applied mechanical forces, through force-induced reversible micelle deformation and the penetration of water molecules into the micelle core. The mechano-responsive hydrogel has been studied for tissue repair and regeneration purposes. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)-modified hyaluronic acid (HA) was photochemically crosslinked in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded crosslinkable BCMs. The resultant HA gels (HAxBCM) contain covalently integrated micellar compartments with DEX being sequestered in the hydrophobic core. Compared

  4. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  5. Specific interactions within micelle microenvironment in different charged dye/surfa

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    Adina Roxana Petcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of two ionic dyes, Crystal Violet and Methyl Orange, with different charged surfactants and also with a nonionic surfactant were investigated using surface tension measurements and visible spectroscopy in pre-micellar and post-micellar regions. It was found that for the water dominant phase systems the dye was localized between the polar heads, at the exterior of the direct micelle shells for all the systems. For the oil dominant phase systems, in case of the same charged dye/surfactant couples, the dye was localized in the micelle shell between the hydrocarbon chain of the surfactant nearby the hydrophilic head groups while for nonionic surfactant and oppositely charged dye/surfactant, localization of dye was between the oxyethylenic head groups towards the interior of the micelle core. Mixed aggregates of the dye and surfactant (below the critical micellar concentration of cationic surfactant, dye-surfactant ion pair and surfactant-micelles were present. The values of equilibrium constants (for TX-114/MO and TX-114/CV systems were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, partition coefficients between the micellar and bulk water phases and standard free energy (for the nonionic systems were −12.59 kJ/mol for MO and −10.97 kJ/mol for CV were calculated for all the studied systems. The partition processes were exothermic and occurred spontaneously.

  6. Removal of some basic dyes by poly (Vinyl Alcohol/ acrylic acid)Hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, S.A.; Abdel-AAl, S.E.; Abdel-Rehim, H.A.; Khalifa, N.A.; El-Hosseiny, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    A study has made on the preparation and properties of poly (vinyl alcohol/ acrylic acid) hydrogel for the purpose of removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The effect of dose and monomer concentration on the uptake property of the hydrogel toward dye was studied. The uptake of basic methylene blue-9 dye with PVA/AAc was studied by the batch adsorption technique. The effect of pH on the dye uptake was demonstrated to find out that the suitable pH for maximum uptake occurred at pH 5. It was observed that as the concentration of dye is increased the dye uptake decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of dye by hydrogels increased as the temperature was elevated. The recovery of dye adsorbed is possible by treating the hydrogel with 5% HCl. The results obtained suggested this hydrogel possessed good removal properties towards basic methylene blue-9 dye, and this suggests that such hydrogels could be acceptable for practical uses

  7. The effect of colloidal silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye using micelle entrapment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Atiqah; Zakaria, Nor Dyana; Lockman, Zainovia; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul

    2018-05-01

    The advancement of nanoparticle-based approaches such as quantum dots (QDs), metallic (Au and Ag) NPs, silica NPs and other types of nanomaterial have led to a large variety of biomolecular imaging and labelling reagents with controlled size and shaped to overcome the limitation of conventional organic dye. In this study, the yellowish green color of fluorescein dye was encapsulated into colloidal silica nanoparticles by using micelle entrapment approach. Two different size of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye (27.7 ± 5.6 and 46.73 ± 4.3 nm) with spherical and monodispered of nanoparticles were synthesised by varying the volume of co-solvent during the synthesis process. The particles size, particles morphology, absorption spectrum and the photostability of fluorescein dye was measured by using dynamic light scaterring (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and UV-Vis spectrometer. Furthermore, the effect of photostability of of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was measured under radiation of 200 W of Halogen lamp for 60 minutes. The silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was more stable compared to bare fluorescein dye after the exposure. In conclusion, the photostability of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescein dye was improved compared to bare fluorescein dye, thus silica nanoparticles encapsulation successfully provides protection from the photobleaching and photodegradation of fluorescein dye.

  8. Investigating hydrogel dosimeter decomposition by chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The chemical oxidative decomposition of leucocrystal violet micelle hydrogel dosimeters was investigated using the reaction of ferrous ions with hydrogen peroxide or sodium bicarbonate with hydrogen peroxide. The second reaction is more effective at dye decomposition in gelatin hydrogels. Additional chemical analysis is required to determine the decomposition products

  9. USEBILITY OF HYDROGELS IN ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGHY FOR REMOVAL OF HEAVY METAL AND DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AÇIKEL Safiye Meriç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and Dyes are very toxic and nonbiodegradable in waste waters to cause adverse health effects in human body and to induce irreversible pollution. Adsorption offers many potential advantages for removal of toxic heavy metals being flexibility in design and operation, high-quality treated effluent, reversible nature for multiple uses, and many commercially available adsorbent materials, such as activated carbon, zeolite, clay, sawdust, bark, biomass, lignin, chitosan and other polymer adsorbents. Compared to conventional adsorbent materials above, hydrogelbased adsorbents recently have attracted special attention to their highly potential for effective removal of heavy metals and dyes. Hydrogels are named “Hydrophilic Polymer” because of care for water. Hydrogels is not solved in water; however they have been swollen to their balance volume. Because of this swell behavior, they can adsorb big quantity of water in this structure. So they can term of “three sized polymers” due to protect their existing shape [9]. Hydrogels with porous structures and chemically-responsive functional groups, enable to readily capture metal ions and dyes from wastewater. Hydrogels with porous structures and chemically-responsive functional groups, enable to readily capture metal ions and dyes from wastewater. In adsorption applications, hydrogels are used in water purification, heavy metal/dying removing, controlled fertilizer released, ion exchange applications, chromatographic applications, dilute extractions, waste water treatments. This article general inform about usage of hydrogels in Dye and Heavy Metal adsorption.

  10. Injectable Thermoresponsive Hydrogel Formed by Alginate-g-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) That Releases Doxorubicin-Encapsulated Micelles as a Smart Drug Delivery System.

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    Liu, Min; Song, Xia; Wen, Yuting; Zhu, Jing-Ling; Li, Jun

    2017-10-18

    In this work, we have synthesized a thermoresponsive copolymer, alginate-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (alginate-g-PNIPAAm) by conjugating PNIPAAm to alginate, where PNIPAAm with different molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distribution was synthesized by atomic transfer radical polymerization. The copolymer dissolved in water or phosphate-buffered saline buffer solution at room temperature and formed self-assembled micelles with low critical micellization concentrations when the temperature increased to above their critical micellization temperatures. At higher concentration, that is, 7.4 wt % in water, the copolymer formed solutions at 25 °C and turned into thermosensitive hydrogels when temperature increased to the body temperature (37 °C). Herein, we hypothesized that the thermoresponsive hydrogels could produce self-assembled micelles with the dissolution of the alginate-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels in a biological fluid or drug release medium. If the drug was hydrophobic, the hydrogel eventually could release and produce drug-encapsulated micelles. In our experiments, we loaded the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) into the alginate-g-PNIPAAm hydrogels and demonstrated that the hydrogels released DOX-encapsulated micelles in a sustained manner. The slowly released DOX-loaded micelles enhanced the cellular uptake of DOX in multidrug resistant AT3B-1 cells, showing the effect of overcoming the drug resistance and achieving better efficiency for killing the cancer cells. Therefore, the injectable thermoresponsive hydrogels formed by alginate-g-PNIPAAm and loaded with DOX turned into a smart drug delivery system, releasing DOX-encapsulated micelles in a sustained manner, showing great potential for overcoming the drug resistance in cancer therapy.

  11. Adsorption of Congo red dye onto antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Harby, Nouf F; Ibrahim, Shaimaa M A; Mohamed, Nadia A

    2017-11-01

    Adsorption capacity of three antimicrobial terephthaloyl thiourea cross-linked chitosan hydrogels for Congo red dye removal from its aqueous solution has been investigated for the first time in this work. These hydrogels were prepared by reacting chitosan with various amounts of terephthaloyl diisothiocyanate cross-linker. The effect of the hydrogel structural variations and several dye adsorption processing parameters to achieve the best adsorption capacity were investigated. The hydrogels' structural variations were obtained by varying their terephthaloyl thiourea moieties content. The processing variables included initial concentration of the dye solution, temperature and time of exposure to the dye. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the sorption processes were better fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation and the Langmuir equation, respectively. On the basis of the Langmuir analysis Congo red dye gave the maximum sorption capacity of 44.248 mg/g. The results obtained confirmed that the sorption phenomena are most likely to be controlled by chemisorption process. The adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous according to the calculated results of adsorption thermodynamics.

  12. Photophysical study of a charge transfer oxazole dye in micelles: Role of surfactant headgroups

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    Maiti, Jyotirmay [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India); Sarkar, Yeasmin; Parui, Partha Pratim [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakraborty, Sandipan [Department of Microbiology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700019 (India); Biswas, Suman [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India); Das, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjan.das68@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Photophysics of 5-(4′′-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-(4′-sulfophenyl)oxazole, sodium salt (DMO) which undergoes intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state was studied in micelles. In the cationic and the nonionic micelles, significantly higher fluorescence quantum yield is observed in comparison to the anionic micelles, due to much lower accessibility of DMO to the water molecules in the former micelles than the latter. Time-resolved fluorescence decays were characterized by a fast (τ{sub 1}) and a slow (τ{sub 2}) component of decay in all the micelles. The fast decay component (τ{sub 1}) increases significantly in going from the anionic micelles to the cationic micelles, because of the poorly hydrated headgroup region of the latter micelles compared to the former. Furthermore, much higher value of the slow component of decay (τ{sub 2}) is observed for the cationic and the neutral micelles than the anionic micelles. This is attributed to the increased penetration of water molecules into the micellar core of the anionic micelles compared to the cationic and the neutral micelles. - Highlights: • Photophysics of the fluorophore are remarkably different in the cationic and the anionic micelles. • Differential hydration of the surfactant headgroups gives rise to significantly different fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime in oppositely charged micelles. • Electrostatic interactions fine tune location of the fluorophore in the micelle–water interface of ionic micelles.

  13. Recovery of waste dyes, pesticides and detergents by using hydrogels prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.S.; Abde-Aal, S.E.; Nizam El-Din, H.M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogels have been prepared by irradiation acrylic acid and glycerol using methanol and water as solvents. Another sample was prepared with methanol only. The application of the prepared two hydrogels used for recovery of some reactive, acid and direct dyes and also recovery two different pesticides and detergents from wastewater were studies. The hydrogels complexes with different pollutants have been isolated and methanol and water as solvent during polymerization has great adsorption towards dyes, pesticides and detergents than sample containing methanol only. The adsorption isotherm capacity of the two hydrogels was studies by the effect of temperature (20,30,40 degree C) on the adsorption capacity through the kinetic studies of adsorption. The adsorption capacity increase with rising temperature and thermodynamic parameters δH, δS and δG were determined. Also, the adsorption capacity is considerably affected by ph values (3,7 and 10). It was found that adsorption capacity increases in acid medium and decreases towards the alkaline medium for both dyes and pesticides, while the irreversible results was shown in case of anionic detergents. Frundlich equation of adsorption isotherm was applied in this work

  14. Bioconjugated graphene oxide hydrogel as an effective adsorbent for cationic dyes removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Khadijeh; Tehrani, Abbas Dadkhah; Adeli, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    In this study, graphene oxide - cellulose nanowhiskers nanocomposite hydrogel was easily synthesized through covalent functionalization of cellulose nanowhiskers with graphene oxide via a facile approach. The nitrene chemistry applied for covalent functionalization of graphene oxide sheets. The surface morphology and chemical structure of the nanocomposite hydrogel were characterized by FTIR, TGA, Raman, XRD, elemental analysis and SEM. The UV/Visible absorption spectrum revealed that the obtained porous nanocomposite hydrogel can efficiently remove cationic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB) from wastewater with high absorption power. The adsorption process showed that 100% of MB and 90% of RhB have been removed and the equilibrium state has been reached in 15min for low concentration solutions in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. Moreover, the sample exhibited stable performance after being used several times. High adsorption capacity and easy recovery are the efficient factors making these materials as good adsorbent for water pollutants and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles: generation and size-tuning of nanoparticles by the formation of micelle templates obtained from thermo-responsive monomers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria [Bar Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Shainer, Inbal [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Neurobiology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences (Israel); Gottlieb, Hugo E. [Bar Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Gothilf, Yoav [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Neurobiology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, and Sagol School of Neuroscience (Israel); Ebenstein, Yuval [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Chemistry (Israel); Weiss, Aryeh [Bar Ilan University, School of Engineering (Israel); Byk, Gerardo, E-mail: gerardo.byk@biu.ac.il [Bar Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel)

    2014-12-15

    Biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles are prepared by polymerization and cross-linking of N-isopropyl acrylamide in a micelle template formed by block copolymers macro-monomers at high temperature. Different monomer ratios form, at high temperature, well-defined micelles of different sizes which are further polymerized leading to nanoparticles with varied sizes from 20 to 390 nm. Physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles demonstrates their composition and homogeneity. The NPs were tested in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility assays, and their lack of toxicity was proven. The NPs can be labeled with fluorescent probes, and their intracellular fate can be visualized and quantified using confocal microscopy. Their uptake by live stem cells and distribution in whole developing animals is reported. On the basis of our results, a mechanism of nanoparticle formation is suggested. The lack of toxicity makes these nanoparticles especially attractive for biological applications such as screening and bio-sensing.

  16. Synthesis of Potato Starch-Acrylic-Acid Hydrogels by Gamma Radiation and Their Application in Dye Adsorption

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    Md. Murshed Bhuyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several kinds of acrylic-acid-grafted-starch (starch/AAc hydrogels were prepared at room temperature (27°C by applying 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kGy of gamma radiation to 15% AAc aqueous solutions containing 5, 7.5, and 15% of starch. With increment of the radiation dose, gel fraction became higher and attained the maximum (96.5% at 15 kGy, above which the fraction got lowered. On the other hand, the gel fraction monotonically increased with the starch content. Swelling ratios were lower for the starch/AAc hydrogels prepared with higher gamma-ray doses and so with larger starch contents. Significant promotions of the swelling ratios were demonstrated by hydrolysis with NaOH: 13632±10% for 15 kGy radiation-dosed [5% starch/15% AAc] hydrogel, while the maximum swelling ratio was ~200% for those without the treatment. The authors further investigated the availability of the starch/AAc hydrogel as an adsorbent recovering dye waste from the industrial effluents by adopting methylene blue as a model material; the hydrogels showed high dye-capturing coefficients which increase with the starch ratio. The optimum dye adsorption was found to be 576 mg per g of the hydrogel having 7.5 starch and 15% AAc composition. Two kinetic models, (i pseudo-first-order and (ii pseudo-second-order kinetic models, were applied to test the experimental data. The latter provided the best correlation of the experimental data compared to the pseudo-first-order model.

  17. Fabrication of the novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongzhuo; Zhu, Baodong; Cao, Bo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-11-01

    The novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk was synthetized by aqueous solution polymerization technique with functional monomers in the presence of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) under ultrasonic. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to research the effect of initial dye concentration, the dosage of hydrogel, stirring speed, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which confirmed that it should be a chemical process. Furthermore, we ascertained the rate controlling step by establishing the intraparticle diffusion model and the liquid film diffusion model. The adsorption and synthesis mechanisms were vividly depicted in our work as well. Structural and morphological characterizations by virtue of FTIR, FESEM, and Biomicroscope supported the relationship between the adsorption performance and material's microstructure. This research is a valuable contribution for the environmental protection, which not only converts waste corn stalks into functional materials, but improves the removal of organic dye from sewage water.

  18. Adsorption Properties of PVA/PAA/clay Composite Hydrogel Synthesized by Gamma Radiation and its Application in Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Its Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, H.; El-Sayed, A. Hegazy; Mohamed, M.M.; Sabaa, M.W.; El-Dessouky, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Copolymer hydrogels composed of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly acrylic acid (PAA) were prepared by γ-irradiation in the presence of N,N’ methylene bis acrylamide (MBAM) as crosslinking agent or bentonite clay. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The dye adsorption experiments for Crystal Violet dye (CV) were carried out by using bath procedure. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the adsorption behavior. The effect of different copolymer composition, clay concentration, ph, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and adsorption temperature were investigated to obtain the best experimental conditions. The adsorption equilibrium was attained after about 24h. of contact time. It was found that the adsorption process was correlated with Freundlich isotherm equation. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of CV dye onto the prepared hydrogels were also evaluated

  19. Effective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using gum ghatti-based biodegradable hydrogel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable hydrogels of gum ghatti (Gg) with a co-polymer mixture of acrylamide (AAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) (termed as Gg-cl-P(AAm-co-MAA)) were synthesised by microwave-assisted free radical graft co-polymerisation technique. The hydrogel...

  20. Gum karaya based hydrogel nanocomposites for the effective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittala, H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available after nanocomposite formation with SiC NPs. The HNC was employed for the removal of cationic dyes, i.e., malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RhB) from the aqueous solution. The HNC was found to remove 91% (MG) and 86% (RhB) of dyes with a polymer dose...

  1. Eco-friendly and biocompatible cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels as adsorbents for the removal of organic dye pollutants for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanema, Nádia S V; Mansur, Alexandra A P; Mansur, Herman S; de Jesus, Anderson C; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Chagas, Poliane; de Oliveira, Luiz C

    2017-08-28

    In this study, new eco-friendly hydrogel adsorbents were synthesized based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, degree of substitution [DS] = 0.7) chemically cross-linked with citric acid (CA) using a green process in aqueous solution and applied for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). Spectroscopic analyses demonstrated the mechanism of cross-linking through the reaction of hydroxyl functional groups from CMC with CA. These CMC hydrogels showed very distinct morphological features dependent on the extension of cross-linking and their nanomechanical properties were drastically increased by approximately 300% after cross-linking with 20% CA (e.g. elastic moduli from 80 ± 15 to 270 ± 50 MPa). Moreover, they were biocompatible using an in vitro cell viability assay in contact with human osteosarcoma-derived cells (SAOS) for 24 h. These CMC-based hydrogels exhibited adsorption efficiency above 90% (24 h) and maximum removal capacity of MB from 5 to 25 mg g -1 depending on the dye concentration (from 100 to 500 mg L -1 ), which was used as the model cationic organic pollutant. The adsorption of process of MB was well-fit to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The desorption of MB by immersion in KCl solution (3 mol L -1 , 24 h) showed a typical recovery efficiency of over 60% with conceivable reuse of these CMC-based hydrogels. Conversely, CMC hydrogels repelled methyl orange dye used as model anionic pollutant, proving the mechanism of adsorption by the formation of charged polyelectrolyte/dye complexes.

  2. Efficient removal of rhodamine 6G dye from aqueous solution using nickel sulphide incorporated polyacrylamide grafted gum karaya bionanocomposite hydrogel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, N

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available polymer of the Gk with the PAAm was synthesized using the graft co-polymerization technique. In the second step, the nickel sulphide nanoparticles were incorporated in situ within the hydrogel polymer matrix. The synthesized hydrogel nanocomposite...

  3. TiO2 film decorated with highly dispersed polyoxometalate nanoparticles synthesized by micelle directed method for the efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lifei; Chen, Li; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Weilin; Shan, Chunhui; Su, Zhongmin; Wang, Enbo

    2016-10-01

    In this work, two kinds of polyoxometalate (POM) nanoparticles with controlled shapes and structures were synthesized by micelle directed method and then composited with TiO2 via calcination to remove the surfactants owing to the excellent electronic storage and transmission ability of POM, finally obtaining two kinds of TiO2 composites with highly dispersed and small-sized POM nanoparticles (∼1 nm). The TiO2 composites were then induced into the photoanodes of dye-sensitized (N719) solar cells (DSSCs). The separation of electron-holes becomes more favorable due to the nanostructure and high dispersion of POM which provide more active sites than pure POM tending to agglomeration. The TiO2 composite photoanodes finally yielded the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.4% and 8.2%, respectively, which were 42% and 39% higher than the pristine TiO2 based anodes. In addition, the mechanisms of POM in DSSC are proposed.

  4. Highly Stretchable, Strain Sensing Hydrogel Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing; Liu, Xinyue; Jiang, Nan; Yetisen, Ali K; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Yang, Changxi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhao, Xuanhe; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    A core-clad fiber made of elastic, tough hydrogels is highly stretchable while guiding light. Fluorescent dyes are easily doped into the hydrogel fiber by diffusion. When stretched, the transmission spectrum of the fiber is altered, enabling the strain to be measured and also its location. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  6. Controlled release of sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist with gelatin hydrogels for macrophage recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Saito, Takashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to design a drug delivery system (DDS) for the in vivo promotion of macrophage recruitment. As the drug, a water-insoluble agonist of sphingosine-1-phosphate type 1 receptor (SEW2871) was selected. SEW2871 (SEW) was water-solubilized by micelle formation with gelatin grafted by L-lactic acid oligomer. SEW micelles were mixed with gelatin, followed by dehydrothermal crosslinking of gelatin to obtain gelatin hydrogels incorporating SEW micelles. SEW was released from the hydrogels incorporating SEW micelles in vitro and in vivo. The water-solubilized SEW showed in vitro macrophage migration activity. When implanted into the back subcutis or the skin wound defect of mice, the hydrogel incorporating SEW micelles promoted macrophage migration toward the tissue around the implanted site to a significantly great extent compared with SEW-free hydrogel and that mixed with SEW micelles. The hydrogel is a promising DDS to enhance macrophage recruitment in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photonics of dyes molecules in reverse micellar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, M.R.; Laurinas, V.Ch.

    2001-01-01

    Spectral luminescent characteristics of the dye acridine orange and eosin has been studied in reverse micellar solutions of sodium bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)sulfosuccinate. It was shown that the increase of the nucleus volume of reverse micelles. (author)

  8. A Double-Stimuli-Responsive Fluorescent Center for Monitoring of Food Spoilage based on Dye Covalently Modified EuMOFs: From Sensory Hydrogels to Logic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yu; Lian, Xiao; Hao, Ji-Na; Zhang, Chi; Yan, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Unsafe food is a huge threat to human health and the economy, and detecting food spoilage early is an ongoing and imperative need. Herein, a simple and effective strategy combining a fluorescence sensor and one-to-two logic operation is designed for monitoring biogenic amines, indicators of food spoilage. Sensors (methyl red@lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (MR@EuMOFs)) are created by covalently modifying MR into NH 2 -rich EuMOFs, which have a high quantum yield (48%). A double-stimuli-responsive fluorescence center is produced via energy transfer from the ligands to Eu 3+ and MR. Portable sensory hydrogels are obtained by dispersing and solidifying MR@EuMOFs in water-phase sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC-Na). The hydrogels exhibit a color transition upon "smelling" histamine (HI) vapor. This transition and shift in the MR-based emission peak are closely related to the HI concentration. Using the HI concentration as the input signal and the two fluorescence emissions as output signals, an advanced analytical device based on a one-to-two logic gate is constructed. The four output combinations, NOT (0, 1), YES (1, 0), PASS 1 (1, 1), and PASS 0 (0, 0), allow the direct analysis of HI levels, which can be used for real-time food-freshness evaluation. The novel strategy suggested here may be a new application for a molecular logic system in the sensing field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Progress in lignin hydrogels and nanocomposites for water purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevicius, Sigitas; Thakur, Sourbh; Govender, Penny P.

    2017-01-01

    -based hydrogels have shown excellent performance for removal of various pollutants from water. The adsorption properties of lignin based hydrogels can further be improved by using a combination of nanomaterials and lignin that results in promising hydrogel nanocomposites. In nature, the most abundant structures...... are formed by the combination of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. In this article, we have attempted to comprehensively review the research work carried out in the direction of usage of lignin-based hydrogel for removal of toxic pollutants including metal ions and dyes....

  10. Pseudopeptide-Based Hydrogels Trapping Methylene Blue and Eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milli, Lorenzo; Zanna, Nicola; Merlettini, Andrea; Di Giosia, Matteo; Calvaresi, Matteo; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Tomasini, Claudia

    2016-08-16

    We present herein the preparation of four different hydrogels based on the pseudopeptide gelator Fmoc-l-Phe-d-Oxd-OH (Fmoc=fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl), either by changing the gelator concentration or adding graphene oxide (GO) to the water solution. The hydrogels have been analysed by rheological studies that demonstrated that pure hydrogels are slightly stronger compared to GO-loaded hydrogels. Then the hydrogels efficiency to trap the cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic eosin Y (EY) dyes has been analyzed. MB is efficiently trapped by both the pure hydrogel and the GO-loaded hydrogel through π-π interactions and electrostatic interactions. In contrast, the removal of the anionic EY is achieved in less satisfactory yields, due to the unfavourable electrostatic interactions between the dye, the gelator and GO. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a

  12. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  13. Multifunctional theranostic Pluronic mixed micelles improve targeted photoactivity of Verteporfin in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Pellosi, Diogo [Laboratory of Phobiology and photomdicine, Department of Chemistry (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Vila Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto (Brazil); Calori, Italo Rodrigo [Research Nucleus of Photodynamic Therapy, Department of Chemistry, State University of Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 97020-900 Maringá (Brazil); Barcelos de Paula, Leonardo [Laboratory of Phobiology and photomdicine, Department of Chemistry (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Vila Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto (Brazil); Hioka, Noboru [Research Nucleus of Photodynamic Therapy, Department of Chemistry, State University of Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 97020-900 Maringá (Brazil); Quaglia, Fabiana [Laboratory of Drug Delivery, Department of Pharmacy, University of Napoli Federico II, Via Domenico Montesanto 49, 80131 Napoli (Italy); Tedesco, Antonio Claudio, E-mail: atedesco@usp.br [Laboratory of Phobiology and photomdicine, Department of Chemistry (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Vila Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology development provides new strategies to treat cancer by integration of different treatment modalities in a single multifunctional nanoparticle. In this scenario, we applied the multifunctional Pluronic P123/F127 mixed micelles for Verteporfin-mediated photodynamic therapy in PC3 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Micelles functionalization aimed the targeted delivery by the insertion of biotin moiety on micelle surface and fluorescence image-based through rhodamine-B dye conjugation in the polymer chains. Multifunctional Pluronics formed spherical nanoparticulated micelles that efficiently encapsulated the photosensitizer Verteporfin maintaining its favorable photophysical properties. Lyophilized formulations were stable at least for 6 months and readily reconstituted in aqueous media. The multifunctional micelles were stable in protein-rich media due to the dual Pluronic mixed micelles characteristic: high drug loading capacity provided by its micellar core and high kinetic stability due its biocompatible shell. Biotin surface functionalized micelles showed higher internalization rates due biotin-mediated endocytosis, as demonstrated by competitive cellular uptake studies. Rhodamine B-tagged micelles allowed monitoring cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of the formulations. Confocal microscopy studies demonstrated a larger intracellular distribution of the formulation and photosensitizer, which could drive Verteporfin to act on multiple cell sites. Formulations were not toxic in the dark condition, but showed high Verteporfin-induced phototoxicity against both cancer cell lines at low drug and light doses. These results point Verteporfin-loaded multifunctional micelles as a promising tool to further developments in photodynamic therapy of cancer. - Highlights: • We optimized the theranostic mixed micelles – verteporfin formulations. • Multifunctional Pluronic micelles formed nano-sized spherical nanoparticles. • Biotin surface conjugation

  14. Reactivity in inverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochette, Pascal

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the use of micro-emulsions of water in oil as reaction support. Only the 'inverse micelles' domain of the ternary mixing (water/AOT/isooctane) has been studied. The main addressed issues have been: the micro-emulsion disturbance in presence of reactants, the determination of reactant distribution and the resulting kinetic theory, the effect of the interface on electron transfer reactions, and finally protein solubilization [fr

  15. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.
    In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and

  16. Solvation dynamics in triton-X-100 and triton-X-165 micelles: Effect of micellar size and hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2004-09-01

    Dynamic Stokes' shift measurements using coumarin 153 as the fluorescence probe have been carried out to study solvation dynamics in two nonionic micelles, viz., triton-X-100 (TX-100) and triton-X-165 (TX-165). In both the micelles, the solvent relaxation dynamics is biexponential in nature. While the fast solvation time τs1 is seen to be almost similar for both the micelles, the slow solvation time τs2 is found to be appreciably smaller in TX-165 than in TX-100 micelle. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicate that the TX-165 micelles are substantially smaller in size than that of TX-100. Assuming similar core size for both the micelles, as expected from the similar chemical structures of the nonpolar ends for both the surfactants, the Palisade layer is also indicated to be substantially thinner for TX-165 micelles than that of TX-100. The aggregation number of TX-165 micelles is also found to be substantially smaller than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence spectral studies of C153 dye in the two micelles indicate that the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is more polar than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicate that the microviscosity in the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is also lower than that of TX-100 micelles. Based on these results it is inferred that the structure of the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is quite loose and have higher degree hydration in comparison to that of TX-100 micelles. Due to these structural differences in the Palisade layers of TX-165 and TX-100 micelles the solvation dynamics is faster in the former micelles than in the latter. It has been further inferred that in the present systems the collective response of the water molecules at somewhat away from the probes is responsible for the faster component of the solvation time, which does not reflect much of the structural changes of the micellar Palisade layer. On the contrary, the slower solvation time component, which is mainly due to

  17. Polymeric Micelles with Ionic Cores Containing Biodegradable Crosslinks for Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Oh; Sahay, Gaurav; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2010-01-01

    Novel functional polymeric nanocarriers with ionic cores containing biodegradable cross-links were developed for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Block ionomer complexes (BIC) of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(methacylic acid) (PEO-b-PMA) and divalent metal cations (Ca2+) were utilized as templates. Disulfide bonds were introduced into the ionic cores by using cystamine as a biodegradable cross-linker. The resulting cross-linked micelles with disulfide bonds represented soft, hydrogel-like n...

  18. pH-Responsive Micelle-Based Cytoplasmic Delivery System for Induction of Cellular Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yuba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Cytoplasmic delivery of antigens is crucial for the induction of cellular immunity, which is an important immune response for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. To date, fusogenic protein-incorporated liposomes and pH-responsive polymer-modified liposomes have been used to achieve cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane rupture or fusion with endosomes. However, a more versatile cytoplasmic delivery system is desired for practical use. For this study, we developed pH-responsive micelles composed of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC and deoxycholic acid and investigated their cytoplasmic delivery performance and immunity-inducing capability. (2 Methods: Interaction of micelles with fluorescence dye-loaded liposomes, intracellular distribution of micelles, and antigenic proteins were observed. Finally, antigen-specific cellular immune response was evaluated in vivo using ELIspot assay. (3 Results: Micelles induced leakage of contents from liposomes via lipid mixing at low pH. Micelles were taken up by dendritic cells mainly via macropinocytosis and delivered ovalbumin (OVA into the cytosol. After intradermal injection of micelles and OVA, OVA-specific cellular immunity was induced in the spleen. (4 Conclusions: pH-responsive micelles composed of DLPC and deoxycholic acid are promising as enhancers of cytosol delivery of antigens and the induction capability of cellular immunity for the treatment of cancer immunotherapy and infectious diseases.

  19. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  20. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Kyohei [Department of Life and Functional Material Science, Graduate School of Natural Science, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (DC1), Ichibancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8471 (Japan); Kimoto, Atsushi [Department of Chemistry of Functional Molecules, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Watanabe, Junji, E-mail: junjiknd@konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry of Functional Molecules, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10 mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH 2–11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100 μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are dominant factor for forming hydrogels. • Hydrogel properties were tuned by changing in graft length and macromonomer content in feed. • The resulting graft gel could encapsulate and retain organic dye in the hydrogel. • Poly(trimethylene carbonate) segment in the hydrogel was dominant unit for hydrogel.

  1. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Kyohei; Kimoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10 mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH 2–11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100 μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. - Highlights: • Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction are dominant factor for forming hydrogels. • Hydrogel properties were tuned by changing in graft length and macromonomer content in feed. • The resulting graft gel could encapsulate and retain organic dye in the hydrogel. • Poly(trimethylene carbonate) segment in the hydrogel was dominant unit for hydrogel.

  2. Polymeric microcapsules assembled from a cationic/zwitterionic pair of responsive block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Timothy; Cayre, Olivier J; Biggs, Simon; Armes, Steven P; York, David

    2010-05-04

    Using a layer-by-layer (LbL) approach, this work presents the preparation of hollow microcapsules with a membrane constructed entirely from a cationic/zwitterionic pair of pH-responsive block copolymer micelles. Our previous work with such systems highlighted that, in order to retain the responsive nature of the individual micelles contained within the multilayer membranes, it is important to optimize the conditions required for the selective dissolution of the sacrificial particulate templates. Consequently, here, calcium carbonate particles have been employed as colloidal templates as they can be easily dissolved in aqueous environments with the addition of chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Furthermore, the dissolution can be carried out in solutions buffered to a desirable pH so not to adversely affect the pH sensitive micelles forming the capsule membranes. First, we have deposited alternating layers of anionic poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-block-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)] (PDMA-PDEA) and cationic poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)methacrylate-block-poly(methacrylic acid) (PDEA-PMAA) copolymer micelles onto calcium carbonate colloidal templates. After deposition of five micelle bilayers, addition of dilute EDTA solution resulted in dissolution of the calcium carbonate and formation of hollow polymer capsules. The capsules were imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which shows that the micelle/micelle membrane is sufficiently robust to withstand dissolution of the supporting template. Quartz crystal microbalance studies were conducted and provide good evidence that the micelle multilayer structure is retained after EDTA treatment. In addition, a hydrophobic dye was incorporated into the micelle cores prior to adsorption. After dissolution of the particle template, the resulting hollow capsules retained a high concentration of dye, suggesting that the core

  3. Glycation Reactions of Casein Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Ulrike; Duerasch, Anja; Weiz, Alexander; Ruck, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-13

    After suspensions of micellar casein or nonmicellar sodium caseinate had been heated, respectively, in the presence and absence of glucose for 0-4 h at 100 °C, glycation compounds were quantitated. The formation of Amadori products as indicators for the "early" Maillard reaction were in the same range for both micellar and nonmicellar caseins, indicating that reactive amino acid side chains within the micelles are accessible for glucose in a comparable way as in nonmicellar casein. Significant differences, however, were observed concerning the formation of the advanced glycation end products (AGEs), namely, N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), pyrraline, pentosidine, and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD). CML could be observerd in higher amounts in nonmicellar casein, whereas in the micelles the pyrraline formation was increased. Pentosidine and GOLD were formed in comparable amounts. Furthermore, the extent of protein cross-linking was significantly higher in the glycated casein micelles than in the nonmicellar casein samples. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that glycation has no influence on the size of the casein micelles, indicating that cross-linking occurs only in the interior of the micelles, but altered the surface morphology. Studies on glycation and nonenzymatic cross-linking can contribute to the understanding of the structure of casein micelles.

  4. Laser Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amplification or generation of coherent light waves in the UV,. VIS, and near IR region. .... ciency in most flashlamp pumped dye lasers. It is used as reference dye .... have led to superior laser dyes with increased photostabilities. For instance ...

  5. Regenerable Photovoltaic Devices with a Hydrogel-Embedded Microvascular Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D.

    2013-01-01

    Light-driven degradation of photoactive molecules could be one of the major obstacles to stable long term operation of organic dye-based solar light harvesting devices. One solution to this problem may be mimicking the regeneration functionality of a plant leaf. We report an organic dye photovoltaic system that has been endowed with such microfluidic regeneration functionality. A hydrogel medium with embedded channels allows rapid and uniform supply of photoactive reagents by a convection-diffusion mechanism. A washing-activation cycle enables reliable replacement of the organic component in a dye-sensitized photovoltaic system. Repetitive restoration of photovoltaic performance after intensive device degradation is demonstrated. PMID:23912814

  6. Polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2007-11-01

    Polymeric micelles are nano-delivery systems formed through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous environment. The nanoscopic dimension, stealth properties induced by the hydrophilic polymeric brush on the micellar surface, capacity for stabilized encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs offered by the hydrophobic and rigid micellar core, and finally a possibility for the chemical manipulation of the core/shell structure have made polymeric micelles one of the most promising carriers for drug targeting. To date, three generations of polymeric micellar delivery systems, i.e. polymeric micelles for passive, active and multifunctional drug targeting, have arisen from research efforts, with each subsequent generation displaying greater specificity for the diseased tissue and/or targeting efficiency. The present manuscript aims to review the research efforts made for the development of each generation and provide an assessment on the overall success of polymeric micellar delivery system in drug targeting. The emphasis is placed on the design and development of ligand modified, stimuli responsive and multifunctional polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

  7. Biomimetic hydrogel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mukkamala, Ravindranath; Chen, Qing; Hu, Hopin; Baude, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  8. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Ahmed, Nafees

    2011-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris. (topical review)

  9. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Murosaki, Nafees Ahmed and Jian Ping Gong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  10. Polymeric micelles with ionic cores containing biodegradable cross-links for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Sahay, Gaurav; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2010-04-12

    Novel functional polymeric nanocarriers with ionic cores containing biodegradable cross-links were developed for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Block ionomer complexes (BIC) of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(methacylic acid) (PEO-b-PMA) and divalent metal cations (Ca(2+)) were utilized as templates. Disulfide bonds were introduced into the ionic cores by using cystamine as a biodegradable cross-linker. The resulting cross-linked micelles with disulfide bonds represented soft, hydrogel-like nanospheres and demonstrated a time-dependent degradation in the conditions mimicking the intracellular reducing environment. The ionic character of the cores allowed to achieve a very high level of doxorubicin (DOX) loading (50% w/w) into the cross-linked micelles. DOX-loaded degradable cross-linked micelles exhibited more potent cytotoxicity against human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells as compared to micellar formulations without disulfide linkages. These novel biodegradable cross-linked micelles are expected to be attractive candidates for delivery of anticancer drugs.

  11. Reusable self-healing hydrogels realized via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Balachandran; Prasad, Edamana

    2015-04-09

    In this work, a self-healing hydrogel has been prepared using in situ polymerization of acrylic acid and acrylamide in the presence of glycogen. The hydrogel was characterized using NMR, SEM, FT-IR, rheology, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. The developed hydrogel exhibits self-healing properties at neutral pH, high swelling ability, high elasticity, and excellent mechanical strength. The hydrogel exhibits modulus values (G', G″) as high as 10(6) Pa and shows an exceptionally high degree of swelling ratio (∼3.5 × 10(3)). Further, the polymer based hydrogel adsorbs toxic metal ions (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+)) and organic dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) from contaminated water with remarkable efficiency (90-98%). The mechanistic analysis indicated the presence of pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The reusability of the hydrogel has been demonstrated by repeating the adsorption-desorption process over five cycles with identical results in the adsorption efficiency.

  12. Development and evaluation of fast forming nano-composite hydrogel for ocular delivery of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Chen, Hao

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a fast forming nano-composite hydrogel was developed for potential application in ocular drug delivery. The optical transmission (OT) as well as rheological properties of nano-composite hydrogel was characterized. The developed nano-composite hydrogel given a high diclofenac micelles loading and provided a sustained release manner of diclofenac within 6h. The developed nano-composite hydrogel formulation was administrated into the eye as flowable solution, quickly forming a hydrogel that is able to resist of the blinking and flushing of tear, yet resulting in the prolonged residence time of pre-corneal. In vivo eye irritation test suggested that the developed nano-composite hydrogel was none-eye irritation might be suitable for various ocular applications. In vivo pharmacokinetic study indicated that the developed nano-composite hydrogel could significantly increase the bioavailability of diclofenac and maintain the concentration of diclofenac in aqueous humor above MEC at least 24h after administration as compared with that of the commercial diclofenac sodium eye drops, which might be able to reduce the frequency of administration for patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Hydrophobic Chain Length on the Stability and Guest Exchange Behavior of Shell-Sheddable Micelles Formed by Disulfide-Linked Diblock Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Li, Yixia; Yang, Jinxian; Ye, Xiaodong

    2017-10-19

    Reduction-responsive micelles hold enormous promise for application as drug carriers due to the fast drug release triggered by reducing conditions and high anticancer activity. However, the effect of hydrophobic chain length on the stability and guest exchange of reduction-responsive micelles, especially for the micelles formed by diblock copolymers containing single disulfide group, is not fully understood. Here, shell-sheddable micelles formed by a series of disulfide-linked copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-SS-PCL) containing the same chain length of PEG but different chain lengths of hydrophobic block PCL were prepared and well characterized. The influence of the chain length of hydrophobic PCL block on the stability and guest exchange of PEG-SS-PCL micelles was studied by the use of both dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The results show that longer PCL chains lead to a slower aggregation rate and guest exchange of micelles in the aqueous solutions containing 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). The cell uptake of the shell-sheddable PEG-SS-PCL micelles in vitro shows that the amount of internalization of dyes loaded in PEG-SS-PCL micelles increases with the chain length of hydrophobic PCL block investigated by flow cytometric analysis and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  14. Responsive micellar films of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles: control on micelle opening and closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiquan; He, Changcheng; Li, Fengbin; Tong, Ling; Liao, Xingzhi; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    We reported the deliberate control on the micelle opening and closing of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) micellar films by exposing them to selective solvents. We first treated the micellar films with polar solvents including ethanol and water (pH = 4, 8, and 12) that have different affinities to P2VP. We observed opening of the micelles in all the cases. Both the size of opened pores and the opening rate are dependent on the solvency of different solvents for P2VP. We then explored the closing behavior of the opened micelles using solvents having different affinities to PS. We found that the opened micelles were recovered to their initial closed micelle forms. The recovery was accompanied by a slow micelle disassociation process which gradually reduced the micelle size. The rates of the micelle closing and disassociation are also dependent on the solvency of different solvents for PS.

  15. Functional elastic hydrogel as recyclable membrane for the adsorption and degradation of methylene blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bao

    Full Text Available Developing the application of high-strength hydrogels has gained much attention in the fields of medical, pharmacy, and pollutant removal due to their versatility and stimulus-responsive properties. In this presentation, a high-strength freestanding elastic hydrogel membrane was constructed by clay nanosheets, N, N-dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for adsorption of methylene blue and heavy metal ions. The maximum values of elongation and Young's modulus for 0.5% AMPSNa hydrogel were 1901% and 949.4 kPa, respectively, much higher than those of traditional hydrogels. The adsorptions were confirmed to follow pseudo-second kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm model fits the data well. The maximum adsorption capacity of hydrogel towards methylene blue was 434.8 mg g(-1. The hydrogel also exhibited higher separation selectivity to Pb(2+ than Cu(2+. The methylene blue adsorbed onto the hydrogel membrane can be photocatalytically degraded by Fenton agent and the hydrogel membrane could be recycled at least five times without obvious loss in mechanical properties. In conclusion, this presentation demonstrates a convenient strategy to prepare tough and elastic clay nanocomposite hydrogel, which can not only be applied as recyclable membrane for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye, but also for the recovery of valuables.

  16. A thermo-degradable hydrogel with light-tunable degradation and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Chen, Yihua; Li, Yunqi; Zhou, Zhengjie; Cheng, Yiyun

    2017-01-01

    The development of thermo-degradable hydrogels is of great importance in drug delivery. However, it still remains a huge challenge to prepare thermo-degradable hydrogels with inherent degradation, reproducible, repeated and tunable dosing. Here, we reported a thermo-degradable hydrogel that is rapidly degraded above 44 °C by a facile chemistry. Besides thermo-degradability, the hydrogel also undergoes rapid photolysis with ultraviolet light. By embedding photothermal nanoparticles or upconversion nanoparticles into the gel, it can release the entrapped cargoes such as dyes, enzymes and anticancer drugs in an on-demand and dose-tunable fashion upon near-infrared light exposure. The smart hydrogel works well both in vitro and in vivo without involving sophisticated syntheses, and is well suited for clinical cancer therapy due to the high transparency and non-invasiveness features of near-infrared light. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave-enhanced synthesis of biodegradable multifunctional chitosan hydrogels for wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piatkowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, is a biodegradable polymer known of its favorable properties, applicable in medicine and industry. Commonly obtained chitosan hydrogels are of various swelling capacity, and may bind only anions losing their susceptibility to biodegradation. Hydrogels are mostly obtained using toxic crosslinkers, which pollute environment due to waste generation during their synthesis. In the present article a novel, waste-free method for obtaining chitosan hydrogels under microwave irradiation, is described. Their chemical and morphological structure, swelling properties, sorption capability of a model dye and cadmium ions are described, and kinetic studies, were carried out. Biodegradability of the obtained hydrogels was investigated with the Sturm Test method. As a result, multifunctional chitosan hydrogels with both negative and positive surface charges and increased ability of anions and cations binding, were obtained. Materials were fully biodegradable, capable to absorb high amounts of water, as well as to remove various water contaminants.

  18. Recombinant Amphiphilic Protein Micelles for Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wookhyun; Xiao, Jiantao; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2011-01-01

    Amphiphilic block polypeptides can self-assemble into a range of nanostructures in solution, including micelles and vesicles. Our group has recently described the capacity of recombinant amphiphilic diblock copolypeptides to form highly stable micelles. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of protein nanoparticles to serve as a vehicle for controlled drug delivery. Drug-loaded micelles were produced by encapsulating dipyridamole as a model hydrophobic drug with anti-inflammatory activit...

  19. Synthesis of hydrogel via click chemistry for DNA electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Chiara; Sola, Laura; Elliott, Jim; Chiari, Marcella

    2017-09-01

    This work introduces a novel sieving gel for DNA electrophoresis using a classical click chemistry reaction, the copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), to cross-link functional polymer chains. The efficiency of this reaction provides, under mild conditions, hydrogels with near-ideal network connectivity and improved physical properties. Hydrogel formation via click chemistry condensation of functional polymers does not involve the use of toxic monomers and UV initiation. The performance of the new hydrogel in the separation of double stranded DNA fragments was evaluated in the 2200 TapeStation system, an analytical platform, recently introduced by Agilent that combines the advantages of CE in terms of miniaturization and automation with the simplicity of use of slab gel electrophoresis. The click gel enables addition of florescent dyes prior to electrophoresis with considerable improvement of resolution and separation efficiency over conventional cross-linked polyacrylamide gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel thermosensitive hydrogel for preventing formation of abdominal adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao X

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Gao,1,2 Xiaohui Deng,3 Xiawei Wei,2 Huashan Shi,2 Fengtian Wang,2 Tinghong Ye,2 Bin Shao,2 Wen Nie,2 Yuli Li,2 Min Luo,2 Changyang Gong,2 Ning Huang1 1Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Human Anatomy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(ε-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PCEC had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method, we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10 did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P < 0.001. The hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7–9 days, transforming into a viscous fluid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days

  1. Vibrational dynamics of ice in reverse micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, A.M.; Petersen, C.; Woutersen, S.; Bakker, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    he ultrafast vibrational dynamics of HDO:D2O ice at 180 K in anionic reverse micelles is studied by midinfrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Solutions containing reverse micelles are cooled to low temperatures by a fast-freezing procedure. The heating dynamics of the micellar solutions is

  2. Novel Pentablock Copolymers as Thermosensitive Self-Assembling Micelles for Ocular Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Alami-Milani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on how drugs are formulated in the sol state at room temperature leading to the formation of in situ gel at eye temperature to provide a controlled drug release. Stimuli-responsive block copolymer hydrogels possess several advantages including uncomplicated drug formulation and ease of application, no organic solvent, protective environment for drugs, site-specificity, prolonged and localized drug delivery, lower systemic toxicity, and capability to deliver both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. Self-assembling block copolymers (such as diblock, triblock, and pentablock copolymers with large solubility variation between hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments are capable of making temperature-dependent micellar assembles, and with further increase in the temperature, of jellifying due to micellar aggregation. In general, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, and block arrangement have a significant effect on polymer crystallinity, micelle size, and in vitro drug release profile. The limitations of creature triblock copolymers as initial burst release can be largely avoided using micelles made of pentablock copolymers. Moreover, formulations based on pentablock copolymers can sustain drug release for a longer time. The present study aims to provide a concise overview of the initial and recent progresses in the design of hydrogel-based ocular drug delivery systems.

