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Sample records for dye dilution technique

  1. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  2. A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  3. ASSUMED OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION BASED ON CALCULATION FROM DYE DILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT - AN IMPROVED FORMULA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERGSTRA, A; VANDIJK, RB; HILLEGE, HL; LIE, KI; MOOK, GA

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed because of observed differences between dye dilution cardiac output and the Fick cardiac output, calculated from estimated oxygen consumption according to LaFarge and Miettinen, and to find a better formula for assumed oxygen consumption. In 250 patients who underwent left a

  4. Dyeing of Polyester Woven Fabric with Disperse Dye Using Conventional and Microwave Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric is generally dyed using high temperature dyeing technique and carrier. Both techniques require high energy consumption while few carriers are toxic in nature. In this study, 100% polyester woven fabric was dyed by microwave and conventional dyeing technique with disperse dye; Foron Blue RD GLN by an exhaust method for short dyeing cycle (15 and 30 min. The fabric samples were dyed using conventional high temperature dyeing technique using recommended recipe. Moreover, samples were also dyed using microwave technique with recommended recipe and by the addition of salt and urea, pre-treatment with caustic and organic solvent for improving the dye uptake value and fastness properties. The dyeing assessment; (K/S?max value by Datacolor spectrophotometer, dye uniformity by optical microscope and washing fastness by grey scale were measured. It has been observed that over conventional dyeing method, microwave irradiation dyed sample gives almost 70% high (K/S?max value and uniform dye penetration and good to very good washing fastness property. In addition, microwave dyeing gives excellent dyeing behavior at short dyeing cycle; 15 min; hence saves energy and sustainable dyeing process

  5. Efficacy comparison between simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration techniques: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantitaphong, Paweena; Tiranathanagul, Khajohn; Katavetin, Pisut; Hanwiwatwong, Orawadee; Wittayalertpanya, Supeecha; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Tungsanga, Kriang; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2012-12-01

    Mid-dilution and mixed-dilution on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) techniques are innovated to overcome the limitations of two standard techniques including predilution and postdilution. Unfortunately, the head-to-head comparisons between these two novel techniques in the same study are still limited. Moreover, the original mid-dilution and mixed-dilution OL-HDF need special dialyzers and special machines. In the present study, simple mid-dilution and simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF were settled with the aim for clinical use in general hemodialysis (HD) centers. The efficacies of uremic toxins removal between both modalities were measured and compared. This prospective randomized crossover study was conducted on 12 stable HD patients undergoing simple mixed-dilution and simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. HD prescriptions were similar in both techniques. The dialysis efficacies were determined by calculating small- (urea, creatinine, and phosphate) and middle-molecule (beta-2 microglobulin [β2M]) removal. Moreover, potential complications such as high transmembrane pressure (TMP) and protein loss were also observed. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF provided significantly greater clearances of urea, creatinine, and β2M when compared with the simple mid-dilution OL-HDF techniques. Phosphate clearances in both techniques were comparable. In addition, TMP and dialysate albumin loss were not different. There were no intradialytic complications in both techniques. Simple mixed-dilution OL-HDF could provide greater efficacy for small- and middle-molecule clearances and acceptable potential risks, while phosphate removal is comparable.

  6. Environmentally Friendly Techniques for Wool Dyeing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antighin Simona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of dyeing process on the quality of surface waters contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds, resulted after the wool dyeing process. In order to mark out this aspects an environment friendly method was proposed which involves dyeing wool fiber with new complex combinations derived from a new acid dyes which were complexed, using copper, iron, nickel and zinc salts at 2:1 combination ratio. In order to point out the environmental point of view of wastewaters an experimental protocol was tested by dyeing wool fiber at different pH. Evaluation of complexed combinations impact on the environment involve the following indicators: consumption degree of dyeing solution from the process bath, treatment degree related to the organic content expressed by COD indicator and treatment degree related to the heavy metal concentration respectively.