  3. Polypeptide based hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Hanay, Saltuk

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for biocompatible, biodegradable, 3-D printable and stable hydrogels especially in the areas of tissue engineering, drug delivery, bio-sensing technologies and antimicrobial coatings. The main aim of this Ph.D. work was to fabricate polypeptide based hydrogel which may find a potential application in those fields. Focusing on tyrosine or tryptophan-containing copolypeptides prepared by NCarboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerizations, three different crosslinking strategies have been t...

  4. Casein Micelle Dispersions under Osmotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Cayemitte, Pierre-Emerson; Jardin, Julien; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Cabane, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Casein micelles dispersions have been concentrated and equilibrated at different osmotic pressures using equilibrium dialysis. This technique measured an equation of state of the dispersions over a wide range of pressures and concentrations and at different ionic strengths. Three regimes were found. i), A dilute regime in which the osmotic pressure is proportional to the casein concentration. In this regime, the casein micelles are well separated and rarely interact, whereas the osmotic pressure is dominated by the contribution from small residual peptides that are dissolved in the aqueous phase. ii), A transition range that starts when the casein micelles begin to interact through their κ-casein brushes and ends when the micelles are forced to get into contact with each other. At the end of this regime, the dispersions behave as coherent solids that do not fully redisperse when osmotic stress is released. iii), A concentrated regime in which compression removes water from within the micelles, and increases the fraction of micelles that are irreversibly linked to each other. In this regime the osmotic pressure profile is a power law of the residual free volume. It is well described by a simple model that considers the micelle to be made of dense regions separated by a continuous phase. The amount of water in the dense regions matches the usual hydration of proteins. PMID:19167314

  5. Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dean W.; Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.; Consani, Keith A.

    1993-08-24

    This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

  6. Casein micelle structure: a concise review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a complex biological fluid with high amount of proteins, lipid and minerals. The function of milk is to supply nutrients such as essential amino acids required for the growth of the newborn. In addition, due to the importance of casein and casein micelles for the functional behavior of dairy products, the nature and structure of casein micelles have been studied extensively. However, the exact structure of casein micelles is still under debate. Various models for casein micelle structure have been proposed. Most of the proposedmodels fall into three general categories, which are: coat-core, subunit (sub-micelles, and internal structure models. The coat-core models, proposed by Waugh and Nobel in 1965, Payens in 1966, Parry and Carroll in 1969, and Paquin and co-workers in 1987, describe the micelle as an aggregate of caseins with outer layer differing in composition form the interior, and the structure of the inner part is not accurately identified. The sub-micelle models, proposed by Morr in 1967, Slattery and Evard in 1973, Schmidt in 1980, Walstra in1984, and Ono and Obata in 1989, is considered to be composed of roughly spherical uniform subunits. The last models, the internal structure models, which were proposed by Rose in 1969, Garnier and Ribadeau- Dumas in 1970, Holt in 1992, and Horne in 1998, specify the mode of aggregation of the different caseins.

  7. Nano-dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  8. Biomedical hydrogels biochemistry, manufacture and medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels are very important for biomedical applications because they can be chemically manipulated to alter and control the hydrogel's interaction with cells and tissues. Their flexibility and high water content is similar to that of natural tissue, making them extremely suitable for biomaterials applications. Biomedical hydrogels explores the diverse range and use of hydrogels, focusing on processing methods and novel applications in the field of implants and prostheses. Part one of this book concentrates on the processing of hydrogels, covering hydrogel swelling behaviour, superabsorbent cellulose-based hydrogels and regulation of novel hydrogel products, as well as chapters focusing on the structure and properties of hydrogels and different fabrication technologies. Part two covers existing and novel applications of hydrogels, including chapters on spinal disc and cartilage replacement implants, hydrogels for ophthalmic prostheses and hydrogels for wound healing applications. The role of hydrogels in imag...

  9. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  10. Tetronic Star Block Copolymer Micelles: Photophysical Characterisation of Microenvironments and Applicability for Tuning Electron Transfer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Papu; Rane, Sonal; Bahadur, Pratap; Dutta Choudhury, Sharmistha; Pal, Haridas

    2018-05-10

    Detailed photophysical investigations have been carried out using a probe dye, Coumarin-153 (C153), to understand the microenvironments of micelles formed by the newly introduced Tetronic star block copolymers, T1304 and T1307, having the same polypropylene oxide (PPO) block size but different polyethylene oxide (PEO) block sizes. Ground state absorption, steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements have been used to estimate the micropolarity, microviscosity and solvation dynamics within the two micelles. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on these important physicochemical parameters for this new class of the star block copolymer micelles. Our results indicate that T1307 micelle offers a relatively more polar and less viscous microenvironment in the corona region, compared to T1304. The effect of the two micellar systems has subsequently been investigated on the bimolecular photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions between coumarin dyes (electron acceptors) and aromatic amines (electron donors). On correlating the energetics and kinetics of the ET reactions, clear Marcus Inversion (MI) behavior is observed in both the micellar media. Interestingly, the ET rates for all the donor-acceptor pairs are much higher in T1307 than in T1304, and the onset of MI also appears at a relatively higher exergenocity (-Δ G 0 ) in the former micelle (~0.45 eV for T1307) than the latter (~0.37 eV for T1304). Effect of added NaCl salt studied selectively in T1307 micelle, shows that the ET rate decreases significantly along with a shift in the onset of MI toward lower exergenocity region, so that in the presence of 2 M NaCl the system becomes quite comparable to T1304. Based on the observed results, it is realized that the micropolarity and hence the dynamics of ET process can be tuned very effectively either by changing the constitution of the star block copolymer or by using a suitable additive as a modifier of the micellar

  11. Pluronic®-bile salt mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vijay; Ray, Debes; Bahadur, Anita; Ma, Junhe; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of two bile salts viz. sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with three ethylene polyoxide-polypropylene polyoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with similar PPO but varying PEO micelles with a focus on the effect of pH on mixed micelles. Mixed micelles of moderately hydrophobic Pluronic ® P123 were examined in the presence of two bile salts and compared with those from very hydrophobic L121 and very hydrophilic F127. Both the bile salts increase the cloud point (CP) of copolymer solution and decreased apparent micelle hydrodynamic diameter (D h ). SANS study revealed that P123 forms small spherical micelles showing a decrease in size on progressive addition of bile salts. The negatively charged mixed micelles contained fewer P123 molecules but progressively rich in bile salt. NaDC being more hydrophobic displays more pronounced effect than NaC. Interestingly, NaC shows micellar growth in acidic media which has been attributed to the formation of bile acids by protonation of carboxylate ion and subsequent solubilization. In contrast, NaDC showed phase separation at higher concentration. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments provided information on interaction and location of bile salts in micelles. Results are discussed in terms of hydrophobicity of bile salts and Pluronics ® and the site of bile salt in polymer micelles. Proposed molecular interactions are useful to understand more about bile salts which play important role in physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  14. Exchange-dynamics of a neutral hydrophobic dye in micellar solutions studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordello, Jorge; Novo, Mercedes; Al-Soufi, Wajih

    2010-05-15

    The dynamics of the exchange of the moderately hydrophobic neutral dye Coumarine 152 between the aqueous phase and the phase formed by neutral Triton X-100 micelles is studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. The changes in the photophysical properties of the dye in presence of the micelles are discussed. The low quantum yield, the low saturation threshold and the necessary high energetic excitation of this dye requires a careful selection of the experimental conditions in order to obtain dynamic and diffusional properties with reasonable precision. It is shown that the contrast between the brightness of free and bound dye has a strong influence on the sensitivity of the FCS experiment. The entry rate constant of the dye to the micelles, k(+)=(0.8±0.3)×10(10) M(-1) s(-1), is very near to the diffusion controlled limit. The high association equilibrium constant of K=(129±3)×10(3) M(-1) is mainly determined by the low exit rate constant, k(-)=(0.6±0.2)×10(5) s(-1). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Flexible pH-Sensing Hydrogel Fibers for Epidermal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayol, Ali; Akbari, Mohsen; Zilberman, Yael; Comotto, Mattia; Lesha, Emal; Serex, Ludovic; Bagherifard, Sara; Chen, Yu; Fu, Guoqing; Ameri, Shideh Kabiri; Ruan, Weitong; Miller, Eric L; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Sonkusale, Sameer; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal pH is an indication of the skin's physiological condition. For example, pH of wound can be correlated to angiogenesis, protease activity, bacterial infection, etc. Chronic nonhealing wounds are known to have an elevated alkaline environment, while healing process occurs more readily in an acidic environment. Thus, dermal patches capable of continuous pH measurement can be used as point-of-care systems for monitoring skin disorder and the wound healing process. Here, pH-responsive hydrogel fibers are presented that can be used for long-term monitoring of epidermal wound condition. pH-responsive dyes are loaded into mesoporous microparticles and incorporated into hydrogel fibers using a microfluidic spinning system. The fabricated pH-responsive microfibers are flexible and can create conformal contact with skin. The response of pH-sensitive fibers with different compositions and thicknesses are characterized. The suggested technique is scalable and can be used to fabricate hydrogel-based wound dressings with clinically relevant dimensions. Images of the pH-sensing fibers during real-time pH measurement can be captured with a smart phone camera for convenient readout on-site. Through image processing, a quantitative pH map of the hydrogel fibers and the underlying tissue can be extracted. The developed skin dressing can act as a point-of-care device for monitoring the wound healing process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A cell-compatible PEO–PPO–PEO (Pluronic®)-based hydrogel stabilized through secondary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Sydney; Lin, Ji-Yu; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Wu, Chih-Wei; Chu, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pluronic F-127 (PF127) is a thermosensitive polymer that has been widely recognized as a potential candidate for various bio-applications. However, in hydrogel form, its rapid disintegration and inhospitality toward cells have significantly limited its usage. As a means to increase the integrity and cell compatibility of a PF127 hydrogel, we propose the introduction of stabilizing secondary structures to the gel network by the addition of secondary structure-forming oligo-alanine and oligo-phenylalanine. Results indicate that increasing the oligo(peptides) attached to PF127 led to a significant decrease in the gelation concentration and temperature. A selected oligo(peptide)-modified PF127 was capable of forming a stable hydrogel network at 5% and suffered only 20% weight loss after 7 days of incubation in media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed comparably more interconnected morphology in modified hydrogels which may be attributed to the presence of secondary structures, as verified by circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provided insights into the extensive interactions at the micelle core, which is the key to altered gelation behavior. Furthermore, modified hydrogels maintained structural integrity within culturing media and supported the proliferation of encapsulated chondrocytes. In addition, in vivo residence time was extended to well beyond 2 weeks after oligo(peptide) modification, thereby broadening the application scope of the PF127 hydrogel to encompass long-term drug delivery and cell culturing. - Highlights: • Modification of Pluronic-F127 with oligo(peptides) decreased gelation concentration and prolonged residence time in vitro and in vivo. • Oligo(peptide)-modified Pluronic-F127 exhibited critical gelation concentration as low as 5%. • Cells encapsulated within 5% oligo(peptide)-modified hydrogel proliferated within a period of 7 days. • Oligo

  17. A cell-compatible PEO–PPO–PEO (Pluronic®)-based hydrogel stabilized through secondary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Sydney; Lin, Ji-Yu [Deparment of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ming-Huei [Division of Microsurgery Reconstructive Microsurgery, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Wei, E-mail: drwu.jerry@gmail.com [Division of Microsurgery Reconstructive Microsurgery, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chu, I-Ming, E-mail: chuiming456@gmail.com [Deparment of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-01

    Pluronic F-127 (PF127) is a thermosensitive polymer that has been widely recognized as a potential candidate for various bio-applications. However, in hydrogel form, its rapid disintegration and inhospitality toward cells have significantly limited its usage. As a means to increase the integrity and cell compatibility of a PF127 hydrogel, we propose the introduction of stabilizing secondary structures to the gel network by the addition of secondary structure-forming oligo-alanine and oligo-phenylalanine. Results indicate that increasing the oligo(peptides) attached to PF127 led to a significant decrease in the gelation concentration and temperature. A selected oligo(peptide)-modified PF127 was capable of forming a stable hydrogel network at 5% and suffered only 20% weight loss after 7 days of incubation in media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed comparably more interconnected morphology in modified hydrogels which may be attributed to the presence of secondary structures, as verified by circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provided insights into the extensive interactions at the micelle core, which is the key to altered gelation behavior. Furthermore, modified hydrogels maintained structural integrity within culturing media and supported the proliferation of encapsulated chondrocytes. In addition, in vivo residence time was extended to well beyond 2 weeks after oligo(peptide) modification, thereby broadening the application scope of the PF127 hydrogel to encompass long-term drug delivery and cell culturing. - Highlights: • Modification of Pluronic-F127 with oligo(peptides) decreased gelation concentration and prolonged residence time in vitro and in vivo. • Oligo(peptide)-modified Pluronic-F127 exhibited critical gelation concentration as low as 5%. • Cells encapsulated within 5% oligo(peptide)-modified hydrogel proliferated within a period of 7 days. • Oligo

  18. Local Delivery of Fluorescent Dye For Fiber-Optics Confocal Microscopy of the Living Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eHuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release versus foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5-9 lines, which is comparable to 4-8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery.

  19. Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5-9 lines, which is comparable to 4-8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery.

  20. Structural properties of self-assembled polymeric micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    1998-01-01

    At present, the thermodynamic understanding of complex copolymer systems is undergoing important developments. Block copolymers aggregate in selective solvents into micelles of various form and size depending on molecular architecture and interaction parameters. The micelles constitute the basis ...

  1. α-Lipoic acid stabilized DTX/IR780 micelles for photoacoustic/fluorescence imaging guided photothermal therapy/chemotherapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, WenTing; Peng, JinRong; Yang, Qian; Chen, LiJuan; Zhang, Lan; Chen, XiaoXin; Qian, ZhiYong

    2018-05-01

    Micellar nanoparticles have unique advantages as carriers for therapeutic or imaging agents, owing to their smaller size and better penetration of tumors. However, some agents, due to their physical or chemical properties, are difficult to load into micelles. IR780 is one of these agents, and is also a promising near-infrared dye for fluorescence imaging (FI)/photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and cancer photothermal therapy (PTT). Its hydrophobic and high crystallization structure results in limited bioavailability in vivo. It is difficult to load into micelles constructed from an amphiphilic block polymer with relatively low molecular weight. In this study, we use computer simulation and introduce another small biomolecule, α-lipoic acid, into the micelles constructed from a mPEG-PCL copolymer, to lower the energy of molecular interaction between MPEG-PCL and IR780, and expect to enhance the loading capacity of the micelles to IR780. The introduction of α-lipoic acid decreases the energy of molecular interaction between MEPG-PCL and IR780 from -46.18 kJ mol-1 to -196.52 kJ mol-1 and increases the loading capacity and stability of the mPEG-PCL micelles to IR780, which also maintains the loading capacity to DTX. We further construct DTX/IR780 co-loaded mPEG-PCL micelles for FI/PAI dual modal imaging guided PTT/chemotherapy of cancer. By FI and PAI evaluation in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that the DTX/IR780 co-loaded micelles can be used as FI and PAI probes. By further evaluating the therapeutic outcome of PTT/chemotherapy co-therapy of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the DTX/IR780 co-loaded mPEG-PCL micelles can serve as promising candidates for FI and PAI guided PTT/chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  2. In situ electron-beam polymerization stabilized quantum dot micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travert-Branger, Nathalie; Dubois, Fabien; Renault, Jean-Philippe; Pin, Serge; Mahler, Benoit; Gravel, Edmond; Dubertret, Benoit; Doris, Eric

    2011-04-19

    A polymerizable amphiphile polymer containing PEG was synthesized and used to encapsulate quantum dots in micelles. The quantum dot micelles were then polymerized using a "clean" electron beam process that did not require any post-irradiation purification. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the polymerized micelles provided an organic coating that preserved the quantum dot fluorescence better than nonpolymerized micelles, even under harsh conditions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. In Situ Probing Intracellular Drug Release from Redox-Responsive Micelles by United FRET and AIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelin; Li, Juanjuan; Yan, Qi; Chen, Yanrui; Fan, Aiping; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2018-03-01

    Redox-responsive micelles are versatile nanoplatforms for on-demand drug delivery, but the in situ evaluation of drug release is challenging. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique shows potential for addressing this, while the aggregation-caused quenching effect limits the assay sensitivity. The aim of the current work is to combine aggregation-induced emission (AIE) probe with FRET to realize drug release assessment from micelles. Tetraphenylethene (TPE) is selected as AIE dye and curcumin (Cur) is chosen as the model drug as well as FRET receptor. The drug is covalently linked to a block copolymer via the disulfide bond linker and TPE is also chemically linked to the polymer via an amide bond; the obtained amphiphilic polymer conjugate self-assembles into micelles with a hydrodynamic size of ≈125 nm. Upon the supplement of glutathione or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine) trigger (10 × 10 -3 m), the drug release induces the fluorescence increase of both TPE and Cur. Accompanied with the FRET decay, absorption enhancement and particle size increase are observed. The same phenomenon is observed in MCF-7 cells. The FRET-AIE approach can be a useful addition to the spectrum of available methods for monitoring drug release from stimuli-responsive nanomedicine. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  5. Distinct CPT-induced deaths in lung cancer cells caused by clathrin-mediated internalization of CP micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Ru-You; Lo, Yu-Lun; Hsu, Chin; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2016-02-01

    We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of poly(ε-caprolactone) (18.7 mol%), which self-assembled in water into a rod-like micelle to encapsulate hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT) in the core (micelle/CPT) for tumor-targeted drug delivery. As a result of the recognition of the micelle by CD44, the micelle/CPT entered CRL-5802 cells efficiently and released CPT efficaciously, resulting in higher tumor suppression than commercial CPT-11. In this study, H1299 cells were found to have a higher CD44 expression than CRL-5802 cells. However, the lower CD44-expressing CRL-5802 cells had a higher percentage of cell death and higher cellular uptake of the micelle/CPT than the higher CD44-expressing H1299 cells. Examination of the internalization pathway of the micelle/CPT in the presence of different endocytic chemical inhibitors showed that the CRL-5802 cells involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was not found in the H1299 cells. Analysis of the cell cycle of the two cell lines exposed to the micelle/CPT revealed that the CRL-5802 cells arrested mainly in the S phase and the H1299 cells arrested mainly in the G2-M phase. A consistent result was also found in the evaluation of γ-H2AX expression, which was about three-fold higher in the CRL-5802 cells than in the H1299 cells. A near-infrared dye, IR780, was encapsulated into the micelle to observe the in vivo biodistribution of the micelle/IR780 in tumor-bearing mice. The CRL-5802 tumor showed a higher fluorescence intensity than the H1299 tumor at any tracing time after 1 h. Thus we tentatively concluded that CRL-5802 cells utilized the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway and arrested in the S phase on exposure to the micelle/CPT; all are possible reasons for the better therapeutic outcome in CRL-5802 cells than in H1299 cells.We previously synthesized a chondroitin sulfate-graft-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer (H-CP) with a high content of

  6. Preparation of Polymeric Micelles for use as Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These micelles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, to measure the micelle diameter; by acid-base titration, to determine the percentage of carboxylic groups occupied by the tuberculostatic; by Sudan III solubility tests, to estimate the critical micelle concentration (CMC); and visual control and spectrophotometric ...

  7. Preparation of Polymeric Micelles for Use as Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, December 2007; 6 (4): 815-824 ... by the tuberculostatic; by Sudan III solubility tests, to estimate the critical micelle concentration (CMC); ... Furthermore, the micelles were stable in vitro, exhibiting a low level of CMC and stronger anti- ... that take the form of micelles 5, 6, 7, 8.

  8. "Non-equilibrium" block copolymer micelles with glassy cores: a predictive approach based on theory of equilibrium micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2015-07-01

    Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to

  9. Stability of casein micelles in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; de Kruif, C. G.

    2002-07-01

    Casein micelles in milk are proteinaceous colloidal particles and are essential for the production of flocculated and gelled products such as yogurt, cheese, and ice-cream. The colloidal stability of casein micelles is described here by a calculation of the pair potential, containing the essential contributions of brush repulsion, electrostatic repulsion, and van der Waals attraction. The parameters required are taken from the literature. The results are expressed by the second osmotic virial coefficient and are quite consistent with experimental findings. It appears that the stability is mainly attributable to a steric layer of κ-casein, which can be described as a salted polyelectrolyte brush.

  10. Ionic Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Jung; Wu, Haiyan; Hu, Yang; Young, Megan; Wang, Huifeng; Lynch, Dylan; Xu, Fujian; Cong, Hongbo; Cheng, Gang

    2018-02-14

    Polyelectrolytes have many important functions in both living organisms and man-made applications. One key property of polyelectrolytes is the ionic conductivity due to their porous networks that allow the transport of water and small molecular solutes. Among polyelectrolytes, zwitterionic polymers have attracted huge attention for applications that involve ion transport in a polyelectrolyte matrix; however, it is still unclear how the functional groups of zwitterionic polymer side chains affect their ion transport and swelling properties. In this study, zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogels were synthesized and their ionic conductivity was studied and compared to cationic, anionic, and nonionic hydrogels. The change of the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic and nonionic hydrogels in different saline solutions was investigated in detail. Zwitterionic hydrogels showed much higher ionic conductivity than that of the widely used nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate hydrogel in all tested solutions. For both cationic and anionic hydrogels, the presence of mobile counterions led to high ionic conductivity in low salt solutions; however, the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic hydrogels surpassed that of cationic and ionic hydrogels in high salt solutions. Cationic and anionic hydrogels showed much higher water content than that of zwitterionic hydrogels in deionized water; however, the cationic hydrogels shrank significantly with increasing saline concentration. This work provides insight into the effects of polyelectrolyte side chains on ion transport. This can guide us in choosing better polyelectrolytes for a broad spectrum of applications, including bioelectronics, neural implants, battery, and so on.

  11. Gum ghatti and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) based biodegradable hydrogel-evaluation of the flocculation and adsorption properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available removal of cationic dyes from the aqueous solutions and it was found to adsorb 96% of malachite green and 99% of methyl violet. Finally, the hydrogel polymer was subjected to biodegradation using the composting method and 91.77% degradation was achieved...

  12. Synthesis and immobilization of polystyreneb-polyvinyltriethoxysilane micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Saisai

    2018-01-31

    Diblock copolymers polystyrene-block-polyvinyltriethoxysilane (PS-b-PVTES) were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), which self-assembled into spherical micelles in solvent of THF-methanol mixtures. The self-assembled micelles were immobilized by cross-linking reaction of VTES in a shell layer of micelles. The chemical structures of block copolymers and morphology of micelles were characterized in detail. It was found that the size of immobilized micelles was strongly affected by the copolymer concentration, composition of mixture solvent, and block ratios.

  13. The Formation Mechanism of Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liyan; Yuan, Shiliang; Wang, Jing; Shen, Yun; Deng, Shuwen; Xie, Luyang; Yang, Qixiang

    2017-06-12

    Hydrogels are degradable polymeric networks, in which cross-links play a vital role in structure formation and degradation. Cross-linking is a stabilization process in polymer chemistry that leads to the multi-dimensional extension of polymeric chains, resulting in network structures. By cross-linking, hydrogels are formed into stable structures that differ from their raw materials. Generally, hydrogels can be prepared from either synthetic or natural polymers. Based on the types of cross-link junctions, hydrogels can be categorized into two groups: the chemically cross-linked and the physically cross-linked. Chemically cross-linked gels have permanent junctions, in which covalent bonds are present between different polymer chains, thus leading to excellent mechanical strength. Although chemical cross-linking is a highly resourceful method for the formation of hydrogels, the cross-linkers used in hydrogel preparation should be extracted from the hydrogels before use, due to their reported toxicity, while, in physically cross-linked gels, dissolution is prevented by physical interactions, such as ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic interactions. Physically cross-linked methods for the preparation of hydrogels are the alternate solution for cross-linker toxicity. Both methods will be discussed in this essay. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Mehrdad; Azadi, Amir; Rafiei, Pedram

    2008-12-14

    Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based on both natural and synthetic polymers, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Among the natural polymers, chitosan and alginate have been studied extensively for preparation of hydrogel nanoparticles and from synthetic group, hydrogel nanoparticles based on poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (ethyleneimine), poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide have been reported with different characteristics and features with respect to drug delivery. Regardless of the type of polymer used, the release mechanism of the loaded agent from hydrogel nanoparticles is complex, while resulting from three main vectors, i.e., drug diffusion, hydrogel matrix swelling, and chemical reactivity of the drug/matrix. Several crosslinking methods have been used in the way to form the hydrogel matix structures, which can be classified in two major groups of chemically- and physically-induced crosslinking.

  15. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin☆

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to mani...

  16. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  17. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  18. Hyaluronan polymeric micelles for topical drug delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmejkalová, D.; Muthný, T.; Nešporová, K.; Hermannová, M.; Achbergerová, E.; Huerta-Angelesa, G.; Marek Svoboda, M.; Čepa, M.; Machalová, V.; Luptáková, Dominika; Velebný, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, JAN 20 (2017), s. 86-96 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Skin penetration * Polymeric micelle * Hyaluronan Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.811, year: 2016

  19. SANS analysis of aqueous ionic perfluoropolyether micelles

    CERN Document Server

    Gambi, C M C; Chittofrati, A; Pieri, R; Baglioni, P; Teixeira, J

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary SANS results of ionic chlorine terminated perfluoropolyether micelles in water are given. The experimental spectra have been analyzed by a two-shell ellipsoidal model for the micellar form factor and a screened Coulombic plus hard-sphere repulsion potential for the structure factor. (orig.)

  20. Co-assembly towards Janus micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voets, I.K.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Keizer, de A.; Charlaganov, M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report on our recent findings concerning the structure of complex coacervate core micelles composed of two types of (complementary) block copolymers. Both copolymers have a polyelectrolyte (one cationic and the other anionic) block combined with a neutral one. The opposite charges

  1. Neutral Polymeric Micelles for RNA Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Brittany B.; Convertine, Anthony; Miteva, Martina; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) drugs have significant therapeutic potential but delivery systems with appropriate efficacy and toxicity profiles are still needed. Here, we describe a neutral, ampholytic polymeric delivery system based on conjugatable diblock polymer micelles. The diblock copolymer contains a hydrophilic poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-co-N-(2-(pyridin-2- yldisulfanyl)ethyl)methacrylamide) (poly[HPMA-co-PDSMA]) segment to promote aqueous stability and facilitate thiol-disulfide exchange reactions, and a second ampholytic block composed of propyl acrylic acid (PAA), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and butyl methacrylate (BMA). The poly[(HPMA-co-PDSMA)-b-(PAA-co-DMAEMA-co-BMA)] was synthesized using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization with an overall molecular weight of 22,000 g/mol and a PDI of 1.88. Dynamic light scattering and fluorescence measurements indicated that the diblock copolymers self-assemble under aqueous conditions to form polymeric micelles with a hydrodynamic radius and critical micelle concentration of 25 nm and 25 μg/mL respectively. Red blood cell hemolysis experiments show that the neutral hydrophilic micelles have potent membrane destabilizing activity at endosomal pH values. Thiolated siRNA targeting glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was directly conjugated to the polymeric micelles via thiol exchange reactions with the pyridal disulfide groups present in the micelle corona. Maximum silencing activity in HeLa cells was observed at a 1:10 molar ratio of siRNA to polymer following a 48 h incubation period. Under these conditions 90 % mRNA knockdown and 65 % and protein knockdown of at 48 h was achieved with negligible toxicity. In contrast the polymeric micelles lacking a pH-responsive endosomalytic segment demonstrated negligible mRNA and protein knockdown under these conditions. The potent mRNA knockdown and excellent biocompatibility of the neutral siRNA conjugates

  2. Chemistry of Natural Dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scientific principles, and the interaction between the dye and the dyed material is ... Dyes are classified based on their structure, source, method of application .... the right source that gives not only beautiful tones, but colourfast shades as well.

  3. uv dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, G.A.; Fadeev, V.V.; Khokhlov, R.V.; Simonov, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The most important property of visible dye lasers, that is, continuous wavelength tuning, stimulated the search for dyes capable to lase in uv. They were found in 1968. Now the need for tunable uv lasers for applications in spectroscopy, photochemistry, isotope separation, remote air and sea probing, etc. is clearly seen. A review of some recent advances in uv dye lasers is reviewed

  4. HYDROGELS AND THEIR APLICATION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AÇIKEL Safiye Meriç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, being polymeric material,are named “Hydrophilic Polymer” because of their capable of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Hydrogels is not solved in water; however they have been swollen to their balace volume. Because of this swell behavior, they can adsorb big quantity of water in this structure. So they can term of “three sized polymers” due to protect their existing shape. Their cross linked bound structures are able to covalent or ionic and also one polymer which can for use of hydrogel polymer, must have hydrophilic groups such as carboxyl, carbonyl, amine and amide in main chains or side chains, and because of these groups water bound the polymer and polymer start to swell with rising volume and mass. Swell behavior of hydrogel is interested in quantity of hydrophilic groups. Hydrogels can use in different industrial and environmental areas with this high amount water holding capacity. They are used in food industry, biomedical, bioengineering, biotechnology, veterinary, pharmacist, agriculture, telecommunication, etc. Especially in current life, baby nappy has been including inside hydrogel beads. Also they used in contact lens, artificial cornea, synthetic cartilage and gullet, controlled medicine release, surgery yarns. This article general inform about usage area of hydrogels.

  5. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on gas solubilization in micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bin; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2015-03-24

    Molecular dynamics simulations of anionic sodium decylsulfate and nonionic pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether micelles in water have been performed to examine the impact of hydrostatic pressure on argon solubilization as a function of pressure. The potential-of-mean force between the micelles and argon demonstrates that nonpolar gases are attracted to the interiors of both micelles. The affinity of argon for micelle interiors, however, decreases with increasing pressure as a result of the comparatively higher molar volume of argon inside assemblies. We evaluate solubility enhancement coefficients, which describe the drop in the solute chemical potential as a function of the micellized surfactant concentration, to quantify the impact of micellization on gas solubilization. While argon is similarly attracted to the hydrophobic cores of both micelles, the gas is more effectively sequestered within nonionic micelles compared with anionic micelles as a result of salting out by charged head groups and accompanying counterions. The solubility enhancement coefficients of both micelles decrease with increasing pressure, reflecting the changing forces observed in the potentials-of-mean force. An analytical liquid drop model is proposed to describe the pressure dependence of argon solubilization within micelles that captures the simulation solubility enhancement coefficients after fitting an effective micelle radius for each surfactant.

  6. Borax cross-linked guar gum hydrogels as potential adsorbents for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombare, Nandkishore; Jha, Usha; Mishra, Sumit; Siddiqui, M Z

    2017-07-15

    With the aim to explore new adsorbents for water purification, guar gum based hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking with borax at different percentage. The cross-linking was confirmed through characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM morphology, thermal studies and water absorption capacity. To examine the adsorption/absorption performance of different grades of hydrogels, their flocculation efficiency was studied in kaolin suspension at different pH by standard jar test procedure. The flocculation efficiency of the test materials was compared with the commercially used coagulant, alum and also residues of Al and K left in the treated water were comparatively studied. The synthesized hydrogels were also tested for their efficiency of removing Aniline Blue dye by UV-vis spectrophotometer study. The best grade hydrogel outperformed alum, at extremely low concentration and also showed dye removing efficiency up to 94%. The single step synthesized green products thus exhibited great potential as water purifying agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  8. Smart wormlike micelles design, characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yujun; Dreiss, Cécile A

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides an up-to-date overview of smart surfactants and describes a broad spectrum of triggers that induce the formation of wormlike micelles or reversibly tune the morphology of surfactant aggregates from wormlike micelles to another state, or vice versa. Combining the fields of chemistry, physics, polymer science, and nanotechnology, its primary focus is on the design, formulation, and processing of intelligent viscoelastic surfactant solutions, covering the scientific principles governing responsiveness to one or more particular triggers, down to the end-use-driven functions. The first chapter explains why and how surfactants self-assemble into viscoelastic wormlike micellar solutions reminiscent of polymer solutions, while the following chapters show how the response to a given trigger translates into macroscopic rheological changes, including temperature, light, pH, CO2, redox, hydrocarbon, etc. The last chapter demonstrates the applications of these viscoelastic assemblies in oil and gas pro...

  9. SANS study of coated block copolymer micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleštil, Josef; Kříž, Jaroslav; Koňák, Čestmír; Pospíšil, Herman; Kadlec, Petr; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Grillo, I.; Cubitt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 12 (2005), s. 1206-1215 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0600; GA AV ČR IAA1050201; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block copolymer micelles * core-shell polymers * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2005

  10. Thermoresponsive polymer micelles as potential nanosized cancerostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laga, Richard; Janoušková, Olga; Ulbrich, Karel; Pola, Robert; Blažková, Jana; Filippov, Sergey K.; Etrych, Tomáš; Pechar, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2015), s. 2493-2505 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RAFT polymerization * polymer therapeutics * thermo-responsive micelles Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.583, year: 2015

  11. Eco-friendly polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels reinforced with graphene oxide and bentonite for enhanced adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongjie; Huang, Yue; Huang, Huihua

    2018-04-01

    Eco-friendly polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose (isolated from pineapple peel) hydrogels reinforced with graphene oxide and bentonite were prepared as efficient adsorbents for methylene blue (MB). The structure and morphology of the prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Introducing graphene oxide and bentonite into the hydrogels evidently enhanced the thermal stability, swelling ability and MB adsorption capacity. The effects of initial concentration of MB, pH, contact time and temperature on MB adsorption capacity of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherm fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model well, respectively. After introducing graphene oxide and bentonite into the hydrogels, the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model reached 172.14 mg/g at 30 °C, obviously higher than the hydrogels prepared without these additions (83.33 mg/g). Furthermore, all the prepared hydrogels also displayed good reusability for the efficient removal of MB. Consequently, the prepared hydrogels could be served as eco-friendly, stable, efficient and reusable adsorbents for anionic dyes in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Poloxamer 407/188 binary thermosensitive hydrogels as delivery systems for infiltrative local anesthesia: Physico-chemical characterization and pharmacological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkari, Alessandra C.S.; Papini, Juliana Z. Boava; Garcia, Gabriella K.; Franco, Margareth K.K. Dias; Cavalcanti, Leide P.; Gasperini, Antonio; Alkschbirs, Melissa Inger; Yokaichyia, Fabiano; Paula, Eneida de; Tófoli, Giovana R.; Araujo, Daniele R. de

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we reported the development and the physico-chemical characterization of poloxamer 407 (PL407) and poloxamer 188 (PL188) binary systems as hydrogels for delivering ropivacaine (RVC), as drug model, and investigate their use in infiltrative local anesthesia for applications on the treatment of post-operative pain. We studied drug-micelle interaction and micellization process by light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the sol-gel transition and hydrogel supramolecular structure by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS) and morphological evaluation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, we have presented the investigation of drug release mechanisms, in vitro/in vivo toxic and analgesic effects. Micellar dimensions evaluation showed the formation of PL407-PL188 mixed micelles and the drug incorporation, as well as the DSC studies showed increased enthalpy values for micelles formation after addition of PL 188 and RVC, indicating changes on self-assembly and the mixed micelles formation evoked by drug incorporation. SAXS studies revealed that the phase organization in hexagonal structure was not affected by RVC insertion into the hydrogels, maintaining their supramolecular structure. SEM analysis showed similar patterns after RVC addition. The RVC release followed the Higuchi model, modulated by the PL final concentration and the insertion of PL 188 into the system. Furthermore, the association PL407-PL188 induced lower in vitro cytotoxic effects, increased the duration of analgesia, in a single-dose model study, without evoking in vivo inflammation signs after local injection. - Highlights: • We present the development and relationships between physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical/pharmacological parameters for the PL407-PL188 binary hydrogel, as well as its use for infiltrative local anesthesia • The addition of PL188 and RVC evoked changes on enthalpy values, self-assembly and the mixed micelles formation • The

  13. Poloxamer 407/188 binary thermosensitive hydrogels as delivery systems for infiltrative local anesthesia: Physico-chemical characterization and pharmacological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, Alessandra C.S. [Human and Natural Sciences Center, ABC Federal University, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Papini, Juliana Z. Boava [São Francisco University, Bragança Paulista, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Gabriella K. [Human and Natural Sciences Center, ABC Federal University, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Franco, Margareth K.K. Dias [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cavalcanti, Leide P. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gasperini, Antonio; Alkschbirs, Melissa Inger [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Yokaichyia, Fabiano [Department Quantum Phenomena in Novel Materials Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Paula, Eneida de [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tófoli, Giovana R. [Faculty of Dentistry São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Araujo, Daniele R. de, E-mail: daniele.araujo@ufabc.edu.br [Human and Natural Sciences Center, ABC Federal University, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we reported the development and the physico-chemical characterization of poloxamer 407 (PL407) and poloxamer 188 (PL188) binary systems as hydrogels for delivering ropivacaine (RVC), as drug model, and investigate their use in infiltrative local anesthesia for applications on the treatment of post-operative pain. We studied drug-micelle interaction and micellization process by light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the sol-gel transition and hydrogel supramolecular structure by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS) and morphological evaluation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, we have presented the investigation of drug release mechanisms, in vitro/in vivo toxic and analgesic effects. Micellar dimensions evaluation showed the formation of PL407-PL188 mixed micelles and the drug incorporation, as well as the DSC studies showed increased enthalpy values for micelles formation after addition of PL 188 and RVC, indicating changes on self-assembly and the mixed micelles formation evoked by drug incorporation. SAXS studies revealed that the phase organization in hexagonal structure was not affected by RVC insertion into the hydrogels, maintaining their supramolecular structure. SEM analysis showed similar patterns after RVC addition. The RVC release followed the Higuchi model, modulated by the PL final concentration and the insertion of PL 188 into the system. Furthermore, the association PL407-PL188 induced lower in vitro cytotoxic effects, increased the duration of analgesia, in a single-dose model study, without evoking in vivo inflammation signs after local injection. - Highlights: • We present the development and relationships between physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical/pharmacological parameters for the PL407-PL188 binary hydrogel, as well as its use for infiltrative local anesthesia • The addition of PL188 and RVC evoked changes on enthalpy values, self-assembly and the mixed micelles formation • The

  14. Polymeric micelles as a drug carrier for tumor targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha M Dand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric micelle can be targeted to tumor site by passive and active mechanism. Some inherent properties of polymeric micelle such as size in nanorange, stability in plasma, longevity in vivo, and pathological characteristics of tumor make polymeric micelles to be targeted at the tumor site by passive mechanism called enhanced permeability and retention effect. Polymeric micelle formed from the amphiphilic block copolymer is suitable for encapsulation of poorly water soluble, hydrophobic anticancer drugs. Other characteristics of polymeric micelles such as separated functionality at the outer shell are useful for targeting the anticancer drug to tumor by active mechanisms. Polymeric micelles can be conjugated with many ligands such as antibodies fragments, epidermal growth factors, α2 -glycoprotein, transferrine, and folate to target micelles to cancer cells. Application of heat and ultrasound are the alternative methods to enhance drug accumulation in tumoral cells. Targeting using micelles can also be done to tumor angiogenesis which is the potentially promising target for anticancer drugs. This review summarizes about recently available information regarding targeting the anticancer drug to the tumor site using polymeric micelles.

  15. Diclofenac/biodegradable polymer micelles for ocular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Li, Jie; Sun, Shumao; Weng, Yuhua; Chen, Hao

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelle formulations as promising nano-carriers for poorly water soluble drugs were investigated for the delivery of diclofenac to the eye. Diclofenac loaded MPEG-PCL micelles were prepared by a simple solvent-diffusion method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), etc. With the analysis of XRD and DSC, the diclofenac was present as an amorphous state in the formulation. The in vitro release profile indicated a sustained release manner of diclofenac from the micelles. Meanwhile, in vivo studies on eye irritation were performed with blank MPEG-PCL micelles (200 mg ml-1). The results showed that the developed MPEG-PCL micelles were non-irritants to the eyes of rabbits. In vitro penetration studies across the rabbit cornea demonstrated that the micelle formulations exhibited a 17-fold increase in penetration compared with that of diclofenac phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The in vivo pharmacokinetics profile of the micelle parent drug in the aqueous humor of the rabbit was evaluated and the data showed that the diclofenac loaded MPEG-PCL micelles exhibited a 2-fold increase in AUC0-24 h than that of the diclofenac PBS solution eye drops. These results suggest a great potential of our micelle formulations as a novel ocular drug delivery system to improve the bioavailability of the drugs.

  16. Stereocomplex-Reinforced PEGylated Polylactide Micelle for Optimized Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The instability of PEGylated polylactide micelles is a challenge for drug delivery. Stereocomplex interaction between racemic polylactide chains with different configurations provides an effective strategy to enhance the stability of micelles as the nanocarriers of drugs. In this work, a stereocomplex micelle (SCM self-assembled from the amphiphilic triblock copolymers comprising poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, and dextrorotatory and levorotatory polylactides (PDLA and PLLA was applied for efficient drug delivery. The spherical SCM showed the smallest scale and the lowest critical micelle concentration (CMC than the micelles with single components attributed to the stereocomplex interaction between PDLA and PLLA. 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT as a model antitumor drug was loaded into micelles. Compared with the loading micelles from individual PDLA and PLLA, the HCPT-loaded SCM exhibited the highest drug loading efficiency (DLE and the slowest drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at pH 7.4, indicating its enhanced stability in circulation. More fascinatingly, the laden SCM was demonstrated to have the highest cellular uptake of HCPT and suppress malignant cells most effectively in comparison to the HCPT-loaded micelles from single copolymer. In summary, the stereocomplex-enhanced PLA–PEG–PLA micelle may be promising for optimized drug delivery in the clinic.

  17. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm"2 and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  18. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail: takaomi@nagaoakut.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm{sup 2} and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  19. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  20. Hydrogels in Miniemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfester, Katharina; Musyanovych, Anna

    In the last decade, the synthesis of polymeric materials that respond to specific environment stimuli by changing their size has attracted widespread interest in both fundamental and applied areas of research. Hydrogels in dispersions are composed of randomly oriented, physically or chemically crosslinked hydrophilic or amphiphilic polymer chains. The synthesis of these gels at the nanoscale (nanogels or microgels) is especially of great importance for their application in drug delivery and controlled release systems, and in biomimetics, biosensing, tissue regeneration, heterogeneous catalysis, etc. The focus of this review is to present the versatility of the miniemulsion process for the formation of monodisperse nanogels from synthetic and natural polymers. Several applications of the obtained microgels are briefly described.

  1. Recovery of Chromium Ions From Electroplating Wastewater by Flotation, Gamma Irradiation and Adsorption onto Hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; Dessouki, A.M.; Omar, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the wastewater treatment facilities in many plating plants are approaching their time for replacement. On this occasion there is a strong requirement to re-evaluate the wastewater treatment measures from the point of view of treatment technology. Laboratory investigation was undertaken on the flotation of Cr (VI) from aqueous suspension over whole ph range, aiming at the separation of chromium by flotation. The cationic surfactant (hexadecyl triethyl ammonium bromide) was applied as a collector. Surface properties, in particular the critical micelle concentration, the effectiveness of surface tension reduction, efficiency, surface excess and the minimum surface area were measured at 30 μ C. The electro-flotation was applied with and without the collector at different times for the removal of chromium (VI). The results were discussed in term of surface properties of the collectors at the solution/air interface. Further work took place by irradiating the water samples by gamma- irradiation to reduce the highly toxic Cr(VI) to the much less toxic and less soluble Cr1 in water; therefore, there is a potential for the complete removal of chromium from aqueous solutions. The possibility of using hydrogels for the uptake of irradiated chromium solutions by different hydrogels was investigated. The structure of the hydrogels was estimated by using FT1R and the pore structure of the hydrogels before and after dictating with chromium ions was monitored by SEM. The adsorption studies show that, it is ph dependent. Lowering of the chromium concentration below the maximum permissible value have been achieved after the treatment of chromium solution by flotation, gamma irradiation and adsorption onto hydrogels

  2. Transparent Low Molecular Weight Poly(Ethylene Glycol Diacrylate-Based Hydrogels as Film Media for Photoswitchable Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Pelras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have shown a great potential as materials for drug delivery systems thanks to their usually excellent bio-compatibility and their ability to trap water-soluble organic molecules in a porous network. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol-based hydrogels containing a model dye were synthesized by ultraviolet (UV-A photopolymerization of low-molecular weight macro-monomers and the material properties (dye release ability, transparency, morphology, and polymerization kinetics were studied. Real-time infrared measurements revealed that the photopolymerization of the materials was strongly limited when the dye was added to the uncured formulation. Consequently, the procedure was adapted to allow for the formation of sufficiently cured gels that are able to capture and later on to release dye molecules in phosphate-buffered saline solution within a few hours. Due to the transparency of the materials in the 400–800 nm range, the hydrogels are suitable for the loading and excitation of photoactive molecules. These can be uptaken by and released from the polymer matrix. Therefore, such materials may find applications as cheap and tailored materials in photodynamic therapy (i.e., light-induced treatment of skin infections by bacteria, fungi, and viruses using photoactive drugs.

  3. Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Baniasadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.