  7. Quantification of Labile Soil Mercury by Stable Isotope Dilution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaya, Waleed; Huang, Jen-How; Osterwalder, Stefan; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can cause severe health problems to humans. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be transported over long distances before it is deposited to aquatic and terrestrial environments. Aside from accumulation in soil solid phases, Hg deposited in soils may migrate to surface- and ground-water or enter the food chain, depending on its lability. There are many operationally-defined extraction methods proposed to quantify soil labile metals. However, these methods are by definition prone to inaccuracies such as non-selectivity, underestimation or overestimation of the labile metal pool. The isotopic dilution technique (ID) is currently the most promising method for discrimination between labile and non-labile metal fractions in soil with a minimum disturbance to soil-solid phases. ID assesses the reactive metal pool in soil by defining the fraction of metal both in solid and solution phases that is isotopically-exchangeable known as the 'E-value'. The 'E-value' represents the metal fraction in a dynamic equilibrium with the solution phase and is potentially accessible to plants. This is carried out by addition of an enriched metal isotope to soil suspensions and quantifying the fraction of metal that is able to freely exchange with the added isotope by measuring the equilibrium isotopic ratio by ICP-MS. E-value (mg kg-1) is then calculated as follows: E-Value = (Msoil/ W) (CspikeVspike/ Mspike) (Iso1IAspike -Iso2IAspikeRss / Iso2IAsoil Rss - Iso1IAsoil) where M is the average atomic mass of the metal in the soil or the spike, W is the mass of soil (kg), Cspike is the concentration of the metal in the spike (mg L-1), Vspike is the volume of spike (L), IA is isotopic abundance, and Rss is the equilibrium ratio of isotopic abundances (Iso1:Iso2). Isotopic dilution has been successfully applied to determine E-values for several elements. However, to our knowledge, this method has not yet

  8. Dyeing of Polyester and Polyamide Synthetic Fabrics with Natural Dyes Using Ecofriendly Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elnagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an ecofriendly method for dyeing synthetic fabrics with natural dyes using UV/ozone pretreatment to activate fiber and improve dyeability of polyester and nylon. Fabrics are pretreated with UV/ozone for different periods of time ranged from 5 min to 120 min. Effect of pretreatment on surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical behavior was studied by testing tensile strength and elongation percentage. Chemical modification of the surface was studied using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR. Dyeability of the treated samples was investigated in terms of their colour strength expressed as K/s in addition to fastness to washing and light. This research showed the increment of the affinity of the studied synthetic fabrics towards curcumin and saffron natural dyes using ecofriendly technique.

  9. The Compu-pet 100: a versatile dispenser-diluter for the mechanization of microbiological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, A W; Mellars, B; Stokes, E J

    1975-01-01

    The Compu-pet 100 diluter/dispenser is a versatile and accurate instrument which can be employed for a wide variety of microbiological tests and techniques. Time in performing tests is often more than halved when the diluter is used. Large numbers of tests can be performed with minimal fatigue.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy extended with indocyanine green dye dilution for cerebral blood flow measurement: Median values in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudra, R.; Muroi, C.; Niederer, P.; Keller, E.