  4. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  5. Poloxamer 407/188 binary thermosensitive hydrogels as delivery systems for infiltrative local anesthesia: Physico-chemical characterization and pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Alessandra C S; Papini, Juliana Z Boava; Garcia, Gabriella K; Franco, Margareth K K Dias; Cavalcanti, Leide P; Gasperini, Antonio; Alkschbirs, Melissa Inger; Yokaichyia, Fabiano; de Paula, Eneida; Tófoli, Giovana R; de Araujo, Daniele R

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we reported the development and the physico-chemical characterization of poloxamer 407 (PL407) and poloxamer 188 (PL188) binary systems as hydrogels for delivering ropivacaine (RVC), as drug model, and investigate their use in infiltrative local anesthesia for applications on the treatment of post-operative pain. We studied drug-micelle interaction and micellization process by light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the sol-gel transition and hydrogel supramolecular structure by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS) and morphological evaluation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, we have presented the investigation of drug release mechanisms, in vitro/in vivo toxic and analgesic effects. Micellar dimensions evaluation showed the formation of PL407-PL188 mixed micelles and the drug incorporation, as well as the DSC studies showed increased enthalpy values for micelles formation after addition of PL 188 and RVC, indicating changes on self-assembly and the mixed micelles formation evoked by drug incorporation. SAXS studies revealed that the phase organization in hexagonal structure was not affected by RVC insertion into the hydrogels, maintaining their supramolecular structure. SEM analysis showed similar patterns after RVC addition. The RVC release followed the Higuchi model, modulated by the PL final concentration and the insertion of PL 188 into the system. Furthermore, the association PL407-PL188 induced lower in vitro cytotoxic effects, increased the duration of analgesia, in a single-dose model study, without evoking in vivo inflammation signs after local injection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Unusual nanosized associates of carboxy-calix[4]resorcinarene and cetylpyridinium chloride: the macrocycle as a glue for surfactant micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Ju E; Syakaev, V V; Shalaeva, Ya V; Ermakova, A M; Nizameev, I R; Kadirov, M K; Voloshina, A D; Zobov, V V; Antipin, I S; Konovalov, A I

    2017-03-08

    The association of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles in the presence of octaacetated tetraphenyleneoxymethylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CR) leads to the formation of unusual spherical supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs). Within the range of CR/CPC molar ratios from 10/1 to 1/10 (except for 1/8), CR, acting as a counterion, decreases the critical micelle concentration of CPC by one order of magnitude and leads to the formation of SNPs with an average hydrodynamic radius of 164 nm and an average zeta potential of -60 mV. The formation of SNPs was studied by NMR FT-PGSE and 2D NOESY, DLS, TEM, fluorimetry, and UV-Vis methods. The stability of SNPs at different temperatures and pH values and in the presence of electrolytes was investigated. The specificity of the interactions of the SNPs with substrates that were preferentially bound by a macrocycle or CPC micelle was studied. The enhancement of cation dye binding in the presence of SNPs is shown. The presented supramolecular system may serve as a nanocapsule for water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds.

  7. Lactoferrin binding to transglutaminase cross-linked casein micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, S.G.; de Kruif, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073609609

    2012-01-01

    Casein micelles in skim milk were either untreated (untreated milk) or were cross-linked using transglutaminase (TGA-milk). Added lactoferrin (LF) bound to the casein micelles and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption level was the same in both milks and decreased the micellar zeta

  8. Structure and Stability of Complex Coacervate Core Micelles with Lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; de Vries, Renko; Norde, Willem; Cohen Stuart, Martinus Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes by polymers is a promising method to influence their activity and stability. Here, we explore the use of complex coacervate core micelles for encapsulation of enzymes. The core of the micelles consists of negatively charged blocks of the diblock copolymer PAA42PAAm417 and

  9. Structure and stability of complex coacervate core micelles with lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; de Vries, Renko; Norde, Willem; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.

    Encapsulation of enzymes by polymers is a promising method to influence their activity and stability. Here, we explore the use of complex coacervate core micelles for encapsulation of enzymes. The core of the micelles consists of negatively charged blocks of the diblock copolymer PAA(42)PAAm(417)

  10. Stimuli-responsive biodegradable polymeric micelles for targeted cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talelli, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Thermosensitive and biodegradable polymeric micelles based on mPEG-b-pHPMAmLacn have shown very promising results during the past years. The results presented in this thesis illustrate the high potential of these micelles for anticancer therapy and imaging and fully justify further pharmaceutical

  11. Characterization of Phospholipid Mixed Micelles by Translational Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, James J.; Baber, James L.; Bax, Ad

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the translational self diffusion rate, D s , has been measured for a range of micelle and mixed micelle systems. Use of bipolar gradient pulse pairs in the longitudinal eddy current delay experiment minimizes NOE attenuation and is found critical for optimizing sensitivity of the translational diffusion measurement of macromolecules and aggregates. For low volume fractions Φ (Φ ≤ 15% v/v) of the micelles, experimental measurement of the concentration dependence, combined with use of the D s =D o (1-3.2λΦ) relationship, yields the hydrodynamic volume. For proteins, the hydrodynamic volume, derived from D s at infinitely dilute concentration, is found to be about 2.6 times the unhydrated molecular volume. Using the data collected for hen egg white lysozyme as a reference, diffusion data for dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) micelles indicate approximately 27 molecules per micelle, and a critical micelle concentration of 14 mM. Differences in translational diffusion rates for detergent and long chain phospholipids in mixed micelles are attributed to rapid exchange between free and micelle-bound detergent. This difference permits determination of the free detergent concentration, which, for a high detergent to long chain phospholipid molar ratio, is found to depend strongly on this ratio. The hydrodynamic volume of DHPC/POPC bicelles, loaded with an M2 channel peptide homolog, derived from translational diffusion, predicts a rotational correlation time that slightly exceeds the value obtained from peptide 15 N relaxation data

  12. The thermal signature of wormlike micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Thiago Heiji; Clinckspoor, Karl Jan; Nunes de Souza, Renato; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Giant micelle formation has a characteristic exothermic profile, for these systems. • The enthalpy of formation is dependent on the planarity of the co-solute. • The affinity is dependent on the enthalpy and critical concentration of the species. • The higher the affinity, the higher thermal stability and size of the micelles. - Abstract: The variations in enthalpy (Δ f H WLM ) and critical concentrations associated with the formation of wormlike micelles (WLMs) from combinations of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C 14 TAB) and various aromatic co-solutes were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Three groups of aromatic molecules were investigated: neutral (phenol), benzoate derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. In addition, the thermal stabilities of the WLMs (of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C 16 TAB) and the aromatic co-solutes of the three groups were investigated by measuring the temperatures at which the WLMs break and lose their ability to produce hydrodynamic drag reduction. A comparison of the results was used to establish correlations between the spontaneity of WLMs formation, their thermal stability and the molecular structure of the aromatic co-solutes. A characteristic thermal pattern with four steps was observed when WLMs are formed, that depended on the co-solute structure. Micellar growth was found to be an exothermic process, related to the fusion of the end caps allied with the incorporation of more co-solutes. The co-solutes that had negative charge and were able to maintain planar configuration demonstrated stronger interactions and also showed higher thermal stability through drag reduction.

  13. pH dependent polymeric micelle adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, S C; Gee, M L [The University of Melbourne, VIC (Australia). School of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Full text: Poly(2-vinylpyridine)-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-PEO) shows potential as a possible drug delivery system for anti-tumour drugs since it forms pH dependent polymeric micelles. Hence to better understand the adsorption behaviour of this polymer we have studied the interaction forces between layers of P2VP-PEO adsorbed onto silica as a function of solution pH using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). When P2VP-PEO is initially adsorbed above the pKa of the P2VP block, P2VP-PEO adsorbs from solution as micelles that exist as either partially collapsed- or a hemi-micelles at the silica surface. Below the pKa of P2VP, the P2VP-PEO adsorbs as unimers, forming a compact layer with little looping and tailing into solution. When initial adsorption of P2VP-PEO is in the form of unimers, any driving force to self-assembly of the now charge neutral polymer is kinetically hindered. Hence, after initial adsorption at pH 3.6, a subsequent increase in pH to 6.6 results in a slow surface restructuring towards self-assembly and equilibrium. When the pH is increased from pH 6.6 to 9.7 there is a continuation of the evolution of the system to its equilibrium position during which the adsorbed P2VP-PEO unimers continue to 'unravel' from the surface, extending away from it, towards eventual complete surface self-assembly.

  14. Novel Hydrogels from Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Muzafer Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The cell wall of most plant biomass from forest and agricultural resources consists of three major polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Of these, hemicelluloses have gained increasing attention as sustainable raw materials. In the first part of this study, novel pH-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on hemicelluloses and chitosan were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The hemicellulose isolated from aspen was analyzed for sugar content by HPLC, and its molecular weight distribution was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. Results revealed that hemicellulose had a broad molecular weight distribution with a fair amount of polymeric units, together with xylose, arabinose and glucose. The effect of hemicellulose content on mechanical properties and swelling behavior of hydrogels were investigated. The semi-IPNs hydrogel structure was confirmed by FT-IR, X-ray study and ninhydrin assay method. X-ray analysis showed that higher hemicellulose contents yielded higher crystallinity. Mechanical properties were mainly dependent on the crosslink density and average molecular weight between crosslinks. Swelling ratios increased with increasing hemicellulose content and were high at low pH values due to repulsion between similarly charged groups. In vitro release study of a model drug showed that these semi-IPN hydrogels could be used for controlled drug delivery into gastric fluid. The aim of the second part of this study was to control the crosslink density and the mechanical properties of hemicellulose/chitosan semi-IPN hydrogels by changing the crosslinking sequence. It has been hypothesized that by performing the crosslinking step before introducing hemicellulose, covalent crosslinking of chitosan would not be hindered and therefore more and/or shorter crosslinks could be formed. Furthermore, additional secondary interactions and crystalline domains introduced through hemicellulose could be favorable in terms of

  15. Anisotropic dehydration of hydrogel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Cheneler, David; Grover, Liam M; Adams, Michael J; Anastasiadis, Spiros H; Bowen, James

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to develop tissue-engineered skin for regenerative medicine have explored natural, synthetic, and hybrid hydrogels. The creation of a bilayer material, with the stratification exhibited by native skin, is a complex problem. The mechanically robust, waterproof epidermis presents the stratum corneum at the tissue/air interface, which confers many of these protective properties. In this work, we explore the effect of high temperatures on alginate hydrogels, which are widely employed for tissue engineering due to their excellent mechanical properties and cellular compatibility. In particular, we investigate the rapid dehydration of the hydrogel surface which occurs following local exposure to heated surfaces with temperatures in the range 100-200 °C. We report the creation of a mechanically strengthened hydrogel surface, with improved puncture resistance and increased coefficient of friction, compared to an unheated surface. The use of a mechanical restraint during heating promoted differences in the rate of mass loss; the rate of temperature increase within the hydrogel, in the presence and absence of restraint, is simulated and discussed. It is hoped that the results will be of use in the development of processes suitable for preparing skin-like analogues; application areas could include wound healing and skin restoration.

  16. Photocrosslinked PLA-PEO-PLA Hydrogels from Self-Assembled Physical Networks: Mechanical Properties and Influence of Assumed Constitutive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J.; Tew, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactide) – block – poly(ethylene oxide) – block – poly(lactide) [PLA-PEO-PLA] triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water, due to the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently crosslinked and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the designed mechanical properties. In this report, a hydrogel was formed by using a novel two step approach. In the first step end-functionalized PLA-PEOPLA triblock was self-assembled into a physical hydrogel through hydrophobic micelle network junctions, and then, in the second step, this self-assembled physical network structure was locked into place by photocrosslinking the terminal acrylate groups. In contrast to physical hydrogels, the photocrosslinked gels remained intact in phosphate buffered solution at body temperature. The swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties were characterized and demonstrated extended degradation time (~ 65 days), exponential decrease in modulus with degradation time, and tunable shear modulus (1.6 – 133 kPa) by varying concentration. We also discuss the various constitutive relationships (Hookean, Neo-Hookean, and Mooney-Rivlin) that can be used to describe the stress-strain behavior of these hydrogels. The chosen model and assumptions used for data fitting influences the obtained modulus values by as much as a factor of 3.5, demonstrating the importance of clearly stating one's data fitting parameters so that accurate comparisons can be made within the literature. PMID:18817440

  17. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also

  18. for aqueous dye lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... inclusion complex of RhB with the container molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). Keywords. Temperature-dependent fluorescence; Rhodamine B; cucurbit[7]uril; host–guest complex; dye laser. PACS Nos 36.20.kd; 83.60.pq; 87.64.kv. 1. Introduction. Rhodamine B (RhB) is an efficient and photostable laser dye ...

  19. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the concentration of dye, mordant, type of water, soil and climate give variations in ... Grey scale and blue dyed silk were used for color fastness rating. ..... Down to Earth.

  20. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of gambogic acid-loaded layer-by-layer self-assembled micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhongcheng; Yang, Lei; Wu, Hao; Li, Zihao; Jia, Xiaobin; Zhang, Zhenghai

    2018-04-11

    This study aimed to develop a novel type of multilayer micelle using protamine (PRM) and hyaluronic acid (HA) for the delivery of gambogic acid (GA). GA-loaded micelles (GA-M) were simply andrapidly prepared using lecithin/solutol HS15 using a film-dispersion method. PRM and HA were added in sequence to form layer-by-layer self-assembled micelles (HA-PRM-GA-M), in which particle size, zeta potential, particle morphology, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release were investigated. Surface charge reversal demonstrated that rapid HA detachment exposed PRM, leading to activation of a "protonsponge"effect in the hyaluronidase (HAase)-rich tumor microenvironment. Compared with coumarin 6-loaded micelles (C6-M), more efficient intracellular trafficking was observed for HA-PRM-C6-M, which is associated with the endosomal/lysosomal escaping ability of the exposed PRM. In vivo imaging showed increased enrichment of near infrared fluorescent dye (DIR)-loaded HA-PRM-DIR-M at the tumor site, suggesting that HA enhanced the active tumor targeting of GA. Furthermore, HA-PRM-GA-M showed the stronger antitumor activity than GA and GA-M against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) tumor xenografts in nude mice. In summary, our findings show the potential of HA-PRM-GA-M as a novel intravenous drug carrier for the treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Electrochemical characterization of hydrogels for biomimetic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peláez, L.; Romero, V.; Escalera, S.

    2011-01-01

    ) or a photoinitiator (P) to encapsulate and stabilize biomimetic membranes for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of the hydrogels used for membrane encapsulation. Specifically, we studied the crosslinked hydrogels by using...... electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and we demonstrated that chemically crosslinked hydrogels had lower values for the effective electrical resistance and higher values for the electrical capacitance compared with hydrogels with photoinitiated crosslinking. Transport numbers were obtained using......〉 and 〈Pw〉 values than PEG‐1000‐DMA‐P and PEG‐400‐DA‐P hydrogels. In conclusion, our results show that hydrogel electrochemical properties can be controlled by the choice of polymer and type of crosslinking used and that their water and salt permeability properties are congruent with the use of hydrogels...

  2. [Thromboresistance of glucose-containing hydrogels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuev, I L; Valuev, L I; Vanchugova, L V; Obydennova, I V; Valueva, T A

    2013-01-01

    The thromboresistance of glucose-sensitive polymer hydrogels, modeling one of the functions of the pancreas, namely, the ability to secrete insulin in response to the introduction of glucose into the environment, has been studied. Hydrogels were synthesized by the copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate with N-acryloyl glucosamine in the presence of a cross-linking agent and subsequently treated with concanavalin A. Introduction of glucose residues into the hydrogel did not result in significant changes in either the number of trombocytes adhered to the hydrogel or the degree of denaturation of blood plasma proteins interacting with the hydrogel. Consequently, the biological activity of insulin did not change after release from the hydrogel. The use of glucose-sensitive hydrogels is supposed to contribute to the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Investigation of laundering and dispersion approaches for silica and calcium phosphosilicate composite nanoparticles synthesized in reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakovic, Amra

    Nanotechnology, the science and engineering of materials at the nanoscale, is a booming research area with numerous applications in electronic, cosmetic, automotive and sporting goods industries, as well as in biomedicine. Composite nanoparticles (NPs) are of special interest since the use of two or more materials in NP design imparts multifunctionality on the final NP constructs. This is especially relevant for applications in areas of human healthcare, where the use of dye or drug doped composite NPs is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other serious illnesses. Since the physicochemical properties of NP suspensions dictate the success of these systems in biomedical applications, especially drug delivery of chemotherapeutics, synthetic routes which offer precise control of NP properties, especially particle diameter and colloidal stability, are utilized to form a variety of composite NPs. Formation of NPs in reverse, or water-in-oil, micelles is one such synthetic approach. However, while the use of reverse micelles to form composite NPs offers precise control over NP size and shape, the post-synthesis laundering and dispersion of synthesized NP suspensions can still be a challenge. Reverse micelle synthetic approaches require the use of surfactants and low dielectric constant solvents, like hexane and cyclohexane, as the oil phase, which can compromise the biocompatibility and colloidal stability of the final composite NP suspensions. Therefore, appropriate dispersants and solvents must be used during laundering and dispersion to remove surfactant and ensure stability of synthesized NPs. In the work presented in this dissertation, two laundering and dispersion approaches, including packed column high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugation (sedimentation and redispersion), are investigated for silver core silica (Ag-SiO2) and calcium phosphosilicate (Caw(HxPO4)y(Si(OH)zOa) b · cH2O, CPS) composite NP suspensions

  4. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-05-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  5. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-01-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  6. Direct thermal dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  7. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  8. Enhanced solubility and targeted delivery of curcumin by lipopeptide micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ju; Wu, Wenlan; Lai, Danyu; Li, Junbo; Fang, Cailin

    2015-01-01

    A lipopeptide (LP)-containing KKGRGDS as the hydrophilic heads and lauric acid (C12) as the hydrophobic tails has been designed and prepared by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis technique. LP can self-assemble into spherical micelles with the size of ~30 nm in PBS (phosphate buffer saline) (pH 7.4). Curcumin-loaded LP micelles were prepared in order to increase the water solubility, sustain the releasing rate, and improve the tumor targeted delivery of curcumin. Water solubility, cytotoxicity, in vitro release behavior, and intracellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LP micelles were investigated. The results showed that LP micelles can increase the water solubility of curcumin 1.1 × 10(3) times and sustain the release of curcumin in a low rate. Curcumin-loaded LP micelles showed much higher cell inhibition than free curcumin on human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) and HepG2 cells. When incubating these curcumin-loaded micelles with HeLa and COS7 cells, due to the over-expression of integrins on cancer cells, the micelles can efficiently use the tumor-targeting function of RGD (functionalized peptide sequences: Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence to deliver the drug into HeLa cells, and better efficiency of the self-assembled LP micelles for curcumin delivery than crude curcumin was also confirmed by LCSM (laser confocal scanning microscope) assays. Combined with the enhanced solubility and higher cell inhibition, LP micelles reported in this study may be promising in clinical application for targeted curcumin delivery.

  9. Stereocomplex micelle from nonlinear enantiomeric copolymers efficiently transports antineoplastic drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jixue; Shen, Kexin; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Chunxi; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-05-01

    Nanoscale polymeric micelles have attracted more and more attention as a promising nanocarrier for controlled delivery of antineoplastic drugs. Herein, the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(D-lactide)-based micelle (PDM/DOX), poly(L-lactide)-based micelle (PLM/DOX), and stereocomplex micelle (SCM/DOX) from the equimolar mixture of the enantiomeric four-armed poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PEG-PLA) copolymers were successfully fabricated. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4, SCM/DOX exhibited the smallest hydrodynamic diameter ( D h) of 90 ± 4.2 nm and the slowest DOX release compared with PDM/DOX and PLM/DOX. Moreover, PDM/DOX, PLM/DOX, and SCM/DOX exhibited almost stable D hs of around 115, 105, and 90 nm at above normal physiological condition, respectively, which endowed them with great potential in controlled drug delivery. The intracellular DOX fluorescence intensity after the incubation with the laden micelles was different degrees weaker than that incubated with free DOX · HCl within 12 h, probably due to the slow DOX release from micelles. As the incubation time reached to 24 h, all the cells incubated with the laden micelles, especially SCM/DOX, demonstrated a stronger intracellular DOX fluorescence intensity than free DOX · HCl-cultured ones. More importantly, all the DOX-loaded micelles, especially SCM/DOX, exhibited potent antineoplastic efficacy in vitro, excellent serum albumin-tolerance stability, and satisfactory hemocompatibility. These encouraging data indicated that the loading micelles from nonlinear enantiomeric copolymers, especially SCM/DOX, might be promising in clinical systemic chemotherapy through intravenous injection.

  10. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-08-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to manipulate water content. Hydration properties are probed using the water-sensitive fluorescence from Hb bound pyranine and covalently attached Badan. Protein dynamics are probed through ligand recombination traces derived from photodissociated carbonmonoxy hemoglobin on a log scale that exposes the potential role of both α and β solvent fluctuations in modulating protein dynamics. The results open the possibility of probing hydration level phenomena in this system using a combination of NMR and optical probes.

  11. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  12. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman, E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in

    2016-09-01

    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Keratin-silica hydrogel has been fabricated using sol–gel technique. • The hydrogel shows appropriate textural properties. • The hydrogel promotes fibroblast cells proliferation. • The hydrogel has potential soft tissue engineering applications like wound healing.

  13. Self-assembly of micelles into designed networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatenko Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe EO20PO70EO20(molecular weight 5800 amphiphile as a template is to form dispersed micelle structures. Silver nanoparticles, as inorganic precursors synthesized by a laser ablation method in pure water, are able to produce the highly ordered vesicles detected by TEM micrography. The thickness of the outer layer of a micelle, formed by the silver nanoparticles interacting preferentially with the more hydrophilic EO20block, was around 3.5 nm. The vesicular structure ensembled from micelles is due to proceeding to the mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases.

  14. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  15. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for iontohporesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Prasanta; Alam, Asif Ali; Arora, Neha; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Basak, Piyali

    2013-06-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. The iontophoresis deal with the systemic delivery of the bioactive agents (drug) by applying an electric current. It is basically an injection without the needle. The iontophoretic system requires a gel-based matrix to accommodate the bioactive agent. Hydrogels have been used by many investigators in controlled-release drug delivery systems because of their good tissue compatibility and easy manipulation of swelling level and, thereby, solute permeability. In this work we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We have cross linked polyvinyl alcohol chemically with Glutaraldehyde with different wt%. FTIR study reveals the chemical changes during cross linking. Swelling in water, is done to have an idea about drug loading and drug release from the membrane. After drug loading to the hydrogels, we have studied the drug release property of the hydrogels using salicylic acid as a model drug.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticle-micelles (ION-micelles for sensitive (molecular magnetic particle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas W E Starmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. METHODS AND RESULTS: IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles. Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles bound to blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular MPI and warrants further investigation of the FibPep-ION-Micelle

  17. Logarithmic Exchange Kinetics in Monodisperse Copolymeric Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Daza, Fabián A.; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Mackie, Allan D.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental measurements of the relaxation kinetics of copolymeric surfactant exchange for micellar systems unexpectedly show a peculiar logarithmic decay. Several authors use polydispersity as an explanation for this behavior. However, in coarse-grained simulations that preserve microscopic details of the surfactants, we find evidence of the same logarithmic behavior. Since we use a strictly monodisperse distribution of chain lengths such a relaxation process cannot be attributed to polydispersity, but has to be caused by an inherent physical process characteristic of this type of system. This is supported by the fact that the decay is specifically logarithmic and not a power law with an exponent inherited from the particular polydispersity distribution of the sample. We suggest that the degeneracy of the energy states of the hydrophobic block in the core, which is broken on leaving the micelle, can qualitatively explain the broad distribution of energy barriers, which gives rise to the observed nonexponential relaxation.

  18. Structure and reactivity in amphiphile-water micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Yves

    1985-01-01

    Following a review of the general properties of micelles, this report contains two parts: - A structural study of octylphosphate micelles. Important structural changes have been evidenced by mean of small angle neutron scattering as the electrical charge of the interface is varied. The NMR relaxation study of the conformation of the hydrocarbon chains has shown that the micellar core is disordered in contrast with the interface which is rather structured. The diffusion motions in the interface and the segmental motions of the chains are fast. - Studies on the reactivity in micelles have been carried out. A large micellar effect on the complexation of transition ions by amphiphilic ligands is evidenced. The problem of solute localization in micelles is developed with few examples. (author) [fr

  19. Influence of succinylation on physicochemical property of yak casein micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Yang, Jitao; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-01-01

    Succinylation is a chemical-modification method that affects the physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of proteins. This study assessed the influence of succinylation on the physicochemical properties of yak casein micelles. The results revealed that surface hydrophobicity indices decreased with succinylation. Additionally, denaturation temperature and denaturation enthalpy decreased with increasing succinylation level, except at 82%. The buffering properties of yak casein micelles were affected by succinylation. It was found that chemical modification contributed to a slight shift of the buffering peak towards a lower pH value and a markedly increase of the maximum buffering values of yak casein micelles at pH 4.5-6.0 and pH casein micellar hydration and whiteness values. The findings obtained from this study will provide the basic information on the physicochemical properties of native and succinylated yak casein micelles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions of casein micelles with calcium phosphate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercinier, Lucile; Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Anne; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-25

    Insoluble calcium phosphate particles, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are often used in calcium-fortified milks as they are considered to be chemically unreactive. However, this study showed that there was an interaction between the casein micelles in milk and HA particles. The caseins in milk were shown to bind to the HA particles, with the relative proportions of bound β-casein, αS-casein, and κ-casein different from the proportions of the individual caseins present in milk. Transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of intact casein micelles on the surface of the HA particles, which suggested that the casein micelles dissociated either before or during binding. The HA particles behaved as ion chelators, with the ability to bind the ions contained in the milk serum phase. Consequently, the depletion of the serum minerals disrupted the milk mineral equilibrium, resulting in dissociation of the casein micelles in milk.

  1. Enzymatically triggered multifunctional delivery system based on hyaluronic acid micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Lin; Wang, Guangchao; Ren, Jian; Zhang, Bei; Yan, Jingjing; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    (WI38). Higher Ch-HA micelles uptake was seen in cancer cells versus normal cells. Consequently, DOX release was elevated in cancer cells causing higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cell death. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Synthesis and immobilization of polystyreneb-polyvinyltriethoxysilane micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Saisai; Zhu, Hui; Xia, Ru; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Peng; Qian, Jiasheng; Cao, Ming; Yang, Bin; Miao, Jibin; Su, Lifen; Song, Changjiang

    2018-01-01

    Diblock copolymers polystyrene-block-polyvinyltriethoxysilane (PS-b-PVTES) were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), which self-assembled into spherical micelles in solvent of THF-methanol mixtures. The self

  3. A neutron scattering study of triblock copolymer micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The thesis describes the neutron scattering experiments performed on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. The studies concern the non-ionic triblock copolymer P85 which consists of two outer segments of 25 monomers of ethylene oxide attached to a central part of 40 monomers of propylene oxide. The amphiphilic character of P85 leads to formation of various structures in aqueous solution such as spherical micelles, rod-like structures, and a BCC liquid-crystal mesophase of spherical micelles. The present investigations are centered around the micellar structures. In the first part of this thesis a model for the micelle is developed for which an analytical scattering form factor can be calculated. The micelle is modeled as a solid sphere with tethered Gaussian chains. Good agreement was found between small-angle neutron scattering experiments and the form factor of the spherical P85 micelles. Above 60 deg. C some discrepancies were found between the model and the data which is possibly due to an elongation of the micelles. The second part focuses on the surface-induced ordering of the various micellar aggregates in the P85 concentration-temperature phase diagram. In the spherical micellar phase, neutron reflection measurements indicated a micellar ordering at the hydrophilic surface of quartz. Extensive modeling was performed based on a hard sphere description of the micellar interaction. By convolution of the distribution of hard spheres at a hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, and the projected scattering length density of the micelle, a numerical expression was obtained which made it possible to fit the data. The hard-sphere-hard-wall model gave an excellent agreement in the bulk micellar phase. However, for higher concentrations (25 wt % P85) close to the transition from the micellar liquid into a micellar cubic phase, a discrepancy was found between the model and the

  4. Polymeric micelles for potentiated antiulcer and anticancer activities of naringin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham Abdelmonem; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; Yusif, Rehab Mohammad; Shaaban, Ahmed Abdel Aziz; El-Sheakh, Ahmed Ramadan; Hamed, Mohammed Fawzy; Badria, Farid Abd Elreheem

    2018-01-01

    Naringin is one of the most interesting phytopharmaceuticals that has been widely investigated for various biological actions. Yet, its low water solubility, limited permeability, and suboptimal bioavailability limited its use. Therefore, in this study, polymeric micelles of naringin based on pluronic F68 (PF68) were developed, fully characterized, and optimized. The optimized formula was investigated regarding in vitro release, storage stability, and in vitro cytotoxicity vs different cell lines. Also, cytoprotection against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats and antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice were investigated. Nanoscopic and nearly spherical 1:50 micelles with the mean diameter of 74.80±6.56 nm and narrow size distribution were obtained. These micelles showed the highest entrapment efficiency (EE%; 96.14±2.29). The micelles exhibited prolonged release up to 48 vs 10 h for free naringin. The stability of micelles was confirmed by insignificant changes in drug entrapment, particle size, and retention (%) (91.99±3.24). At lower dose than free naringin, effective cytoprotection of 1:50 micelles against ethanol-induced ulcer in rat model has been indicated by significant reduction in mucosal damage, gastric level of malondialdehyde, gastric expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and interleukin-6 with the elevation of gastric reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase when compared with the positive control group. As well, these micelles provoked pronounced antitumor activity assessed by potentiated in vitro cytotoxicity particularly against colorectal carcinoma cells and tumor growth inhibition when compared with free naringin. In conclusion, 1:50 naringin–PF68 micelles can be represented as a potential stable nanodrug delivery system with prolonged release and enhanced antiulcer as well as antitumor activities. PMID:29497294

  5. New self-assembled nanocrystal micelles for biolabels and biosensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallant, David Robert; Wilson, Michael C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Leve, Erik W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Gabaldon, John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Scullin, Chessa (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-12-01

    The ability of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) to display multiple (size-specific) colors simultaneously during a single, long term excitation holds great promise for their use in fluorescent bio-imaging. The main challenges of using nanocrystals as biolabels are achieving biocompatibility, low non-specific adsorption, and no aggregation. In addition, functional groups that can be used to further couple and conjugate with biospecies (proteins, DNAs, antibodies, etc.) are required. In this project, we invented a new route to the synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible NCs. Our approach is to encapsulate as-synthesized, monosized, hydrophobic NCs within the hydrophobic cores of micelles composed of a mixture of surfactants and phospholipids containing head groups functionalized with polyethylene glycol (-PEG), -COOH, and NH{sub 2} groups. PEG provided biocompatibility and the other groups were used for further biofunctionalization. The resulting water-soluble metal and semiconductor NC-micelles preserve the optical properties of the original hydrophobic NCs. Semiconductor NCs emit the same color; they exhibit equal photoluminescence (PL) intensity under long-time laser irradiation (one week) ; and they exhibit the same PL lifetime (30-ns). The results from transmission electron microscopy and confocal fluorescent imaging indicate that water-soluble semiconductor NC-micelles are biocompatible and exhibit no aggregation in cells. We have extended the surfactant/lipid encapsulation techniques to synthesize water-soluble magnetic NC-micelles. Transmission electron microscopy results suggest that water-soluble magnetic NC-micelles exhibit no aggregation. The resulting NC-micelles preserve the magnetic properties of the original hydrophobic magnetic NCs. Viability studies conducted using yeast cells suggest that the magnetic nanocrystal-micelles are biocompatible. We have demonstrated, for the first time, that using external oscillating magnetic fields to manipulate

  6. Nanoscale elastic modulus variation in loaded polymeric micelle reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Alim; Aytun, Taner; Deuschle, Julia K; Ow-Yang, Cleva W

    2012-07-17

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) enables mapping of chemical composition at the nanoscale by taking advantage of the variation in phase angle shift arising from an embedded second phase. We demonstrate that phase contrast can be attributed to the variation in elastic modulus during the imaging of zinc acetate (ZnAc)-loaded reverse polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock co-polymer micelles less than 100 nm in diameter. Three sample configurations were characterized: (i) a 31.6 μm thick polystyrene (PS) support film for eliminating the substrate contribution, (ii) an unfilled PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film, and (iii) a ZnAc-loaded PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film. Force-indentation (F-I) curves were measured over unloaded micelles on the PS film and over loaded micelles on the PS film, using standard tapping mode probes of three different spring constants, the same cantilevers used for imaging of the samples before and after loading. For calibration of the tip geometry, nanoindentation was performed on the bare PS film. The resulting elastic modulus values extracted by applying the Hertz model were 8.26 ± 3.43 GPa over the loaded micelles and 4.17 ± 1.65 GPa over the unloaded micelles, confirming that phase contrast images of a monolayer of loaded micelles represent maps of the nanoscale chemical and mechanical variation. By calibrating the tip geometry indirectly using a known soft material, we are able to use the same standard tapping mode cantilevers for both imaging and indentation.

  7. A neutron scattering study of triblock copolymer micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    The thesis describes the neutron scattering experiments performed on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide)/poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution. The studies concern the non-ionic triblock copolymer P85 which consists of two outer segments of 25 monomers of ethylene oxide attached to a central part of 40 monomers of propylene oxide. The amphiphilic character of P85 leads to formation of various structures in aqueous solution such as spherical micelles, rod-like structures, and a BCC liquid-crystal mesophase of spherical micelles. The present investigations are centered around the micellar structures. In the first part of this thesis a model for the micelle is developed for which an analytical scattering form factor can be calculated. The micelle is modeled as a solid sphere with tethered Gaussian chains. Good agreement was found between small-angle neutron scattering experiments and the form factor of the spherical P85 micelles. Above 60 deg. C some discrepancies were found between the model and the data which is possibly due to an elongation of the micelles. The second part focuses on the surface-induced ordering of the various micellar aggregates in the P85 concentration-temperature phase diagram. In the spherical micellar phase, neutron reflection measurements indicated a micellar ordering at the hydrophilic surface of quartz. Extensive modeling was performed based on a hard sphere description of the micellar interaction. By convolution of the distribution of hard spheres at a hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, and the projected scattering length density of the micelle, a numerical expression was obtained which made it possible to fit the data. The hard-sphere-hard-wall model gave an excellent agreement in the bulk micellar phase. However, for higher concentrations (25 wt % P85) close to the transition from the micellar liquid into a micellar cubic phase, a discrepancy was found between the model and the

  8. Radiologic Findings in Hydrated Hydrogel Buckles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Nam Ho; Jo, Young Joon; Kim, Jung Yeul; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Song Soo

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogel buckles, which are used in scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment, have been associated with late complications after successful retinal reattachment surgery, including strabismus, extraocular motility restriction, extrusion through the eyelid or conjunctiva, intraocular erosion, and scleral erosion. Hydrogel buckles sometimes appear as well-marginated, circumferential, lobulating, contoured cystic masses mimicking orbital cysts on orbital CT or MRI. We report the radiologic findings in 5 patients whose hydrogel buckles needed to be differentiated from orbital cysts

  9. Radiologic Findings in Hydrated Hydrogel Buckles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Bok; Lee, Nam Ho; Jo, Young Joon; Kim, Jung Yeul; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Song Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Hydrogel buckles, which are used in scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment, have been associated with late complications after successful retinal reattachment surgery, including strabismus, extraocular motility restriction, extrusion through the eyelid or conjunctiva, intraocular erosion, and scleral erosion. Hydrogel buckles sometimes appear as well-marginated, circumferential, lobulating, contoured cystic masses mimicking orbital cysts on orbital CT or MRI. We report the radiologic findings in 5 patients whose hydrogel buckles needed to be differentiated from orbital cysts.

  10. Polysaccharides as Hydrogel and Bioplastics. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Sarada Idris; Norzita Yacob; Maznah Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    The use of radiation technology in producing hydrogel is increasingly popular nowadays. The hydrogel which produce through the radiation method has it own advantages. For example, easy to operate, reduce the cost production and also decrease the harmful chemical usage such as monomer. The cross-linking bonds which has been produced this hydrogel during the irradiation process can be controlled by the radiation dosage even though using the same material and composition.

  11. Iron Nanoparticles (Fe3O4 Used to Synthesize Magnetic Sodium Alginate Hydrogel Beads for the Removal of Basic Blue 159 from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Ghajarieh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are a main source of pollutants in textile plant effluents. Due to their molecular structure, they are usually toxic, carcinogenous, and persistent in the environment. The aim of the present work was to explore the removal of basic blue159 (BB159 using magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. Magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads were initially synthesized  accoriodng to Rocher method using CaCl2 as a crosslink agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was then employed to examine the functional groups on the surface of the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. In a third stage, the magnetic properties of the beads were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and the magnetic parameters were calculated. Subsequently, the effects of such parameters as adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration of dye, and contact time were evaluated on the BB159 removal efficiency of the adsorbent used. Finally, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and B.E.T models were exploited to study the adsorption isotherm of BB159 onto the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads. It was found that the magnetic sodium alginate beads possess both –COO and –OH groups that play important roles in the adsorption of the positively charged BB159 dye. A saturation magnetization equal to 21/8(emu/g was obtained for the sodium alginate beads/nano Fe3O4. Results also revealed that the highest dye removal from aqueous solutions was achieved at pH=11 in 120 minutes for 9 grams of the adsorbent. The study indicated that BB159 removal using the magnetic sodium alginate hydrogel beads as the adsorbent obeys the Langmuir model. Moreover, it was shown that the efficiency of the process for BB159 removal from aqueous solutions was satisfactory (85%.

  12. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng; Li, Bin; Wang, Peng; Dua, Rubal; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl

  13. Photophysical Properties of Thiazine Dyes in Aqueous Solution and in Micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, M.; Kubát, Pavel; Němcová, I.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2000), s. 49-54 ISSN 0143-7208 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901; CEZ:A54/98:Z4-040-9-ii Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2000

  14. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface. The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Surface induced ordering of micelles at the solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstenberg, M.C.; Pedersen, J.S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The surface induced ordering of triblock copolymer micelles in aqueous solution was measured with neutron reflectivity far above the critical micelle concentration. The scattering length density profiles showed a clear indication of ordered layers of micelles perpendicular to a quartz surface....... The structure and interactions of the micelles were modeled in detail. The convolution of the center distribution of the micelles, obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of hard spheres at a hard wall, and the projected density of the micelle showed excellent agreement with the experimental profiles. [S1063-651X...

  16. Treatment of dyeing wastewater including reactive dyes (Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal growth was not observed at pH 2. Maximum fungal decolourisation ocurred at pH 3 for anionic reactive dyes (RR, RBB, RB) and pH 6 for cationic MB dye. The fungal dye bioremoval was associated with the surface charge of the fungus due to electrostatic interactions. Growing R. arrhizus strain decolourised 100% of ...

  17. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Amphipathic dextran-doxorubicin prodrug micelles for solid tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Guo, Xuelian; Dong, Lingli; Xie, Enyuan; Cao, Aoneng

    2017-10-01

    A group of micelles self-assembled from deoxycholic acid-doxorubicin-conjugated dextran (denoted as Dex-DCA-DOX) prodrugs were designed and prepared for pH-triggered drug release and cancer chemotherapy. These prodrugs could be successfully produced by chemically coupling hydrophobic deoxycholic acid (DCA) to dextran hydrazine (denoted as Dex-NHNH 2 ) and hydrazone linker formation between doxorubicin (DOX) and Dex-NHNH 2 . These Dex-DCA-DOX prodrugs self-assembled to form micelles under physiological conditions with varied particle sizes depending on molecular weight of dextran, degree of substitution (DS) of DCA and DOX. After optimization, Dex10k-DCA9-DOX5.5 conjugate comprising dextran of 10kDa, DCA of DS 9 and DOX loading content of 5.5wt%, formed the micelles with the smallest size (110nm). These prodrug micelles could slowly liberate DOX under physiological conditions but efficiently released the drug at an acidified endosomal pH by the hydrolysis of acid-labile hydrazone linker. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment indicated that Dex10k-DCA9-DOX5.5 micelles exerted marked antitumor activity against MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. Besides, intravenous administration of the micelles afforded growth inhibition of SKOV-3 tumor bearing in nude mice at a dosage of 2.5mg per kg with anti-cancer efficacy comparable to free DOX-chemotherapy but low systemic toxicity. This study highlights the feasibility of bio-safe and efficient dextran-based prodrug micelles designed for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Photocrosslinked Lutrol Hydrogel for Tissue Printing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, Natalja E.; Swennen, Ives; Girones, Jordi; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Schacht, Etienne; Alblas, Jacqueline; Dhert, Wouter J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Application of hydrogels in tissue engineering and innovative strategies such as organ printing, which is based on layered 3D deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, requires design of novel hydrogel matrices. Hydrogel demands for 3D printing include: 1) preservation of the printed shape after the

  20. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  1. Micelles as Soil and Water Decontamination Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Shahzad, Suniya; Munir, Azeema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; Khan, Gul Shahzada; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Rana, Usman Ali

    2016-05-25

    Contaminated soil and water pose a serious threat to human health and ecosystem. For the treatment of industrial effluents or minimizing their detrimental effects, preventive and remedial approaches must be adopted prior to the occurrence of any severe environmental, health, or safety hazard. Conventional treatment methods of wastewater are insufficient, complicated, and expensive. Therefore, a method that could use environmentally friendly surfactants for the simultaneous removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater is deemed a smart approach. Surfactants containing potential donor ligands can coordinate with metal ions, and thus such compounds can be used for the removal of toxic metals and organometallic compounds from aqueous systems. Surfactants form host-guest complexes with the hydrophobic contaminants of water and soil by a mechanism involving the encapsulation of hydrophobes into the self-assembled aggregates (micelles) of surfactants. However, because undefined amounts of surfactants may be released into the aqueous systems, attention must be paid to their own environmental risks as well. Moreover, surfactant remediation methods must be carefully analyzed in the laboratory before field implementation. The use of biosurfactants is the best choice for the removal of water toxins as such surfactants are associated with the characteristics of biodegradability, versatility, recovery, and reuse. This Review is focused on the currently employed surfactant-based soil and wastewater treatment technologies owing to their critical role in the implementation of certain solutions for controlling pollution level, which is necessary to protect human health and ensure the quality standard of the aquatic environment.

  2. Basic investigations on LCV micelle gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebenezer, S B; Rafic, M K; Ravindran, P B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) based micelle gel dosimeter as a quality assurance tool in radiotherapy applications. Basic properties such as absorption coefficient and diffusion of LCV gel phantom over time were evaluated. The gel formulation consisted of 25 mM Trichloroacetic acid, 1mM LCV, 4 mM Triton X-100, 4% gelatin by mass and distilled water. The advantages of using this gel are its tissue equivalence, easy and less preparation time, lower diffusion rate and it can be read with an optical scanner. We were able to reproduce some of the results of Babic et al. The peak absorption was found to be at 600 nm and hence a matrix of yellow LEDs was used as light source. The profiles obtained from projection images confirmed the diffusion of LCV gel after 6 hours of irradiation. Hence the LCV gel phantom should be read before 6 hours post irradiation to get accurate dose information as suggested previously.

  3. Thermal Transport in Soft PAAm Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the interface between human and machine becomes blurred, hydrogel incorporated electronics and devices have emerged to be a new class of flexible/stretchable electronic and ionic devices due to their extraordinary properties, such as softness, mechanically robustness, and biocompatibility. However, heat dissipation in these devices could be a critical issue and remains unexplored. Here, we report the experimental measurements and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in polyacrylamide (PAAm hydrogels. The thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogels can be modulated by both the effective crosslinking density and water content in hydrogels. The effective crosslinking density dependent thermal conductivity in hydrogels varies from 0.33 to 0.51 Wm−1K−1, giving a 54% enhancement. We attribute the crosslinking effect to the competition between the increased conduction pathways and the enhanced phonon scattering effect. Moreover, water content can act as filler in polymers which leads to nearly 40% enhancement in thermal conductivity in PAAm hydrogels with water content vary from 23 to 88 wt %. Furthermore, we find the thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogel is insensitive to temperature in the range of 25–40 °C. Our study offers fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft materials and provides design guidance for hydrogel-based devices.

  4. Biomolecule-Responsive Hydrogels in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Ghorbanali; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances and applications of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, namely, glucose-responsive hydrogels, protein-responsive hydrogels, and nucleic-acid-responsive hydrogels are highlighted. However, achieving the ultimate purpose of using biomolecule-responsive hydrogels in preclinical and clinical areas is still at the very early stage and calls for more novel designing concepts and advance ideas. On the way toward the real/clinical application of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, plenty of factors should be extensively studied and examined under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. For example, biocompatibility, biointegration, and toxicity of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels should be carefully evaluated. From the living body's point of view, biocompatibility is seriously depended on the interactions at the tissue/polymer interface. These interactions are influenced by physical nature, chemical structure, surface properties, and degradation of the materials. In addition, the developments of advanced hydrogels with tunable biological and mechanical properties which cause no/low side effects are of great importance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent hydrogel based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrogels structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of grafting variables, that is, AA/AN weight ratio and concentration of MBA and APS, was systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with ...

  6. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  7. Cross-Linked Hydrogel for Pharmaceutical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinarayan parhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are promising biomaterials because of their important qualities such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity and non-toxicity. These qualities make hydrogels suitable for application in medical and pharmaceutical field. Recently, a tremendous growth of hydrogel application is seen, especially as gel and patch form, in transdermal drug delivery. This review mainly focuses on the types of hydrogels based on cross-linking and; secondly to describe the possible synthesis methods to design hydrogels for different pharmaceutical applications. The synthesis and chemistry of these hydrogels are discussed using specific pharmaceutical examples. The structure and water content in a typical hydrogel have also been discussed.

  8. A phytomodulatory hydrogel with enhanced healing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mirele S; Souza, Tamiris F G; Figueiredo, Ingrid S; Sousa, Emília T; Sousa, Felipe D; Moreira, Renato A; Alencar, Nylane M N; Lima-Filho, José V; Ramos, Márcio V

    2018-04-01

    The healing performance of a hydrogel composed of hemicelluloses extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Fabaceae) and mixed with phytomodulatory proteins obtained from the latex of Calotropis procera was characterized on excisional wounds. The hydrogel did not induce dermal irritability. When topically used on excisional wounds, the hydrogel enhanced healing by wound contraction. Histology and the measurement of inflammatory mediators (myeloperoxidase, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6) suggested that the inflammatory phase of the healing process was intensified, stimulating fibroplasia and neovascularization (proliferative phase) and tissue remodeling by increasing new collagen fiber deposition. In addition, reduction on levels of malondialdehyde in the groups that the hydrogel was applied suggested that the oxidative stress was reduced. The hydrogel performed better than the reference drug used, as revealed by the extended thickness of the remodeled epithelium. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Arct'Alg release from hydrogel membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Renata H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogel properties make them attractive for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, primarily in drug delivery system. Synthetic hydrogels have been studied to develop new devices for drugs or cosmetic active agents release. Arct'Alg R is an extract derived from red algae biomass which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and tissue regeneration stimulant properties. This extract was incorporated to poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel membranes obtained by gamma rays crosslinking technique. The ionizing radiation presents the advantage to occur polymerization and sterilization simultaneously in the same process. The aim of this work was the in vitro release kinetic study of Arct'Alg R from hydrogel membranes during 24 hours to verify the possibility of use in cosmetic and dermatological treatments. Results showed that about 50% and 30% of incorporated Arct'Alg R was released from PVP and PVA hydrogel membrane devices respectively. (author)

  10. Hybrid hydrogels produced by ionizing radiation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M. J. A.; Amato, V. S.; Lugão, A. B.; Parra, D. F.

    2012-09-01

    The interest in biocompatible hydrogels with particular properties has increased considerably in recent years due to their versatile applications in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, agriculture and controlled release of drugs. The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug-release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of PVAl and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% nano-clay. They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed for thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling in solutions of different pH. The membranes have no toxicity. The nano-clay influences directly the equilibrium swelling.

  11. Stable and biocompatible genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles for sustained drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojin, E-mail: zhangxj@cug.edu.cn [China University of Geosciences, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry (China)

    2017-05-15

    To develop the sustained drug release system, here we describe genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles crosslinked via Schiff bases between the amines of amphiphilic linear-hyperbranched polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-branched polyethylenimine-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PEI-PCL) and genipin. The generation of Schiff bases was confirmed by the color changes and UV-Vis absorption spectra of polymeric micelles after adding genipin. The particle size, morphology, stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, drug loading capacity, and in vitro drug release behavior of crosslinked micelles as well as non-crosslinked micelles were characterized. The results indicated that genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles had better stability and biocompatibility than non-crosslinked micelles and glutaraldehyde-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles. In addition, genipin-inducing interlayer-crosslinked micelles were able to improve drug loading capacity, reduce the initial burst release, and achieve sustained drug release.

  12. Photo-cross-linked PLA-PEO-PLA hydrogels from self-assembled physical networks: mechanical properties and influence of assumed constitutive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-10-01

    Poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEO-PLA) triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water as a result of the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently cross-linked, and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the designed mechanical properties. In this article, a hydrogel was formed by the use of a novel two-step approach. In the first step, the end-functionalized PLA-PEO-PLA triblock was self-assembled into a physical hydrogel through hydrophobic micelle network junctions, and in the second step, this self-assembled physical network structure was locked into place by photo-cross-linking the terminal acrylate groups. In contrast with physical hydrogels, the photo-cross-linked gels remained intact in phosphate-buffered solution at body temperature. The swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties were characterized, and they demonstrated an extended degradation time (approximately 65 days), an exponential decrease in modulus with degradation time, and a tunable shear modulus (1.6-133 kPa). We also discuss the various constitutive relationships (Hookean, neo-Hookean, and Mooney-Rivlin) that can be used to describe the stress-strain behavior of these hydrogels. The chosen model and assumptions used for data fitting influenced the obtained modulus values by as much as a factor of 3.5, which demonstrates the importance of clearly stating one's data fitting parameters so that accurate comparisons can be made within the literature.

  13. Controlled Fab installation onto polymeric micelle nanoparticles for tuned bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoyi; Florinas, Stelios; Teitgen, Abigail; Xu, Ze-Qi; Gao, Changshou; Wu, Herren; Kataoka, Kazunori; Cabral, Horacio; Christie, R. James

    2017-12-01

    Antibodies and antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) can be used to modify the surface of nanoparticles for enhanced target binding. In our previous work, site-specific conjugation of Fabs to polymeric micelles using conventional methods was limited to approximately 30% efficiency, possibly due to steric hindrance related to macromolecular reactants. Here, we report a new method that enables conjugation of Fabs onto a micelle surface in a controlled manner with up to quantitative conversion of nanoparticle reactive groups. Variation of (i) PEG spacer length in a heterofunctionalized cross-linker and (ii) Fab/polymer feed ratios resulted in production of nanoparticles with a range of Fab densities on the surface up to the theoretical maximum value. The biological impact of variable Fab density was evaluated in vitro with respect to cell uptake and cytotoxicity of a drug-loaded (SN38) targeted polymeric micelle bearing anti-EphA2 Fabs. Fab conjugation increased cell uptake and potency compared with non-targeted micelles, although a Fab density of 60% resulted in decreased uptake and potency of the targeted micelles. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that conjugation strategies can be optimized to allow control of Fab density on the surface of nanoparticles and also that Fab density may need to be optimized for a given cell-surface target to achieve the highest bioactivity.

  14. Light Scattering Characterization of Elastin-Like Polypeptide Trimer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuper, Ilona; Terrano, Daniel; Maraschky, Adam; Holland, Nolan; Streletzky, Kiril

    The elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) nanoparticles are composed of three-armed star polypeptides connected by a negatively charged foldon. Each of the three arms extending from the foldon domain includes 20 repeats of the (GVGVP) amino acid sequence. The ELP polymer chains are soluble at room temperature and become insoluble at the transition temperature (close to 50 ° C), forming micelles. The size and shape of the micelle are dependent on the temperature and the pH of the solution, and on the concentration of the phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The depolarized dynamic light scattering (DDLS) was employed to study the structure and dynamics of micelles at 62 ° C. The solution was maintained at an approximate pH level of 7.3 - 7.5, while varying PBS concentration. At low salt concentrations (60 mM) displayed an apparent elongation of the micelles evident by a significant VH signal, along with a surge in the apparent Rh. A model of micelle growth (and potential elongation) with increase in salt concentration is considered.

  15. Effect of microfluidization on casein micelle size of bovine milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, H.; Deeth, H.; Bhandari, B.

    2018-02-01

    The properties of milk are likely to be dependent on the casein micelle size, and various processing technologies produce particular change in the average size of casein micelles. The main objective of this study was to manipulate casein micelle size by subjecting milk to microfluidizer. The experiment was performed as a complete block randomised design with three replications. The sample was passed through the microfluidizer at the set pressure of 83, 97, 112 and 126 MPa for one, two, three, four, five and six cycles, except for the 112 MPa. The results showed that microfluidized milk has smaller size by 3% with pressure up to 126 MPa. However, at each pressure, no further reduction was observed after increasing the passed up to 6 cycles. Although the average casein micelle size was similar, elevating pressure resulted in narrower size distribution. In contrast, increasing the number of cycles had little effect on casein micelle distribution. The finding from this study can be applied for future work to characterize the fundamental and functional properties of the treated milk.

  16. Preclinical safety evaluation of intravenously administered mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelmann, K; Schläppi, B; Schüpbach, M; Kistler, A

    1984-01-01

    Mixed micelles, with their main constituents lecithin and glycocholic acid, form a new principle for the parenteral administration of compounds which are poorly water-soluble. Their composition of mainly physiological substances as well as their comparatively good stability substantiate their attractivity in comparison to existing solvents. A decomposition due to physical influences such as heat or storage for several years will almost exclusively affect the lecithin component in the form of hydrolysis into free fatty acids and lysolecithin. Their toxicity was examined experimentally in various studies using both undecomposed and artificially decomposed mixed micelles. In these studies the mixed micelles were locally and systemically well tolerated and proved to be neither embryotoxic, teratogenic nor mutagenic. Only when comparatively high doses of the undecomposed mixed micelles were administered, corresponding to approximately 30 to 50 times the anticipated clinical injection volume (of e.g. diazepam mixed micelles), did some vomitus (dogs), slight liver enzyme elevation (rats and dogs), and slightly increased liver weights (dogs) occur. After repeated injections of the artificially decomposed formulation (approximately 25% of lecithin hydrolyzed to free fatty acids and lysolecithin) effects such as intravascular haemolysis, liver enzyme elevations and intrahepatic cholestasis (dogs only) were observed but only when doses exceeding a threshold of approximately 40 to 60 mg lysolecithin/kg body weight were administered. All alterations were reversible after cessation of treatment.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  18. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  19. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  20. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  1. Determination of the aggregation number for micelles by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Rene; Westh, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has previously been applied to estimate the aggregation number (n), Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of micellization. However, some difficulties of micelle characterization by ITC still remain; most micelles have aggregation numbers...... insight into optimal design of titration protocols for micelle characterization. By applying the new method, the aggregation number of sodium dodecyl sulphate and glycochenodeoxycholate was determined at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC)...

  2. Hydrolytic Degradation of Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-Polycaprolactone Worm Micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by poly...

  3. A Near-Infrared Photothermal Effect-Responsive Drug Delivery System Based on Indocyanine Green and Doxorubicin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Mediated by Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared light (NIR) possesses great advantages for light-responsive controllable drug release, such as deep tissue penetration and low damage to healthy tissues. Herein, a NIR-responsive drug delivery system is developed based on a NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG), and anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded thermoresponsive block copolymer micelles, in which the drug release can be controlled via NIR irradiation. First, block copolymers, poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-block-poly(furfuryl methacrylate) (POEGMA-b-PFMA), are synthesized by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization, followed by modification with N-octyl maleimide through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction to produce POEGMA-b-POMFMA. The self-assembly of POEGMA-b-POMFMA by nano-precipitation in aqueous solution affords the polymeric micelles which are used to simultaneously encapsulate ICG and DOX. Upon irradiation by NIR light (805 nm), the loaded DOX is released rapidly from the micelles due to partial retro DA reaction and local temperature increase-induced faster drug diffusion by the photothermal effect. Cytotoxicity evaluation and intracellular distribution observation demonstrate significant synergistic effects of NIR-triggered drug release, photothermal, and chemotherapy toward cancer cells under NIR irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  5. Micelle fission through surface instability and formation of an interdigitating stalk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammalkorpi, M.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Haataja, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the first detailed atomic-scale studies of micelle fission in micellar systems consisting of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with explicit solvent. We demonstrate a new micelle fission pathway for ionic surfactants and show how micelle fission can be induced by varying the ionic

  6. Biomimetic oral mucin from polymer micelle networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authimoolam, Sundar Prasanth

    Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated using affinity-based interactions on synthetic and biological surfaces. Unlike conventional polyelectrolyte-based LBL methods, pre-assembled biotin-functionalized filamentous (worm-like) micelles was utilized as the network building block, which from complementary additions of streptavidin generated synthetic networks of desired thickness. The biomimetic nature in those synthetic networks are studied by evaluating its structural and bio-functional properties. Structurally, synthetic networks formed a nanoporous mesh. The networks demonstrated excellent surface hydration property and were able capable of microbial capture. Those functional properties are akin to that of natural mucin networks. Further, the role of synthetic mucin as a drug delivery vehicle, capable of providing localized and tunable release was demonstrated. By incorporating antibacterial curcumin drug loading within synthetic networks, bacterial growth inhibition was also demonstrated. Thus, such bioactive interfaces can serve as a model for independently characterizing mucin network properties and through its role as a drug carrier vehicle it presents exciting future opportunities for localized drug delivery, in regenerative applications and as bio

  7. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Amphiphile-Based Micelle-Like Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Selective and Sensitive Detection of Mercury(II) Ions in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kaixuan; Dong, Bo; Shi, Huanhuan; Liu, Zhengchun; Liang, Bo

    2017-03-07

    A technique for encapsulating fluorescent organic probes in a micelle system offers an important alternative method to manufacture water-soluble organic nanoparticles (ONPs) for use in sensing Hg 2+ . This article reports on a study of a surfactant-free micelle-like ONPs based on a 3,6-di(2-thienyl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (TDPP) amphiphile, (2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-3,6-di(2-thiophyl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (NDPP) fabricated to monitor Hg 2+ in water. NDPP was synthesized through a simple one-step modification of a commercially available dye TDPP with a flexible and hydrophilic alkoxy. This study reports, for the first time, that TDPP dyes can respond reversibly, sensitively, and selectively to Hg 2+ through TDPP-Hg-TDPP complexation, similar to the well-known thymine(T)-Hg-thymine(T) model and the accompanying molecular aggregation. Interestingly, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirmed that, in water, NDPP forms loose micelle-like fluorescent ONPs with a hydrohobic TDPP portion encapsulated inside. These micelle-like nanoparticles offer an ideal location for TDPP-Hg complexation with a modest molecular aggregation, thereby providing both clear visual and spectroscopic signals for Hg 2+ sensing. An estimated detection limit of 11 nM for Hg 2+ sensing with this NDPP nanoparticle was obtained. In addition, NDPP ONPs show good water solubility and high selectivity to Hg 2+ in neutral or alkalescent water. It was superior to most micelle-based nanosensors, which require a complicated process in the selection or synthesis of suitable surfactants. The determinations in real samples (river water) were made and satisfactory results were achieved. This study provides a low-cost strategy for fabricating small molecule-based fluorescent nanomaterials for use in sensing Hg 2+ . Moreover, the NDPP nanoparticles show potential ability in Hg 2+ ion adsorption and recognization of cysteine

  8. From micelle supramolecular assemblies in selective solvents to isoporous membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2011-08-16

    The supramolecular assembly of PS-b-P4VP copolymer micelles induced by selective solvent mixtures was used to manufacture isoporous membranes. Micelle order in solution was confirmed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy in casting solutions, leading to ordered pore morphology. When dioxane, a solvent that interacts poorly with the micelle corona, was added to the solution, polymer-polymer segment contact was preferential, increasing the intermicelle contact. Immersion in water gave rise to asymmetric porous membranes with exceptional pore uniformity and high porosity. The introduction of a small number of carbon nanotubes to the casting solution improved the membrane stability and the reversibility of the gate response in the presence of different pH values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Nagamune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration.

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles in biotechnological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilikian B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnology there is a need for new purification and concentration processes for biologically active compounds such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, or cells that combine a high selectivity and biocompatibility with an easy scale-up. A liquid-liquid extraction with a reversed micellar phase might serve these purposes owing to its capacity to solubilize specific biomolecules from dilute aqueous solutions such as fermentation and cell culture media. Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an inner core of water molecules, dispersed in a continuous organic solvent medium. These reversed micelles are capable of selectively solubilizing polar compounds in an apolar solvent. This review gives an overview of liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles for a better understanding of this process.

  11. From micelle supramolecular assemblies in selective solvents to isoporous membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Behzad, Ali Reza; Hooghan, Bobby; Sougrat, Rachid; He, Haoze; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The supramolecular assembly of PS-b-P4VP copolymer micelles induced by selective solvent mixtures was used to manufacture isoporous membranes. Micelle order in solution was confirmed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy in casting solutions, leading to ordered pore morphology. When dioxane, a solvent that interacts poorly with the micelle corona, was added to the solution, polymer-polymer segment contact was preferential, increasing the intermicelle contact. Immersion in water gave rise to asymmetric porous membranes with exceptional pore uniformity and high porosity. The introduction of a small number of carbon nanotubes to the casting solution improved the membrane stability and the reversibility of the gate response in the presence of different pH values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Structural characterization of casein micelles: shape changes during film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, R; Kulozik, U; Vendrely, C

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of size-fractionation by centrifugation on the film structure of casein micelles. Fractionated casein micelles in solution were asymmetrically distributed with a small distribution width as measured by dynamic light scattering. Films prepared from the size-fractionated samples showed a smooth surface in optical microscopy images and a homogeneous microstructure in atomic force micrographs. The nano- and microstructure of casein films was probed by micro-beam grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (μGISAXS). Compared to the solution measurements, the sizes determined in the film were larger and broadly distributed. The measured GISAXS patterns clearly deviate from those simulated for a sphere and suggest a deformation of the casein micelles in the film. (paper)

  13. Charged triblock copolymer self-assembly into charged micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingchao; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Jiahua; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin; Department of Material Science; Engineering University of Delaware Team; Department of Chemistry Texas A&M University Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Micelles were formed through the self-assembly of amphiphlic block copolymer poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(methyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene (PAA-PMA-PS). ~Importantly, the polymer is complexed with diamine molecules in pure THF solution prior to water titration solvent processing-a critical aspect in the control of final micelle geometry. The addition of diamine triggers acid-base complexation ~between the carboxylic acid PAA side chains and amines. ~Remarkably uniform spheres were found to form close-packed patterns when forced into dried films and thin, solvated films when an excess of amine was used in the polymer assembly process. Surface properties and structural features of these hexagonal-packed spherical micelles with charged corona have been explored by various characterization methods including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), cryogenic TEM, z-potential analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering. The forming mechanism for this pattern and morphology changes against external stimulate such as salt will be discussed.

  14. Modification of encapsulation pressure of reverse micelles in liquid ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W; Nucci, Nathaniel V; Wand, A Joshua

    2011-09-01

    Encapsulation within reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids offers a potential solution to the slow tumbling problem presented by large soluble macromolecules to solution NMR spectroscopy. The reduction in effective macromolecular tumbling is directly dependent upon the viscosity of the solvent. Liquid ethane is of sufficiently low viscosity at pressures below 5000 psi to offer a significant advantage. Unfortunately, the viscosity of liquid ethane shows appreciable pressure dependence. Reverse micelle encapsulation in liquid ethane often requires significantly higher pressures, which obviates the potential advantages offered by liquid ethane over liquid propane. Addition of co-surfactants or co-solvents can be used to manipulate the minimum pressure required to obtain stable, well-behaved solutions of reverse micelles prepared in liquid ethane. A library of potential additives is examined and several candidates suitable for use with encapsulated proteins are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Light and neutron scattering study of strongly interacting ionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgio, V.; Corti, M.; Piazza, R.

    1989-01-01

    Dilute solutions of ionic micelles formed by biological glycolipids (gangliosides) have been investigated at various ionic strengths by static and dynamic light scaterring and by small-angle neutron scattering. The size and shape of the micelle is not appreciably affected by the added salt concentration in the range 0-100 mM NaCL. From the measured intensity of scattered light we derive the electric charge Z of the micelle by fitting the data to a theoretical calculation which uses a screened Coulomb potential for the intermicellar interaction, and the hypernetted chain approximation for the calculation of the radial distribution function. The correlation function derived from dynamic light scattering shows the long time contribution typical of concentrated polydisperse systems (author). 15 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Enzymatically triggered multifunctional delivery system based on hyaluronic acid micelles

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Tumor targetability and stimuli responsivity of drug delivery systems (DDS) are key factors in cancer therapy. Implementation of multifunctional DDS can afford targetability and responsivity at the same time. Herein, cholesterol molecules (Ch) were coupled to hyaluronic acid (HA) backbones to afford amphiphilic conjugates that can self-assemble into stable micelles. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug, and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, were encapsulated by Ch-HA micelles and were selectively released in the presence of hyaluronidase (Hyals) enzyme. Cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies were done using three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7) and one normal cell line (WI38). Higher Ch-HA micelles uptake was seen in cancer cells versus normal cells. Consequently, DOX release was elevated in cancer cells causing higher cytotoxicity and enhanced cell death. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Implementation of chitosan inductively modified by γ-rays copolymerization with acrylamide in the decontamination of aqueous basic dye solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Aly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The modification induced by gamma rays for the natural polymer, chitosan, was established using the monomer acrylamide. The hydrogel obtained was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The effect of absorbed dose (kGy and chitosan:acrylamide ratio on the gel % was studied. The impact of the polymerization variables was observed on the swelling % of the prepared hydrogel with water. The highest equilibrium degree of swelling of the prepared chitosan–AAm hydrogel, 380 g/g was predicted at 75% AAm and absorbed dose of 10 kGy for 97.7% gel. The removal of the basic blue dye (Astrazone Blue BG-200% from aqueous solutions was discussed. The adsorption capacity of basic dye on chitosan–AAm increased from 24.5 to 47.2 mg/g by increasing pH from 4.0 to 9.0. The effect of pH, absorbed dose, chitosan:AAm ratio and the concentration of the dye on the effectiveness of the adsorption process was studied.

  18. Synthesis of PVA Hydrogel for Prosthetic Discus Nucleus Pulposus: Formation of Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) PVA Hydrogel by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwis, Darmawan; Erizal; Lely Hardiningsih; Razzak, Mirzan T.

    2004-01-01

    Research on synthesis of IPN PVA hydrogel for using as prosthetic discus nucleus has been carried out. Base hydrogel network (network I) was made by reacting the solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 10 - 15 % w/w with formaldehyde at 80 o C for several hours. Hydrogel network II (as IPN network) was then made by immersion of base hydrogel into polymer solution (PVP or PVA) until hydrogel swell to equilibrium volume. The hydrogel then irradiated using gamma rays at various doses. The results show that IPN PVA-PVP and IPN PVA-PVP hydrogels have higher compression strength compared to base hydrogel. IPN PVA-PVA hydrogel made by irradiating base hydrogel (immersed into polymer solution) with 25, 50 and 100 kGy have compression strength at 5 mm displacement 2.72; 2.83; and 3.25 kg/cm 2 respectively, While base hydrogel has compression strength of 1.75 kg/cm 2 . IPN PVA-PVP and PVA-PVA hydrogels made by irradiating base hydrogel with 100 kGy still retain high water content i.e. 72 and 74 % respectively. Beside that they show good re-absorption property after compression treatment that is hydrogel can return to the original shape after compressed to 12 mm displacement (80% of initial height on hydrogel) at relatively short time, less than 15 minutes. (author)

  19. Bioinspired Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Highly Ordered Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziguang; Fang, Ruochen; Rong, Qinfeng; Liu, Mingjie

    2017-12-01

    In the human body, many soft tissues with hierarchically ordered composite structures, such as cartilage, skeletal muscle, the corneas, and blood vessels, exhibit highly anisotropic mechanical strength and functionality to adapt to complex environments. In artificial soft materials, hydrogels are analogous to these biological soft tissues due to their "soft and wet" properties, their biocompatibility, and their elastic performance. However, conventional hydrogel materials with unordered homogeneous structures inevitably lack high mechanical properties and anisotropic functional performances; thus, their further application is limited. Inspired by biological soft tissues with well-ordered structures, researchers have increasingly investigated highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels as functional biological engineering soft materials with unique mechanical, optical, and biological properties. These hydrogels incorporate long-range ordered nanocomposite structures within hydrogel network matrixes. Here, the critical design criteria and the state-of-the-art fabrication strategies of nanocomposite hydrogels with highly ordered structures are systemically reviewed. Then, recent progress in applications in the fields of soft actuators, tissue engineering, and sensors is highlighted. The future development and prospective application of highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enzymatically crosslinked silk-hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Nicole R; Partlow, Benjamin P; McGill, Meghan; Kimmerling, Erica Palma; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Kaplan, David L

    2017-07-01

    In this study, silk fibroin and hyaluronic acid (HA) were enzymatically crosslinked to form biocompatible composite hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties similar to that of native tissues. The formation of di-tyrosine crosslinks between silk fibroin proteins via horseradish peroxidase has resulted in a highly elastic hydrogel but exhibits time-dependent stiffening related to silk self-assembly and crystallization. Utilizing the same method of crosslinking, tyramine-substituted HA forms hydrophilic and bioactive hydrogels that tend to have limited mechanics and degrade rapidly. To address the limitations of these singular component scaffolds, HA was covalently crosslinked with silk, forming a composite hydrogel that exhibited both mechanical integrity and hydrophilicity. The composite hydrogels were assessed using unconfined compression and infrared spectroscopy to reveal of the physical properties over time in relation to polymer concentration. In addition, the hydrogels were characterized by enzymatic degradation and for cytotoxicity. Results showed that increasing HA concentration, decreased gelation time, increased degradation rate, and reduced changes that were observed over time in mechanics, water retention, and crystallization. These hydrogel composites provide a biologically relevant system with controllable temporal stiffening and elasticity, thus offering enhanced tunable scaffolds for short or long term applications in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid hydrogels produced by ionizing radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Amato, V.S.; Lugão, A.B.; Parra, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interest in biocompatible hydrogels with particular properties has increased considerably in recent years due to their versatile applications in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacy, agriculture and controlled release of drugs. The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug-release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of PVAl and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5% nano-clay. They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed for thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling in solutions of different pH. The membranes have no toxicity. The nano-clay influences directly the equilibrium swelling. - Highlights: ► Chemical interaction is observed when nanoclay is irradiated in PVAl hybrid hydrogels. ► Osmotic pressure within network promotes the rehydration capacity of the membranes. ► This effect is an important characteristic for hydrogels drug delivery systems.

  2. Peptide based hydrogels for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranny, H.R.; Schneider, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Peptide hydrogels are potentially ideal scaffolds for tissue repair and regeneration due to their ability to mimic natural extra cellular matrix. The 20 amino acid peptide HPL8 (H2N- VKVKVKVKVDPP TKVKVKVKV-CONH2), has been shown to fold and self-assemble into a rigid hydrogel based on Environmental cues such as pH, salt, and temperature. Due to its environmental responsiveness, hydrogel assembly can be induced by cell culture media, allowing for 3D encapsulation of osteogenic cells. Initially, 20 cultures of MC3T3 cells proved that the hydrogel is nontoxic and sustains cellular attachment in the absence of serum proteins without altering the physical properties of the hydrogel. The cell-material structure relationship in normal and pathological conditions was further investigated by 3D encapsulation. Cell were viable for 3 weeks and grew in clonogenic spheroids. Characterization of the proliferation, differentiation and constitutive expression of various osteoblastic markers was performed using spectrophotometric methods. The well-defined, fibrillar nanostructure of the hydrogel directs the attachment and attachment and growth of osteoblast cells and dictates the mineralization of hydroxyapatite in a manner similar to bone. This study will enable control over the interaction of cellular systems with the peptide hydrogel with designs for biomedical applications of bone repair. (author)

  3. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  4. Formation of nanoparticles on reverse micelles: SANS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jaejung; Kim, Myungwoong; Hwan Bang, Jeong; Park, Sangwook; Sohn, Daewon

    2006-01-01

    The structure of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) on the surface of reverse micelles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The water-in-oil microemulsion containing initiators in the inner part of reverse micelle was prepared with surfactant, poly(oxyethylene) nonylphenyl ether (NP5, H(CH 2 ) 9 Ph(OC 2 H 4 ) 5 OH), water, cyclohexane and adequate initiators, sodium metabisulfate (SDS) and potassium persulfate (KPS), for aimed polymerization (PMMA). Various model fittings such as the core-shell sphere model and hard sphere model containing smearing effect reveal that polymer shell thickness changes from 52 to 60 A, respectively, with increase of monomer concentration

  5. The Critical Micelle Concentration of Asphaltenes as Measured by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Christensen, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Micellization of asphaltenes in solution has been investigated using a micro calorimetric titration procedure (Andersen, S. I.; Birdi, K. S. J Colloid Interface Sci. 1991, 142, 497). The method uses the analysis of heat of dissociation and dilution of asphaltene micelles when a pure solvent (or...... solvent mixture) is titrated with a solution of asphaltene in the same solvent. The asphaltene concentration of the injected solution is at a level above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the present paper the procedure is applied in investigation of asphaltenes as well as subfractions...

  6. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  7. Fluorescent supramolecular micelles for imaging-guided cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Yin, Wenyan; Dong, Xinghua; Yang, Wantai; Zhao, Yuliang; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-02-01

    A novel smart fluorescent drug delivery system composed of a perylene diimide (PDI) core and block copolymer poly(d,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) is developed and named as PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8. The biodegradable PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8 is a unimolecular micelle and can self-assemble into supramolecular micelles, called as fluorescent supramolecular micelles (FSMs), in aqueous media. An insoluble drug camptothecin (CPT) can be effectively loaded into the FSMs and exhibits pH-responsive release. Moreover, the FSMs with good biocompatibility can also be employed as a remarkable fluorescent probe for cell labelling because the maximum emission of PDI is beneficial for bio-imaging. The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrate that the micelles are easily endocytosed by cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo tumor growth-inhibitory studies reveal a better therapeutic effect of FSMs after CPT encapsulation when compared with the free CPT drug. The multifunctional FSM nanomedicine platform as a nanovehicle has great potential for fluorescence imaging-guided cancer therapy.A novel smart fluorescent drug delivery system composed of a perylene diimide (PDI) core and block copolymer poly(d,l-lactide)-b-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) is developed and named as PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8. The biodegradable PDI-star-(PLA-b-PEEP)8 is a unimolecular micelle and can self-assemble into supramolecular micelles, called as fluorescent supramolecular micelles (FSMs), in aqueous media. An insoluble drug camptothecin (CPT) can be effectively loaded into the FSMs and exhibits pH-responsive release. Moreover, the FSMs with good biocompatibility can also be employed as a remarkable fluorescent probe for cell labelling because the maximum emission of PDI is beneficial for bio-imaging. The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrate that the micelles are easily endocytosed by cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo tumor growth

  8. A shear-induced network of aligned wormlike micelles in a sugar-based molecular gel. From gelation to biocompatibility assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitremann, Juliette; Lonetti, Barbara; Fratini, Emiliano; Fabing, Isabelle; Payré, Bruno; Boulé, Christelle; Loubinoux, Isabelle; Vaysse, Laurence; Oriol, Luis

    2017-10-15

    A new low molecular weight hydrogelator with a saccharide (lactobionic) polar head linked by azide-alkyne click chemistry was prepared in three steps. It was obtained in high purity without chromatography, by phase separation and ultrafiltration of the aqueous gel. Gelation was not obtained reproducibly by conventional heating-cooling cycles and instead was obtained by shearing the aqueous solutions, from 2 wt% to 0.25 wt%. This method of preparation favored the formation of a quite unusual network of interconnected large but thin 2D-sheets (7nm-thick) formed by the association side-by-side of long and aligned 7nm diameter wormlike micelles. It was responsible for the reproducible gelation at the macroscopic scale. A second network made of helical fibres with a 10-13nm diameter, more or less intertwined was also formed but was scarcely able to sustain a macroscopic gel on its own. The gels were analysed by TEM (Transmission Electronic Microscopy), cryo-TEM and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering). Molecular modelling was also used to highlight the possible conformations the hydrogelator can take. The gels displayed a weak and reversible transition near 20°C, close to room temperature, ascribed to the wormlike micelles 2D-sheets network. Heating over 30°C led to the loss of the gel macroscopic integrity, but gel fragments were still observed in suspension. A second transition near 50°C, ascribed to the network of helical fibres, finally dissolved completely these fragments. The gels showed thixotropic behaviour, recovering slowly their initial elastic modulus, in few hours, after injection through a needle. Stable gels were tested as scaffold for neural cell line culture, showing a reduced biocompatibility. This new gelator is a clear illustration of how controlling the pathway was critical for gel formation and how a new kind of self-assembly was obtained by shearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acidity Constants Determination of Triazine Dye Derivative in the presence of some Surfactants by Multiwavelength Spectrophotometric and Spectrofluorimetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yeganeh Faal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, acidity constants protonated form of 4.4'-bis astilbene-2,2'-disulfonic-disodium salts (TRIAZ have been determined spectrophotometrically and spectrofluorimetrically at 25◦C and ionic strength of 0.1M KNO3. A program based on MCR-ALS applied for determination of acidity constants. The results show that the peak values of dye are influenced by the presence of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, Triton X-100 (TX-100 and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as a surface-active agent on the acidic and basic forms, and the spectral properties of dye were studied. Also, we determined the critical micelle concentration (CMC for these surfactants by spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric triazine dye probes. In addition, by using of evolving factor analysis (EFA and multivariate curve resolution alternative least squares (MCR-ALS methods, acidity constants were acquired.

  10. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Bagasse Biomass into Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the main objective of developing new hydrogel systems has been to convert biomass into environmentally-friendly hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels are usually prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto natural polymers or biomass. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used to prepare semi-synthetic hybrid hydrogels without delignification, which is a costly and timeconsuming process. Sugarcane bagasse as a source of polysaccharide was modified using polymer microgels based on acrylic monomers such as acrylic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid which were prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization. By this process, biomass as a low-value by-product was converted into a valuable semi-synthetic hydrogel. In the following, the effect of latex type¸ the aqueous-to-organic phase ratio in the polymer latex, time and temperature of modification reaction on the swelling capacity of the hybrid hydrogel were evaluated. The chemical reaction between sugarcane bagasse and acrylic latex was carried out during heating of the modified bagasse which led to obtain a semisynthetic hydrogel with 60% natural components and 40% synthetic components. Among the latexes with different structures, poly(AA-NaAA-AM-AMPS was the most suitable polymer latex for the conversion of biomass into hydrogel. The bagasse modified with this latex had a water absorption capacity up to 112 g/g, while the water absorption capacity of primary sugarcane bagasse was only equal to 3.6 g/g. The prepared polymer hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and determination of the amount of swelling capacity.

  11. Binding of chloroquine to ionic micelles: Effect of pH and micellar surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, Marcela de, E-mail: marcelafarmausp77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Perpétua Freire de Morais Del Lama, Maria, E-mail: mpemdel@fcfrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil); Siuiti Ito, Amando, E-mail: amandosi@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); and others

    2014-03-15

    The pharmacological action of chloroquine relies on its ability to cross biological membranes in order to accumulate inside lysosomes. The present work aimed at understanding the basis for the interaction between different chloroquine species and ionic micelles of opposite charges, the latter used as a simple membrane model. The sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence of chloroquine to changes in its local environment was used to probe its interaction with cetyltrimethylammonium micelles presenting bromide (CTAB) and sulfate (CTAS) as counterions, in addition to dodecyl sulfate micelles bearing sodium (SDS) and tetramethylammonium (TMADS) counterions. Counterion exchange was shown to have little effect on drug–micelle interaction. Chloroquine first dissociation constant (pKa{sub 1}) shifted to opposite directions when anionic and cationic micelles were compared. Chloroquine binding constants (K{sub b}) revealed that electrostatic forces mediate charged drug–micelle association, whereas hydrophobic interactions allowed neutral chloroquine to associate with anionic and cationic micelles. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that monoprotonated chloroquine is inserted deeper into the micelle surface of anionic micelles than its neutral form, the latter being less exposed to the aqueous phase when associated with cationic over anionic assemblies. The findings provide further evidence that chloroquine–micelle interaction is driven by a tight interplay between the drug form and the micellar surface charge, which can have a major effect on the drug biological activity. -- Highlights: • Chloroquine (CQ) pKa{sub 1} increased for SDS micelles and decreased for CTAB micelles. • CQ is solubilized to the surface of both CTAB and SDS micelles. • Monoprotonated CQ is buried deeper into SDS micelles than neutral CQ. • Neutral CQ is less exposed to aqueous phase in CTAB over SDS micelles. • Local pH and micellar surface charge mediate interaction of CQ with

  12. A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the past and current efforts with a brief description on the featured properties of hydrogel membranes fabricated from biopolymers and synthetic ones for wound dressing applications. Many endeavors have been exerted during past ten years for developing new artificial polymeric membranes, which fulfill the demanded conditions for the treatment of skin wounds. This review mainly focuses on representing specifications of ideal polymeric wound dressing membranes, such as crosslinked hydrogels compatible with wound dressing purposes. But as the hydrogels with single component have low mechanical strength, recent trends have offered composite or hybrid hydrogel membranes to achieve the typical wound dressing requirements.

  13. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  14. Static structure factor of polymerlike micelles: Overall dimension, flexibility, and local properties of lecithin reverse micelles in deuterated isooctane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the static structure factor S(q,c) of polymerlike reverse micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated isooctane using small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering. The experimental data for different concentrat......We report a systematic investigation of the static structure factor S(q,c) of polymerlike reverse micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated isooctane using small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering. The experimental data for different...

  15. Synthesis of MSnO{sub 3} (M = Ba, Sr) nanoparticles by reverse micelle method and particle size distribution analysis by whole powder pattern modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Blakely, Colin K.; Bruno, Shaun R. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Poltavets, Viktor V., E-mail: poltavets@chemistry.msu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► BaSnO{sub 3} and SrSnO{sub 3} nanoparticles synthesized using the reverse micelle method. ► Particle size and size distribution studied by whole powder pattern modeling. ► Nanoparticles are of optimal size for investigation in dye-sensitized solar cells. -- Abstract: Light-to-electricity conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells critically depends not only on the dye molecule, semiconducting material and redox shuttle selection but also on the particle size and particle size distribution of the semiconducting photoanode. In this study, nanocrystalline BaSnO{sub 3} and SrSnO{sub 3} particles have been synthesized using the microemulsion method. Particle size distribution was studied by whole powder pattern modeling which confirmed narrow particle size distribution with an average size of 18.4 ± 8.3 nm for SrSnO{sub 3} and 15.8 ± 4.2 nm for BaSnO{sub 3}. These values are in close agreement with results of transmission electron microscopy. The prepared materials have optimal microstructure for successive investigation in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  16. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  17. Thermodynamics of micelle formation in a water-alcohol solution of sodium tetradecyl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, S. V.; Tret'yakova, A. Ya.; Barabanov, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of addition of ethanol and propan-1-ol on sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation in an aqueous solution are studied via microprobe fluorescence microscopy and conductometry. The critical micelle concentration, quantitative characteristics of micelles, and thermodynamic parameters of micelle formation are determined. Addition of 5-15 vol % of ethanol or 5-10 vol % of propan-1-ol is shown to result in a lower critical micelle concentration than in the aqueous solution, and in the formation of mixed spherical micelles whose sizes and aggregation numbers are less than those for the systems without alcohol. The contribution from the enthalpy factor to the free energy of sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation is found to dominate in mixed solvents, in contrast to aqueous solutions.

  18. Micelles as delivery vehicles for oligofluorene for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fengyu; Alam, Ruhaniyah; Mei, Qian; Tian, Yanqing; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2011-01-01

    With the successful development of organic/polymeric light emitting diodes, many organic and polymeric fluorophores with high quantum efficiencies and optical stability were synthesized. However, most of these materials which have excellent optical properties are insoluble in water, limiting their applications in biological fields. Herein, we used micelles formed from an amino-group-containing poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-b-PEG-NH(2)) to incorporate a hydrophobic blue emitter oligofluorene (OF) to enable its application in biological conditions. Although OF is completely insoluble in water, it was successfully transferred into aqueous solutions with a good retention of its photophysical properties. OF exhibited a high quantum efficiency of 0.84 in a typical organic solvent of tetrahydrofuran (THF). In addition, OF also showed a good quantum efficiency of 0.46 after being encapsulated into micelles. Two cells lines, human glioblastoma (U87MG) and esophagus premalignant (CP-A), were used to study the cellular internalization of the OF incorporated micelles. Results showed that the hydrophobic OF was located in the cytoplasm, which was confirmed by co-staining the cells with nucleic acid specific SYTO 9, lysosome specific LysoTracker Red®, and mitochondria specific MitoTracker Red. MTT assay indicated non-toxicity of the OF-incorporated micelles. This study will broaden the application of hydrophobic functional organic compounds, oligomers, and polymers with good optical properties to enable their applications in biological research fields.

  19. Micelles as delivery vehicles for oligofluorene for bioimaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Su

    Full Text Available With the successful development of organic/polymeric light emitting diodes, many organic and polymeric fluorophores with high quantum efficiencies and optical stability were synthesized. However, most of these materials which have excellent optical properties are insoluble in water, limiting their applications in biological fields. Herein, we used micelles formed from an amino-group-containing poly(ε-caprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol (PCL-b-PEG-NH(2 to incorporate a hydrophobic blue emitter oligofluorene (OF to enable its application in biological conditions. Although OF is completely insoluble in water, it was successfully transferred into aqueous solutions with a good retention of its photophysical properties. OF exhibited a high quantum efficiency of 0.84 in a typical organic solvent of tetrahydrofuran (THF. In addition, OF also showed a good quantum efficiency of 0.46 after being encapsulated into micelles. Two cells lines, human glioblastoma (U87MG and esophagus premalignant (CP-A, were used to study the cellular internalization of the OF incorporated micelles. Results showed that the hydrophobic OF was located in the cytoplasm, which was confirmed by co-staining the cells with nucleic acid specific SYTO 9, lysosome specific LysoTracker Red®, and mitochondria specific MitoTracker Red. MTT assay indicated non-toxicity of the OF-incorporated micelles. This study will broaden the application of hydrophobic functional organic compounds, oligomers, and polymers with good optical properties to enable their applications in biological research fields.

  20. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with ...

  1. Applications of polymeric micelles with tumor targeted in chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Hui; Wang Xiaojun; Zhang Song; Liu Xinli

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric micelles (PMs) have gained more progress as a carrier system with the quick development of biological and nanoparticle techniques. In particular, PMs with smart targeting can deliver anti-cancer drugs directly into tumor cells at a sustained rate. PMs with core–shell structure (with diameters of 10 ∼ 100 nm) have been prepared by a variety of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers via a self-assembly process. The preparation of polymeric micelles with stimuli-responsive block copolymers or modification of target molecules on polymeric micelles’ surface are able to significantly improve the efficiency of drug delivery. Polymeric micelles, which have been considered as a novel promising drug carrier for cancer therapeutics, are rapidly evolving and being introduced in an attempt to overcome several limitations of traditional chemotherapeutics, including water solubility, tumor-specific accumulation, anti-tumor efficacy, and non-specific toxicity. This review describes the preparation of polymeric micelles and the targeted modification which greatly enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...

  3. Reversibility and Relaxation Behavior of Polyelectrolyte Complex Micelle Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; Norde, Willem; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the formation and disintegration of polyelectrolyte complex micelles is studied by dynamic light scattering titrations with the aim to assess the extent to which these complexes equilibrate. Also, the time evolution of samples at fixed (electroneutral) composition was followed to

  4. Flow of wormlike micelles in an expansion-contraction geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stukan, Mikhail R.; Boek, Edo S.; Boek, E.S.; Padding, J.T.; Briels, Willem J.; Crawshaw, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently there has been a great deal of attention, from researchers both in academia and in industry, focused on the rheological properties of solutions of viscoelastic wormlike micelles formed by surfactants. It is particularly vital to understand the properties of these solutions with regard to

  5. Investigating Block-Copolymer Micelle Dynamics for Tunable Cargo Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Kidd, Bryce; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan; Madsen, Louis

    Block-copolymer micelles (BCPMs) can carry molecular cargo in a nanoscopic package that is tunable using polymer structure in combination with cargo properties, as well as with external stimuli such as temperature or pH. For example, BCPMs can be used in targeted anticancer drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, in vivo degradability and prolonged circulation time. We are using NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry as well as SANS to investigate BCPMs. Here we study a diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-(caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) that forms spherical micelles at 1% (w/v) in the mixed solvent D2O/THF-d8. We quantify the populations and diffusion coefficients of coexisting micelles and free unimers over a range of temperatures and solvent compositions. We use temperature as a stimulus to enhance unimer exchange and hence trigger cargo release, in some cases at a few degrees above body temperature. We present evidence for dominance of the insertion-expulsion mechanism of unimer exchange in these systems, and we map phase diagrams versus temperature and solvent composition. This study sheds light on how intermolecular interactions fundamentally affect cargo release, unimer exchange, and overall micelle tunability.

  6. High-frequency ultrasound-responsive block copolymer micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Pelletier, Maxime; Zhang, Hongji; Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue

    2009-11-17

    Micelles of a diblock copolymer composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(2-tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PTHPMA) in aqueous solution could be disrupted by high-frequency ultrasound (1.1 MHz). It was found that, upon exposure to a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beam at room temperature, the pH value of the micellar solution decreased over irradiation time. The infrared spectroscopic analysis of solid block copolymer samples collected from the ultrasound irradiated micellar solution revealed the formation of carboxylic acid dimers and hydroxyl groups. These characterization results suggest that the high-frequency HIFU beam could induce the hydrolysis reaction of THPMA at room temperature resulting in the cleavage of THP groups. The disruption of PEO-b-PTHPMA micelles by ultrasound was investigated by using dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. On the basis of the pH change, it was found that the disruption process was determined by a number of factors such as the ultrasound power, the micellar solution volume and the location of the focal spot of the ultrasound beam. This study shows the potential to develop ultrasound-sensitive block copolymer micelles by having labile chemical bonds in the polymer structure, and to use the high-frequency HIFU to trigger a chemical reaction for the disruption of micelles.

  7. Colorful packages : fluorescent proteins in complex coacervate core micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, Antsje

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores the encapsulation of fluorescent proteins (FPs) into complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) and features the impact of this encapsulation on the biophysical properties of the FPs. In total eight different FPs were investigated originating from two different classes

  8. Monitoring the aggregation of single casein micelles using fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Harboe, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The aggregation of casein micelles (CMs) induced by milk-clotting enzymes is a process of fundamental importance in the dairy industry for cheese production; however, it is not well characterized on the nanoscale. Here we enabled the monitoring of the kinetics of aggregation between single CMs (30...

  9. Coupled Organoclay/Micelle Action for the Adsorption of Diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Tiago; Guégan, Régis

    2016-09-20

    A Na-smectite clay mineral (Na-Mt) was exchanged with various amounts of benzyldimethyltetradecyl ammonium chloride cationic surfactant (BDTAC) up to four times the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The adsorption properties of these organoclays as well as a coupled micelle/organoclay process were evaluated to remove an anionic pharmaceutical product, the diclofenac (DCF), recognized as a recalcitrant compound for conventional water treatments and to be poorly adsorbed onto untreated clay mineral. The DCF affinity appears to depend on the lipophilic character of organoclays in correlation to the density of intercalated BDTA and is particularly enhanced for sorbent systems with free surfactant or micelle in solution. The combination of both organclay and BDTA in excess or micelle as a one pot adsorption system appears to be the most efficient material for the sequestration of DCF and other pharmaceutical products (PPs) with a KF Freundlich constant of 1.7 L g(-1) and no restriction of the adsorbed DCF amount as the linear adsorption isotherm shows. A BDTA hydrophobic core micelle coupled with a positive electric charge forms an organic complex with DCF that is properly intercalated within the interlayer space of BDTA-Mt organoclays as both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data supported.

  10. Clinical application of polymeric micelles for the treatment of cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varela Moreira, A.A.; Shi, Y.; Fens, M.H.A.M.; Lammers, T.G.G.M.; Hennink, W.E.; Schiffelers, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    The in vivo administration of chemotherapeutic drugs is a challenge due to their poor pharmacokinetic (PK) and biodistribution profiles. For this reason, the development of delivery systems capable of targeting these compounds to pathological sites is of great importance. Polymeric micelles (PMs)

  11. Quenching mechanism of exciplex fluorescence by inverted micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chika; Kikuchi, Koichi

    1992-01-01

    Using an emission-absorption laser photolysis method, the quenching mechanism of the pyrene-N,N-dimethylaniline exciplex fluorscence by inverted micelles is studied. The rate of enhanced intersystem crossing depends upon water pool size and is reduced by external magnetic fields. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Complex coacervate core micelles with a lysozyme-modified corona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton; Norde, Willem; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization, and enzymatic activity of complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PQ2VP-PEO) to which the antibacterial enzyme lysozyme is end-attached.