    2008-09-01

    The cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an important vital parameter in neurointensive care. Currently, there is no non-invasive method for its measurement that can easily be applied at the bedside. A new tool to determine CBF is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) applied together with indocyanine green (ICG) dye dilution. From a bilateral measurement on selected regions on the head of infrared (IR) absorption at various wavelengths during the dilution maneuver, the vascular perfusion characteristics of the two brain hemispheres can be determined in terms of mean transit time (mtt) of ICG, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and CBF. So far, on nine healthy volunteers, NIRS ICG dye dilution bihemispheric measurements were performed, which yielded to mtt given as median (range) of 9.3 s (5.1-16.3 s), CBV of 3.5 ml/100 g (1.7-4.1 ml/100 g), and CBF of 18.2 ml/(100 g×min) [11.1-48.6 ml/(100 g×min)]. Additionally, the blood flow index (BFI) was calculated with BFI= 13.8 mg/(100 g×s) [6.6-15.2 mg/(100 g×s)]. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between CBF and BFI was RS = 0.76. However, as the Bland & Altman plot between CBFNIRS and the CBFBFI documents, the limits of agreement are rather wide (21.9±6.7). Under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers, no differences could be detected between the hemispheres.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Pique, Alberto; Kushto, Gary P.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Arnold, Craig B.; Kafafi, Zakia H.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous, high surface area structure that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used to forward transfer a paste of commercial TiO2 nanopowder (P25) onto transparent conducting electrodes on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and rigid glass substrates. For the cells based on flexible PET substrates, the transferred TiO2 layers were sintered using an in-situ laser to improve electron paths without damaging PET substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of laser processing techniques to produce nc-TiO2 films (~10 μm thickness) on glass for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 8.7 mA/cm2, ff = 0.67, η = 4.0 % at 100 mW/cm2). This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita; Friis, Henrik; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique. We refined procedures for administration of isotope doses and collection of saliva. Furthermore, we established that equilibration time in local context is 3 h. These findings and the resulting standard operating procedures are important to improve data quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques.

  13. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  14. Comparative study of some factors affecting enumeration of moulds using dilution plate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabañes, F J

    1992-11-01

    The influence of dilution plating technique, nature of diluent, culture media and incubation period on the enumeration of moulds have been studied. Three new culture media containing Auramine, Gentian Violet and Malachite Green respectively have been induced in this study. No significant differences were observed between results obtained after 3, 5 and 7 days of incubation. Significantly higher recoveries were obtained using the surface-spread method than pour plate method. Using the first technique no effect of diluent was observed, and among the different culture media studied higher counts were obtained with medium containing Auramine.

  15. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  16. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiros, M. A.; Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Guimarães, F.; Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO2 film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO2 electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO2 films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO2 films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO2 films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  17. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, M.A., E-mail: alexandra.barreiros@lneg.pt [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Corregidor, V. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Guimarães, F. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LGM/UCTM, Rua da Amieira, Apartado 1089, 4466-901 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M.J. [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, LEN/UES, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO{sub 2} film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO{sub 2} electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO{sub 2} films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO{sub 2} films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  18. Comparison of the techniques of evaluation of urine dilution/concentration in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossin, O; Germain, C; Braun, J P

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the measurement of dog urine dilution/concentration by comparing osmolality with three methods of specific gravity (USG) measurement, i.e. weighing, refractometry and test strips. In unselected urine samples from 182 dogs there was a better agreement between osmolality and USG determination by refractometry (r = 0.92) than by weighing (r = 0.82) or by test strips (r = 0.27). There was an almost linear relationship between osmolality and USG: osmolality (mOsm/kg) = 36646(34318/38974) x (USGref - 1) + 25(-39/88); calculated osmolality differed from measured osmolality by more than 500 mOsm/kg in only 8 of 181 samples. There was a good agreement between USG determination by weighing and refractometry: USGref = 1.000(0.905/1.095) x USGweighing - 0.0004(-0.0019/0.0027), with a moderate bias. Only 12% of the differences between the two methods exceeded 0.010. Test strip assessment of USG was unreliable because of systematic underestimation and should not be used for dog urine. Refractometry is the best technique for routine evaluation of urine concentration/dilution when osmometry is not available.

  19. High-throughput culturing of fungi from plant litter by a dilution-to-extinction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Javier; Platas, Gonzalo; Paulus, Barbara; Bills, Gerald F