  13. In vivo toxicity of cationic micelles and liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Northeved, Helle; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated toxicity of nanocarriers comprised of cationic polymer and lipid components often used in gene and drug delivery, formulated as cationic micelles and liposomes. Rats were injected intravenously with 10, 25 or 100 mg/kg and sacrificed after 24 or 48 h, or 24 h after the las...

  14. Biomimetic Membrane Arrays on Cast Hydrogel Supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roerdink-Lander, Monique; Ibragimova, Sania; Rein Hansen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    , provides mechanical support but at the cost of small molecule transport through the membrane−support sandwich. To stabilize biomimetic membranes while allowing transport through a membrane−support sandwich, we have investigated the feasibility of using an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE......)/hydrogel sandwich as the support. The sandwich is realized as a perforated surface-treated ETFE film onto which a hydrogel composite support structure is cast. We report a simple method to prepare arrays of lipid bilayer membranes with low intrinsic electrical conductance on the highly permeable, self......-supporting ETFE/hydrogel sandwiches. We demonstrate how the ETFE/hydrogel sandwich support promotes rapid self-thinning of lipid bilayers suitable for hosting membrane-spanning proteins....

  15. Responsive polyelectrolyte hydrogels and soft matter micromanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes experimental studies on the mechanisms underlying the dynamic response of polyelectrolyte hydrogels when submitted to an external electric potential. In addition, we explore the possibilities of miniaturization and manipulation of responsive gels and other soft matter

  16. Hydrogels: Lets Thicken the Prebiotic Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, A. V.; Georgelin, T.; Kee, T. P.; Brack, A.; Westall, F.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a new class of material that could be interesting in prebiotic chemistry: The silica hydrogel. Inorganic cells could have provided an alternative mode of compatmentalisation on early earth.

  17. Enzymatic Inverse Opal Hydrogel Particles for Biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Gu, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhuoyue; Shang, Luoran; Zhao, Ze; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-04-19

    Enzymatic carriers have a demonstrated value for chemical reactions and industrial applications. Here, we present a novel kind of inverse opal hydrogel particles as the enzymatic carriers. The particles were negatively replicated from spherical colloidal crystal templates by using magnetic nanoparticles tagged acrylamide hydrogel. Thus, they were endowed with the features of monodispersity, small volume, complete penetrating structure, and controllable motion, which are all beneficial for improving the efficiency of biocatalysis. In addition, due to the ordered porous nanostructure, the inverse opal hydrogel particles were imparted with unique photonic band gaps (PBGs) and vivid structural colors for encoding varieties of immobilized enzymes and for constructing a multienzymes biocatalysis system. These features of the inverse opal hydrogel particles indicate that they are ideal enzymatic carriers for biocatalysis.

  18. Reverse micelles as suitable microreactor for increased biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Anjana [Nanotechnology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre of Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Pandey, Ashutosh [Centre of Energy Studies, MNNIT, Allahabad 211004 (India)

    2008-01-15

    Reverse micelles have been shown to act as efficient microreactors for enzymic reactions and whole cell entrapment in organic (non-aqueous) media wherein the reactants are protected from denaturation by the surrounding organic solvent. These micelles are thermodynamically stable, micrometer sized water droplets dispersed in an organic phase by a surfactant. It has been observed that when whole cells of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides or Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1) are entrapped inside these reverse micelles, the H{sub 2} production enhanced from 25 to 35 folds. That is, 1.71mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1} in case of R. sphaeroides which is 25 fold higher in benzene-sodium lauryl sulfate reverse micelles. Whereas, in case of R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 the H{sub 2} production was increased by 35 fold within AOT-isooctane reverse micelles i.e. 11.5mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1}. The observations indicate that the entrapment of whole cells of microbes within reverse micelles provides a novel and efficient technique to produce hydrogen by the inexhaustible biological route. The two microorganisms R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 (a photosynthetic bacteria) and Citrobacter Y19 (a facultative anaerobic bacteria) together are also entrapped within AOT-isooctane and H{sub 2} production was measured i.e. 69mmol(mgprotein){sup -1}h{sup -1}. The nitrogenase enzyme responsible for hydrogen production by R. sphaeroides/R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 cells is oxygen sensitive, and very well protected within reverse micelles by the use of combined approach of two cells (R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and Citrobacter Y19). In this case glucose present in the medium of Citrobacter Y19 serves double roles in enhancing the sustained production rate of hydrogen. Firstly, it quenches the free O{sub 2}liberated as a side product of reaction catalyzed by nitrogenase, which is O{sub 2} labile. Secondly, organic acid produced by this reaction is utilized by the Citrobacter Y19 as organic substrate in

  19. Casein polymorphism heterogeneity influences casein micelle size in milk of individual cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, L; Williams, R P W; Otter, D; Augustin, M A

    2015-06-01

    Milk samples from individual cows producing small (148-155 nm) or large (177-222 nm) casein micelles were selected to investigate the relationship between the individual casein proteins, specifically κ- and β-casein phenotypes, and casein micelle size. Only κ-casein AA and β-casein A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2 phenotypes were found in the large casein micelle group. Among the small micelle group, both κ-casein and β-casein phenotypes were more diverse. κ-Casein AB was the dominant phenotype, and 3 combinations (AA, AB, and BB) were present in the small casein micelle group. A considerable mix of β-casein phenotypes was found, including B and I variants, which were only found in the small casein micelle group. The relative amount of κ-casein to total casein was significantly higher in the small micelle group, and the nonglycosylated and glycosylated κ-casein contents were higher in the milks with small casein micelles (primarily with κ-casein AB and BB variants) compared with the large micelle group. The ratio of glycosylated to nonglycosylated κ-casein was higher in the milks with small casein micelles compared with the milks with large casein micelles. This suggests that although the amount of κ-casein (both glycosylated and nonglycosylated) is associated with micelle size, an increased proportion of glycosylated κ-casein could be a more important and favorable factor for small micelle size. This suggests that the increased spatial requirement due to addition of the glycosyl group with increasing extent of glycosylation of κ-casein is one mechanism that controls casein micelle assembly and growth. In addition, increased electrostatic repulsion due to the sialyl residues on the glycosyl group could be a contributory factor. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  1. Glyco-Nanoparticles Made from Self-Assembly of Maltoheptaose-block-Poly(methyl methacrylate): Micelle, Reverse Micelle, and Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon, Karine M; Otsuka, Issei; Bouilhac, Cécile; Muniz, Edvani C; Soldi, Valdir; Borsali, Redouane

    2015-07-13

    The synthesis and the solution-state self-assembly of the "hybrid" diblock copolymers, maltoheptaose-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (MH-b-PMMA), into large compound micelles (LCMs) and reverve micelle-type nanoparticles, are reported in this paper. The copolymers were self-assembled in water and acetone by direct dissolution method, and the morphologies of the nanoparticles were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and fluorescence spectroscopy as a function of the volume fraction of the copolymer hydrophobic block, copolymer concentration, stirring speed, and solvent polarity. The DLS measurements and TEM images showed that the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the LCMs obtained in water increases with the copolymer concentration. Apart from that, increasing the stirring speed leads to polydispersed aggregations of the LCMs. On the other hand, in acetone, the copolymers self-assembled into reverse micelle-type nanoparticles having Rh values of about 6 nm and micellar aggregates, as revealed the results obtained from DLS, AFM, and (1)H NMR analyses. The variation in micellar structure, that is, conformational inversion from LCMs to reverse micelle-type structures in response to polarity of the solvent, was investigated by apparent water contact angle (WCA) and (1)H NMR analyses. This conformational inversion of the nanoparticles was further confirmed by encapsulation and release of hydrophobic guest molecule, Nile red, characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  2. Studies on radiation synthesis of polyethyleneimine/acrylamide hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sanju [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: lalitv@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Tirumalesh, K. [Isotope Application Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2006-07-15

    Polyethyleneimine(PEI)/acrylamide(AAM) hydrogels were synthesized by {gamma}-radiation-induced polymerization/crosslinking of aqueous mixtures containing different ratios of PEI and AAM. The gel percentage and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the synthesized hydrogels were investigated. The compositions of the hydrogels produced were found to be different from the feed composition. Ion-chromatography technique was used to determine the amount of Pb (II) and Cd (II) absorbed by the hydrogel. The maximum binding capacity of the PEI/AAM hydrogels, for Pb and Cd was found to be 19 and 12.6 mg/g, respectively (at 100 ppm). PEI/AAM hydrogels had better metal uptake efficiency than the pure AAM hydrogel at concentrations less than 50 ppm. Pure PEI was observed to be highly degrading type polymer on exposure to gamma radiation. TGA and FT-IR techniques were used to characterize the prepared hydrogels.

  3. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  4. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  5. CW organic dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuccio, S.A.; Peterson, O.G.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing continuous emission from a lasing medium comprising organic dye molecules in solution are described. Continuous emission is accomplished by flowing the medium through a focused optical cavity while simultaneously producing a population inversion in that portion of the medium flowing in close proximity to the focal point of the cavity. The population inversion is produced by pumping the medium longitudinally, along the optical axis of the cavity, preferably by the focused output of a continuous-wave argon laser. Sufficient thermal energy is continuously dissipated from the medium to maintain the optical homogeneity thereof at or above the quality required for continuous emission

  6. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemann Jensen, A.T.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete reference list is compiled in the end, immediately after the three chapters. This is followed by the supplementary information, divided into appropriate sections. Finally, the two first-authored manuscripts are attached as appendices. Chapter 1. The field of nanoparticulate drug delivery has been hailed as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent-like copolymers, that self-assemble in water. Therapy with nanoparticles is hampered by often poor tumor accumulation, combined with massive uptake by macrophages in the liver and spleen. For this reason, visualizing nanoparticle pharmacokinetics in-vivo is a valuable tool in the on-going research. Such visualization can be done by labeling with radio isotopes. Isotopes that emit positrons (PET-isotopes) can be detected by PET (positron emission tomography) technology, an accurate technique that has gained popularity in recent years. PET-isotopes of interest include 18F and 64Cu. In addition to being a research tool, radiolabeled nanoparticles hold promise as a radiopharmaceutical in themselves, as a means of imaging tumor tissue, aiding in diagnosis and surgery. Chapter 2. A method for labeling liposomes with 18F (97% positron decay, T = 110 min) was investigated. 18F is widely available, but is hampered by a short half-life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A

  7. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemann Jensen, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete reference list is compiled in the end, immediately after the three chapters. This is followed by the supplementary information, divided into appropriate sections. Finally, the two first-authored manuscripts are attached as appendices. Chapter 1. The field of nanoparticulate drug delivery has been hailed as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent-like copolymers, that self-assemble in water. Therapy with nanoparticles is hampered by often poor tumor accumulation, combined with massive uptake by macrophages in the liver and spleen. For this reason, visualizing nanoparticle pharmacokinetics in-vivo is a valuable tool in the on-going research. Such visualization can be done by labeling with radio isotopes. Isotopes that emit positrons (PET-isotopes) can be detected by PET (positron emission tomography) technology, an accurate technique that has gained popularity in recent years. PET-isotopes of interest include 18F and 64Cu. In addition to being a research tool, radiolabeled nanoparticles hold promise as a radiopharmaceutical in themselves, as a means of imaging tumor tissue, aiding in diagnosis and surgery. Chapter 2. A method for labeling liposomes with 18F (97% positron decay, T = 110 min) was investigated. 18F is widely available, but is hampered by a short half-life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A

  8. Lecithin in mixed micelles attenuates the cytotoxicity of bile salts in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ya'nan; Qi, Jianping; Lu, Yi; Hu, Fuqiang; Yin, Zongning; Wu, Wei

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of bile salt-lecithin mixed micelles on the Caco-2 cell model. Cell viability and proliferation after mixed micelles treatments were evaluated with the MTT assay, and the integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer was determined by quantitating the transepithelial electrical resistance and the flux of tracer, FITC-dextran 4400. The apoptosis induced by mixed micelles treatments was investigated with the annexin V/PI protocol. The particle size of mixed micelles was all smaller than 100 nm. The mixed micelles with lower than 0.2mM sodium deoxycholate (SDC) had no significant effects on cell viability and proliferation. When the level of SDC was higher than 0.4mM and the lecithin/SDC ratio was lower than 2:1, the mixed micelles caused significant changes in cell viability and proliferation. Furthermore, the mixed micelles affected tight junctions in a composition-dependent manner. Specifically, the tight junctions were transiently opened rather than damaged by the mixed micelles with SDC of between 0.2 and 0.6mM. The mixed micelles with more lecithin also induced less apoptosis. These results demonstrate that relatively higher concentrations of mixed micelles are toxic to Caco-2 cells, while phospholipids can attenuate the toxicity of the bile salts. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Calculations of critical micelle concentration by dissipative particle dynamics simulations: the role of chain rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-09-05

    Micelle formation in surfactant solutions is a self-assembly process governed by complex interplay of solvent-mediated interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which are commonly called heads and tails. However, the head-tail repulsion is not the only factor affecting the micelle formation. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the effect of chain rigidity on critical micelle concentration and micelle size, which is performed with the dissipative particle dynamics simulation method. Rigidity of the coarse-grained surfactant molecule was controlled by the harmonic bonds set between the second-neighbor beads. Compared to flexible molecules with the nearest-neighbor bonds being the only type of bonded interactions, rigid molecules exhibited a lower critical micelle concentration and formed larger and better-defined micelles. By varying the strength of head-tail repulsion and the chain rigidity, we constructed two-dimensional diagrams presenting how the critical micelle concentration and aggregation number depend on these parameters. We found that the solutions of flexible and rigid molecules that exhibited approximately the same critical micelle concentration could differ substantially in the micelle size and shape depending on the chain rigidity. With the increase of surfactant concentration, primary micelles of more rigid molecules were found less keen to agglomeration and formation of nonspherical aggregates characteristic of flexible molecules.

  10. Glycopolymer micelles with reducible ionic cores for hepatocytes-targeting delivery of DOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Zhang, Xinge; Yu, Peien; Li, Chaoxing

    2013-01-30

    A novel galactose-decorated cross-linked micelles (cl-micelles) with ionic cores using cystamine (Cys) as a biodegradable cross-linker was prepared by using block ionomer complexes of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(2-acryloxyethyl-galactose)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA) and Ca(2+) (PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys). Doxorubicin (DOX) was successfully incorporated into the ionic cores of such micelles via electrostatic interactions. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer indicated galactose ligands were exposed at the micellar surface. The micelles were spherical in shape, with an average size of 100nm. The in vitro release studies confirmed that DOX-loaded PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys accomplished rapid drug release under reducing condition. Remarkably, PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys efficiently delivered and released DOX into the cell nucleus of HepG2 cells, and the intensity of fluorescence observed in HepG2 cells was stronger than that incubated with the micelles without galactose ligands. In contrast, little fluorescence was observed in NIH3T3 cells after incubation with PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys. Interestingly, cytotoxicity assays showed that DOX-loaded PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys retained higher cell inhibition efficiency in HepG2 cells as compared with NIH3T3 cells, and were more potent than the micelles without galactose ligands and the micelles with non degradable cross-links. These results indicate that PEG-b-PAEG-b-PAA cl-micelles/Cys have great potential in liver tumor-targeted chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of dyes in cariology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rijke, J W

    1991-04-01

    The property of dyes to enhance contrast by their colour can be used in clinical dentistry and in investigations in vitro or in vivo. They have been used for indication of affected dental tissues, improvement of diagnostic methods, enhancement of patient awareness and information about specific processes. The development of particular dye systems, aimed at clinical application, is often laborious because of toxic effects, lack of specificity, irreversible staining or difficulties with removal of the dye. Clinically used dyes are often visually observed, which means a qualitative assessment of the staining, while quantification of the staining, if performed at all, is confined mostly to laboratory experiments. In this paper the application of dyes, arranged according to their specific purpose in cariology, is discussed, and a brief historical overview is given of the development of two particular dye applications for which commercial dye systems are now available. If certain requirements are met, dyes can be of great help in detection and quantification when used with several diagnostic methods.

  12. A 3D-printed microbial cell culture platform with in situ PEGDA hydrogel barriers for differential substrate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadilak, Andrea L; Rehaag, Jessica C; Harrington, Cameron A; Shor, Leslie M

    2017-09-01

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D-printing techniques have recently begun to enable simpler, faster, and cheaper production of millifluidic devices at resolutions approaching 100-200  μ m. At this resolution, cell culture devices can be constructed that more accurately replicate natural environments compared with conventional culturing techniques. A number of microfluidics researchers have begun incorporating additive manufacturing into their work, using 3D-printed devices in a wide array of chemical, fluidic, and even some biological applications. Here, we describe a 3D-printed cell culture platform and demonstrate its use in culturing Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bacteria for 44 h under a differential substrate gradient. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel barriers are patterned in situ within a 3D-printed channel. Transport of the toluidine blue tracer dye through the hydrogel barriers is characterized. Nutrients and oxygen were delivered to cells in the culture region by diffusion through the PEGDA hydrogel barriers from adjacent media or saline perfusion channels. Expression of green fluorescent protein by P. putida KT2440 enabled real time visualization of cell density within the 3D-printed channel, and demonstrated cells were actively expressing protein over the course of the experiment. Cells were observed clustering near hydrogel barrier boundaries where fresh substrate and oxygen were being delivered via diffusive transport, but cells were unable to penetrate the barrier. The device described here provides a versatile and easy to implement platform for cell culture in readily controlled gradient microenvironments. By adjusting device geometry and hydrogel properties, this platform could be further customized for a wide variety of biological applications.

  13. Use of hydrogels in the planting of industrial wood plantations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an overview of the concepts of post-plant water stress, a review of trials that tested application of hydrogels to forest tree species, and discussion on probable reasons for failure or success in the use of hydrogels. Hydrogels applied in pot trials, under controlled conditions, tended to have a higher ...

  14. Natural fibers for hydrogels production and their applications in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna Cock

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on hydrogels applied to agriculture emphasizing on the use of natural fibers. The objectives were to examine, trends in research addressed to identify natural fibers used in hydrogels development and methods for modifying natural fibers, understand factors which determine the water retention capacity of a hydrogel. Consequently, this paper shows some methodologies used to evaluate the hydrogels efficiency and to collect in tables, relevant information in relation to methods of natural fibers modification and hydrogel synthesis. It was found that previous research focused on hydrogels development processed with biodegradable polymers such as starch, chitosan and modified natural fibers, cross-linked with potassium acrylate and acrylamide, respectively. In addition, current researches aimed to obtaining hydrogels with improved properties, which have allowed a resistance to climatic variations and soil physicochemical changes, such as pH, presence of salts, temperature and composition. In fact, natural fibers such as sugarcane, agave fiber and kapok fiber, modified with maleic anhydride, are an alternative to obtain hydrogels due to an increasing of mechanical properties and chemically active sites. However, the use of natural nanofibers in hydrogels, has been a successful proposal to improve hydrogels mechanical and swelling properties, since they give to material an elasticity and rigidity properties. A hydrogel efficiency applied to soil, is measured throughout properties as swellability, mechanical strength, and soil water retention. It was concluded that hydrogels, are an alternative to the current needs for the agricultural sector.

  15. Co-assembly of chitosan and phospholipids into hybrid hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Engwer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid hydrogels were formed by adding chitosan (Ch) to phospholipids (P) self-assembled particles in lactic acid. The effect of the phospholipid concentration on the hydrogel properties was investigated and was observed to affect the rate of hydrogel formation and viscoelastic properties...

  16. Self-assembly of star micelle into vesicle in solvents of variable quality: the star micelle retains its core-shell nanostructure in the vesicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nijuan; He, Qun; Bu, Weifeng

    2015-03-03

    Intra- and intermolecular interactions of star polymers in dilute solutions are of fundamental importance for both theoretical interest and hierarchical self-assembly into functional nanostructures. Here, star micelles with a polystyrene corona and a small ionic core bearing platinum(II) complexes have been regarded as a model of star polymers to mimic their intra- and interstar interactions and self-assembled behaviors in solvents of weakening quality. In the chloroform/methanol mixture solvents, the star micelles can self-assemble to form vesicles, in which the star micelles shrink significantly and are homogeneously distributed on the vesicle surface. Unlike the morphological evolution of conventional amphiphiles from micellar to vesicular, during which the amphiphilic molecules are commonly reorganized, the star micelles still retain their core-shell nanostructures in the vesicles and the coronal chains of the star micelle between the ionic cores are fully interpenetrated.

  17. Mixed micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid and selected hydrophobic bile acids: interaction parameter, partition coefficient of nitrazepam and mixed micelles haemolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Tepavčević, Vesna

    2011-09-01

    The formation of mixed micelles built of 7,12-dioxolithocholic and the following hydrophobic bile acids was examined by conductometric method: cholic (C), deoxycholic (D), chenodeoxycholic (CD), 12-oxolithocholic (12-oxoL), 7-oxolithocholic (7-oxoL), ursodeoxycholic (UD) and hiodeoxycholic (HD). Interaction parameter (β) in the studied binary mixed micelles had negative value, suggesting synergism between micelle building units. Based on β value, the hydrophobic bile acids formed two groups: group I (C, D and CD) and group II (12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD and HD). Bile acids from group II had more negative β values than bile acids from group I. Also, bile acids from group II formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds in aggregates with both smaller (2) and higher (4) aggregation numbers, according to the analysis of their stereochemical (conformational) structures and possible structures of mixed micelles built of these bile acids and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. Haemolytic potential and partition coefficient of nitrazepam were higher in mixed micelles built of the more hydrophobic bile acids (C, D, CD) and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid than in micelles built only of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. On the other hand, these mixed micelles still had lower values of haemolytic potential than micelles built of C, D or CD. The mixed micelles that included bile acids: 12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD or HD did not significantly differ from the micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid, observing the values of their haemolytic potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in myopia with low-Dk hydrogel and high-Dk silicone hydrogel extended wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Isabelle; Stretton, Serina; Naduvilath, Thomas; Holden, Brien; Keay, Lisa; Sweeney, Deborah

    2004-08-01

    This study compared changes in myopia between wearers of high-oxygen permeability (Dk) silicone hydrogel lenses and low-Dk hydrogel lenses after 1 year of extended wear (EW). Ninety-two adult subjects were randomly assigned to a lens type. Subjective refraction and autokeratometry were performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. After 6 months of EW, myopia (spherical equivalent) regressed by 0.18 +/- 0.33 D (p Dk silicone hydrogel group and progressed by -0.23 +/- 0.36 D (p Dk hydrogel group. There were no further changes after 12 months. Previous lens wear history, baseline refractive error, and age and gender did not have an impact on the change in myopia, and only 35% of the variation could be accounted for by changes in corneal curvature and lens type. Soft contact lens type significantly affects the direction of change in myopia during EW. We hypothesize that these changes are driven by pressure-related redistribution of corneal tissue in high-Dk silicone hydrogel lens wearers and by hypoxia-associated corneal thinning in low-Dk hydrogel wearers. More long-term studies are required to confirm whether the effects of high-Dk silicone hydrogel lens wear on myopia are permanent.

  19. Interactions between tea catechins and casein micelles and their impact on renneting functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratifar, Sanaz; Corredig, Milena

    2014-01-15

    Many studies have shown that tea catechins bind to milk proteins. This research focused on the association of tea polyphenols with casein micelles, and the consequences of the interactions on the renneting behaviour of skim milk. It was hypothesized that epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), the main catechin present in green tea, forms complexes with the casein micelles and that the association modifies the processing functionality of casein micelles. The binding of EGCG to casein micelles was quantified using HPLC. The formation of catechin-casein micelles complexes affected the rennet induced gelation of milk, and the effect was concentration dependent. Both the primary as well as the secondary stage of gelation were affected. These experiments clearly identify the need for a better understanding of the effect of tea polyphenols on the processing functionality of casein micelles, before milk products can be used as an appropriate platform for delivery of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering single-polymer micelle shape using nonuniform spontaneous surface curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles. Our design scheme posits that further shapes are attained by altering the segment lengths. As a first study of the power of this scheme, we demonstrate the capacity to produce long-lived micelles of horseshoe form using conventional bead-spring simulations in two dimensions. Modest changes in the segment lengths produce smooth changes in the micelle's shape and stability.

  1. The fabrication of nanopatterns with Au nanoparticles-embedded micelles via nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Kim, Eun-Uk; Koh, Haeng-Deog; Kang, Nam-Goo; Jung, Gun-Young; Lee, Jae-Suk, E-mail: gyjung@gist.ac.k, E-mail: jslee@gist.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-09

    We fabricated nanopatterns with Au nanoparticles-embedded micelles (Au-micelles) by self-assembly of block copolymers via nanoimprint lithography. The micelle structure prepared by self-assembled block copolymers was used as a template for the synthesis of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs were synthesized in situ inside the micelles of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS- b-P2VP). Au-micelles were arranged on the trenches of the polymer template, which was imprinted by nanoimprint lithography. The fabrication of line-type and dot-type nanopatterns was carried out by the combined method. In addition, multilayer nanopatterns of the Au-micelles were also proposed.

  2. Radiolabeling of liposomes and polymeric micelles with PET-isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    as a revolution in modern therapeutics, especially in chemotherapy. A major reason is the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate in tumor tissue. Liposomes are the classic nanoparticle, consisting of a lipid membrane with an aqueous core. Polymeric micelles are made from amphiphilic detergent‐like copolymers......This thesis is divided into three separate chapters that can be read independently. Chapter 1 is a general introduction, touching upon liposomes and polymeric micelles and radiolabeling with 18F and 64Cu. Chapter 2 and 3 address two separate research projects, each described below. A complete......‐life only allowing up to 8 hours scans. 18F must be covalently attached to components of the liposome. By binding to a lipid, it can be stably lodged in the membrane. A glycerolipid and a cholesteryl ether were synthesized with free primary alcohols and a series of their sulphonates (Ms, Ts, Tf) were...

  3. The development of phytosterol-lecithin mixed micelles and organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Andrew B; Dalkas, Georgios; Gromov, Andrei; Euston, Stephen R; Clegg, Paul S

    2017-12-13

    We demonstrate that by mixing the phytosterol-ester oryzanol with lecithin in an organic solvent, both components may be dispersed at much higher concentrations than they may be individually. Dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamics simulations show that the mechanism for this is the formation of r ∼ 4 nm mixed micelles. Infrared spectroscopy and simulations suggest that these micelles are formed due in part to hydrogen bonding of the phosphate of the lecithin head-group, and the phenol group of the oryzanol. Rheology shows that by mixing these materials at an equimolar ratio, highly viscous suspensions are created. Furthermore, by adding water to these samples, a solid-like gel may be formed which offers mechanical properties close to those desired for a margarine type spread, whilst still solubilizing the oryzanol.

  4. Application of polymeric nanoparticles and micelles in insulin oral delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Sadashiv Alai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease in which the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin or the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin therapy has been the best choice for the clinical management of diabetes mellitus. The current insulin therapy is via subcutaneous injection, which often fails to mimic the glucose homeostasis that occurs in normal individuals. This provokes numerous attempts to develop a safe and effective noninvasive route for insulin delivery. Oral delivery is the most convenient administration route. However, insulin cannot be well absorbed orally because of its rapid enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, nanoparticulate carriers such as polymeric nanoparticles and micelles are employed for the oral delivery of insulin. These nanocarriers protect insulin from degradation and facilitate insulin uptake via a transcellular and/or paracellular pathway. This review article focuses on the application of nanoparticles and micelles in insulin oral delivery. The recent advances in this topic are also reviewed.

  5. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  6. Surface Friction of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Nicholas; Burton, Justin

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel particles have recently become a popular system for modeling low-friction, granular materials near the jamming transition. Because a gel consists of a polymer network filled with solvent, its frictional behavior is often explained using a combination of hydrodynamic lubrication and polymer-surface interactions. As a result, the frictional coefficient can vary between 0.001 and 0.03 depending on several factors such as contact area, sliding velocity, normal force, and the gel surface chemistry. Most tribological measurements of hydrogels utilize two flat surfaces, where the contact area is not well-defined. We have built a custom, low-force tribometer to measure the single-contact frictional properties of spherical hydrogel particles on flat hydrogel surfaces under a variety of measurement conditions. At high velocities (> 1 cm/s), the friction coefficient depends linearly on velocity, but does not tend to zero at zero velocity. We also compare our measurements to solid particles (steel, glass, etc.) on hydrogel surfaces, which exhibit larger frictional forces, and show less dependence on velocity. A physical model for the friction which includes the lubrication layer between the deformed surfaces will be discussed. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1506446.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on polyvinylpyrrolidone hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Vásquez, P.A.S.; Alcântara, M.T.S.; Munhoz, M.M.L.; Lugão, A.B., E-mail: mariajhho@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br, E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogels have been investigated as drug delivery matrices for the treatment of wounds, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis, and matrices with silver nanoparticles for chronic wounds and burns. The preparation of such hydrogels can occur by various cross-linking methods, such as gamma, chemical, physical, among others. The most feasible for wound dressings is gamma irradiation from cobalt-60, because gamma irradiation simultaneously promotes crosslinking and sterilization, leaving the wound dressing ready for use. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect on physico- chemical properties of gamma radiation on PVP hydrogel according to the radiation absorbed dose variation. The PVP hydrogels were irradiated with doses of 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 and 95kGy at dose rate of 5 kGy/h and characterized by swelling, thermogravimetric and mechanical analysis. Results shown a favorable dose range window for processing of these hydrogels related to the application. The results showed that mechanical strength was affected at doses starting at 25 kGy. (author)

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on polyvinylpyrrolidone hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.J.A.; Vásquez, P.A.S.; Alcântara, M.T.S.; Munhoz, M.M.L.; Lugão, A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogels have been investigated as drug delivery matrices for the treatment of wounds, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis, and matrices with silver nanoparticles for chronic wounds and burns. The preparation of such hydrogels can occur by various cross-linking methods, such as gamma, chemical, physical, among others. The most feasible for wound dressings is gamma irradiation from cobalt-60, because gamma irradiation simultaneously promotes crosslinking and sterilization, leaving the wound dressing ready for use. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect on physico- chemical properties of gamma radiation on PVP hydrogel according to the radiation absorbed dose variation. The PVP hydrogels were irradiated with doses of 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 and 95kGy at dose rate of 5 kGy/h and characterized by swelling, thermogravimetric and mechanical analysis. Results shown a favorable dose range window for processing of these hydrogels related to the application. The results showed that mechanical strength was affected at doses starting at 25 kGy. (author)

  9. PVA hydrogel properties for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Sha; Feng, Wenhao

    2011-10-01

    PVA has been proposed as a promising biomaterial suitable for tissue mimicking, vascular cell culturing and vascular implanting. In this research, a kind of transparent PVA hydrogel has been investigated in order to mimic the creatural soft tissue deformation during mini-invasive surgery with needle intervention, such as brachytherapy. Three kinds of samples with the same composition of 3 g PVA, 17 g de-ionized water, 80 g dimethyl-sulfoxide but different freeze/thaw cycles have been prepared. In order to investigate the structure and properties of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, micro-structure, mechanical property and deformation measurement have been conducted. As the SEM image comparison results show, with the increase of freeze/thaw cycles, PVA hydrogel revealed the similar micro-structure to porcine liver tissue. With uniaxial tensile strength test, the above composition with a five freeze/thaw cycle sample resulted in Young's modulus similar to that of porcine liver's property. Through the comparison of needle insertion deformation experiment and the clinical experiment during brachytherapy, results show that the PVA hydrogel had the same deformation property as prostate tissue. These transparent hydrogel phantom materials can be suitable soft tissue substitutes in needle intervention precision or pre-operation planning studies, particularly in the cases of mimicking creatural tissue deformation and analysing video camera images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlled release studies of calcium alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendevski, S.; Andonovski, A.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release of substances in many cases may be achieved from calcium alginate hydrogels. In this research, the time dependence of the mass of released model substance bovine serum albumin (BSA) from calcium alginate spherical hydrogels of three different types (G/M ratio) have been investigated. The hydrogels were prepared with the drop-wise method of sodium alginate aqueous solutions with concentration of 0.02 g/cm 3 with 0.01 g/cm 3 BSA and a gelling water bath of chitosan in 0.2 M CH 3 COOH/0.4 M CH 3 COONa with added 0.2 M CaCl 2 .The hydrogel structures were characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The controlled release studies were conducted by UV-Vis spectrophotometry of the released medium with p H=7 at 37 °C. The results showed that the model of osmotic pumping is the dominant mechanism of the release. Also, large dependences of the release profile on the homogeneity of the hydrogels were found. (Author)

  11. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-01-01

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection

  12. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  13. Micelle-stabilized room-temperature phosphorescence with synchronous scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femia, R.A.; Love, L.J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental requirements for synchronous wavelength scanning micelle-stabilized room temperature phosphorescence and the factors affecting peak resolution are presented and compared with those for synchronous wavelength scanning fluorescence. Identification of individual compounds in a four-component mixture is illustrated, and criteria to identify and minimize triplet state energy transfer are given. Considerable improvement in resolution of the synchronous peaks is obtained via second derivative spectra. 20 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  14. Block copolymer micelles as switchable templates for nanofabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, S; Pugin, R; Brugger, J; Heinzelmann, H; Hoogerwerf, A C; Hinderling, C

    2006-01-01

    Block copolymer inverse micelles from polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P2VP) deposited as monolayer films onto surfaces show responsive behavior and are reversibly switchable between two states of different topography and surface chemistry. The as-coated films are in the form of arrays of nanoscale bumps, which can be transformed into arrays of nanoscale holes by switching through exposure to methanol. The use of these micellar films to act as switchable etch masks for the structu...

  15. Liquid crystalline states of surfactant solutions of isotropic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdassarian, C.; Gelbart, W.M.; Ben-Shaul, A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider micellar solutions whose surfactant molecules prefer strongly to form small, globular aggregates in the absence of intermicellar interactions. At sufficiently high volume fraction of surfactant, the isotropic phase of essentially spherical micelles is shown to be unstable with respect to an orientationally ordered (nematic) state of rodlike aggregates. This behavior is relevant to the phase diagrams reported for important classes of aqueous amphiphilic solutions

  16. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of curcumin loaded in Pluronic micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetelina Gorinova; Denitsa Aluani; Yordan Yordanov; Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina; Virginia Tzankova; Cvetelina Popova; Krassimira Yoncheva

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance with attractive pharmacological activities (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer). Incorporation of curcumin in polymeric micelles could overcome the problems associated with its instability and low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to load curcumin in polymeric micelles based on Pluronic® P 123 or Pluronic® F 127 triblock copolymers and evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects after micellization. The micelles were prepa...

  17. Gadolinium DTPA-monoamide complexes incorporated into mixed micelles as possible MRI contrast agents

    OpenAIRE

    Parac-Vogt, Tatjana; Kimpe, Kristof; Laurent, Sophie; Pierart, Corinne; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N.; Binnemans, Koen

    2004-01-01

    Four monoamide derivatives of Gd-DTPA with alkyl chains consisting of 12, 14, 16, or 18 carbon atoms were synthesized. The gadolinium(III) complexes with chain lengths of 14, 16 or 18 carbon atoms were efficiently incorporated into mixed micelles whereas the complex with a chain length of 12 carbon atoms was not incorporated into a micellar structure. The size distribution of the micelles was measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. The mean sizes of the micelles for all the complexes lay...

  18. Structure formation in binary mixtures of surfactants: vesicle opening-up to bicelles and octopus-like micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    Micelle formation in binary mixtures of surfactants is studied using a coarse-grained molecular simulation. When a vesicle composed of lipid and detergent types of molecules is ruptured, a disk-shaped micelle, the bicelle, is typically formed. It is found that cup-shaped vesicles and bicelles connected with worm-like micelles are also formed depending on the surfactant ratio and critical micelle concentration. The obtained octopus shape of micelles agree with those observed in the cryo-TEM images reported in [S. Jain and F. S. Bates, Macromol. 37, 1511 (2004).]. Two types of connection structures between the worm-like micelles and the bicelles are revealed.

  19. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H.; Shen, Jana K.

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pKa's in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pKa of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pKa of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  20. Complexation of Polyelectrolyte Micelles with Oppositely Charged Linear Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N; Miliou, Kalliopi; Vlahos, Costas

    2017-03-02

    The formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) from linear AB diblock copolymer precursor micelles and oppositely charged linear homopolymers is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. All beads of the linear polyelectrolyte (C) are charged with elementary quenched charge +1e, whereas in the diblock copolymer only the solvophilic (A) type beads have quenched charge -1e. For the same Bjerrum length, the ratio of positive to negative charges, Z +/- , of the mixture and the relative length of charged moieties r determine the size of IPECs. We found a nonmonotonic variation of the size of the IPECs with Z +/- . For small Z +/- values, the IPECs retain the size of the precursor micelle, whereas at larger Z +/- values the IPECs decrease in size due to the contraction of the corona and then increase as the aggregation number of the micelle increases. The minimum size of the IPECs is obtained at lower Z +/- values when the length of the hydrophilic block of the linear diblock copolymer decreases. The aforementioned findings are in agreement with experimental results. At a smaller Bjerrum length, we obtain the same trends but at even smaller Z +/- values. The linear homopolymer charged units are distributed throughout the corona.

  1. Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Computed Tomography: A Focus on Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, David P.; Naha, Pratap C.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an X-ray based whole body imaging technique that is widely used in medicine. Clinically approved contrast agents for CT are iodinated small molecules or barium suspensions. Over the past seven years there has been a great increase in the development of nanoparticles as CT contrast agents. Nanoparticles have several advantages over small molecule CT contrast agents, such as long blood-pool residence times, and the potential for cell tracking and targeted imaging applications. Furthermore, there is a need for novel CT contrast agents, due to the growing population of renally impaired patients and patients hypersensitive to iodinated contrast. Micelles and lipoproteins, a micelle-related class of nanoparticle, have notably been adapted as CT contrast agents. In this review we discuss the principles of CT image formation and the generation of CT contrast. We discuss the progress in developing non-targeted, targeted and cell tracking nanoparticle CT contrast agents. We feature agents based on micelles and used in conjunction with spectral CT. The large contrast agent doses needed will necessitate careful toxicology studies prior to clinical translation. However, the field has seen tremendous advances in the past decade and we expect many more advances to come in the next decade. PMID:24470293

  2. Negative adsorption due to electrostatic exclusion of micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaran, P; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P; Deo, Puspendu

    2005-10-15

    Interactions of surfactants with solid substrates are important in the controlling of processes such as flotation, coating, flocculation and sedimentation. These interactions usually lead to adsorption on solids, but can also result in an exclusion of the reagents with dire consequences. In this work electrostatic exclusion of negatively charged dodecylbenzene sulfonate micelles from quartz/water, Bio-Sil/water and alumina/water interfaces has been investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Measurable negative adsorption of these surfactants from similarly charged solid/liquid interface was observed in the micellar region. In the case of porous samples with large surface area, comparison of pore size with the micelle size is necessary to avoid any erroneous conclusions regarding the role of electrostatic exclusion in a given system. A theoretical model for the electrostatic exclusion of micelles is developed and used to calculate the adsorption of negatively charged dodecylbenzene sulfonate on negatively charged quartz (pH 7), silica (Bio-Sil A, pH 3) and alumina (pH 11) in the micellar concentration region. The micellar exclusion values calculated using the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Shen, Jana K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H. [Computational Chemistry, Modeling and Simulation GCO, Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pK{sub a}’s in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pK{sub a} of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pK{sub a} of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  4. Relationship between structure and reactivity in AOT inverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Christophe

    1988-01-01

    As inverse micelles can be considered as chemical micro-reactors, the objective of this research thesis is to show that reaction rates can be modified, either by varying the size of micro-reactors, or by modifying the location of one of the reactants. After a brief overview of noticeable results obtained on AOT inverse micelles about the structure and reactivity, the author reports the study of structural modifications induced by an addition of small molecules or proteins. Two complementary models are proposed on this purpose: a geometrical model which reports the medium microscopic evolution and a kinetic model which could report the system microscopic evolution as well reactivity changes with respect to probe location. The next part reports the study of in situ synthesis of semi-conductor particles in AOT inverse micelles. The author then reports that a surprising aspect of macromolecule solubilization has been noticed: the solubilization of a polypeptide, gelatine, allows the whole system to be gelled whereas gelatine is essentially polar [fr

  5. Characterization and improvement of PVAl/PVP/PEG hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Almeida, Monise F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVAl), poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly (ethylene glycol). They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. In this study it was compared the hydrogels reticulation for irradiation gamma O 2 and N 2 atmosphere. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and the toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA), swelling and gel determinations. The membranes have no toxicity and gel content revealed the crosslinking degree. (author)

  6. Fluxgate magnetorelaxometry of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for hydrogel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, Erik; Harling, Steffen; Poehlig, Kai; Ludwig, Frank; Menzel, Henning; Schilling, Meinhard

    2007-01-01

    A new characterization method for hydrogels based on the relaxation behavior of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is proposed. MNPs are incorporated in the hydrogel to examine its network properties. By analyzing their relaxation behavior, incorporated and mobile nanoparticles can be studied. In the case of mobile nanoparticles, the microviscosity of the hydrogel can be determined. Thus, this method allows the studying of gelation as well as the degradation process of hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel can have any shape (e.g. microspheres or larger blocks) and no sample preparation is needed, avoiding artefacts

  7. Radiation synthesis and characterization of polyacrylic acid hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Song Hongyan; Zhu Chengshen; He Suqin

    2007-01-01

    The pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogels were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation at an ambient temperature. The influences of dose, monomer concentration, cross-linking agent content, pH, and ionic strength on the swelling ratio (SR) of the PAA hydrogels were investigated in detail. The results show that the SR of the hydrogel decreases with an increase in the dose, monomer concentration, and cross-linking agent content. In alkaline solution, the SR of the hydrogels is much higher than that in acid solution. Also, the ionic strength can influence the SR of the hydrogels. The more the concentration, the lower the SR. (authors)

  8. Solution structure of detergent micelles at conditions relevant to membrane protein crystallization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littrell, K.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Tiede, D.; Urban, V.

    1999-07-02

    In this study small angle neutron scattering was used to characterize the formation of micelles in aqueous solutions of the detergents DMG and SPC as a function of detergent concentration and ionic strength of the solvent. The effects on the micelle structure of the additives glycerol and PEG, alone as well as in combination typical for actual membrane protein crystallization, were also explored. This research suggests that the micelles are cigar-like in form at the concentrations studied. The size of the micelles was observed to increase with increasing ionic strength but decrease with the addition of glycerol or PEG.

  9. Effect of Urea on the Thermodynamics of Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide Micelle Formation in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikov, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of urea on the thermodynamics of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle formation in aqueous urea solutions was studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The thermodynamic functions of Δ H, Δ G, and Δ S of CTAB micelle formation were calculated. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were determined. The addition of urea to the solution decreased the micelle formation entropy. This was attributed to the "lowering" of the structural temperature of the solution, which led to an increased number of hydrogen bonds and structure formation of water.

  10. Hydrolytic degradation of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone worm micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E

    2005-09-21

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation-induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by polycaprolactone hydrolysis, with distinct mechanism and kinetics from that which occurs in bulk material.

  11. Small angle neutron scattering study of the micelle structure of amphiphilic block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Matsuoka, H.; Sumaru, K.; Hanada, S.

    1994-01-01

    The amphiphilic block copolymers of vinyl ether were prepared by living cationic polymerization. The partially deuterated copolymers for SANS experiments were especially synthesized by introducing deuterated phenyl units in the hydrophobic chain. SANS measurements were performed for aqueous solutions of these copolymers by changing H 2 O/D 2 O ratios. The SANS profiles indicate that the micelles in the present system exhibit a core-shell structure and that the size and shape of micelles are largely dependent on the length of hydrophobic chain. The micelle of shorter hydrophobic chain was found to be nearly spherical, whereas the micelle of longer hydrophobic chain was confirmed to have an ellipsoidal shape

  12. Building a Better Microreactor: Enzyme Catalysis in AOT/Bile Salt Reversed Micelles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGown, Linda

    2001-01-01

    .... We have shown that trihydroxy bile salts modify the interfacial properties of AOT reversed micelles, thereby affecting the reversed micellar structure, the biological activity of entrapped enzymes...

  13. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl-octadecyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (TPODAC) as a structure directing agent. The mesopores were generated by adding micelle swelling agent, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, during the synthesis and removing it afterward, which was demonstrated to greatly increase the HOC removal efficiency. In this material, TPODAC surfactant is directly anchored on the pore surface of mesoporous silica via SiOSi covalent bond after the synthesis due to its reactive Si(OCH 3) 3 head group, and thus makes the synthesized materials can be easily regenerated for reuse. The obtained materials show great potential in water treatment as pollutants sorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of hydrogel wound dressing by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Kazuki

    2008-01-01

    It has been thought that making a dry scab helps to cure a wound faster. However, recently a treatment of a wound according to moist healing theory which cure a wound without making a scab is becoming popular. Accordingly, we prepared a highly stable sheet type hydrogel in a short period by radiating electron beam to an aqueous solution of a polymer. The hydrogel is not soluble in water and keeps suitable moist environment for wound healing. Therefore, a hydrogel a wound dressing, Viewgel R in which represents a registered trademark and is referred to Viewgel hereinafter, is developed and released from July of 2004. In this paper we report the process of the development of Viewgel. (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of anisotropic magnetic hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.hinrichs@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Nun, Nils; Fischer, Birgit, E-mail: birgit.fischer@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2017-06-01

    Multiresponsive hydrogels are an interesting new class of materials. They offer the advantage, that they respond to different stimuli like temperature, pH and magnetic fields. By this they can change their properties which makes the hydrogels ideal candidates for many applications in the technical as well as medical field. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of hydrogels - micro- as well as macrogels - which consist of an iron oxide core, varying in phase and morphology, embedded in a thermoresponsive polymer, consisting of poly N-isopropylacrylamide. By using dynamic light scattering we investigated the thermoresponsive properties. In addition we were able to follow the formation of the macrogel by monitoring the shear viscosity.

  16. Development of AVLIS dye laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    CVL pumped single mode dye laser was performed. It was found that pressure tuning has some excellent feature in comparison to mechanical tuning in dye laser frequency control. For evaluation of dye laser amplifier, two-dimensional rate equation was proposed. Calculated data by this equation agreed with experimental data in large diameter input dye laser beam condition. (author)

  17. Treatment of dye house effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Ashraf, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental considerations play an increasingly important role in processing of textiles. For textile, limits on particular substances have been and are being laid down either by law or as a result of the demands of clothing manufactures. One of the most complex areas in textile processing is textile printing and dyeing. Here, virtually all dye classes are used. In some printing processes such as reactive printing, many of products used end up in the wastewater. A study of the optimisation of wastewater treatment systems and the systematic management of water and the problems of dyeing are reviewed in this article. (author)

  18. Gradient Material Strategies for Hydrogel Optimization in Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of combinatorial/high-throughput approaches have been developed for biomaterial hydrogel optimization, a gradient sample approach is particularly well suited to identify hydrogel property thresholds that alter cellular behavior in response to interacting with the hydrogel due to reduced variation in material preparation and the ability to screen biological response over a range instead of discrete samples each containing only one condition. This review highlights recent work on cell–hydrogel interactions using a gradient material sample approach. Fabrication strategies for composition, material and mechanical property, and bioactive signaling gradient hydrogels that can be used to examine cell–hydrogel interactions will be discussed. The effects of gradients in hydrogel samples on cellular adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation will then be examined, providing an assessment of the current state of the field and the potential of wider use of the gradient sample approach to accelerate our understanding of matrices on cellular behavior. PMID:29485612

  19. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhi Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hydrogel valve system. The study demonstrates that FSI significantly affects the gel swelling deformed shapes, fluid flow pressure and velocity patterns. FSI has to be considered in the study on fluid flow regulated by hydrogel microfluidic valve. The study provides a more accurate and adoptable model for future design of new pH-sensitive hydrogel valves, and also gives a useful guideline for further studies on hydrogel fluidic applications.

  20. 3D-Printable Bioactivated Nanocellulose-Alginate Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppiniemi, Jenni; Lahtinen, Panu; Paajanen, Antti; Mahlberg, Riitta; Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini; Pinomaa, Tatu; Pajari, Heikki; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Pursula, Pekka; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2017-07-05

    We describe herein a nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel suitable for 3D printing. The composition of the hydrogel was optimized based on material characterization methods and 3D printing experiments, and its behavior during the printing process was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The hydrogel was biofunctionalized by the covalent coupling of an enhanced avidin protein to the cellulose nanofibrils. Ionic cross-linking of the hydrogel using calcium ions improved the performance of the material. The resulting hydrogel is suitable for 3D printing, its mechanical properties indicate good tissue compatibility, and the hydrogel absorbs water in moist conditions, suggesting potential in applications such as wound dressings. The biofunctionalization potential was shown by attaching a biotinylated fluorescent protein and a biotinylated fluorescent small molecule via avidin and monitoring the material using confocal microscopy. The 3D-printable bioactivated nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel offers a platform for the development of biomedical devices, wearable sensors, and drug-releasing materials.

  1. Thermoresponsive chitosan-agarose hydrogel for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sónia P; Ribeiro, Maximiano P; Brancal, Hugo; Coutinho, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J

    2014-10-13

    Healing enhancement and pain control are critical issues on wound management. So far, different wound dressings have been developed. Among them, hydrogels are the most applied. Herein, a thermoresponsive hydrogel was produced using chitosan (deacetylation degree 95%) and agarose. Hydrogel bactericidal activity, biocompatibility, morphology, porosity and wettability were characterized by confocal microscopy, MTS assay and SEM. The performance of the hydrogel in the wound healing process was evaluated through in vivo assays, during 21 days. The attained results revealed that hydrogel has a pore size (90-400 μm) compatible with cellular internalization and proliferation. A bactericidal activity was observed for hydrogels containing more than 188 μg/mL of chitosan. The improved healing and the lack of a reactive or a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in skin lesions treated with hydrogel demonstrate its suitability to be used in a near future as a wound dressing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of hydrogels composites for potential use as biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gabriela T. da; Alves, Natali O.; Schulz, Gracelie A.S.; Fajardo, Andre R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels, three-dimensional polymer networks that can absorb and retain impressive amounts of liquid, have shown a remarkable evolution in the past years. Since their first description, the hydrogels have replaced their inert characteristic by smart properties, which help enlarging the range of applicability of such soft materials in different fields. Hydrogels had been prepared from various polymers (including synthetic or natural or both), which allows obtaining materials with unique and desirable properties. This work deals with the preparation of hydrogels and hydrogel composites based on a synthetic/natural hybrid polymer network filled with bovine bone powder, which is composed mainly by hydroxyapatite (as inorganic phase) and collagen (as organic phase). The resulting materials were characterized by DRX, FTIR and TGA analyses. Additionally, water uptake capacity was estimated for both hydrogels and hydrogels composites samples by swelling assays. (author)

  3. Survery on Actual Conditions of Food Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, ひろみ

    1981-01-01

    Many food dyes are widely used as food additives in Japan, and many investigations have been pointed the problems of safety of these food dyes used in Japanese food. There are two types of commercial food dyes, one is synthetic dyes and the other is natural dyes.Recently Japanese food is not stained so colourfully, but it is stained faintly in colour near to natural food by using of mixed synthetic dyes. On their hand, many consumers have a tendency to prefer natural food dyes because they ha...

  4. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fa Hsieh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments: Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol (mPEG and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε‑caprolactone (PCL; which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG‑COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14 of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  5. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Industry, 12 Nguyen Van Bao St, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jim-Ray [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jwo, Shyh-Chuan [Division of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa, E-mail: mfhsieh@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-28

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  6. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun; Chen, Jim-Ray; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2010-01-01

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX

  7. Micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates as an emerging platform for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Yutao; Zhang, Na

    2012-07-01

    During the past decades, polymer-drug conjugates are one of the hottest topics in novel drug development fields. Amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugates in aqueous solution could form micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies. Compared with polymer-drug conjugates and the micelles into which drugs are physically entrapped, micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates bring several additional advantages, including increased drug-loading capacity, enhanced intracellular uptake, reduced systemic toxicity, and improved therapeutic efficacy. This review focuses on recent progress achieved in the research field of micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates. Firstly, properties of polymers, drugs, and linkers which could be used to build polymer-drug conjugate micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies are summarized. Then, the characterization methods are described. Finally, the drug-targeting mechanisms are discussed. Micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates as an emerging platform have the potential to achieve medical treatments with enhanced therapeutic effect. The application of micelles or micelle-like nanoassemblies based on polymer-drug conjugates may give new life to old active compounds abandoned due to their low solubility problems. For clinical application, there is a need to further optimize the properties of the polymer, drug, and linker.

  8. Development of a radiochromic ferric oligomer hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin; Sekimoto, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Ferrous gelatin hydrogels were prepared by using sulphuric acid concentrations lower than required to maintain radiation induced ferric ions fully hydrated. The ferric hydroxyl species that are produced following irradiation exhibit a radiochromic response that can be probed with blue light. The dose distribution shapes were stable in time, indicating no long term diffusion. An over response to dose gradients was observed both in one centimeter cuvette samples and litre volumes probed with optical cone beam CT. This ferrous hydrogel may represent a model system for studying iron radiochemistry in biological systems.

  9. Hydrogel based QCM aptasensor for detection of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) aptasensor based on ssDNA crosslinked polymeric hydrogel for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1. A selected aptamer with high affinity and specificity against AIV H5N1 surface protein was used, and hybridization between the aptamer and ssDNA formed the crosslinker in the polymer hydrogel. The aptamer hydrogel was immobilized on the gold surface of QCM sensor using a self-assembled monolayer method. The hydrogel remained in the state of shrink if no H5N1 virus was present in the sample because of the crosslinking between the aptamer and ssDNA in the polymer network. When it exposed to target virus, the binding reaction between the aptamer and H5N1 virus caused the dissolution of the linkage between the aptamer and ssDNA, resulting in the abrupt swelling of the hydrogel. The swollen hydrogel was monitored by the QCM sensor in terms of decreased frequency. Three polymeric hydrogels with different ratio (100:1 hydrogel I, 10:1 hydrogel II, 1:1 hydrogel III) of acrylamide and the aptamer monomer were synthesized, respectively, and then were used as the QCM sensor coating material. The results showed that the developed hydrogel QCM aptasensor was capable of detecting target H5N1 virus, and among the three developed aptamer hydrogels, hydrogel III coated QCM aptasensor achieved the highest sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.0128 HAU (HA unit). The total detection time from sampling to detection was only 30 min. In comparison with the anti-H5 antibody coated QCM immunosensor, the hydrogel QCM aptasensor lowered the detection limit and reduced the detection time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The synthesis of hydrogels with controlled distribution of polymer brushes in hydrogel network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, YuWei; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, AoKai; Xu, LiQun; Yao, Fang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China); Cen, Lian, E-mail: cenlian@hotmail.com [National Tissue Engineering Center of China, No.68, East Jiang Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200241 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, No.130, Mei Long Road, Shanghai, 200237 (China); Fu, Guo-Dong, E-mail: fu7352@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Many biological tissues are 3-dimensionally asymmetric in structure and properties, it would be desirable if hydrogels could bear such structural similarity with specialized surface and bulk properties. Moreover, gradual but continuous variation in spatial structural and property is also a common phenomenon in biological tissues, such as interfaces between bone and tendon, or between bone and cartilage. Hence, the development of a method to introduce well-defined functional polymer brushes on PEG hydrogels, especially with precisely controlled spatial structure in 3-dimensions, would impart the hydrogels with special functionalities and wider applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with 3-dimensionally controlled well-defined poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm)) brushes were prepared by combined copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (“Click Chemistry”) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The resulting hydrogels were presented as representatives with their detailed synthesis routes and characterization. H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm) is a hydrogel with poly(NIPAAm) brushes mainly grafted on surface, whereas H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) has a gradiently decreased poly(NIPAAm) brushes in their chain length from surface to inside. On the other hand, poly(NIPAAm) brushes in H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) are uniformly dispersed throughout the whole hydrogel network. Successful preparation of H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm), H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) and H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. Hence, the flexibility and controllability of the synthetic strategy in varying the distribution of polymer brushes and hydrogel surface properties was demonstrated. Hydrogels with tunable and well-defined 3-dimensional poly(NIPAAm) polymer brushes could be tailor-designed to find potential applications in smart devices or skin dressing, such as for diabetics

  11. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  12. Hydrogel-Embedded Model Photocatalytic System Investigated by Raman and IR Spectroscopy Assisted by Density Functional Theory Calculations and Two-Dimensional Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitner, Robert; Götz, Stefan; Stach, Robert; Siegmann, Michael; Krebs, Patrick; Zechel, Stefan; Schreyer, Kristin; Winter, Andreas; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S; Gräfe, Stefanie; Dietzek, Benjamin; Mizaikoff, Boris; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-03-15

    The presented study reports the synthesis and the vibrational spectroscopic characterization of different matrix-embedded model photocatalysts. The goal of the study is to investigate the interaction of a polymer matrix with photosensitizing dyes and metal complexes for potential future photocatalytic applications. The synthesis focuses on a new rhodamine B derivate and a Pt(II) terpyridine complex, which both contain a polymerizable methacrylate moiety and an acid labile acylhydrazone group. The methacrylate moieties are afterward utilized to synthesize functional model hydrogels mainly consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate units. The pH-dependent and temperature-dependent behavior of the hydrogels is investigated by means of Raman and IR spectroscopy assisted by density functional theory calculations and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The spectroscopic results reveal that the Pt(II) terpyridine complex can be released from the polymer matrix by cleaving the C═N bond in an acid environment. The same behavior could not be observed in the case of the rhodamine B dye although it features a comparable C═N bond. The temperature-dependent study shows that the water evaporation has a significant influence neither on the molecular structure of the hydrogel nor on the model photocatalytic moieties.

  13. Glutathione-responsive core cross-linked micelles for controlled cabazitaxel delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoxiong; Gong, Feirong; Sun, Jing; Li, Yueqi; Liu, XiaoFei; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianwen; Shen, Yaling

    2018-02-01

    Stimulus-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) have recently received attention due to the controlled delivery of drug or gene for application in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this work, novel glutathione-responsive PMs were prepared to encapsulate hydrophobic antineoplastic drug, cabazitaxel (CTX), to improve its solubility and toxicity. These CTX-loaded micelles core cross-linked by disulfide bonds (DCL-CTX micelles) were prepared by a novel copolymer, lipoic acid grafted mPEG-PLA. These micelles had regular spherical shape, homogeneous diameter of 18.97 ± 0.23 nm, and a narrow size distribution. The DCL-CTX micelles showed high encapsulation efficiency of 98.65 ± 1.77%, and the aqueous solubility of CTX was improved by a factor of 1:1200. In vitro release investigation showed that DCL-CTX micelles were stable in the medium without glutathione (GSH), whereas the micelles had burst CTX release in the medium with 10 mM GSH. Cell uptake results implied that DCL-CTX micelles were internalized into MCF-7 cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and released cargo more effectively than Jevtana (commercially available CTX) owing to GSH-stimulated degradation. In MTT assay against MCF-7 cells, these micelles inhibited tumor cell proliferation more effectively than Jevtana due to their GSH-responsive CTX release. All results revealed the potency of GSH-responsive DCL-CTX micelles for stable delivery in blood circulation and for intracellular GSH-trigged release of CTX. Therefore, DCL-CTX micelles show potential as safe and effective CTX delivery carriers and as a cancer chemotherapy formulation.

  14. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry

  15. Reduction-responsive interlayer-crosslinked micelles prepared from star-shaped copolymer via click chemistry for drug controlled release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Wang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2017-12-01

    To improve the stability of polymeric micelles, here we describe interlayer-crosslinked micelles prepared from star-shaped copolymer via click chemistry. The formation of interlayer-crosslinked micelles was investigated and confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The morphology of un-crosslinked micelles and crosslinked micelles observed by transmission electron microscope is both uniform nano-sized spheres (approximately 20 nm). The crosslinking enhances the stability of polymeric micelles and improves the drug loading capacity of polymeric micelles. The interlayer-crosslinked micelles prepared from star-shaped copolymer and a crosslinker containing a disulfide bond are reduction-responsive and can release the drug quickly in the presence of the reducing agents such as glutathione (GSH).

  16. Bacterial adhesion to conventional hydrogel and new silicone-hydrogel contact lens materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjikian, Laurent; Casoli-Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Malet, Florence; Janin-Manificat, Hélène; Freney, Jean; Burillon, Carole; Colin, Joseph; Steghens, Jean-Paul

    2008-02-01

    As bacterial adhesion to contact lenses may contribute to the pathogenesis of keratitis, the aim of our study was to investigate in vitro adhesion of clinically relevant bacteria to conventional hydrogel (standard HEMA) and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses using a bioluminescent ATP assay. Four types of unworn contact lenses (Etafilcon A, Galyfilcon A, Balafilcon A, Lotrafilcon B) were incubated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (two different strains) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Lenses were placed with the posterior surface facing up and were incubated in the bacterial suspension for 4 hours at 37 degrees C. Bacterial binding was then measured and studied by bioluminescent ATP assay. Six replicate experiments were performed for each lens and strain. Adhesion of all species of bacteria to standard HEMA contact lenses (Etafilcon A) was found to be significantly lower than that of three types of silicone-hydrogel contact lenses, whereas Lotrafilcon B material showed the highest level of bacterial binding. Differences between species in the overall level of adhesion to the different types of contact lenses were observed. Adhesion of P. aeruginosa was typically at least 20 times greater than that observed with both S. epidermidis strains. Conventional hydrogel contact lenses exhibit significantly lower bacterial adhesion in vitro than silicone-hydrogel ones. This could be due to the greater hydrophobicity but also to the higher oxygen transmissibility of silicone-hydrogel lenses.

  17. Hydrogels in a historical perspective: From simple networks to smart materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, S.J.; Boere, K.W.M.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Vermonden, T.; Hennink, W.E.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the field of hydrogels as functional biomaterials. Biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hindered by the toxicity of crosslinking agents and limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. Emerging knowledge

  18. Hydrogels in a historical perspective : From simple networks to smart materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Sytze J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339146850; Boere, Kristel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018093; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Vermonden, Tina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/275124517; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the field of hydrogels as functional biomaterials. Biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hindered by the toxicity of crosslinking agents and limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. Emerging knowledge

  19. Near infrared imaging-guided photodynamic therapy under an extremely low energy of light by galactose targeted amphiphilic polypeptide micelle encapsulating BODIPY-Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Ruan, Zheng; Li, Tuanwei; Yuan, Pan; Yan, Lifeng

    2016-10-18

    Near infrared (NIR) imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) is attractive, especially the utilization of one dye as both a photosensitizer and fluorescent probe, and the as-synthesized BODIPY-Br 2 molecule is a candidate. Here, a galactose targeted amphiphilic copolymer of a polypeptide was synthesized and its micelles work as nanocarriers for BODIPY for targeting the NIR imaging-guided PDT of hepatoma cancer cells. At the same time, BODIPY could light up the cytoplasm for real-time imaging and kill cancer cells when the light was switched on. In vitro tests performed on both HepG2 and HeLa cells confirmed that the as-prepared PMAGP-POEGMA-PLys-B micelles showed efficient cell suppression of the cells with galactose receptors in the presence of light under an extremely low energy density (6.5 J cm -2 ). This protocol highlights the potential of polypeptides as biodegradable carriers for NIR image-guided and confined targeting photodynamic therapy.

  20. Formulation and release of alaptide from cellulose-based hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Sklenář

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern drug alaptide, synthetic dipeptide, shows regenerative effects and effects on the epitelisation process. A commercial product consisting of 1% alaptide hydrophilic cream is authorised for use in veterinary practice. This study focuses on the formulation of alaptide into semi-synthetic polymer-based hydrogels. The aim of the present study is to prepare hydrogels and to evaluate the liberation of alaptide from hydrogels. The hydrogels were prepared on the basis of three gel-producing substances: methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose. To enhance the drug release from hydrogel humectants, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol in various concentrations were evaluated. The permeation of the alaptide from gels into the acceptor solution was evaluated with the use of the permeable membrane neprophane. The amount of drug released from prepared hydrogels was determined spectrophotometrically. Hydrogels with optimal alaptide liberation properties were subjected to the study of rheological properties in the next phase. The optimal composition of hydrogel as established in this study was 1% alaptide + 3% hydroxyethylcellulose with the addition of 10% glycerol as humectant. Due to the advantageous properties of hydrogels in wounds, alaptide could be incorporated into a hydrogel base for use in veterinary medicine.

  1. Mechanical properties, structure, bioadhesion, and biocompatibility of pectin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Pavel A; Krachkovsky, Nikita S; Durnev, Eugene A; Martinson, Ekaterina A; Litvinets, Sergey G; Popov, Sergey V

    2017-09-01

    The surface structure, biocompatibility, textural, and adhesive properties of calcium hydrogels derived from 1, 2, and 4% solutions of apple pectin were examined in this study. An increase in the pectin concentration in hydrogels was shown to improve their stability toward elastic and plastic deformation. The elasticity of pectin hydrogels, measured as Young's modulus, ranged from 6 to 100 kPa. The mechanical properties of the pectin hydrogels were shown to correspond to those of soft tissues. The characterization of surface roughness in terms of the roughness profile (Ra) and the root-mean-square deviation of the roughness profile (Rq) indicated an increased roughness profile for hydrogels depending on their pectin concentration. The adhesion of AU2% and AU4% hydrogels to the serosa abdominal wall, liver, and colon was higher than that of the AU1% hydrogel. The adhesion of macrophages and the non-specific adsorption of blood plasma proteins were found to increase as the pectin concentration in the hydrogels increased. The rate of degradation of all hydrogels was higher in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) than that in DMEM and a fibroblast cell monolayer. The pectin hydrogel was also found to have a low cytotoxicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2572-2581, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mixed Hemi/Ad-Micelle Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for the Efficient Removal and Trace Determination of Rhodamine-B and Rhodamine-6G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbari, Elias; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Kiekens, Filip; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-08-04

    Mixed hemi/ad-micelle sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MHAMS-MIONPs) were used as an efficient adsorbent for both removal and preconcentration of two important carcinogenic xanthine dyes named rhodamine-B (RB) and rhodamine-6G (RG). To gain insight in the configuration of SDS molecules on the surface of MIONPs, zeta potential measurements were performed in different [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios. Zeta potential data indicated that mixed hemi/ad-micelle MHAM was formed in [SDS]/[MIONP] ratios over the range of 1.1 to 7.3. Parameters affecting the adsorption of dyes were optimized as removal efficiency by one variable at-a-time and response surface methodology; the obtained removal efficiencies were ∼100%. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies, under the optimum condition (pH = 2; amount of MIONPs = 87.15 mg; [SDS]/[MIONP] ratio = 2.9), showed that adsorption of both dyes are based on the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities for RB and RG were 385 and 323 mg g(-1), respectively. MHAMS-MIONPs were also applied for extraction of RB and RG. Under optimum conditions (pH = 2; amount of damped MHAMS-MIONPs = 90 mg; eluent solvent volume = 2.6 mL of 3% acetic acid in acetonitrile), extraction recoveries for 0.5 mg L(-1) of RB and RG were 98% and 99%, with preconcentration factors of 327 and 330, respectively. Limit of detection obtained for rhodamine dyes were <0.7 ng mL(-1). Finally, MHAMS-MIONPs were successfully applied for both removal and trace determination of RB and RG in environmental and wastewater samples.

  3. Enhancement of Curcumin Bioavailability Using Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thennakoon M. Sampath Udeni Gunathilake

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A unique biodegradable, superporous, swellable and pH sensitive nanocellulose reinforced chitosan hydrogel with dynamic mechanical properties was prepared for oral administration of curcumin. Curcumin, a less water-soluble drug was used due to the fact that the fast swellable, superporous hydrogel could release a water-insoluble drug to a great extent. CO2 gas foaming was used to fabricate hydrogel as it eradicates using organic solvents. Field emission scanning electron microscope images revealed that the pore size significantly increased with the formation of widely interconnected porous structure in gas foamed hydrogels. The maximum compression of pure chitosan hydrogel was 25.9 ± 1 kPa and it increased to 38.4 ± 1 kPa with the introduction of 0.5% cellulose nanocrystals. In vitro degradation of hydrogels was found dependent on the swelling ratio and the amount of CNC of the hydrogel. All the hydrogels showed maximum swelling ratios greater than 300%. The 0.5% CNC-chitosan hydrogel showed the highest swelling ratio of 438% ± 11%. FTIR spectrum indicated that there is no interaction between drug and ingredients present in hydrogels. The drug release occurred in non-Fickian (anomalous manner in simulated gastric medium. The drug release profiles of hydrogels are consistent with the data obtained from the swelling studies. After gas foaming of the hydrogel, the drug loading efficiency increased from 41% ± 2.4% to 50% ± 2.0% and release increased from 0.74 to 1.06 mg/L. The drug release data showed good fitting to Ritger-Peppas model. Moreover, the results revealed that the drug maintained its chemical activity after in vitro release. According to the results of this study, CNC reinforced chitosan hydrogel can be suggested to improve the bioavailability of curcumin for the absorption from stomach and upper intestinal tract.

  4. Methacrylate hydrogels reinforced with bacterial cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobzová, Radka; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Michálek, Jiří; Karpushkin, Evgeny; Gatenholm, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2012), s. 1193-1201 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : bacterial cellulose * methacrylate hydrogel * composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2012

  5. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jorgegabriel@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Local application of drug delivery system could be very. ∗. Author for ... In this study, chitosan was modified by car- ... C18 (250 × 4·6mm ID, 5 μm pore size) column with auto .... Some amount of drug was lost during washing of hydrogels.

  7. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  8. Dual responsive supramolecular hydrogel with electrochemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Liu, Jianghua; Chen, Guosong; Jiang, Ming

    2011-08-02

    Supramolecular materials with reversible responsiveness to environmental changes are of particular research interest in recent years. Inclusion complexation between cyclodextrin (CD) and ferrocene (Fc) is well-known and extensively studied because of its reversible association-dissociation controlled by the redox state of Fc. Although there are quite a few reported nanoscale materials incorporating this host-guest pair, polymeric hydrogels with electrochemical activity based on this interactive pair are still rare. Taking advantage of our previous reported hybrid inclusion complex (HIC) hydrogel structure, a new Fc-HIC was designed and obtained with β-CD-modified quantum dots as the core and Fc-ended diblock co-polymer p(DMA-b-NIPAM) as the shell, to achieve an electrochemically active hydrogel at elevated temperatures. Considering the two independent cross-linking strategies in the network structure, i.e., the interchain aggregation of pNIPAM and inclusion complexation between CD and Fc on the surface of the quantum dots, the hydrogel was fully thermo-reversible and its gel-sol transition was achieved after the addition of either an oxidizing agent or a competitive guest to Fc.

  9. Photophysical properties of a surfactive long-chain styryl merocyanine dye as fluorescent probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, L.F.M., E-mail: Lailafmi@yahoo.com [Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Nasr City, 12 Ibrahim El-Nagar, El-Hegaz Sq. Heliopolis, Cairo 11315 (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    This work deals with detailed investigations of the photophysical properties of a styryl merocyanine dye, namely 1-cetyl-4-[4 Prime -(methoxy) styryl]-pyridinium bromide (CMSPB) of molecular rotor type. The solvatochromic analyses of the data in different solvents using the Kamlet-Taft parameters ({alpha}, {beta}, {pi}{sup Low-Asterisk }) were discussed. Optical excitation of the studied merocyanine dye populates a CT S{sub 1} state with about 22.64 folds higher dipole moment value relative to that in the S{sub 0} state. Moreover, the effect of solvent viscosity (glycerol at various temperatures (299.0-351.0 K)) on CMSPB fluorescent properties is analyzed to understand the molecular mechanisms of the characteristic increase in CMSPB fluorescence intensity. The results indicate that CMSPB exhibits fluorescent properties typical for molecular rotors. The results show that torsional relaxation dynamics of molecular rotors in high-viscosity solvents cannot be described by the simple stick boundary hydrodynamics defined by the Debye-Stokes-Einstein (DSE) equation. The fluorescence depolarization behavior in glycerol at various temperatures (299.0-351.0 K) shows that the molecular rotational diffusion is controlled by the free volume of the medium. Furthermore, excited state studies in ethanol/chloroform mixture revealed the formation of weak complex with chloroform of stoichiometry 1:1 with formation constant of 0.004l mol{sup -1}. Moreover, the increase of the quantum yield values in micellar solutions of CTAB and SDS relative to that of water indicates that the guest dye molecules are microencapsulated into the hydrophobic interior of host micelle. The obtained non-zero values of fluorescence polarization in micellar solution imply reduced rotational depolarization of dye molecules via association with the surfactant. Upon comparing the spectral data in micelles with those in homogeneous solvent systems, more can be learned of the structural details of the micellar

  10. Versatile polyion complex micelles for peptide and siRNA vectorization to engineer tolerogenic dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarek, Naila; Vicente, Rita; Aubert-Pouëssel, Anne; Quentin, Julie; Mausset-Bonnefont, Anne-Laure; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Jorgensen, Christian; Bégu, Sylvie; Louis-Plence, Pascale

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that play a critical role in maintaining the balance between immunity and tolerance and, as such are a promising immunotherapy tool to induce immunity or to restore tolerance. The main challenge to harness the tolerogenic properties of DCs is to preserve their immature phenotype. We recently developed polyion complex micelles, formulated with double hydrophilic block copolymers of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) blocks and able to entrap therapeutic molecules, which did not induce DC maturation. In the current study, the intrinsic destabilizing membrane properties of the polymers were used to optimize endosomal escape property of the micelles in order to propose various strategies to restore tolerance. On the first hand, we showed that high molecular weight (Mw) copolymer-based micelles were efficient to favor the release of the micelle-entrapped peptide into the endosomes, and thus to improve peptide presentation by immature (i) DCs. On the second hand, we put in evidence that low Mw copolymer-based micelles were able to favor the cytosolic release of micelle-entrapped small interfering RNAs, dampening the DCs immunogenicity. Therefore, we demonstrate the versatile use of polyionic complex micelles to preserve tolerogenic properties of DCs. Altogether, our results underscored the potential of such micelle-loaded iDCs as a therapeutic tool to restore tolerance in autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-consistent-field calculations of proteinlike incorporations in polyelectrolyte complex micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Self-consistent field theory is applied to model the structure and stability of polyelectrolyte complex micelles with incorporated protein (molten globule) molecules in the core. The electrostatic interactions that drive the micelle formation are mimicked by nearest-neighbor interactions using

  12. Controlled thermoreversible transfer of poly(oxazoline) micelles between an ionic liquid and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero Sanchez, C.A.; Gohy, J.M.W.; D'Haese, C.; Thijs, H.M.L.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Poly(2-nonyl-2-oxazoline-block-2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) block copolymer micelles were investigated as an alternative system to the approach proposed by He and Lodge (Y. He and T. P. Lodge, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128, 12666) for the thermoreversible transfer of micelles between a hydrophobic ionic

  13. Peptide-conjugated micelles as a targeting nanocarrier for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen Jen, E-mail: wjlin@ntu.edu.tw; Chien, Wei Hsuan [National Taiwan University, School of Pharmacy, Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to develop peptide-conjugated micelles possessing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting ability for gene delivery. A sequence-modified dodecylpeptide, GE11(2R), with enhancing EGF receptor binding affinity, was applied in this study as a targeting ligand. The active targeting micelles were composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) copolymer conjugated with GE11(2R)-peptide. The particle sizes of peptide-free and peptide-conjugated micelles were 277.0 ± 5.1 and 308.7 ± 14.5 nm, respectively. The peptide-conjugated micelles demonstrated the cellular uptake significantly higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells due to GE11(2R)-peptide specificity. Furthermore, the peptide-conjugated micelles were able to encapsulate plasmid DNA and expressed cellular transfection higher than peptide-free micelles in EGFR high-expressed cells. The EGFR-targeting delivery micelles enhanced DNA internalized into cells and achieved higher cellular transfection in EGFR high-expressed cells.

  14. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  15. Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Maling; Shi Huashan; Guo Gang; Men Ke; Zhang Juan; Li Zhiyong; Luo Feng; Qian Zhiyong; Wei Yuquan; Zheng Lan; Zhao Xia

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and ∼ 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

  16. Role of Synthetic and Dimensional Synthetic Organic Chemistry in Block Copolymer Micelle Nanosensor Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar

    This thesis investigated the role of amphiphilic triblock copolymer micelle nanomaterials in nanosensors, with emphasis on the synthesis of micelle particle sensors. The thesis is focused on the role of synthetic and dimensional synthetic organic chemistry in amphiphilic triblock core-shellcorona...

  17. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol-poly(lactide (mPEG-PLA and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15, were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12. Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  18. Effects of gamma-irradiation on some properties of bovine casein micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Zenichi

    1974-01-01

    Sedimentation studies and electron microscopic observations revealed that an association between casein micelles dispersed in water or milk serum was not induced significantly by gamma-irradiation of exposure up to 3 x 10 6 R, whereas a release of nonprotein nitrogen was observed to a certain extent. It was concluded from the results of turbidi-metry and gel filtration using 3 size groups of casein micelles, namely large, medium and small, that an irradiation-induced polymerization or association occurred within individual casein micelles, and strengthend the micelle structure. Thus the irradiated casein micelles resisted, more or less, to the solubilizing effect of NaCl, EDTA, pyrophosphate and urea. Stabilities of casein micelles for ethanol and for acidification to an isoelectric point were decreased and increased, respectively, after irradiation. Gamma irradiation also caused the decrease of glycomacropeptide released from casein micelles by the action of rennin, and this resulted in the delay of rennin-coagulation of casein. There were no essential differences among the 3 size groups of casein micelles concerning the above described tendencies. (auth.)

  19. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinru; Zhang, Yanhui; Fan, Yating; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Fan, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-12-01

    Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15), were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12). Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  20. Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Maling; Shi Huashan; Guo Gang; Men Ke; Zhang Juan; Li Zhiyong; Luo Feng; Qian Zhiyong; Wei Yuquan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zheng Lan; Zhao Xia, E-mail: anderson-qian@163.com [West China Second University Hospital, West China Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-03-04

    In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and {approx} 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

  1. Novel oral administrated paclitaxel micelles with enhanced bioavailability and antitumor efficacy for resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Luo, Jingwen; Fu, Yao; Li, Hanmei; Ding, Rui; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2017-02-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is a widely used antineoplastic drug in clinic. Due to poor aqueous solubility, it is administrated by intravenous infusion of cremophor EL containing formulation with serious adverse effects. The low oral bioavailability is a great challenge for oral formulation development. In addition, P-gp mediated multidrug resistance limit its clinical use in various resistant cancers. In this study, a novel super-antiresistant PTX micelle formulation for oral administration was developed. A P-gp inhibitor, bromotetrandrine (W198) was co-encapsulated in the micelle. The micelles were composed of Solutol HS 15 and d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate to avoid Cremophor EL induced toxicity. The micelles were round with a mean particle size of ∼13nm and an encapsulation efficiency of ∼90%. A series of in vitro evaluations were performed in non-resistant MCF-7 cells and resistant MCF-7/Adr cells. The super-antiresistant PTX micelles showed higher cell uptake efficiency, significantly increased cytotoxicity and antimitotic effect in drug resistant MCF-7/Adr cells when compared with Taxol and other PTX micelle formulations. Compared with Taxol, the super-antiresistant PTX micelles significantly improved bioavailability after oral administration in rats, and inhibited tumor growth in multidrug resistance xenografted MCF-7/Adr nude mice. In summary, the noval super-antiresistant PTX micelles showed a great potential for oral delivery of PTX against resistant breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of novel mixed micelles as nanocarriers for intravenous delivery of propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinru; Zhang, Yanhui; Fan, Yating; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Fan, Chao; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-03-31

    Novel mixed polymeric micelles formed from biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) and polyoxyethylene-660-12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS15), were fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilizing poorly soluble anesthetic drug propofol. The solubilization of propofol by the mixed micelles was more efficient than those made of mPEG-PLA alone. Micelles with the optimized composition of mPEG-PLA/Solutol HS15/propofol = 10/1/5 by weight had particle size of about 101 nm with narrow distribution (polydispersity index of about 0.12). Stability analysis of the mixed micelles in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the diblock copolymer mPEG efficiently protected the BSA adsorption on the mixed micelles because the hydrophobic groups of the copolymer were efficiently screened by mPEG, and propofol-loaded mixed micelles were stable upon storage for at least 6 months. The content of free propofol in the aqueous phase for mixed micelles was lower by 74% than that for the commercial lipid emulsion. No significant differences in times to unconsciousness and recovery of righting reflex were observed between mixed micelles and commercial lipid formulation. The pharmacological effect may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers with improved solubilization capacity for poorly soluble drugs.

  3. Design of block-copolymer-based micelles for active and passive targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, Jérôme G J L; Leermakers, Frans A M; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Tuinier, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A self-consistent field study is presented on the design of active and passive targeting block-copolymeric micelles. These micelles form in water by self-assembly of triblock copolymers with a hydrophilic middle block and two hydrophobic outer blocks. A minority amount of diblock copolymers with the

  4. Design of block-copolymer-based micelles for active and passive targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, Jérôme G.J.L.; Leermakers, Frans A.M.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Tuinier, Remco

    2016-01-01

    A self-consistent field study is presented on the design of active and passive targeting block-copolymeric micelles. These micelles form in water by self-assembly of triblock copolymers with a hydrophilic middle block and two hydrophobic outer blocks. A minority amount of diblock copolymers with

  5. Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle micelles for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) of thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, L.W.E.; Moonen, R.P.M.; Aussems-Custers, E.; Daemen, M.J.A.P.; Strijkers, G. J.; Nicolay, K.; Grüll, H.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging medical imaging modality that directly visualizes magnetic particles in a hot-spot like fashion. We recently developed an iron oxide nanoparticle-micelle (ION-Micelle) platform that allows highly sensitive MPI. The goal of this study was to assess the

  6. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chlorid...

  7. Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of k-casein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Vries, de R.F.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The average casein micelle size varies widely between milk samples of individual cows. The factors that cause this variation in size are not known but could provide more insight into casein micelle structure and into the physiology of casein micelle formation. The objective of this research was

  8. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2015-01-01

    of micelles with ITC were compared to a mass-action model (MAM) of reaction type: n⋅S⇌Mn. This analysis can provide guidelines for future ITC studies of systems behaving in accordance with this model such as micelles and proteins that undergo self-association to oligomers. Micelles with small aggregation...

  9. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  10. Complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers using living, crystallization-driven polymerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädt, Torben; Ieong, Nga Sze; Cambridge, Graeme; Winnik, Mitchell A; Manners, Ian

    2009-02-01

    Block copolymers consist of two or more chemically distinct polymer segments, or blocks, connected by a covalent link. In a selective solvent for one of the blocks, core-corona micelle structures are formed. We demonstrate that living polymerizations driven by the epitaxial crystallization of a core-forming metalloblock represent a synthetic tool that can be used to generate complex and hierarchical micelle architectures from diblock copolymers. The use of platelet micelles as initiators enables the formation of scarf-like architectures in which cylindrical micelle tassels of controlled length are grown from specific crystal faces. A similar process enables the fabrication of brushes of cylindrical micelles on a crystalline homopolymer substrate. Living polymerizations driven by heteroepitaxial growth can also be accomplished and are illustrated by the formation of tri- and pentablock and scarf architectures with cylinder-cylinder and platelet-cylinder connections, respectively, that involve different core-forming metalloblocks.

  11. Micelles from lipid derivatives of water-soluble polymers as delivery systems for poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Anatoly N; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2004-05-07

    Polymeric micelles have a whole set of unique characteristics, which make them very promising drug carriers, in particular, for poorly soluble drugs. Our review article focuses on micelles prepared from conjugates of water-soluble polymers, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), with phospholipids or long-chain fatty acids. The preparation of micelles from certain polymer-lipid conjugates and the loading of these micelles with various poorly soluble anticancer agents are discussed. The data on the characterization of micellar preparations in terms of their morphology, stability, longevity in circulation, and ability to spontaneously accumulate in experimental tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect are presented. The review also considers the preparation of targeted immunomicelles with specific antibodies attached to their surface. Available in vivo results on the efficiency of anticancer drugs incorporated into plain micelles and immunomicelles in animal models are also discussed.

  12. Synthesis of Cross-Linked Polymeric Micelle pH Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar; Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    The design flexibility that polymeric micelles offer in the fabrication of optical nanosensors for ratiometric pH measurements is investigated. pH nanosensors based on polymeric micelles are synthesized either by a mixed-micellization approach or by a postmicelle modification strategy. In the mixed......-micellization approach, self-assembly of functionalized unimers followed by shell cross-linking by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) results in stabilized cRGD-functionalized micelle pH nanosensors. In the postmicelle modification strategy, simultaneous cross-linking and fluorophore conjugation...... at the micelle shell using CuAAC results in a stabilized micelle pH nanosensor. Compared to the postmicelle modification strategy, the mixed-micellization approach increases the control of the overall composition of the nanosensors.Both approaches provide stable nanosensors with similar pKa profiles and thereby...

  13. Factors affecting the stability of drug-loaded polymeric micelles and strategies for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weisai; Li, Caibin; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Wenli, E-mail: zwllz@163.com; Liu, Jianping, E-mail: liujianpingljp@hotmail.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics (China)

    2016-09-15

    Polymeric micelles (PMs) self-assembled by amphiphilic block copolymers have been used as promising nanocarriers for tumor-targeted delivery due to their favorable properties, such as excellent biocompatibility, prolonged circulation time, favorable particle sizes (10–100 nm) to utilize enhanced permeability and retention effect and the possibility for functionalization. However, PMs can be easily destroyed due to dilution of body fluid and the absorption of proteins in system circulation, which may induce drug leakage from these micelles before reaching the target sites and compromise the therapeutic effect. This paper reviewed the factors that influence stability of micelles in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics consist of the critical micelle concentration of block copolymers, glass transition temperature of hydrophobic segments and polymer–polymer and polymer–cargo interaction. In addition, some effective strategies to improve the stability of micelles were also summarized.Graphical Abstract.

  14. Polyion complex micelles prepared by self-assembly of block-graft polycation and hyperbranched polyanion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Wang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2017-09-01

    Polyion complex (PIC) micelles were prepared by self-assembly of block-graft polycation monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)- block-(poly(ɛ-caprolactone)- graft-polyethylenimine) (PEG- b-(PCL- g-PEI)) and hyperbranched polyanion sodium carboxyl-modified hyperbranched polyesters (Hx-COONa, x = 20, 30, 40). The results from commonly used MTT assay indicated that PIC micelles had good biocompatibility. PIC micelles with N/COO- of 8/3 had appropriate size (sub-110 nm) and moderate zeta potential ( 3 mV). PIC micelles were nano-sized spheres, and the average size was about 50 nm. PIC micelles had high drug loading capacity for hydrophilic drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) hydrochloride and released the drugs under the influence of pH and ionic strength.

  15. Folding of DsbB in mixed micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otzen, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    state and an unfolding intermediate that accumulates only under unfolding conditions at high mole fractions of SDS. The stability of DsbB is around 4.4 kcal/mol in DM, and this is halved upon reduction of the two periplasmic disulfide bonds, and is sensitive to mutagenesis. With the caveat that kinetic...... is sensitive to changes in lipid and detergent composition. As an attempt to overcome this problem, I present a kinetic analysis of the folding of a membrane protein, disulfide bond reducing protein B (DsbB), in a mixed micelle system consisting of varying molar ratios of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS...

  16. Block copolymer micelles as switchable templates for nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar; Pugin, Raphaël; Brugger, Juergen; Heinzelmann, Harry; Hoogerwerf, Arno C; Hinderling, Christian

    2006-04-11

    Block copolymer inverse micelles from polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P2VP) deposited as monolayer films onto surfaces show responsive behavior and are reversibly switchable between two states of different topography and surface chemistry. The as-coated films are in the form of arrays of nanoscale bumps, which can be transformed into arrays of nanoscale holes by switching through exposure to methanol. The use of these micellar films to act as switchable etch masks for the structuring of the underlying material to form either pillars or holes depending on the switching state is demonstrated.

  17. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeri, Remya; Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2017-01-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07 kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. - Graphical abstract: Injectable hydrogel with inherent free radical scavenging property for regenerative tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Novel injectable hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared using D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer

  18. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeri, Remya [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Polymer Science Division, BMT Wing, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala State (India); Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam [Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha NE68178 (United States); Muthu, Jayabalan, E-mail: mjayabalan52@gmail.com [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Polymer Science Division, BMT Wing, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala State (India)

    2017-02-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07 kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. - Graphical abstract: Injectable hydrogel with inherent free radical scavenging property for regenerative tissue engineering application. - Highlights: • Novel injectable hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared using D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer

  19. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  20. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  1. Gelatin- and starch-based hydrogels. Part A: Hydrogel development, characterization and coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Salamon, Achim; Peters, Kirsten; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Martins, José C; Frankel, Daniel; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-05

    The present work aims at constructing the ideal scaffold matrix of which the physico-chemical properties can be altered according to the targeted tissue regeneration application. Ideally, this scaffold should resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as close as possible both in terms of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Therefore, hydrogel films were developed consisting of methacrylamide-modified gelatin and starch-pentenoate building blocks because the ECM can be considered as a crosslinked hydrogel network consisting of both polysaccharides and structural, signaling and cell-adhesive proteins. For the gelatin hydrogels, three different substitution degrees were evaluated including 31%, 72% and 95%. A substitution degree of 32% was applied for the starch-pentenoate building block. Pure gelatin hydrogels films as well as interpenetrating networks with gelatin and starch were developed. Subsequently, these films were characterized using gel fraction and swelling experiments, high resolution-magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy, rheology, infrared mapping and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that both the mechanical properties and the swelling extent of the developed hydrogel films can be controlled by varying the chemical composition and the degree of substitution of the methacrylamide-modified gelatin applied. The storage moduli of the developed materials ranged between 14 and 63kPa. Phase separation was observed for the IPNs for which separated starch domains could be distinguished located in the surrounding gelatin matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the affinity of aggrecan for gelatin by atomic force microscopy and radiolabeling experiments. We found that aggrecan can be applied as a bioactive coating for gelatin hydrogels by a straightforward physisorption procedure. Thus, we achieved distinct fine-tuning of the physico-chemical properties of these hydrogels which render them promising candidates for tissue engineering

  2. Curcumin-loaded biodegradable polymeric micelles for colon cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Maling; Men, Ke; Shi, Huashan; Xiang, Mingli; Zhang, Juan; Song, Jia; Long, Jianlin; Wan, Yang; Luo, Feng; Zhao, Xia; Qian, Zhiyong

    2011-04-01

    Curcumin is an effective and safe anticancer agent, but its hydrophobicity inhibits its clinical application. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to improve the water solubility of hydrophobic drug. In this work, curcumin was encapsulated into monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, creating curcumin-loaded MPEG-PCL (Cur/MPEG-PCL) micelles. These Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles were monodisperse (PDI = 0.097 +/- 0.011) with a mean particle size of 27.3 +/- 1.3 nm, good re-solubility after freeze-drying, an encapsulation efficiency of 99.16 +/- 1.02%, and drug loading of 12.95 +/- 0.15%. Moreover, these micelles were prepared by a simple and reproducible procedure, making them potentially suitable for scale-up. Curcumin was molecularly dispersed in the PCL core of MPEG-PCL micelles, and could be slow-released in vitro. Encapsulation of curcumin in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the t1/2 and AUC of curcuminin vivo. As well as free curcumin, Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles efficiently inhibited the angiogenesis on transgenic zebrafish model. In an alginate-encapsulated cancer cell assay, intravenous application of Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles more efficiently inhibited the tumor cell-induced angiogenesisin vivo than that of free curcumin. MPEG-PCL micelle-encapsulated curcumin maintained the cytotoxicity of curcumin on C-26 colon carcinoma cellsin vitro. Intravenous application of Cur/MPEG-PCL micelle (25 mg kg-1curcumin) inhibited the growth of subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma in vivo (p curcumin (p curcumin; this formulation can inhibit the growth of colon carcinoma through inhibiting angiogenesis and directly killing cancer cells.