    2007-06-01

    High-throughput bacterial cultivation has improved the recovery of slow-growing and previously uncultured bacteria. The most robust high-throughput methods are based on techniques of 'dilution to extinction' or 'extinction culturing'. The low-density partitioning of CFUs in tubes or microwells exploits the fact that the number of culturable species typically increases as inoculum density decreases. Bacterial high-throughput culturing methods were adapted to fungi to generate large numbers of fungal extinction cultures. The efficiency of extinction culturing was assessed by comparing it with particle filtration and automated plate-streaking. Equal volumes of particle suspension from five litter collections of the New Zealand forest tree Elaeocarpus dentatus were compared. Dilute particle suspensions of litter were pipetted into 48-well tissue culture plates containing 1 mL of agar medium per well. Particle volumes from the same samples were applied to continuous agar surfaces in Omnitray plates by automated streaking, and fungal diversity and richness were measured. The spectrum of isolates was assessed by microscopy and sequencing of the ITS or 28S region of the rRNA gene. Estimates of species diversity between the two methods were comparable, but extinction culturing increased species richness. Compared with plating methods using continuous surfaces, extinction culturing distributes fungal propagules over partitioned surfaces. Intercolony interactions are reduced, permitting longer incubation times, and colony initiation and recovery improved. Effort to evaluate and recover colonies from fungal isolation plates was substantially reduced.

  20. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of ß-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, C.A.; Naber, T.H.J.; Breemen, van R.B.; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent ß-carotene absorption as measured by the oral–faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-o

  1. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; Naber, T.H.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, c

  2. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric.

  3. Analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution with Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudra, Regina M.; Nadler, Andreas; Keller, Emanuela; Niederer, Peter F.

    2006-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with indocyanine green (ICG) dilution is applied externally on the head to determine the cerebral hemodynamics of neurointensive care patients. We applied Monte Carlo simulation for the analysis of a number of problems associated with this method. First, the contamination of the optical density (OD) signal due to the extracerebral tissue was assessed. Second, the measured OD signal depends essentially on the relative blood content (with respect to its absorption) in the various transilluminated tissues. To take this into account, we weighted the calculated densities of the photon distribution under baseline conditions within the different tissues with the changes and aberration of the relative blood volumes that are typically observed under healthy and pathologic conditions. Third, in case of NIRS ICG dye dilution, an ICG bolus replaces part of the blood such that a transient change of absorption in the brain tissues occurs that can be recorded in the OD signal. Our results indicate that for an exchange fraction of Δ=30% of the relative blood volume within the intracerebral tissue, the OD signal is determined from 64 to 74% by the gray matter and between 8 to 16% by the white matter maximally for a distance of d=4.5 cm.

  4. Study of Modern Nano Enhanced Techniques for Removal of Dyes and Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Batool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial effluent often contains the significant amount of hexavalent chromium and synthetic dyes. The discharge of wastewater without proper treatment into water streams consequently enters the soil and disturbs the aquatic and terrestrial life. A range of wastewater treatment technologies have been proposed which can efficiently reduce both Cr(VI and azo dyes simultaneously to less toxic form such as biodegradation, biosorption, adsorption, bioaccumulation, and nanotechnology. Rate of simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI and azo dyes can be enhanced by combining different treatment techniques. Utilization of synergistic treatment is receiving much attention due to its enhanced efficiency to remove Cr(VI and azo dye simultaneously. This review evaluates the removal methods for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI and azo dyes by nanomicrobiology, surface engineered nanoparticles, and nanophotocatalyst. Sorption mechanism of biochar for heavy metals and organic contaminants is also discussed. Potential microbial strains capable of simultaneous removal of Cr(VI and azo dyes have been summarized in some details as well.

  5. Grazing impact of microzooplankton on phytoplankton in the Xiamen Bay using pigment-specific dilution technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bangqin; LIU Yuan; XIANG Weiguo; TIAN Haojie; LIU Hongbin; CAO Zhenrui; HONG Huasheng