  3. Soluplus/TPGS mixed micelles for dioscin delivery in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Xu, Youwei; Wang, Changyuan; Ding, Yanfang; Chen, Manyu; Wang, Yifei; Peng, Jinyong; Li, Lei; Lv, Li

    2017-07-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its poor solubility and stability have limited its clinical application. In this study, we designed mixed micelles composed of TPGS and Soluplus ® copolymers entrapping the poorly soluble anticancer drug dioscin. In order to improve the aqueous solubility and bioactivity of dioscin, TPGS/Soluplus ® mixed micelles with an optimal ratio were prepared using a thin-film hydration method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. Cellular cytotoxicity and uptake of the dioscin-loaded TPGS/Soluplus ® mixed micelles were studied in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and A2780s ovarian cancer cells. The pharmacokinetics of free dioscin and dioscin-loaded TPGS/Soluplus ® mixed micelles was studied in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats via a single intravenous injection in the tail vein. The average size of the optimized mixed micelle was 67.15 nm, with 92.59% drug encapsulation efficiency and 4.63% drug loading efficiency. The in vitro release profile showed that the mixed micelles presented sustained release behavior compared to the anhydrous ethanol solution of dioscin. In vitro cytotoxicity assays were conducted on human cancer cell lines including A2780s ovarian cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The mixed micelles exhibited better antitumor activity compared to free dioscin against all cell lines, which may benefit from the significant increase in the cellular uptake of dioscin from mixed micelles compared to free dioscin. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the mixed micelle formulation achieved a 1.3 times longer mean residual time (MRT) in circulation and a 2.16 times larger area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) than the free dioscin solution. Our results suggest that the dioscin-loaded mixed micelles developed in this study might be a potential nano drug-delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Hydrogel Walkers with Electro-Driven Motility for Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Chen; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-08-28

    In this study, soft hydrogel walkers with electro-driven motility for cargo transport have been developed via a facile mould-assisted strategy. The hydrogel walkers consisting of polyanionic poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) exhibit an arc looper-like shape with two "legs" for walking. The hydrogel walkers can reversibly bend and stretch via repeated "on/off" electro-triggers in electrolyte solution. Based on such bending/stretching behaviors, the hydrogel walkers can move their two "legs" to achieve one-directional walking motion on a rough surface via repeated "on/off" electro-triggering cycles. Moreover, the hydrogel walkers loaded with very heavy cargo also exhibit excellent walking motion for cargo transport. Such hydrogel systems create new opportunities for developing electro-controlled soft systems with simple design/fabrication strategies in the soft robotic field for remote manipulation and transportation.

  5. Transient Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Resilin-based Elastomeric Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Kiick, Kristi

    2014-04-01

    The outstanding high-frequency properties of emerging resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) have motivated their development for vocal fold tissue regeneration and other applications. Recombinant RLP hydrogels show efficient gelation, tunable mechanical properties, and display excellent extensibility, but little has been reported about their transient mechanical properties. In this manuscript, we describe the transient mechanical behavior of new RLP hydrogels investigated via both sinusoidal oscillatory shear deformation and uniaxial tensile testing. Oscillatory stress relaxation and creep experiments confirm that RLP-based hydrogels display significantly reduced stress relaxation and improved strain recovery compared to PEG-based control hydrogels. Uniaxial tensile testing confirms the negligible hysteresis, reversible elasticity and superior resilience (up to 98%) of hydrated RLP hydrogels, with Young’s modulus values that compare favorably with those previously reported for resilin and that mimic the tensile properties of the vocal fold ligament at low strain (engineering applications, of a range of RLP hydrogels.

  6. Comparison of Pectin Hydrogel Collection Methods in Microfluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chaeyeon; Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Sung-Min; Kim, Jongmin; Song, YoungShin; Lee, Chang-Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of different collection methods on physical properties of pectin hydrogels in microfluidic synthetic approach. The pectin hydrogels were simply produced by the incorporation of calcium ions dissolved in continuous mineral oil. Then, different collection methods, pipetting, tubing, and settling, for harvesting pectin hydrogels were applied. The settling method showed most uniform and monodispersed hydrogels. In the case of settling, a coefficient of variation was 3.46 which was lower than pipetting method (18.60) and tubing method (14.76). Under the settling method, we could control the size of hydrogels, ranging from 30 μm to 180 μm, by simple manipulation of the viscosity of pectin and volumetric flow rate of dispersed and continuous phase. Finally, according to the characteristics of simple encapsulation of biological materials, we envision that the pectin hydrogels can be applied to drug delivery, food, and biocompatible materials.

  7. Optimizing Double-Network Hydrogel for Biomedical Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Hritwick; Ren, Hongliang

    2017-09-01

    Double-network hydrogel with standardized chemical parameters demonstrates a reasonable and viable alternative to silicone in soft robotic fabrication due to its biocompatibility, comparable mechanical properties, and customizability through the alterations of key variables. The most viable hydrogel sample in our article shows tensile strain of 851% and maximum tensile strength of 0.273 MPa. The elasticity and strength range of this hydrogel can be customized according to application requirements by simple alterations in the recipe. Furthermore, we incorporated Agar/PAM hydrogel into our highly constrained soft pneumatic actuator (SPA) design and eventually produced SPAs with escalated capabilities, such as larger range of motion, higher force output, and power efficiency. Incorporating SPAs made of Agar/PAM hydrogel resulted in low viscosity, thermos-reversibility, and ultralow elasticity, which we believe can help to combine with the other functions of hydrogel, tailoring a better solution for fabricating biocompatible soft robots.

  8. Hydrogel-based piezoresistive sensor for the detection of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Erfkamp

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a low-cost sensor for the detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages, which combines alcohol-sensitive hydrogels based on acrylamide and bisacrylamide and piezoresistive sensors. For reproducible measurements, the reversible swelling and deswelling of the hydrogel were shown via microscopy. The response time of the sensor depends on the swelling kinetics of the hydrogel. The selectivity of the hydrogel was tested in different alcohols. In order to understand the influence of monomer and crosslinker content on the swelling degree and on the sensitivity of the hydrogels, gels with variable concentrations of acrylamide and bisacrylamide were synthesized and characterized in different aqueous solutions with alcohol contents. The first measurements of such hydrogel-based piezoresistive ethanol sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity and a short response time over several measuring cycles.

  9. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nikhil; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Mehta, Shuchi; Mehta, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are the three-dimensional network structures obtained from a class of synthetic or natural polymers which can absorb and retain a significant amount of water. Hydrogels are one of the most studied classes of polymer-based controlled drug release. These have attracted considerable attention in biochemical and biomedical fields because of their characteristics, such as swelling in aqueous medium, biocompatibility, pH and temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards other stimuli, which can be utilized for their controlled zero-order release. The hydrogels are expected to explore new generation of self-regulated delivery system having a wide array of desirable properties. This review highlights the exciting opportunities and challenges in the area of hydrogels. Here, we review different literatures on stimuli-sensitive hydrogels, such as role of temperature, electric potential, pH and ionic strength to control the release of drug from hydrogels.

  10. Rationally designed synthetic protein hydrogels with predictable mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhua; Li, Pengfei; Dong, Chenling; Jiang, Heting; Bin Xue; Gao, Xiang; Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei; Bin Chen; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-12

    Designing synthetic protein hydrogels with tailored mechanical properties similar to naturally occurring tissues is an eternal pursuit in tissue engineering and stem cell and cancer research. However, it remains challenging to correlate the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels with the nanomechanics of individual building blocks. Here we use single-molecule force spectroscopy, protein engineering and theoretical modeling to prove that the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels are predictable based on the mechanical hierarchy of the cross-linkers and the load-bearing modules at the molecular level. These findings provide a framework for rationally designing protein hydrogels with independently tunable elasticity, extensibility, toughness and self-healing. Using this principle, we demonstrate the engineering of self-healable muscle-mimicking hydrogels that can significantly dissipate energy through protein unfolding. We expect that this principle can be generalized for the construction of protein hydrogels with customized mechanical properties for biomedical applications.

  11. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady [Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City (Egypt). National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRTT)

    2017-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  12. HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE BASED NANOCOMPOSITE HYDROGELS WITH TUNABLE PORE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA based hydrogels have found increasing number of applications in areas such as chromatographic separations, controlled drug release, biosensing, and membrane separations. In all these applications, the pore size and pore interconnectivity are crucial for successful application of these materials as they determine the rate of diffusion through the matrix. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate is a water soluble monomer but its polymer, polyHEMA, is not soluble in water. Therefore, during polymerization of HEMA in aqueous media, a porous structure is obtained as a result of phase separation. Pore size and interconnectivity in these hydrogels is a function of several variables such as monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, temperature etc. In this study, we investigated the effect of monomer concentration, graphene oxide addition or clay addition on hydrogel pore size, pore interconnectivity, water uptake, and thermal properties. PolyHEMA hydrogels have been prepared by redox initiated free radical polymerization of the monomer using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. As a nanofiller, a synthetic hectorite Laponite® XLG and graphene oxide were used. Graphene oxide was prepared by the Tour Method. Pore morphology of the pristine HEMA based hydrogels and nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The formed hydrogels were found to be highly elastic and flexible. A dramatic change in the pore structure and size was observed in the range between 22 to 24 wt/vol monomer at 0.5 % of cross-linker. In this range, the hydrogel morphology changes from typical cauliflower architecture to continuous hydrogel with dispersed water droplets forming the pores where the pores are submicron in size and show an interconnected structure. Such controlled pore structure is highly important when these hydrogels are used for solute diffusion or when there’s flow through monolithic hydrogels

  13. Supramolecular polyaniline hydrogel as a support for urease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Słoniewska, Anna; Pałys, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels of conducting polymers are successfully used in bioelectrochemistry because of their mechanical and swelling properties of gels added to the specific electron transport properties of conducting polymers. We have studied polyaniline-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PANI–PSS) hydrogel as a substrate for the urease. The hydrogels were synthesized at pH = 0 and pH = 5. PANI–PSS hydrogel is a supramolecular self-assembly material consisting of positively-charged PANI chains and negatively-charged PSS chains. The hydrogel was studied by cyclic voltammetry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Raman spectra revealed presence of phenazine rings in the hydrogel structure. Phenazine rings form covalent cross-linkers contributing to the hydrogel mechanical stability. The covalent cross-linkers influence the cyclic voltammetry responses of the hydrogel in acidic media. We tested the activity of urease immobilized in the PANI–PSS hydrogel by the physical adsorption or by the covalent bonding with the carbodiimide reaction. The enzyme immobilized in hydrogels prepared at higher pH value reveals significantly higher sensitivity. The method of the enzyme immobilization has smaller impact on the sensitivity. All hydrogel sensors reveal largely higher sensitivity to urea comparing to urease immobilized in the typical electrochemically deposited PANI films. The sensitivity of urease covalently bond to the hydrogel obtained at pH = 5 was as high as 1693 μA/(mol dm 3 ). The sensor response was linear in the urea concentration range from 10 −4 to 7 × 10 −2 mol/dm 3

  14. Controlled release fertilizers using superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M.; Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady

    2017-01-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels (PVP/CMC) based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) of different copolymer compositions were prepared by gamma radiation. Factors affecting the gel content (%) and the swelling ratio (g/g) of hydrogel such as irradiation dose as well as copolymer composition were investigated. With increasing the CMC content in PVP/CMC hydrogels, increases the swelling and improves the water retention capability. The high swelling ratio was observed at copolymer composition of PVP/CMC (60/40). Fast swelling of the hydrogels was obtained after 20 min. The effect of different fertilizers and buffers of different pH's on equilibrium swelling of hydrogels was investigated. Fertilizers such as urea, monopotassium-phosphate (MPK), and nitrogen-phosphate-potassium (NPK) were loaded onto the hydrogel to supply nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous nutrients. PVP/CMC hydrogels retained 28-36% after 72 h and slow retention was noticed up to 9 days. The swelling of hydrogel in fertilizer solutions is lower than that in water. The hydrogels showed adsorption desorption of fertilizers which governs by slow release property. The release rate of urea is much higher 10 times than that of phosphate. After 3 days, urea released 60%, while phosphate released 10-12%. The applicability of PVP/CMC hydrogels in the agricultural fields shows greater growth effect on zea maize plants. The growth of zea maize plant in soil mixed with PVP/CMC hydrogels loaded fertilizers is greater than untreated soil. The slow release fertilize, the high swelling and the slow water retention behaviors of PVP/CMC hydrogels encourage their use as safer release systems for fertilizers and as soil conditioner in agricultural applications.

  15. Viscoelastic response of hydrogel materials at finite strains

    OpenAIRE

    Skovly, Martin Johannessen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials are very soft materials consisting of polymer networks and solvent molecules. The materials may exhibit large volume changes depending on its external chemical and mechanical environment and have viscoelastic properties which is common for many polymeric materials. In order to model the material response with the finite element method, a hydrogel constitutive model have been combined with finite viscoelastic theory and the resulting viscoelastic hydrogel constitutive model ...

  16. Fluctuations of wormlike micelle fluids in capillary flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salipante, Paul; Meek, Stephen; Hudson, Steven; Polymers; Complex Fluids Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the effect of entrance geometry on the flow stability of wormlike micelles solutions in capillary flow. These solutions exhibit strong shear thinning behavior resulting from micelle breakage and have been observed to undergo large flow rate fluctuations. We investigate these fluctuations using simultaneous measurements of flow rate and pressure drop across a capillary, and we adjust entrance geometry. With a tapered constriction, we observe large persistent fluctuations above a critical flow rate, characterized by rapid decreases in the pressure drop with corresponding increase in flow rate followed by a period of recovery where pressure increases and flow rate decreases. Flow field observations in the tapered entrance show large flow circulations. An abrupt contraction produces smaller transient fluidized jets forming upstream of the constriction and the magnitude of the fluctuations are significantly diminished. The effect of fluid properties is studied by comparing the magnitude and timescales of the fluctuations for surfactant systems with different relaxation times. The onset of fluctuations is compared to a criterion for the onset of elastic instabilities and the magnitude is compared to estimates for changes in channel resistance. NIST on a Chip.

  17. Facile synthesis of degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-07-11

    Degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels (DECPHs) have been synthesized by functionalizing polysaccharide with conductive aniline oligomers. DECPHs based on chitosan (CS), aniline tetramer (AT), and glutaraldehyde were obtained by a facile one-pot reaction by using the amine group of CS and AT under mild conditions, which avoids the multistep reactions and tedious purification involved in the synthesis of degradable conductive hydrogels in our previous work. Interestingly, these one-pot hydrogels possess good film-forming properties, electrical conductivity, and a pH-sensitive swelling behavior. The chemical structure and morphology before and after swelling of the hydrogels were verified by FT-IR, NMR, and SEM. The conductivity of the hydrogels was tuned by adjusting the content of AT. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels was altered by the content of tetraaniline and cross-linker. The hydrogels underwent slow degradation in a buffer solution. The hydrogels obtained by this facile approach provide new possibilities in biomedical applications, for example, biodegradable conductive hydrogels, films, and scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery.

  18. Development of injectable hydrogels for nucleus pulposus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan D.

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been reported as the underlying cause for 75% of cases of lower back pain and is marked by dehydration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc. There have been many implant designs to replace the nucleus pulposus. Some researchers have proposed the replacement of the nucleus pulposus with hydrogel materials. The insertion of devices made from these materials further compromises the annulus of the disc. An ideal nucleus replacement could be injected into the disc space and form a solid in vivo. However, injectable replacements using curing elastomers and thermoplastic materials are not ideal because of the potentially harmful exothermic heat evolved from their reactions and the toxicity of the reactants used. We propose a hydrogel system that can be injected as a liquid at 25°C and solidified to yield a hydrogel within the intervertebral disc at 37°C. In aqueous solutions, these polymers have Lower Critical Solution Temperatures (LCST) between 25-37°C, making them unique candidate materials for this application. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is the most widely studied LCST polymer due to its drastic transition near body temperature. However, by itself, pure PNIPAAm forms a hydrogel that has low water content and can readily undergo plastic deformation. To increase the water content and impart elasticity to PNIPAAm hydrogels, grafted and branched hydrogel systems were created that incorporated the thermogelling PNIPAAm and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). In this research, the effects of polymer composition and monomer to initiator ratio, which controls polymer MW, on the in vitro swelling properties (mass, chemical, and compressive mechanical stability) of hydrogels formed from aqueous solutions of these polymers were evaluated. Immersion studies were also conducted in solutions to simulate the osmotic environment of the nucleus pulposus. The effects of repeated compression and unloading cycles

  19. PVA/atapulgite hydrogels; Hidrogeis de PVA/atapulgita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A., E-mail: nunes@metalmat.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Paranhos, C.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil); Barreto, L.S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    PVA hydrogels can be used as wound-healing as a consequence of their biocompatibility, flexibility, etc. In order to improve mechanical resistance of wound-healing, polymeric hydrogels reinforced with clay have been studied. Among national clays, attapulgite stands out. Once it is a natural material, acid treatment can be required in order to remove impurities. In the present work, PVA hydrogels reinforced with attapulgite were produced and they were characterized by swelling behavior, XRD, DSC and traction test. Among all properties studied, hydrogels reinforced with activated attapulgite showed better mechanical resistance and Young module than the other samples. (author)

  20. Responsive Hydrogels for Label-Free Signal Transduction within Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Gawel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have found wide application in biosensors due to their versatile nature. This family of materials is applied in biosensing either to increase the loading capacity compared to two-dimensional surfaces, or to support biospecific hydrogel swelling occurring subsequent to specific recognition of an analyte. This review focuses on various principles underpinning the design of biospecific hydrogels acting through various molecular mechanisms in transducing the recognition event of label-free analytes. Towards this end, we describe several promising hydrogel systems that when combined with the appropriate readout platform and quantitative approach could lead to future real-life applications.

  1. In vivo tumor-targeted dual-modal fluorescence/CT imaging using a nanoprobe co-loaded with an aggregation-induced emission dye and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jimei; Li, Chan; Zhang, Xu; Huo, Shuaidong; Jin, Shubin; An, Fei-Fei; Wang, Xiaodan; Xue, Xiangdong; Okeke, C I; Duan, Guiyun; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Hao, Jifu; Wang, Paul C; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    As an intensely studied computed tomography (CT) contrast agent, gold nanoparticle has been suggested to be combined with fluorescence imaging modality to offset the low sensitivity of CT. However, the strong quenching of gold nanoparticle on fluorescent dyes requires complicated design and shielding to overcome. Herein, we report a unique nanoprobe (M-NPAPF-Au) co-loading an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) red dye and gold nanoparticles into DSPE-PEG(2000) micelles for dual-modal fluorescence/CT imaging. The nanoprobe was prepared based on a facile method of "one-pot ultrasonic emulsification". Surprisingly, in the micelles system, fluorescence dye (NPAPF) efficiently overcame the strong fluorescence quenching of shielding-free gold nanoparticles and retained the crucial AIE feature. In vivo studies demonstrated the nanoprobe had superior tumor-targeting ability, excellent fluorescence and CT imaging effects. The totality of present studies clearly indicates the significant potential application of M-NPAPF-Au as a dual-modal non-invasive fluorescence/X-ray CT nanoprobe for in vivo tumor-targeted imaging and diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biosurfactant production from Pseudomonas taiwanensis L1011 and its application in accelerating the chemical and biological decolorization of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; You, Yanting; Zhao, Ruofei; Sun, Di; Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Jihong; Zhu, Aihua; Liu, Weijie

    2017-11-01

    Dye dispersion and the interaction efficiency between azoreductases and dye molecules are rate-limiting steps for the decolorization of azo dyes. In this study, a biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas taiwanensis L1011, was isolated from crude oil. To increase the yield of the biosurfactant BS-L1011 from P. taiwanensis L1011, culture conditions were optimized including temperature, initial pH, carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio. A maximum yield of 1.12g/L of BS-L1011 was obtained using D-mannitol as carbon source and yeast extract/urea as compound nitrogen source with C/N ratio of 10/4, pH 7.0 and 28°C. BS-L1011 exhibited a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 10.5mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to 25.8±0.1 mN/m. BS-L1011 was stable over a wide range of temperatures, pH values and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant is reported for the first time to accelerate chemical decolorization of Congo red by sodium hypochlorite, and biological decolorization of Amaranth by Bacillus circulans BWL1061, thus showing a potential in the treatment of dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-Assembly of Calix[4]arene-Based Amphiphiles Bearing Polyethylene Glycols: Another Example of "Platonic Micelles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Fujii, Shota; Takahashi, Rintaro; Matsumoto, Sakiko; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    The aggregation number of classical micelles exhibits a certain distribution, which is a recognizable feature of conventional micelles. However, we recently identified perfectly monodisperse calix[4]arene-based micelles whose aggregation numbers agree with the vertex numbers of regular polyhedra, that is, Platonic solids, and thus they are named "Platonic micelles". Regarding our hypothesis of the formation mechanism of Platonic micelles, both repulsive interactions including steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsions among the headgroups are important for determining their aggregation number; however, neither of these is necessarily needed to consider. In this study, we employed polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as the nonionic headgroup of calix[4]arene-based amphiphiles to study the effects of only repulsive interactions caused by steric hindrance on the formation of Platonic micelles. The amphiphiles containing relatively low-molecular-weight PEGs (550 or 1000 g mol -1 ) form dodecamer or octamer micelles, respectively, with no variation in the aggregation number. However, relatively high-molecular-weight PEGs (2000 g mol -1 ) produce polydispersed micelles with a range of aggregation number. PEG 2000 exhibits a greater affinity for water than PEG 550 and 1000, resulting in fewer hydrophobic interactions in micelle formation, as indicated by the drastic increase of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value in the PEG 2000 system. The instability of the structure of PEG 2k CaL5 micelles might contribute to the higher mobility of PEG in the micellar shell, resulting in a non-Platonic aggregation number with polydispersity.

  4. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  5. Biocompatible Titania Hydrogels with Chemically Triggered Release of a Photosensitive Dye

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychtáriková, Renata; Seisenbaeva, G.A.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Kessler, V.G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2012), s. 370-377 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 892 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sol-gel * photodesinfection * immobilization Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.660, year: 2012

  6. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

    2010-01-01

    Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  7. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  8. Effects of surfactant micelles on viscosity and conductivity of poly(ethylene glycol) solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun-Cheng; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Chen, Wun-Bin; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2004-03-01

    The neutral polymer-micelle interaction is investigated for various surfactants by viscometry and electrical conductometry. In order to exclude the well-known necklace scenario, we consider aqueous solutions of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (2-20)×103, whose radial size is comparable to or smaller than micelles. The single-tail surfactants consist of anionic, cationic, and nonionic head groups. It is found that the viscosity of the polymer solution may be increased several times by micelles if weak attraction between a polymer segment and a surfactant exists, ɛmicelles. Even though ɛ is small, the interaction energy between a macromolecule and a micelle can be a few kBT due to many contacts, and thus leads to polymer adsorption on micelles' surfaces. The rapid growth of the viscosity with surfactant concentration is therefore attributed to the considerable cross links among micelles and polymers (transient network). In addition to substantial alteration of the transport properties, this weak interaction also influences the onset point of thermodynamic instability associated with polymer-surfactant solutions. The examples include the decrease of critical aggregation concentration for ionic surfactant and clouding point for nonionic surfactant due to PEG addition.

  9. A Novel Solubility-Enhanced Rubusoside-Based Micelles for Increased Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiying; Dai, Tongcheng; Feng, Nianping

    2017-04-01

    Many anti-cancer drugs have a common problem of poor solubility. Increasing the solubility of the drugs is very important for its clinical applications. In the present study, we revealed that the solubility of insoluble drugs was significantly enhanced by adding rubusoside (RUB). Further, it was demonstrated that RUB could form micelles, which was well characterized by Langmuir monolayer investigation, transmission electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The RUB micelles were ellipsoid with the horizontal distance of 25 nm and vertical distance of 1.2 nm. Insoluble synergistic anti-cancer drugs including curcumin and resveratrol were loaded in RUB to form anti-cancer micelles RUB/CUR + RES. MTT assay showed that RUB/CUR + RES micelles had more significant toxicity on MCF-7 cells compared to RUB/CUR micelles + RUB/RES micelles. More importantly, it was confirmed that RUB could load other two insoluble drugs together for remarkably enhanced anti-cancer effect compared to that of RUB/one drug + RUB/another drug. Overall, we concluded that RUB-based micelles could efficiently load insoluble drugs for enhanced anti-cancer effect.

  10. HPMA-based polymeric micelles for curcumin solubilization and inhibition of cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Shi, Yang; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Hennink, Wim E; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2015-08-01

    Curcumin (CM) has been reported as a potential anticancer agent. However, its pharmaceutical applications as therapeutic agent are hampered because of its poor aqueous solubility. The present study explores the advantages of polymeric micelles composed of block copolymers of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) modified with monolactate, dilactate and benzoyl side groups to enhance CM solubility and inhibitory activity against cancer cells. Amphiphilic block copolymers, ω-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-(N-(2-benzoyloxypropyl) methacrylamide) (PEG-HPMA-Bz) were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR and GPC. One polymer with a molecular weight of 28,000Da was used to formulate CM and compared with other aromatic substituted polymers. CM was loaded by a fast heating method (PEG-HPMA-DL and PEG-HPMA-Bz-L) and a nanoprecipitation method (PEG-HPMA-Bz). Physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxicity/cytocompatibility of the CM loaded polymeric micelles were evaluated. It was found that HPMA-based polymeric micelles significantly enhanced the solubility of CM. The PEG-HPMA-Bz micelles showed the best solubilization properties. CM loaded polymeric micelles showed sustained release of the loading CM for more than 20days. All of CM loaded polymeric micelles formulations showed a significantly potent cytotoxic effect against three cancer cell lines. HPMA-based polymeric micelles are therefore promising nanodelivery systems of CM for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of Fluconazole-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Using Membrane and Microfluidic Dispersion Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric micelles with a controlled size in the range between 41 and 80 nm were prepared by injecting the organic phase through a microengineered nickel membrane or a tapered-end glass capillary into an aqueous phase. The organic phase was composed of 1 mg·mL−1 of PEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers with variable molecular weights, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF or acetone. The pore size of the membrane was 20 μm and the aqueous/organic phase volumetric flow rate ratio ranged from 1.5 to 10. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized with Mn ranging from ~9700 to 16,000 g·mol−1 and polymeric micelles were successfully produced from both devices. Micelles produced from the membrane device were smaller than those produced from the microfluidic device, due to the much smaller pore size compared with the orifice size in a co-flow device. The micelles were found to be relatively stable in terms of their size with an initial decrease in size attributed to evaporation of residual solvent rather than their structural disintegration. Fluconazole was loaded into the cores of micelles by injecting the organic phase composed of 0.5–2.5 mg·mL−1 fluconazole and 1.5 mg·mL−1 copolymer. The size of the drug-loaded micelles was found to be significantly larger than the size of empty micelles.

  12. Green Tea Catechin-Based Complex Micelles Combined with Doxorubicin to Overcome Cardiotoxicity and Multidrug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tangjian; Liu, Jinjian; Ren, Jie; Huang, Fan; Ou, Hanlin; Ding, Yuxun; Zhang, Yumin; Ma, Rujiang; An, Yingli; Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Linqi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer treatment has been demonstrated to cause some side effects on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of the tumor cells, which greatly limits therapeutic efficacy. To address these limitations and achieve better therapeutic efficacy, combination therapy based on nanoparticle platforms provides a promising approach through delivering different agents simultaneously to the same destination with synergistic effect. In this study, a novel green tea catechin-based polyion complex (PIC) micelle loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was constructed through electrostatic interaction and phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction between poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lysine-co-lysine-phenylboronic acid) (PEG-PLys/PBA) and EGCG. DOX was co-loaded in the PIC micelles through π-π stacking interaction with EGCG. The phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction endowed the PIC micelles with high stability under physiological condition. Moreover, acid cleavability of phenylboronic acid-catechol interaction in the micelle core has significant benefits for delivering EGCG and DOX to same destination with synergistic effects. In addition, benefiting from the oxygen free radicals scavenging activity of EGCG, combination therapy with EGCG and DOX in the micelle core could protect the cardiomyocytes from DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity according to the histopathologic analysis of hearts. Attributed to modulation of EGCG on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, this kind of PIC micelles could effectively reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. These results suggested that EGCG based PIC micelles could effectively overcome DOX induced cardiotoxicity and multidrug resistance. PMID:27375779

  13. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of curcumin loaded in Pluronic micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetelina Gorinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance with attractive pharmacological activities (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer. Incorporation of curcumin in polymeric micelles could overcome the problems associated with its instability and low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to load curcumin in polymeric micelles based on Pluronic® P 123 or Pluronic® F 127 triblock copolymers and evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects after micellization. The micelles were prepared and loaded with curcumin by applying the dissolution method. Higher encapsulation efficiency was observed in the micelles formulated with Pluronic® P 123. These micelles were characterized with small size and narrow size distribution. The effects of micellar curcumin were investigated in two in vitro models. First, the capacity of micellar curcumin to inhibit iron/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes was evaluated. Micellar curcumin and free drug showed similar inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Second, micellar curcumin and free curcumin showed protective potential in a model of 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity in rat brain synaptosomes. The results from both methods indicated preservation of antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of curcumin in micelles. The small micellar size, high loading capacity and preservation of antioxidant activity of curcumin into Pluronic micelles, suggested their further evaluation as a curcumin delivery system.

  14. EPR spin probe and spin label studies of some low molecular and polymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, A. M.; Kasaikin, V. A.; Timofeev, V. P.

    1998-12-01

    The rotational mobility of spin probes of different shape and size in low molecular and polymer micelles has been studied. Several probes having nitroxide fragment localized either in the vicinity of micelle interface or in the hydrocarbon core have been used. Upon increasing the number of carbon atoms in hydrocarbon chain of detergent from 7 to 13 (sodium alkyl sulfate micelles) or from 12 to 16 (alkyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles) the rotational mobility of spin probes is decreased by the factor 1.5-2.0. The spin probe rotational mobility in polymer micelles (the complexes of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides and polymethacrylic or polyacrylic acids) is less than mobility in free micelles of the same surfactants. The study of EPR-spectra of spin labeled polymethacrylic acid (PMA) indicated that formation of water soluble complexes of polymer and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides in alkaline solutions (pH 9) does not affect the polymer segmental mobility. On the other hand, the polymer complexes formation in slightly acidic water solution (pH 6) breaks down the compact PMA conformation, thus increasing the polymer segmental mobility. Possible structures of polymer micelles are discussed.

  15. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  16. Bioinspired Hydrogels to Engineer Cancer Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Lewis, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-06-21

    Recent research has demonstrated that tumor microenvironments play pivotal roles in tumor development and metastasis through various physical, chemical, and biological factors, including extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, matrix remodeling, oxygen tension, pH, cytokines, and matrix stiffness. An emerging trend in cancer research involves the creation of engineered three-dimensional tumor models using bioinspired hydrogels that accurately recapitulate the native tumor microenvironment. With recent advances in materials engineering, many researchers are developing engineered tumor models, which are promising platforms for the study of cancer biology and for screening of therapeutic agents for better clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the development and use of polymeric hydrogel materials to engineer native tumor ECMs for cancer research, focusing on emerging technologies in cancer engineering that aim to accelerate clinical outcomes.

  17. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  18. Nanotoxicity comparison of four amphiphilic polymeric micelles with similar hydrophilic or hydrophobic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Xue-Qing; Wang, Xiao-You; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wen-Bing; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Zhen-Lin; Wu, Hou-Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-10-03

    Nanocarriers represent an attractive means of drug delivery, but their biosafety must be established before their use in clinical research. Four kinds of amphiphilic polymeric (PEG-PG-PCL, PEEP-PCL, PEG-PCL and PEG-DSPE) micelles with similar hydrophilic or hydrophobic structure were prepared and their in vitro and in vivo safety were evaluated and compared. In vitro nanotoxicity evaluations included assessments of cell morphology, cell volume, inflammatory effects, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and membrane fluidity. An umbilical vein cell line (Eahy.926) and a kind of macrophages (J774.A1) were used as cell models considering that intravenous route is dominant for micelle delivery systems. In vivo analyses included complete blood count, lymphocyte subset analysis, detection of plasma inflammatory factors and histological observations of major organs after intravenous administration to KM mice. All the micelles enhanced inflammatory molecules in J774.A1 cells, likely resulting from the increased ROS levels. PEG-PG-PCL and PEEP-PCL micelles were found to increase the J774.A1 cell volume. This likely correlated with the size of PEG-PG-PCL micelles and the polyphosphoester structure in PEEP-PCL. PEG-DSPE micelles inhibited the growth of Eahy.926 cells via inducing apoptosis. This might relate to the structure of DSPE, which is a type of phospholipid and has good affinity with cell membrane. No evidence was found for cell membrane changes after treatment with these micelles for 24 h. In the in vivo study, during 8 days of 4 time injection, each of the four nanocarriers altered the hematic phase differently without changes in inflammatory factors or pathological changes in target organs. These results demonstrate that the micelles investigated exhibit diverse nanotoxicity correlated with their structures, their biosafety is different in different cell model, and there is no in vitro and in vivo correlation found. We believe that this study will certainly provide more

  19. Backbone-hydrazone-containing biodegradable copolymeric micelles for anticancer drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jing; Luan, Shujuan; Qin, Benkai; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Kai; Qi, Peilan; Song, Shiyong, E-mail: pharmsong@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Institute of Pharmacy (China)

    2016-11-15

    Well-defined biodegradable, pH-sensitive amphiphilic block polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-Hyd-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-Hyd-PLA) which have acid-cleavable linkages in their backbones, were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization initiated from hydrazone-containing macroinitiators. Introducing a hydrazone bond onto the backbone of an amphiphilic copolymer will find a broad-spectrum encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy showed that the diblock copolymers self-assembled into stable micelles with average diameters of 100 nm. The mean diameters and size distribution of the hydrazone-containing micelles changed obviously in mildly acidic pH (multiple peaks from 1 to 202 nm appeared under a pH 4.0 condition) than in neutral, while there were no changes in the case of non-sensitive ones. Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were loaded with drug loading content ranging from 2.4 to 3.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, the anticancer drugs released from mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles could also be promoted by the increased acidity. An in vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with the non-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) micelles. Confocal microscopy observation indicated that more DOX were delivered into the nuclei of cells following 6 or 12 h incubation with DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles. In vivo studies on H22-bearing Swiss mice demonstrated the superior anticancer activity of DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles over free DOX and DOX-loaded mPEG-PLA micelles. These hydrazone-containing pH-responsive degradable micelles provide a useful strategy for antitumor drug delivery.

  20. Backbone-hydrazone-containing biodegradable copolymeric micelles for anticancer drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jing; Luan, Shujuan; Qin, Benkai; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Kai; Qi, Peilan; Song, Shiyong

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined biodegradable, pH-sensitive amphiphilic block polymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-Hyd-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-Hyd-PLA) which have acid-cleavable linkages in their backbones, were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization initiated from hydrazone-containing macroinitiators. Introducing a hydrazone bond onto the backbone of an amphiphilic copolymer will find a broad-spectrum encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy showed that the diblock copolymers self-assembled into stable micelles with average diameters of 100 nm. The mean diameters and size distribution of the hydrazone-containing micelles changed obviously in mildly acidic pH (multiple peaks from 1 to 202 nm appeared under a pH 4.0 condition) than in neutral, while there were no changes in the case of non-sensitive ones. Doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX) were loaded with drug loading content ranging from 2.4 to 3.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, the anticancer drugs released from mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles could also be promoted by the increased acidity. An in vitro cytotoxicity study showed that the DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells compared with the non-sensitive poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) micelles. Confocal microscopy observation indicated that more DOX were delivered into the nuclei of cells following 6 or 12 h incubation with DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles. In vivo studies on H22-bearing Swiss mice demonstrated the superior anticancer activity of DOX-loaded mPEG-Hyd-PLA micelles over free DOX and DOX-loaded mPEG-PLA micelles. These hydrazone-containing pH-responsive degradable micelles provide a useful strategy for antitumor drug delivery.

  1. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A S; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula; Pinto, Terezinha J A

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  2. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Galante

    Full Text Available In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation, a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP, with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol. Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  3. Controlled Delivery of Vancomycin via Charged Hydrogels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T Gustafson

    Full Text Available Surgical site infection (SSI remains a significant risk for any clean orthopedic surgical procedure. Complications resulting from an SSI often require a second surgery and lengthen patient recovery time. The efficacy of antimicrobial agents delivered to combat SSI is diminished by systemic toxicity, bacterial resistance, and patient compliance to dosing schedules. We submit that development of localized, controlled release formulations for antimicrobial compounds would improve the effectiveness of prophylactic surgical wound antibiotic treatment while decreasing systemic side effects. Our research group developed and characterized oligo(poly(ethylene glycolfumarate/sodium methacrylate (OPF/SMA charged copolymers as biocompatible hydrogel matrices. Here, we report the engineering of this copolymer for use as an antibiotic delivery vehicle in surgical applications. We demonstrate that these hydrogels can be efficiently loaded with vancomycin (over 500 μg drug per mg hydrogel and this loading mechanism is both time- and charge-dependent. Vancomycin release kinetics are shown to be dependent on copolymer negative charge. In the first 6 hours, we achieved as low as 33.7% release. In the first 24 hours, under 80% of total loaded drug was released. Further, vancomycin release from this system can be extended past four days. Finally, we show that the antimicrobial activity of released vancomycin is equivalent to stock vancomycin in inhibiting the growth of colonies of a clinically derived strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, our work demonstrates that OPF/SMA hydrogels are appropriate candidates to deliver local antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis of surgical site infection.

  4. Biocompatible hydrogels in spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Lesný, Petr; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Jendelová, Pavla; Štulík, J.; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S121-S132 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1A8697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Spinal cord injury * Hydrogel * Tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  5. Chitosan composite hydrogels reinforced with natural clay nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2017-11-01

    Here, chitosan composites hydrogels were prepared by addition of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in the chitosan KOH/LiOH/urea solution. The raw chitosan and chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels were obtained by heat treatment at 60°C for 8h and then regeneration in ethanol solution. The viscosity of the composite solution is increased with HNTs content. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) shows that the hydrogen bonds interactions exist between the HNTs and the chitosan. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the crystal structure of HNT is not changed in the composite hydrogels. The compressive property test and storage modulus determination show that the mechanical properties and anti-deformation ability of the composite hydrogel significantly increase owing to the reinforcing effect of HNTs. The composites hydrogel with 66.7% HNTs can undergo 7 times compression cycles without breaking with compressive strength of 0.71MPa at 70% deformation, while pure chitosan hydrogel is broken after bearing 5 compression cycles with compressive strength of 0.14MPa and a maximum deformation of 59%. A porous structure with pore size of 100-500μm is found in the composite hydrogels by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore size and the swelling ratio in NaCl solution decrease by the addition of HNTs and the immersing of ethanol. Chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels show low cytotoxicity towards MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, the composite hydrogels show a maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 45.7% for doxorubicin (DOX) which is much higher than that of pure chitosan hydrogel (27.5%). All the results illustrate that the chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels show promising applications as biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fibre-reinforced hydrogels for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sarah; Byrne, Helen; Chen, Mike; Dias Castilho, Miguel; Kimpton, Laura; Please, Colin; Whiteley, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Tissue engineers aim to grow replacement tissues in vitro to replace those in the body that have been damaged through age, trauma or disease. One approach is to seed cells within a scaffold consisting of an interconnected 3D-printed lattice of polymer fibres, cast in a hydrogel, and subject the construct (cell-seeded scaffold) to an applied load in a bioreactor. A key question is to understand how this applied load is distributed throughout the construct to the mechanosensitive cells. To address this, we exploit the disparate length scales (small inter-fibre spacing compared with construct dimensions). The fibres are treated as a linear elastic material and the hydrogel as a poroelastic material. We employ homogenisation theory to derive equations governing the material properties of a periodic, elastic-poroelastic composite. To validate the mobel, model solutions are compared to experimental data describing the unconfined compression of the fibre-reinforced hydrogels. The model is used to derive the bulk mechanical properties of a cylindrical construct of the composite material for a range of fibre spacings, and the local mechanical environment experienced by cells embedded within the construct is determined. Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013).

  7. Water diffusion in phosphate-containing hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.A.; Wentrup-Byrne, E.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the kinetics and diffusion of liquids through polymeric hydrogels is critical for the successful design and application of these materials in biomedical field, particularly as controlled drug delivery systems. In this study, the mechanisms of water transport and parameters that describe the diffusion process in crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methyloxyethylene phosphate), poly(HEMA-co-MOEP) polymers were investigated. The copolymerisation of HEMA with MOEP was initiated by γ radiolysis with full conversion of monomer to polymer. The sorption of water into the polymers with 0 - 30 mol% MOEP was monitored gravimetrically over a period of 2 - 3 weeks. This study provided an insight into the diffusion mechanism and showed that the PHEMA hydrogel displayed concentration-independent Fickian diffusion. As the concentration of MOEP in the network increased, the diffusion rate and the rigidity of the network also increased in a linear fashion. NMR imaging was used in conjunction with the gravimetric study to elucidate the transport mechanisms, diffusion coefficients and proportionality constants governing the water diffusion in the phosphate-containing polymers. The hydrogels with 3 - 20 mol% MOEP exhibited exponential concentration-dependent Fickian diffusion and the transport mechanism in the system with 30 mol% MOEP was shown to be anomalous. The systems with greater concentrations of MOEP displayed a high degree of fracturing during water sorption and resulted in the ultimate destruction of the cylindrical geometry

  8. Connections matter: channeled hydrogels to improve vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin eMuehleder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell-laden hydrogels to engineer soft tissue has been emerging within the past years. Despite several newly developed and sophisticated techniques to encapsulate different cell types the importance of vascularization of the engineered constructs is often underestimated. As a result, cell death within a construct leads to impaired function and inclusion of the implant. Here, we discuss the fabrication of hollow channels within hydrogels as a promising strategy to facilitate vascularization. Furthermore, we present an overview on the feasible use of removable spacers, 3D laser- and planar processing strategies to create channels within hydrogels. The implementation of these structures promotes control over cell distribution and increases oxygen transport and nutrient supply in vitro. However, many studies lack the use of endothelial cells in their approaches leaving out an important factor to enhance vessel ingrowth and anastomosis formation upon implantation. In addition, the adequate endothelial cell type needs to be considered to make these approaches bridge the gap to in vivo applications.

  9. Connections matter: channeled hydrogels to improve vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleder, Severin; Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Zipperle, Johannes; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The use of cell-laden hydrogels to engineer soft tissue has been emerging within the past years. Despite, several newly developed and sophisticated techniques to encapsulate different cell types the importance of vascularization of the engineered constructs is often underestimated. As a result, cell death within a construct leads to impaired function and inclusion of the implant. Here, we discuss the fabrication of hollow channels within hydrogels as a promising strategy to facilitate vascularization. Furthermore, we present an overview on the feasible use of removable spacers, 3D laser-, and planar processing strategies to create channels within hydrogels. The implementation of these structures promotes control over cell distribution and increases oxygen transport and nutrient supply in vitro. However, many studies lack the use of endothelial cells in their approaches leaving out an important factor to enhance vessel ingrowth and anastomosis formation upon implantation. In addition, the adequate endothelial cell type needs to be considered to make these approaches bridge the gap to in vivo applications.

  10. Synthesis and application of intelligent hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, I.; Uchida, K.; Sutani, K.; Nakayama, H.; Tamori, A.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied synthesis and application of stimule-sensitive and responsive hydrogels. In this report, two kinds of investigations were carried out on the intelligent hydrogels and the applications with radiation techniques. 1. Synthesis of temperature responsive sol-gel transition polymer and the application to drug delivery systems. Polysopropyl acrylamide is a typical temperature responsive polymers and the copolymers show broad variation of LCST (sol-gel transition temperature). The various copolymers of isopropyl acrylamide were synthesized by UV or radiation. 2. Surface curing of pH and electric field responsive hydrogel and the application to drug delivery systems. Electrolyte monomers such as acrylic acid was coated on the surface of polymer membrane (porous or non-porous) including drugs, and cured by UV or radiation various enzymes were immobilized in the coating layer in many cases. The product showed pH, electro-field and substrate responsive releases of model drug under on-off switching of environmental conditions. (J.P.N.)

  11. Synthesis and application of intelligent hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaetsu, I.; Uchida, K.; Sutani, K.; Nakayama, H.; Tamori, A. [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    The authors have studied synthesis and application of stimule-sensitive and responsive hydrogels. In this report, two kinds of investigations were carried out on the intelligent hydrogels and the applications with radiation techniques. 1. Synthesis of temperature responsive sol-gel transition polymer and the application to drug delivery systems. Polysopropyl acrylamide is a typical temperature responsive polymers and the copolymers show broad variation of LCST (sol-gel transition temperature). The various copolymers of isopropyl acrylamide were synthesized by UV or radiation. 2. Surface curing of pH and electric field responsive hydrogel and the application to drug delivery systems. Electrolyte monomers such as acrylic acid was coated on the surface of polymer membrane (porous or non-porous) including drugs, and cured by UV or radiation various enzymes were immobilized in the coating layer in many cases. The product showed pH, electro-field and substrate responsive releases of model drug under on-off switching of environmental conditions. (J.P.N.)

  12. Polymeric Micelles as Novel Carriers for Poorly Soluble Drugs--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B Pavan Kumar; Yadav, Hemant K S; Nagesha, Dattatri K; Raizaday, Abhay; Karim, Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Polymeric micelles are used as 'smart drug carriers' for targeting certain areas of the body by making them stimuli-sensitive or by attachment of a specific ligand molecule onto their surface. The main aim of using polymeric micelles is to deliver the poorly water soluble drugs. Now-a-days they are used especially in the areas of cancer therapy also. In this article we have reviewed several aspects of polymeric micelles concerning their mechanism of formation, chemical nature, preparation and characterization techniques, and their applications in the areas of drug delivery.

  13. On the Interaction between Superabsorbent Hydrogels and Cementitious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzanian, Khashayar

    Autogenous shrinkage induced cracking is a major concern in high performance concretes (HPC), which are produced with low water to cement ratios. Internal curing to maintain high relative humidity in HPC with the use of an internal water reservoir has proven effective in mitigating autogenous shrinkage in HPC. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) or hydrogels have received increasing attention as an internal curing agent in recent years. A key advantage of SAP is its versatility in size distribution and absorption/desorption characteristics, which allow it to be adapted to specific mix designs. Understanding the behavior of superabsorbent hydrogels in cementitious materials is critical for accurate design of internal curing. The primary goal of this study is to fundamentally understand the interaction between superabsorbent hydrogels and cementitious materials. In the first step, the effect of chemical and mechanical conditions on the absorption of hydrogels is investigated. In the second step, the desorption of hydrogels in contact with porous cementitious materials is examined to aid in understanding the mechanisms of water release from superabsorbent hydrogels (SAP) into cementitious materials. The dependence of hydrogel desorption on the microstructure of cementitious materials and relative humidity is studied. It is shown that the capillary forces developed at the interface between the hydrogel and cementitious materials increased the desorption of the hydrogels. The size of hydrogels is shown to influence desorption, beyond the known size dependence of bulk diffusion, through debonding from the cementitious matrix, thereby decreasing the effect of the Laplace pressure on desorption. In the third step, the desorption of hydrogels synthesized with varied chemical compositions in cementitious materials are investigated. The absorption, chemical structure and mechanical response of hydrogels swollen in a cement mixture are studied. The effect of the capillary forces on

  14. Studies on Dyeing Performance of Novel Acid Azo Dyes and Mordent Acid Azo Dyes Based on 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat C. Dixit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid azo and mordent acid azo dyes have been prepared by the coupling of diazo solution of different aminonaphthol sulphonic acids and aromatic amino acids with 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analysis as well as IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structure property relationship. The dyeing assessments of all the dyes were evaluated on wool and silk textile fibers. The dyeing of chrome pretreated wool and silk have also been monitored. The result shows that better hue was obtained on mordented fiber. Results of bactericidal studies of chrome pretreated fibers revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against bacteria is fairly good. Dyeing on wool and silk fibers resulted in yellowish pink to reddish brown colourations having excellent light fastness and washing fastness.