    2008-01-01

    Phytoplankton group-specific growth and microzooplankton grazing were determined seasonally using the dilution technique with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the Xiamen Bay, a subtropical bay in southeast China, between May 2003 and February 2004. The results showed that growth rates of phytoplankton ranged from 0.71 to 2.2 d -1 with the highest value occurred in the inner bay in May. Microzooplankton grazing rates ranged from 0.5 to 3.1 d-1 with the highest value occurred in the inner bay in August. Microzooplankton grazing impact ranged from 39% to 95% on total phytoplankton Chl a biomass, and 65% to 181% on primary production. The growth and grazing rates of each phytoplankton group varied, the highest growth rate (up to 3.3 d -1 ) was recorded for diatoms in August, while the maximum grazing rate ( up to 2.1 d -1 ) was recorded for chlorophytes in February in the inner bay. Among main phytoplankton groups, grazing pressure of microzooplankton ranged from 10% to 83% on Chl a biomass, and from 14% to 151% on primary production. The highest grazing pressure on biomass was observed for cryptophytes (83%) in August, while the maximum grazing pressure on primary production was observed for cyanobacteria (up to 151% ) in December in the inner bay. Net growth rates of larger phytoplanktons (diatoms and dinoflagellates) were higher than those of smaller groups (prasinophytes, chlorophytes and cyanobacteria). Relative preference index showed that microzooplankton grazed preferentially on prasinophytes and avoided to harvest diatoms in cold seasons ( December and February).

  6. Response of laying hens to methionine + cystine intake by dilution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Cristina Palma Bendezu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the response of Dekalb White laying hens to different intakes of digestible methionine + cystine (met+cys to optimise their performance. Two hundred eighty-eight Dekalb White laying hens, ranging in age from 33 to 48 weeks, were used in the study. The birds were randomly allocated into eight treatment (levels of met+cys and the control treatment groups with six replicates of six hens per unit. The experimental diets consisted of seven increasing levels of met+cys (1.37, 2.75, 4.14, 5.51, 6.89, 7.92 and 8.95 g kg−1 and were prepared using a dilution technique. A control treatment was used to confirm that the limiting response was due to met+cys intake. Egg production, feed intake, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion per mass were measured. The data were analysed with repeated measures and regression analyses using Broken Line and Quadratic models, as well as using the combination of both models. The different met+cys intakes influenced the studied variables; all the variables except feed conversion per mass were significantly different between the periods and levels. The digestible met+cys intakes based on the association of the Broken Line and Quadratic models to optimise the birds' response to egg mass are 671 mg/bird d for 33 to 36 weeks, 728 mg/bird d for 37 to 40 weeks, 743 mg/bird d for 41 to 44 weeks, and 770 mg/bird d for 45 to 48 weeks.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of natural laccaic acid dye studied using Z-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Sanusi, K.; Britton, J.; Mthunzi, P.; Nyokong, T.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated the nonlinear optical properties, including the optical limiting behaviour for five different concentrations of laccaic acid dye in solution and a thin film obtained through doping in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. The experiments were performed by using single beam Z-scan technique at 532 nm with 10 ns, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser pulses excitation. From the open-aperture Z-scan data, we derived that the laccaic dye samples exhibit strong two photon absorption (2PA). The nonlinear refractive index was determined through the closed aperture Z-scan data. The estimated absorption coefficient β2, nonlinear refractive index n2 and second order hyperpolarizability γ were found to be of the order of 10-10 m/W, 10-9 esu and 10-32 esu, respectively. The Z-scan study reveals that the natural laccaic acid dye emerges as a promising material for third order nonlinear optical devices application.

  8. Measurement of solute transport in the endothelial glycocalyx using indicator dilution techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujia; Lipowsky, Herbert H