  15. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  16. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  17. Artificial Auricular Cartilage Using Silk Fibroin and Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Min; Sultan, Md. Tipu; Kim, Soon Hee; Kumar, Vijay; Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Lee, Ok Joo; Park, Chan Hum

    2017-01-01

    Several methods for auricular cartilage engineering use tissue engineering techniques. However, an ideal method for engineering auricular cartilage has not been reported. To address this issue, we developed a strategy to engineer auricular cartilage using silk fibroin (SF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We constructed different hydrogels with various ratios of SF and PVA by using salt leaching, silicone mold casting, and freeze-thawing methods. We characterized each of the hydrogels in terms of the swelling ratio, tensile strength, pore size, thermal properties, morphologies, and chemical properties. Based on the cell viability results, we found a blended hydrogel composed of 50% PVA and 50% SF (P50/S50) to be the best hydrogel among the fabricated hydrogels. An intact 3D ear-shaped auricular cartilage formed six weeks after the subcutaneous implantation of a chondrocyte-seeded 3D ear-shaped P50/S50 hydrogel in rats. We observed mature cartilage with a typical lacunar structure both in vitro and in vivo via histological analysis. This study may have potential applications in auricular tissue engineering with a human ear-shaped hydrogel. PMID:28777314

  18. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-10-25

    Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphated Konjac Glucomannan Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gui CHEN; Zhi Lan LIU; Ying Jun CHEN; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2005-01-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) was crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) to synthesize hydrogels. The crosslinking reaction was confirmed by FT-IR. The results of degradation test show that the hydrogels retain the enzymatic degradation character of KGM and can be degraded for 74.45% in 5 days by cellulase E0240.

  20. Lab-on-a-chip devices with patterned hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels are considered to be in the class of smart materials that find application in diagnostic, therapeutic,and fundamental science tools for miniaturized total analysis systems. In this thesis, the focus is on three major applications of patterned hydrogels, which are explored as an alternative

  1. initiated small intestinal sub-mucosal wound-healing hydrogel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro cell culture was carried out on the hydrogels, and cell count was obtained on ... a crucial role in stem cell differentiation. ... biodegradable material, especially in tissue engineering [10,11]. .... The test procedures used were based on the method of ..... responsive hydrogels for controlled drug release. Polymer. 2009 ...

  2. Volume changes in hydrogels subjected to finite deformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive equations are derived for the elastic response of hydrogels under an arbitrary deformationwith finite strains. An expression is proposed for the free energy density of a hydrogel based on the Floryconcept of a network of flexible chains with constrained junctions whose reference conf...

  3. Hydrogel-based sensor for CO2 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    A hydrogel-based sensor is presented for CO2 measurements. The sensor consists of a pressure sensor and porous silicon cover. A pH-sensitive hydrogel is confined between the two parts. Furthermore the porous cover contains a bicarbonate solution and a gaspermeable membrane. CO2 reacts with the

  4. Reinforcement of hydrogels using three-dimensionally printed microfibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jetze; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Jeon, June E.; van Bussel, Erik M.; Kimpton, Laura S.; Byrne, Helen M.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Dalton, Paul D.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Malda, J

    Despite intensive research, hydrogels currently available for tissue repair in the musculoskeletal system are unable to meet the mechanical, as well as the biological, requirements for successful outcomes. Here we reinforce soft hydrogels with highly organized, high-porosity microfibre networks that

  5. Two-component thermosensitive hydrogels : Phase separation affecting rheological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbadessa, Anna; Landín, Mariana; Oude Blenke, Erik; Hennink, Wim E.; Vermonden, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular matrices are mainly composed of a mixture of different biopolymers and therefore the use of two or more building blocks for the development of tissue-mimicking hydrogels is nowadays an attractive strategy in tissue-engineering. Multi-component hydrogel systems may undergo phase

  6. Extracellular matrix hydrogels from decellularized tissues: Structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, Lindsey T; Cramer, Madeline C; Velankar, Sachin S; White, Lisa J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue. The present review describes the utility, formation, and physical and biological characterization of ECM hydrogels. Two examples of clinical application are presented to demonstrate in vivo utility of ECM hydrogels in different organ systems. Finally, new research directions and clinical translation of ECM hydrogels are discussed. More than 70 papers have been published on extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels created from source tissue in almost every organ system. The present manuscript represents a review of ECM hydrogels and attempts to identify structure-function relationships that influence the tissue remodeling outcomes and gaps in the understanding thereof. There is a Phase 1 clinical trial now in progress for an ECM hydrogel. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photodegradable, Photoadaptable Hydrogels via Radical-Mediated Disulfide Fragmentation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Singh, Samir P; Bowman, Christopher N; Anseth, Kristi S

    2011-04-26

    Various techniques have been adopted to impart a biological responsiveness to synthetic hydrogels for the delivery of therapeutic agents as well as the study and manipulation of biological processes and tissue development. Such techniques and materials include polyelectrolyte gels that swell and deswell with changes in pH, thermosensitive gels that contract at physiological temperatures, and peptide cross-linked hydrogels that degrade upon peptidolysis by cell-secreted enzymes. Herein we report a unique approach to photochemically deform and degrade disulfide cross-linked hydrogels, mitigating the challenges of light attenuation and low quantum yield, permitting the degradation of hydrogels up to 2 mm thick within 120 s at low light intensities (10 mW/cm(2) at 365 nm). Hydrogels were formed by the oxidation of thiol-functionalized 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecules. These disulfide cross-linked hydrogels were then swollen in a lithium acylphosphinate photoinitiator solution. Upon exposure to light, photogenerated radicals initiate multiple fragmentation and disulfide exchange reactions, permitting and promoting photodeformation, photowelding, and photodegradation. This novel, but simple, approach to generate photoadaptable hydrogels portends the study of cellular response to mechanically and topographically dynamic substrates as well as novel encapsulations by the welding of solid substrates. The principles and techniques described herein hold implications for more than hydrogel materials but also for photoadaptable polymers more generally.

  8. Biochemical analyses of lipids deposited on silicone hydrogel lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hatou

    2010-07-01

    Conclusions: The quantity of total lipid and cholesterol deposited on the 3 silicone hydrogel lenses tested did not differ. However, there were significant differences in the amounts of phospholipid deposited among the 3 silicone hydrogel lenses, of which clinical significance should be explored in the future study.

  9. The matrix reloaded: the evolution of regenerative hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbari, E.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Xu, Q.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels can regenerate lost, damaged or malfunctioning tissues. Clinical success of such hydrogels is strongly dependent on the ability to tune their chemical, physico-mechanical, and biological properties to a specific application. In particular, mimicking the intricate arrangement of

  10. Nanoreinforced biocompatible hydrogels from wood hemicelluloses and cellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffer Ahmet Karaaslan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Daniel J. Yelle; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2011-01-01

    Nanoreinforced hydrogels with a unique network structure were prepared from wood cellulose whiskers coated with chemically modified wood hemicelluloses. The hemicelluloses were modified with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate prior to adsorption onto the cellulose whiskers in aqueous medium. Synthesis of the hydrogels was accomplished by in situ radical polymerization of the...

  11. An ultra melt-resistant hydrogel from food grade carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Benjamin R.; Horozov, Tommy S.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Paunov, Vesselin N.

    2017-01-01

    We report a binary hydrogel system made from two food grade biopolymers, agar and methylcellulose (agar-MC), which does not require addition of salt for gelation to occur and has very unusual rheological and thermal properties. It is found that the storage modulus of the agar-MC hydrogel far

  12. Processing Techniques and Applications of Silk Hydrogels in Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Floren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are an attractive class of tunable material platforms that, combined with their structural and functional likeness to biological environments, have a diversity of applications in bioengineering. Several polymers, natural and synthetic, can be used, the material selection being based on the required functional characteristics of the prepared hydrogels. Silk fibroin (SF is an attractive natural polymer for its excellent processability, biocompatibility, controlled degradation, mechanical properties and tunable formats and a good candidate for the fabrication of hydrogels. Tremendous effort has been made to control the structural and functional characteristic of silk hydrogels, integrating novel biological features with advanced processing techniques, to develop the next generation of functional SF hydrogels. Here, we review the several processing methods developed to prepare advanced SF hydrogel formats, emphasizing a bottom-up approach beginning with critical structural characteristics of silk proteins and their behavior under specific gelation environments. Additionally, the preparation of SF hydrogel blends and other advanced formats will also be discussed. We conclude with a brief description of the attractive utility of SF hydrogels in relevant bioengineering applications.

  13. Biocompatibility of hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Logan, Megan; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Yongfang; Bae, Hojae; Dixon, Brian; Chen, P

    2017-09-01

    Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Due to their increasing use, their biocompatibility has been questioned since the use of these biomaterials needs to be effective and safe. It is not surprising then that the evaluation of biocompatibility of these types of biomaterials for regenerative and tissue engineering applications has been expanded from being primarily investigated in a laboratory setting to being applied in the multi-billion dollar medicinal industry. This review will aid in the improvement of design of non-invasive, smart hydrogels that can be utilized for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. In this review, the biocompatibility of hydrogels and design criteria for fabricating effective scaffolds are examined. Examples of natural and synthetic hydrogels, their biocompatibility and use in tissue engineering are discussed. The merits and clinical complications of hydrogel scaffold use are also reviewed. The article concludes with a future outlook of the field of biocompatibility within the context of hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-scale Multi-mechanism Toughening of Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuanhe

    Hydrogels are widely used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological studies. The scope of hydrogel applications, however, is often severely limited by their mechanical properties. Inspired by the mechanics and hierarchical structures of tough biological tissues, we propose that a general principle for the design of tough hydrogels is to implement two mechanisms for dissipating mechanical energy and maintaining high elasticity in hydrogels. A particularly promising strategy for the design is to integrate multiple pairs of mechanisms across multiple length scales into a hydrogel. We develop a multiscale theoretical framework to quantitatively guide the design of tough hydrogels. On the network level, we have developed micro-physical models to characterize the evolution of polymer networks under deformation. On the continuum level, we have implemented constitutive laws formulated from the network-level models into a coupled cohesive-zone and Mullins-effect model to quantitatively predict crack propagation and fracture toughness of hydrogels. Guided by the design principle and quantitative model, we will demonstrate a set of new hydrogels, based on diverse types of polymers, yet can achieve extremely high toughness superior to their natural counterparts such as cartilages. The work was supported by NSF(No. CMMI- 1253495) and ONR (No. N00014-14-1-0528).

  15. Hydrogels Prepared from Cross-Linked Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels were developed by cross-linking nanofibrillated cellulose with poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) and polyethylene glycol. The cross-linked hydrogels showed enhanced water absorption and gel content with the addition of nanocellulose. In addition, the thermal stability, mechanical strength, and modulus increased with an increase in the...

  16. Radiation-chemical preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflot, Anastasia V.; Kitaeva, Natalia K.; Duflot, Vladimir R.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the usage of method of radiation-chemical synthesis to prepare cross-linked hydrogels from poly(vinyl alcohol) modified with glycidyl methacrylate. Synthesis kinetics of modified poly(vinyl alcohol) and properties of hydrogels were studied. The gel fraction, swelling, mechanical properties, and water content of the hydrogels were measured. It was found that gel fraction increases with increasing radiation dose, concentration of modified poly(vinyl alcohol), and reaches 60%. It was established by differential scanning calorimetry that a fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is 50–70% and independent of gel fraction content. In addition to “bound” and “free” states, water in hydrogels is also present in the intermediate state. - Highlights: • The synthesis and the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels were studied. • PVA was modified by glycidyl methacrylate before gamma cross-linking. • The modification results in decreasing of PVA cross-linking dose by 3 orders lower. • The gel fraction and water content of the hydrogels were measured. • A fraction of the “bound” water in hydrogels is independent of gel fraction content

  17. Photoelectrochemical studies of dye-sensitized solar cells using organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinado, Tannia

    2009-10-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) is a promising efficient low-cost molecular photovoltaic device. One of the key components in DSCs is the dye, as it is responsible for the capture of sunlight. State-of-the-art DSC devices, based on ruthenium dyes, show record efficiencies of 10-12 %. During the last decade, metal-free organic dyes have been extensively explored as sensitizers for DSC application. The use of organic dyes is particularly attractive as it enables easy structural modifications, due to fairly short synthetic routes and reduced material cost. Novel dye should in addition to the light-harvesting properties also be compatible with the DSC components. In this thesis, a series of new organic dyes are investigated, both when integrated in the DSC device and as individual components. The evaluation methods consisted of different electrochemical and photoelectrochemical techniques. Whereas the light-harvesting properties of the dyes were fairly easily improved, the behavior of the dye integrated in the DSC showed less predictable photovoltaic results. The dye series studied in Papers II and IV revealed that their dye energetics limited vital electron-transfer processes, the dye regeneration (Paper II) and injection quantum yield (Paper IV). Further, in Papers III-VI, it was observed that different dye structures seemed to alter the interfacial electron recombination with the electrolyte. In addition to the dye structure sterics, some organic dyes appear to enhance the interfacial recombination, possibly due to specific dye-redox acceptor interaction (Paper V). The impact of dye sterical modifications versus the use of coadsorbent was explored in Paper VI. The dye layer properties in the presence and absence of various coadsorbents were further investigated in Paper VII. The core of this thesis is the identification of the processes and properties limiting the performance of the DSC device, aiming at an overall understanding of the compatibility between the

  18. Cooperative catalysis with block copolymer micelles: A combinatorial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhryakov, Konstantin V.

    2015-02-09

    A rapid approach to identifying complementary catalytic groups using combinations of functional polymers is presented. Amphiphilic polymers with "clickable" hydrophobic blocks were used to create a library of functional polymers, each bearing a single functionality. The polymers were combined in water, yielding mixed micelles. As the functional groups were colocalized in the hydrophobic microphase, they could act cooperatively, giving rise to new modes of catalysis. The multipolymer "clumps" were screened for catalytic activity, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. A number of catalyst candidates were identified across a wide range of model reaction types. One of the catalytic systems discovered was used to perform a number of preparative-scale syntheses. Our approach provides easy access to a range of enzyme-inspired cooperative catalysts.

  19. Cooperative catalysis with block copolymer micelles: A combinatorial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhryakov, Konstantin V.; Desyatkin, Victor G.; O'Shea, John Paul; Almahdali, Sarah; Solovyeva, Vera; Rodionov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid approach to identifying complementary catalytic groups using combinations of functional polymers is presented. Amphiphilic polymers with "clickable" hydrophobic blocks were used to create a library of functional polymers, each bearing a single functionality. The polymers were combined in water, yielding mixed micelles. As the functional groups were colocalized in the hydrophobic microphase, they could act cooperatively, giving rise to new modes of catalysis. The multipolymer "clumps" were screened for catalytic activity, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. A number of catalyst candidates were identified across a wide range of model reaction types. One of the catalytic systems discovered was used to perform a number of preparative-scale syntheses. Our approach provides easy access to a range of enzyme-inspired cooperative catalysts.

  20. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torriani, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  1. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Torriani, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  2. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or ethylene glycol was useful solvent for dye laser.

  3. Radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Uichi; Ishiguro, Takahide.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the radiative characteristics of CVL pumped dye laser. It is compared YAG-SH (530 nm) with CVL (511, 578 nm) and CVL (511 nm) for pumping source. Influence of solvent in dye laser power was examined. The present experimental results show that efficiency of CVL (511 nm) pumped dye laser was most high. When the dye solution is at a standstill, the efficiency of dye laser with water and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (S.L.S., 2 %wt.) was most high among the four kinds of solvent. In the condition of dye solution flow, the water and S.L.S. or Ethylene Glycol was useful solvent for dye laser. (author)

  4. BODIPYs for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klfout, Hafsah; Stewart, Adam; Elkhalifa, Mahmoud; He, Hongshan

    2017-11-22

    BODIPY, abbreviation of boron-dipyrromethene, is one class of robust organic molecules that has been used widely in bioimaging, sensing, and logic gate design. Recently, BODIPY dyes have been explored for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Studies demonstrate their potential as light absorbers for the conversion of solar energy to electricity. However, their photovoltaic performance is inferior to many other dyes, including porphyrin dyes. In this review, several synthetic strategies of BODIPY dyes for DSCs and their further functionalization are described. The photophysical properties of dye molecules and their photovoltaic performances in DSCs are summarized. We aim to provide readers a clear picture of the field and expect to shed light on the next generation of BODIPY dyes for their applications in solar energy conversion.

  5. Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.

    2008-08-01

    It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

  6. Computational Study of pH-sensitive Hydrogel-based Microfluidic Flow Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Birgersson, Erik; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2011-01-01

    This computational study investigates the sensing and actuating behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel-based microfluidic flow controller. This hydrogel-based flow controller has inherent advantage in its unique stimuli-sensitive properties, removing the need for an external power supply. The predicted swelling behavior the hydrogel is validated with steady-state and transient experiments. We then demonstrate how the model is implemented to study the sensing and actuating behavior of hydrogels for different microfluidic flow channel/hydrogel configurations: e.g., for flow in a T-junction with single and multiple hydrogels. In short, the results suggest that the response of the hydrogel-based flow controller is slow. Therefore, two strategies to improve the response rate of the hydrogels are proposed and demonstrated. Finally, we highlight that the model can be extended to include other stimuli-responsive hydrogels such as thermo-, electric-, and glucose-sensitive hydrogels. PMID:24956303

  7. Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Faheem; Othman, Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi; Javed, Fatima; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Md Akil, Hazizan

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to review the literature concerning the choice of selectivity for hydrogels based on classification, application and processing. Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) and superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) represent an innovative category of recent generation highlighted as an ideal mould system for the study of solution-dependent phenomena. Hydrogels, also termed as smart and/or hungry networks, are currently subject of considerable scientific research due to their potential in hi-tech applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, bioseparation, biosensor, agriculture, oil recovery and cosmetics fields. Smart hydrogels display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in the surroundings. However, such changes are reversible; therefore, the hydrogels are capable of returning to its initial state after a reaction as soon as the trigger is removed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and characterization of bioglass/polyvinyl alcohol composite hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Wang Yingjun; Zheng Yudong; Chen Xiaofeng; Ren Li; Wu Gang; Huang Xiaoshan

    2007-01-01

    In order to form firm active fixation with the adjacent bone, a new kind of bioactive composite hydrogel was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and bioglass (BG) through ultrasonic dispersion, heat-high-pressure and freeze/thawed technique. A digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) was utilized to characterize the mechanical properties of the series of BG/PVA composites. Results showed that at different load pressures, the composite hydrogel displayed different displacement and deformation in the V field. Results also showed that an increase of PVA percentage (15-30 wt%) or of bioglass percentage (2-10 wt%) in composite hydrogel could lead to an increase in the elastic compression modulus. Scanning electron microscope results indicated that bioglass was uniformly dispersed in the BG/PVA composite hydrogel. The BG/PVA composite hydrogel shows a promising prospect as a new bionic cartilage implantation material

  9. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ. Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  10. Design properties of hydrogel tissue-engineering scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junmin; Marchant, Roger E

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the recent progress in the design and synthesis of hydrogels as tissue-engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels are attractive scaffolding materials owing to their highly swollen network structure, ability to encapsulate cells and bioactive molecules, and efficient mass transfer. Various polymers, including natural, synthetic and natural/synthetic hybrid polymers, have been used to make hydrogels via chemical or physical crosslinking. Recently, bioactive synthetic hydrogels have emerged as promising scaffolds because they can provide molecularly tailored biofunctions and adjustable mechanical properties, as well as an extracellular matrix-like microenvironment for cell growth and tissue formation. This article addresses various strategies that have been explored to design synthetic hydrogels with extracellular matrix-mimetic bioactive properties, such as cell adhesion, proteolytic degradation and growth factor-binding. PMID:22026626

  11. Engineering three-dimensional cell mechanical microenvironment with hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyou; Wang, Lin; Wang, Shuqi; Han, Yulong; Wu, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiancheng; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian

    2012-12-01

    Cell mechanical microenvironment (CMM) significantly affects cell behaviors such as spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, most studies on cell response to mechanical stimulation are based on two-dimensional (2D) planar substrates, which cannot mimic native three-dimensional (3D) CMM. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a significant difference in cell behavior in 2D and 3D microenvironments. Among the materials used for engineering 3D CMM, hydrogels have gained increasing attention due to their tunable properties (e.g. chemical and mechanical properties). In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in engineering hydrogel-based 3D CMM. Effects of mechanical cues (e.g. hydrogel stiffness and externally induced stress/strain in hydrogels) on cell behaviors are described. A variety of approaches to load mechanical stimuli in 3D hydrogel-based constructs are also discussed.

  12. Advances in the Fabrication of Antimicrobial Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M. González-Henríquez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review describes, in an organized manner, the recent developments in the elaboration of hydrogels that possess antimicrobial activity. The fabrication of antibacterial hydrogels for biomedical applications that permits cell adhesion and proliferation still remains as an interesting challenge, in particular for tissue engineering applications. In this context, a large number of studies has been carried out in the design of hydrogels that serve as support for antimicrobial agents (nanoparticles, antibiotics, etc.. Another interesting approach is to use polymers with inherent antimicrobial activity provided by functional groups contained in their structures, such as quaternary ammonium salt or hydrogels fabricated from antimicrobial peptides (AMPs or natural polymers, such as chitosan. A summary of the different alternatives employed for this purpose is described in this review, considering their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, more recent methodologies that lead to more sophisticated hydrogels that are able to react to external stimuli are equally depicted in this review.

  13. Construction of Injectable Double-Network Hydrogels for Cell Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Mengnan; Yang, Di; Wang, Qian; Liang, Fuxin; Qu, Xiaozhong; Qiu, Dong; Yang, Zhenzhong

    2017-07-10

    Herein we present a unique method of using dynamic cross-links, which are dynamic covalent bonding and ionic interaction, for the construction of injectable double-network (DN) hydrogels, with the objective of cell delivery for cartilage repair. Glycol chitosan and dibenzaldhyde capped poly(ethylene oxide) formed the first network, while calcium alginate formed the second one, and in the resultant DN hydrogel, either of the networks could be selectively removed. The moduli of the DN hydrogel were significantly improved compared to that of the parent single-network hydrogels and were tunable by changing the chemical components. In situ 3D cell encapsulation could be easily performed by mixing cell suspension to the polymer solutions and transferred through a syringe needle before sol-gel transition. Cell proliferation and mediated differentiation of mouse chondrogenic cells were achieved in the DN hydrogel extracellular matrix.

  14. Development of sago starch hydrogel for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman HJ Mohd Dahlan; Kamarudin Bahari; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2001-01-01

    Sago starch is utilized in Malaysia mainly for food production. The purpose of the research is to diversify the use of sago starch for medical application particularly in development of hydrogel burn wound dressing. The sago starch is blending with mixture of PVP and PVA to improve the degree of crosslink, mechanical properties, swelling ability and tackiness of the blend hydrogel (sago/PVA and sago PVP). Additives have been introduced into the system such as, polypropylene glycol or carboxymethyl cellulose to improved further the swelling ability and tackiness properties of the blend hydrogel as well as other properties. Effect of irradiation dose on the blend hydrogel has also been studied to optimize the effective dose for blend hydrogel and simultaneously for sterilization purpose. (author)

  15. Engineering three-dimensional cell mechanical microenvironment with hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoyou; Wang Lin; Han Yulong; Zhang Qiancheng; Xu Feng; Lu Tianjian; Wang Shuqi; Wu Jinhui

    2012-01-01

    Cell mechanical microenvironment (CMM) significantly affects cell behaviors such as spreading, migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, most studies on cell response to mechanical stimulation are based on two-dimensional (2D) planar substrates, which cannot mimic native three-dimensional (3D) CMM. Accumulating evidence has shown that there is a significant difference in cell behavior in 2D and 3D microenvironments. Among the materials used for engineering 3D CMM, hydrogels have gained increasing attention due to their tunable properties (e.g. chemical and mechanical properties). In this paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in engineering hydrogel-based 3D CMM. Effects of mechanical cues (e.g. hydrogel stiffness and externally induced stress/strain in hydrogels) on cell behaviors are described. A variety of approaches to load mechanical stimuli in 3D hydrogel-based constructs are also discussed. (topical review)

  16. Enhancement of bioavailability by formulating rhEPO ionic complex with lysine into PEG-PLA micelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yanan; Sun, Fengying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Renyu [Jilin University, College of Life Science (China); Dou, Changlin; Liu, Wanhui; Sun, Kaoxiang, E-mail: sunkx@ytu.edu.cn [Yantai University, School of Pharmacy (China); Li, Youxin, E-mail: liyouxin@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, College of Life Science (China)

    2013-10-15

    A composite micelle of ionic complex encapsulated into poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide) (PEG-PLA) di-block copolymeric micelles was used for protein drug delivery to improve its pharmacokinetic performance. In this study, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO, as a model protein) was formulated with lysine into composite micelles at a diameter of 71.5 nm with narrow polydispersity indices (PDIs < 0.3). Only a trace amount of protein was in aggregate form. The zeta potential of the spherical micelles was ranging from -0.54 to 1.39 mv, and encapsulation efficiency is high (80 %). The stability of rhEPO was improved significantly in composite micelles in vitro. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed significant, enhanced plasma retention of the composite micelles in comparison with native rhEPO. Areas under curve (AUCs) of the rhEPO released from the composite micelles were 4.5- and 2.3-folds higher than those of the native rhEPO and rhEPO-loaded PEG-PLA micelle, respectively. In addition, the composite micelles exhibited good biocompatibility using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay with human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. All these features are preferable for utilizing the composite micelles as a novel protein delivery system.

  17. Enhancement of bioavailability by formulating rhEPO ionic complex with lysine into PEG-PLA micelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanan; Sun, Fengying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Renyu; Dou, Changlin; Liu, Wanhui; Sun, Kaoxiang; Li, Youxin

    2013-10-01

    A composite micelle of ionic complex encapsulated into poly(ethylene glycol)-poly( d, l-lactide) (PEG-PLA) di-block copolymeric micelles was used for protein drug delivery to improve its pharmacokinetic performance. In this study, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO, as a model protein) was formulated with lysine into composite micelles at a diameter of 71.5 nm with narrow polydispersity indices (PDIs protein was in aggregate form. The zeta potential of the spherical micelles was ranging from -0.54 to 1.39 mv, and encapsulation efficiency is high (80 %). The stability of rhEPO was improved significantly in composite micelles in vitro. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed significant, enhanced plasma retention of the composite micelles in comparison with native rhEPO. Areas under curve (AUCs) of the rhEPO released from the composite micelles were 4.5- and 2.3-folds higher than those of the native rhEPO and rhEPO-loaded PEG-PLA micelle, respectively. In addition, the composite micelles exhibited good biocompatibility using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay with human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. All these features are preferable for utilizing the composite micelles as a novel protein delivery system.

  18. Development and evaluation of N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan micelles containing clotrimazole for oral candidiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Woraphatphadung, Thisirak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2017-03-01

    Clotrimazole (CZ)-loaded N-naphthyl-N,O-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) micelles have been developed as an alternative for oral candidiasis treatment. NSCS was synthesized by reductive N-amination and N,O-succinylation. CZ was incorporated into the micelles using various methods, including the dropping method, the dialysis method, and the O/W emulsion method. The size and morphology of the CZ-loaded micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The drug entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, release characteristics, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans were also evaluated. The CZ-loaded micelles prepared using different methods differed in the size of micelles. The micelles ranged in size from 120 nm to 173 nm. The micelles prepared via the O/W emulsion method offered the highest percentage entrapment efficiency and loading capacity. The CZ released from the CZ-loaded micelles at much faster rate compared to CZ powder. The CZ-loaded NSCS micelles can significantly hinder the growth of Candida cells after contact. These CZ-loaded NSCS micelles offer great antifungal activity and might be further developed to be a promising candidate for oral candidiasis treatment.

  19. Use of Magnetic Folate-Dextran-Retinoic Acid Micelles for Dual Targeting of Doxorubicin in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Varshosaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic copolymer of folate-conjugated dextran/retinoic acid (FA/DEX-RA was self-assembled into micelles by direct dissolution method. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs coated with oleic acid (OA were prepared by hydrothermal method and encapsulated within the micelles. Doxorubicin HCl was loaded in the magnetic micelles. The characteristics of the magnetic micelles were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The crystalline state of OA-coated MNPs and their heat capacity were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods, respectively. The iron content of magnetic micelles was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used to test the protein binding of magnetic micelles. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin loaded magnetic micelles was studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells using MTT assay and their quantitative cellular uptake by fluorimetry method. TEM results showed the MNPs in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. TGA results confirmed the presence of OA and FA/DEX-RA copolymer on the surface of MNPs and micelles, respectively. The magnetic micelles showed no significant protein bonding and reduced the IC50 of the drug to about 10 times lower than the free drug.

  20. Glucose-installed, SPIO-loaded PEG- b-PCL micelles as MR contrast agents to target prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerasilp, Man; Sunintaboon, Panya; Sungkarat, Witaya; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) bearing glucose analog encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Glu-SPIO micelles) were synthesized as an MRI contrast agent to target cancer cells based on high-glucose metabolism. Compared to SPIO micelles (non-targeting SPIO micelles), Glu-SPIO micelles demonstrated higher toxicity to human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) at high concentration. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the amount of iron in cells. It was found that the iron in cancer cells treated by Glu-SPIO micelles were 27-fold higher than cancer cells treated by SPIO micelles at the iron concentration of 25 ppm and fivefold at the iron concentration of 100 ppm. To implement Glu-SPIO micelles as a MR contrast agent, the 3-T clinical MRI was applied to determine transverse relaxivities ( r 2*) and relaxation rate (1/ T 2*) values. In vitro MRI showed different MRI signal from cancer cells after cellular uptake of SPIO micelles and Glu-SPIO micelles. Glu-SPIO micelles was highly sensitive with the r 2* in agarose gel at 155 mM-1 s-1. Moreover, the higher 1/ T 2* value was found for cancer cells treated with Glu-SPIO micelles. These results supported that glucose ligand increased the cellular uptake of micelles by PC-3 cells with over-expressing glucose transporter on the cell membrane. Thus, glucose can be used as a small molecule ligand for targeting prostate cancer cells overexpressing glucose transporter.

  1. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  2. Electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes with polyphenolic acids in micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Chemistry, Fatima College, Madurai 625 018 (India); Ramdass, Arumugam [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628 216 (India); Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Rajagopal, Seenivasan, E-mail: rajagopalseenivasan@yahoo.com [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India)

    2016-02-15

    The electron transfer in a microhetrogeneous system is a perfect mimic of biological electron transfer. The electron transfer between biologically important phenolic acids and ruthenium (II) complexes is systematically studied in the presence of anionic and cationic micelles. The photophysical properties of these ruthenium (II) complexes with anionic and cationic micelles and their binding abilities with these two type of micelles are also studies using absorption, emission and excited state lifetime spectral techniques. Pseudophase Ion Exchange (PIE) Model is applied to derive mechanism of electron transfer in two types of micelles. - Highlights: • Effect of microhetrogeneous system is studied using ruthenium (II) complexes and gallic acid is studied. • Pseudophase Ion exchange model is applied to derive the mechanism. • Binding constants are in the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} M{sup −1}.

  3. HPMA-based polymeric micelles for curcumin solubilization and inhibition of cancer cell growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naksuriya, Ornchuma; Shi, Yang; Van Nostrum, Cornelus F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/134498690; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Curcumin (CM) has been reported as a potential anticancer agent. However, its pharmaceutical applications as therapeutic agent are hampered because of its poor aqueous solubility. The present study explores the advantages of polymeric micelles composed of block copolymers of

  4. The structure of the antimicrobial active center of lactoferricin B bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibli, D J; Hwang, P M; Vogel, H J

    1999-03-12

    Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) is a 25-residue antimicrobial peptide released from bovine lactoferrin upon pepsin digestion. The antimicrobial center of LfcinB consists of six residues (RRWQWR-NH2), and it possesses similar bactericidal activity to LfcinB. The structure of the six-residue peptide bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles has been determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics refinement. The peptide adopts a well defined amphipathic structure when bound to SDS micelles with the Trp sidechains separated from the Arg residues. Additional evidence demonstrates that the peptide is oriented in the micelle such that the Trp residues are more deeply buried in the micelle than the Arg and Gln residues.

  5. Kappa-casein micelles: structure, interaction and gelling studied by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G; May, R P

    1991-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on dilute and concentrated dispersions of kappa-casein micelles in a buffer at pH = 6.7 were made using the D11 diffractometer in Grenoble. Results indicate that the micelles have a dense core with a fluffy outer layer. This outer layer appears to give rise to a steeply repulsive interaction on contact. In fact, the hard-sphere model best fits the measured scattering intensities. Adding chymosin to the dispersion initiated a fractal flocculation of the micelles and consecutively a coalescence of the micelles. This unexpected second process resembled that of spinodal demixing. The dispersion phase thus separates into a water and a protein phase on a time scale of hours. The observed phenomona contribute to the understanding of the cheese-making process.

  6. Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Environments Using Micelle-Clay Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Khamis, Mustafa; Manassra, Adnan; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Nir, Shlomo; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A.; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions under different conditions was investigated using either clay (montmorillonite) or micelle-clay complex, the last obtained by adsorbing critical micelle concentration of octadecyltrimethylammonium ions onto montmorillonite. Batch experiments showed the effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the experimental data giving significant results. Filtration experiments using columns filled with micelle-clay complex mixed with sand were performed to assess Cr(VI) removal efficiency under continuous flow at different pH values. The micelle-clay complex used in this study was capable of removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions without any prior acidification of the sample. Results demonstrated that the removal effectiveness reached nearly 100% when using optimal conditions for both batch and continuous flow techniques. PMID:24222757

  7. Effect of water on the local electric potential of simulated ionic micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodskaya, Elena N.; Vanin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexvanin@yandex.ru [Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskiy pr. 26, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-28

    Ionic micelles in an aqueous solution containing single-charged counter-ions have been simulated by molecular dynamics. For both cationic and anionic micelles, it has been demonstrated that explicit description of solvent has strong effect on the micelle’s electric field. The sign of the local charge alters in the immediate vicinity of the micellar crown and the electric potential varies nonmonotonically. Two micelle models have been examined: the hybrid model with a rigid hydrocarbon core and the atomistic model. For three molecular models of water (Simple Point Charge model (SPC), Transferable Intermolecular Potential 5- Points (TIP5P) and two-centered S2), the results have been compared with those for the continuum solvent model. The orientational ordering of solvent molecules has strong effect on the local electric field surprisingly far from the micelle surface.

  8. Nanostructured oxygen sensor--using micelles to incorporate a hydrophobic platinum porphyrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Su

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic platinum(II-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl-porphyrin (PtTFPP was physically incorporated into micelles formed from poly(ε-caprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol to enable the application of PtTFPP in aqueous solution. Micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS and atomic force microscopy (AFM to show an average diameter of about 140 nm. PtTFPP showed higher quantum efficiency in micellar solution than in tetrahydrofuran (THF and dichloromethane (CH₂Cl₂. PtTFPP in micelles also exhibited higher photostability than that of PtTFPP suspended in water. PtTFPP in micelles exhibited good oxygen sensitivity and response time. This study provided an efficient approach to enable the application of hydrophobic oxygen sensors in a biological environment.

  9. Interactions of myelin basic protein with mixed dodecylphosphocholine/palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendz, G.L.; Brown, L.R.; Martenson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The interactions of myelin basic protein and peptides derived from it with detergent micelles of lysophosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidylserine, palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate, and with mixed micelles of the neutral detergent dodecylphosphocholine and the negatively charged detergent palmitoyllysophosphatidic acid, were investigated by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroic spectropolarimetry. The results with single detergents suggested that there are discrete interaction sites in the protein molecule for neutral and anionic detergent micelles and that at least some of these sites are different for each type of detergent. The data on the binding of the protein and peptides to mixed detergent micelles suggested that intramolecular interactions in the intact protein and in one of the longer peptides limited the formation of helices and also that a balance between hydrophobic and ionic forces is achieved in the interactions of the peptides with the detergents. At high detergent/protein molar ratios, hydrophobic interactions appeared to be favored

  10. Enhanced hydrogen production by coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplast after entrapment within reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Dubey, R.S. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Biochemistry; Pandey, K.D. [Banaras Hindhu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    1999-08-01

    Reverse micelles were used for the enhanced rate of photoproduction of hydrogen using the coupled system of Halobacterium halobium and chloroplasts organelles. Different combinations of organic solvents and surfactants were used for generating reverse micelles. A several fold enhancement in the rate of H{sub 2} production was observed when the coupled system was entrapped within reverse micelles as compared to the aqueous suspension where no detectable H{sub 2} was produced. The coupled system immobilized in reverse micelles formed by sodium lauryl sulfate and carbon tetrachloride yielded maximum rate of H{sub 2} evolution. The optimum temperature for such hydrogen production was 40{sup o}C using light of 520-570 nm wavelength and 100 lux intensity. (author)

  11. Structural study of concentrated micelle-solutions of sodium octanoate by light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayoun, Marc

    1982-05-01

    Structural investigation of sodium octanoate (CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 6 -COONa) by light scattering has been made to study properties of concentrated aqueous micelle-solutions. From static light scattering data, the micellar weight and shape have been determined. The monomer aggregation number and the apparent micellar charge have been confirmed. Quasi-elastic light scattering, has been used to measure the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of the volume fraction. Extrapolation to the c.m.c. give the hydrodynamic radius of the micelles. At low micelle-concentration, strong exchange reaction between monomers and micelles affects the Brownian motion and resulting is an increase in the diffusion coefficient. The experimental data show a strong hydrodynamic contribution to S(q) (factor structure) and D(q) (effective diffusion coefficient) arising from hard spheres interactions with a large repulsive potential. (author) [fr

  12. New Strategies for Constructing Polymeric Micelles and Hollow Spheres Via Self-Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, self-assembly of block copolymers leading to micelles in selective solvents, which dissolve only one of the blocks, has developed rapidly because the micelles are very strong candidates for potential applications in advanced technologies. The micelles usually have core-shell structure which are connected by covalent bonds. Based on our long-term research on interpolymer complexation due to hydrogen bonding, where we noticed that the complexation often led to the formation of irregular aggregates, we succeeded recently in developing a series of new approaches to polymeric micelles and hollow spheres via specific intermolecular interactions. As in these approaches, a variety of polymers with interacting groups i.e. homopolymers, random copolymers, graft copolymers as well as low mass compounds (LMC), can be used as building blocks, our research strategies have substantially extended the field of self-assembly.

  13. Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Gunjan; Kulshreshtha, S.K.; Hassan, P.A.; Aswal, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were carried out on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in the presence of three different hydrophobic salts, i.e. aniline hydrochloride, o-toluidine hydrochloride and m-toluidine hydrochloride. All these salts induce a uniaxial growth of micelles to form prolate ellipsoidal structures. A progressive decrease in the surface charge of the micelles was observed with the addition of salts followed by a rapid growth of the micelles. The presence of a methyl substitution at the ortho position of aniline does not alter the growth behavior significantly. However, when the substitution is at meta position micellar growth is favored at lower salt concentration than that is observed for aniline. This can be explained in terms of the difference in the chemical environments of the substituents at the ortho and meta positions. (author)

  14. Effect of calcium chelators on physical changes in casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, de E.J.P.; Minor, M.; Snoeren, T.H.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of calcium chelators on physical changes of casein micelles in concentrated micellar casein solutions was investigated by measuring calcium-ion activity, viscosity and turbidity, and performing ultracentrifugation. The highest viscosities were measured on addition of sodium

  15. Influence of serum albumin on intracellular delivery of drug-loaded hyaluronan polymeric micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešporová, K.; Sogorková, J.; Smejkalova, D.; Kulhánek, J.; Huerta-Angeles, G.; Kubala, Lukáš; Velebný, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 511, č. 1 (2016), s. 638-647 ISSN 0378-5173 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Polymeric micelle * Hyaluronan * Fatty acid Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.649, year: 2016

  16. Curcumin-loaded chitosan-cholesterol micelles: evaluation in monolayers and 3D cancer spheroid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddineti, Omkara Swami; Kumari, Preeti; Ray, Eupa; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2017-06-02

    To improve the bioavailability and anticancer potential of curcumin by using a cholesterol-conjugated chitosan micelle. Methods & methods: Cholesterol was conjugated to chitosan (15 kDa) to form self-assembled micelles, which loaded curcumin. Physicochemical characterization and formulation optimization of the drug-loaded micelles (curcumin-loaded chitosan-cholesterol micelles [C-CCM]) were performed. In vitro cellular uptake and viability of C-CCM were investigated in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. The antitumor efficacy was evaluated in 3D lung cancer spheroid model. The optimized C-CCM had size of approximately 162 nm with loading efficiency of approximately 36%. C-CCM was taken up efficiently by the cells, and it reduced cancer cell viability significantly compared with free curcumin. C-CCM enhanced the antitumor efficacy in spheroids, suggesting that C-CCM could be used as an effective chemotherapy in cancer.

  17. Micelle formation during extraction of alkali elements from strongly alkaline mediums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apanasenko, V.V.; Reznik, A.M.; Bukin, V.I.; Brodskaya, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of potassium, rubidium and cesium by phenol reagents in hydrocarbon solvents from strongly alkakine solutions was considered. Tendency of prepared alkali metal phenolates to form micelles in aqueous and organic phases was revealed. Phenolates tendency to form micelles is dictated mainly by the size and position of hydrocarbon substituent in molecule. It is shown that when micelles form in organic phase, alkali elements can be extracted both according to cation-exchange mechanism and according to micellar one. It is noted that alkai element extraction from strongly alkaline media requires the correct choice of extractant: alkali metal phenolate shouldn't form micelles in aqueous solution. n-Alkyl- and arylphenoldisulfides and polysulfides are most preferable for solvent extraction among considered phenol derivatives

  18. Octane-Assisted Reverse Micellar Dyeing of Cotton with Reactive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yiu-lun Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the computer colour matching (CCM of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dye using the octane-assisted reverse micellar approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour quality and compare the accuracy between CCM forecasting and simulated dyeing produced by conventional water-based dyeing and octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing. First, the calibration of dyeing databases for both dyeing methods was established. Standard samples were dyed with known dye concentrations. Computer colour matching was conducted by using the colour difference formula of International Commission on Illumination (CIE L*a*b*. Experimental results revealed that the predicted concentrations were nearly the same as the expected known concentrations for both dyeing methods. This indicates that octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system can achieve colour matching as good as the conventional water-based dyeing system. In addition, when comparing the colour produced by the conventional water-based dyeing system and the octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system, the colour difference (ΔE is ≤1, which indicates that the reverse micellar dyeing system could be applied for industrial dyeing with CCM.

  19. Free radical scavenging injectable hydrogels for regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeri, Remya; Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2017-02-01

    Pathological free radicals generated from inflamed and infarcted cardiac tissues interferes natural tissue repair mechanisms. Hypoxic microenvironment at the injured zone of non-regenerating cardiac tissues hinders the therapeutic attempts including cell therapy. Here we report an injectable, cytocompatible, free radical scavenging synthetic hydrogel formulation for regenerative therapy. New hydrogel (PEAX-P) is prepared with D-xylitol-co-fumarate-co-poly ethylene adipate-co-PEG comaromer (PEAX) and PEGDiacrylate. PEAX-P hydrogel swells 4.9 times the initial weight and retains 100.07kPa Young modulus at equilibrium swelling, which is suitable for cardiac applications. PEAX-P hydrogel retains elastic nature even at 60% compressive strain, which is favorable to fit with the dynamic and elastic natural tissue counterparts. PEAX-P hydrogel scavenges 51% DPPH radical, 40% hydroxyl radicals 41% nitrate radicals with 31% reducing power. The presence of hydrogel protects 62% cardiomyoblast cells treated with stress inducing media at LD 50 concentration. The free hydroxyl groups in sugar alcohols of the comacromer influence the free radical scavenging. Comparatively, PEAX-P hydrogel based on xylitol evinces slightly lower scavenging characteristics than with previously reported PEAM-P hydrogel containing mannitol having more hydroxyl groups. The possible free radical scavenging mechanism of the present hydrogel relies on the free π electrons associated with uncrosslinked fumarate bonds, hydrogen atoms associated with sugar alcohols/PEG and radical dilution by free water in the matrix. Briefly, the present PEAX-P hydrogel is a potential injectable system for combined antioxidant and regenerative therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin E succinate-conjugated F68 micelles for mitoxantrone delivery in enhancing anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuling Liu,1,* Yingqi Xu,2,* Minghui Wu,3 Lijiao Fan,1 Chengwei He,2 Jian-Bo Wan,2 Peng Li,2 Meiwan Chen,2 Hui Li11Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mitoxantrone (MIT is a chemotherapeutic agent with promising anticancer efficacy. In this study, Pluronic F68-vitamine E succinate (F68-VES amphiphilic polymer micelles were developed for delivering MIT and enhancing its anticancer activity. MIT-loaded F68–VES (F68–VES/MIT micelles were prepared via the solvent evaporation method with self-assembly under aqueous conditions. F68–VES/MIT micelles were found to be of optimal particle size with the narrow size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy images of F68–VES/MIT micelles showed homogeneous spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. F68–VES micelles had a low critical micelle concentration value of 3.311 mg/L, as well as high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, F68–VES/MIT micelles were stable in the presence of fetal bovine serum for 24 hours and maintained sustained drug release in vitro. Remarkably, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of F68–VES/MIT micelles was lower than that of free MIT in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells (two human breast cancer cell lines. In addition, compared with free MIT, there was an increased trend of apoptosis and cellular uptake of F68–VES/MIT micelles in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, these results indicated that F68–VES polymer micelles were able to effectively deliver MIT and largely improve its potency in cancer therapy. Keywords: F68, vitamin E