    2009-09-01

    A new method is presented to quantify changes in permeability of the endothelial glycocalyx to small solutes and fluid flow using techniques of indicator dilution. Following infusion of a bolus of fluorescent solutes (either FITC or FITC conjugated Dextran70) into the rat mesenteric circulation, its transient dispersion through post-capillary venules was recorded and analyzed offline. To represent dispersion of solute as a function of radial position in a microvessel, a virtual transit time (VTT) was calculated from the first moment of fluorescence intensity-time curves. Computer simulations and subsequent in vivo measurements showed that the radial gradient of VTT within the glycocalyx layer (Delta VTT/Delta r) may be related to the hydraulic resistance within the layer along the axial direction in a post-capillary venule and the effective diffusion coefficient within the glycocalyx. Modeling the inflammatory process by superfusion of the mesentery with 10(-7) M fMLP, Delta VTT/Delta r was found to decrease significantly from 0.23 +/- 0.08 SD s/microm to 0.18 +/- 0.09 SD s/microm. Computer simulations demonstrated that Delta VTT/Delta r is principally determined by three independent variables: glycocalyx thickness (delta), hydraulic resistivity (K(r)) and effective diffusion coefficient of the solute (D(eff)) within the glycocalyx. Based upon these simulations, the measured 20% decrease in Delta VTT/Delta r at the endothelial cell surface corresponds to a 20% increase in D(eff) over a broad range in K(r), assuming a constant thickness delta. The absolute magnitude of D(eff) required to match Delta VTT/Delta r between in vivo measurements and simulations was found to be on the order of 2.5 x 10(-3) x D(free), where D(free) is the diffusion coefficient of FITC in aqueous media. Thus the present method may provide a useful tool for elucidating structural and molecular alterations in the glycocalyx as occur with ischemia, metabolic and inflammatory events.

  9. On Advance of Low Electrolyte Dyeing Technique with Reactive Dye%活性染料低电解质染色研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳金发; 马小强

    2012-01-01

    印染工业中存在电解质用量大,染色废水处理负担重等一系列问题。目前实现活性染料低电解质或无电解质染色的主要方法有:开发低电解质活性染料、对纤维素纤维阳离子改性、研发活性染料无电解质染色助剂及调整染色工艺。这些方法的工艺、效果和应用前景各有不同。%Nowadays,the dyeing industry is faced with the problems of high consumption of electrolyte and high cost in disposal of waste water.There are several ways of reducing or eliminating the usage of electrolyte in dyeing.For instance,we can develop and deploy reactive dye with low electrolyte,pretreat the dye by cationizing the cellulosic fibers,develop electrolyte free dyeing auxiliary and improve dyeing technique.The paper studies on these techniques,their effect and application.

  10. Performance improvement of n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells by gradient hydrogen dilution technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High pressure radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(RF-PECVD)process was adopted to investigate the effect of constant hydrogen dilution technique and gradient hydrogen dilu-tion technique on the structural evolution of intrinsic films and the performance of n-i-p microcrystal-line silicon solar cells.The experiment results demonstrated that the grain size and crystalline volume fraction along the growth direction of intrinsic films can be controlled and the performance of solar cells can be greatly improved by gradient hydrogen dilution technique.An initial active-area efficiency of 5.7%(Voc=0.47V,Jsc=20.2mA/cm2,FF=60%)for the μc-Si:H single-junction n-i-p solar cells and an initial active-area efficiency of 10.12%(Voc=1.2V,Jsc=12.05mA/cm2,FF=70%)for the a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem n-i-p solar cells has been achieved.

  11. Investigation Solvation Dynamics and Isomerization of Dye IR-140 Using pump supercontinuum-probing Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D; Wu, S; Yang, H; Xiang, Q G J; Xu, G; Wang, Danling; Jiang, Hongbing; Wu, Songjiang; Yang, Hong; Xiang, Qihuang Gong Junfeng; Xu, Guangzhi

    2001-01-01

    The solvation dynamics and isomerization process of an organic dye, IR-140, in polar solvents and nonpolar solvents have been investigated using pump supercontinuum-probing (PSCP) technique. In all solvents, the dynamics exhibits solvent-dependent. Solvent induced spectral shifts of the absorption and emission spectra of IR-140 have also been studied in a variety of solvents. At the same time, the photoisomerization process has been examined. The approximate energy-band structure of IR-140 was also supposed firstly.

  12. Investigation of the Potts model of a diluted magnet by local field averaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2016-08-01

    Averaging of the local interatomic interaction fields has been applied to the Potts model of a diluted magnet. A self-consistent equation for the magnetization and an equation for the phase transition temperature have been derived. The temperature and magnetic atom density dependences of the spontaneous magnetization have been found for the lattices with the coordination numbers 3 and 4 and various numbers of spin states.

  13. Determination of the threshold odor concentration of main odorants in essential oils using gas chromatography-olfactometry incremental dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Gandini, Carlo; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni; Abdo, Susana; Layedra, Patricia

    2007-05-25

    An essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador, was analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-MS techniques. To our knowledge, the composition of this essential oil is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats' retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, CHARM Analysis), applied to the GC-O technique, the flavor dilution (FD) chromatogram was obtained. In order to calculate the TOC values of the main odorants, the relationship between the odorant concentration at the sniffing port and that one in the injected solution was established. This relationship was calculated by comparing the injected amount with the TOC value of a reference compound (limonene), obtained by dynamic dilution olfactometry. A good agreement was found between calculated and measured TOC values of few odorants.

  14. Improvement of accuracy for the quantitation of selenoproteins in post-column isotope dilution technique with HPLC ICP/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Pak, Yong Nam [Dept. of Chemistry Education, Korea National University of Education, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Post-column isotope dilution (PCID) or species-unspecific isotope dilution (ID) is a very useful quantitative technique in chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometer (ICP/MS). In quantitative analysis, the calibration curve method is the most common one. However, it is not an absolute technique for the determination of concentration for the samples. ID method is the absolute one for the quantitative measurement technique, which means the quantity could be determined by the fundamental unit such as weight. To use the technique, it needs some requirements and there are several restrictions especially in the application for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The impurities in eluting solvent were in question. Thus, different purity of AA was examined and the result is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3(a) is the one for low (98%) and Figure 3(b) is high (99.999%) purity AA. The dotted area is for the eluting solvent. When low purity of 98% AA was introduced, the background was increasing while it remained the same for high-purity AA.

  15. Comparison of the radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA) dilution technique with direct volumetric measurements in animal models of peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; De Vriese, An S; Carlsson, Ola; Van Landschoot, Mike; Dheuvaert, Tomy; Lameire, Norbert H; Devriese, An S

    2002-01-01

    Rat models of peritoneal dialysis (PD) are useful for studying the physiology of peritoneal transport and evaluating new osmotic agents. Intraperitoneal (IP) solute concentrations and their evolution over time are easy to measure, but IP volume (IPV) is not. Direct volumetric measurements are the "gold standard:" but they are expensive and do not allow for repetitive measurements in the same animal. The Indicator dilution technique is therefore used as an alternative. However, that technique is based on assumptions that are not always valid. The present study compares direct volume measurement with the Indicator dilution technique [radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA)] to determine the IPV over time curves In a rat model of PD. In series 1, 17 Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled IP with 25 mL 1.36% glucose dialysate through a Teflon catheter. In 9 animals, 0.35 mL dialysate was sampled and discarded at time points 0, 3,15, 30, 60, 180, and 240 minutes. In the other 8 animals, no sampling was performed. At 240 minutes, all 12 animals were humanely killed, and direct volumetric measurements of IPV were performed. In series 2, rats were instilled IP with 25 mL 1.36% glucose dialysate containing 18.5 kBq 1311 RISA. In 9 animals, dialysate was sampled at 0, 3, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120,180, and 240 minutes for the construction of the RISA concentration-over-time curve, and to calculate the elimination constant Ke. At 30, 60, 180, and 240 minutes, dialysate was sampled in 6 different animals (total n = 24) to calculate IPV using the RISA dilution technique. Immediately afterward, the animals were humanely killed, and direct volumetric measurements of IPV were performed. In series 1, after 240 minutes' dwell time, the IPV was lower in the sampled animals as compared with the non sampled animals (27.11 +/- 1.85 mL vs 30.75 +/- 0.59 mL, p = 0.001). In series 2, the evolution of RISA activity in the dialysate over time was described by piecewise linear regression, yielding 3

  16. Determination of Characteristic Components in Essential Oils from Wisteria brachybotrys Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry Incremental Dilution Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Miyazawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of flowers, leaves and stems from Wisteria brachybotrys Sieb.et Zucc, collected in Japan was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The important aroma-active compounds were also detected in the oil using GC-MS/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA. As a result, sixty-eight compounds from flowers of W. brachybotrys, accounting for 96.3%, were identified, and benzyl cyanide (31.7%, palmitic acid (8.7%, and (Z- g -bisabolene (8.4% as the main compounds. Thirty compounds from leaves, accounting for 97.3%, were identified, and phytol (46.0%, palmitic acid (8.2%, and nonanal (5.7% as the main compounds. Twenty-eight compounds from stems, accounting for 98.7%, were identified, and geraniol (32.8%, linalool (22.1%, and nerol (10.4% as the main compounds. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats’ retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-MS/O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, applied to the GC-MS/O technique, the flavor dilution (FD factor was obtained. To our knowledge, the composition of these parts of essential oils is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints.

  17. Modified arteriolar responses to ATP after impairment of endothelium by light-dye techniques in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, A.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wolin, M.S.; Messina, E.J.; Kaley, G. (Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether endothelial cells are involved in the dilation of third-order arterioles (14 to 22 microns) in response to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cremaster muscle of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Two light/dye (L/D) techniques were employed to achieve selective, local endothelial impairment. One of these techniques utilizes a mercury lamp and sodium fluorescein, the other a Helium-Neon laser and Evans blue dye. L/D treatment (illumination with the appropriate wavelengths of light in the presence of an intravascular dye) of a 20-to 100-microns segment of an arteriole resulted in a complete loss of arteriolar dilation in response to topical administration of acetylcholine (10(-6) M) and arachidonic acid (AA, 10(-5) M). These agents were applied in 100-microl aliquots without interrupting the continuous suffusion with Ringer-gelatin solution and caused a {approximately} 70% increase in vascular diameter before the L/D intervention. Selectivity of the impairment was assessed by arteriolar responses to the nonendothelium-dependent dilator agents adenosine (10(-5) M) and sodium nitroprusside (2 {times} 10(-7) M), which elicited the same degree of dilation before and after L/D treatment. Under control conditions ATP (10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M) elicited dose-dependent increases in arteriolar diameter (from 38 to 74%). After impairment of arteriolar endothelium, dilation in response to all doses of ATP was significantly reduced. Theophylline (30 microM) significantly inhibited arteriolar dilation in response to adenosine (10(-6), 10(-5), and 10(-4) M) but did not affect the responses to various doses of ATP. Moreover, impairment of endothelium enhanced constrictor responses of arterioles to norepinephrine (0.6 {times} 10(-8) M).

  18. Alternative materials and processing techniques for optimized nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Judy N; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Simon, George P; Spiccia, Leone

    2008-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent an exciting application of nanotechnology and offer an appealing alternative to conventional solar cells based on photovoltaic devices, with significantly reduced production and material costs. However, further improvements are required to enhance the commercial viability of these solar cells. These improvements may be achieved through the careful manipulation of the structure at the nanoscale and the application of novel processing techniques, which may help to increase the efficiency of these solar cells, improve the ease of manufacture and allow the production of flexible, solid-state solar cells. For example, the use of a nanometre-thick coating of an insulating oxide over the semiconducting film in these solar cells may reduce recombination losses. Also, selective heating techniques such as microwave heating may assist in the production of efficient solar cells on polymer, rather than glass, substrates, by allowing a rapid heat treatment to be applied to the titanium dioxide film at a higher temperature than would be possible with conventional heating. Some novel approaches to the production of semiconducting thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells, as well as the use of alternative materials and nanostructures, are reviewed.

  19. Measuring Fluorescent Dye in the Bubbly and Sediment-Laden Surfzone

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David B.; Feddersen, Falk; Omand, Melissa M.; Guza, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    Decisions about recreational beach closures would be enhanced if better estimates of surfzone contaminant transport and dilution were available. In situ methods for measuring fluorescent Rhodamine WT dye tracer in the surfzone are presented, increasing the temporal and spatial resolution over previous surfzone techniques. Bubbles and sand suspended by breaking waves in the surfzone interfere with in situ optical fluorometer dye measurements, increasing the lower bound for dye detection (≈ 1 p...

  20. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Taenia solium, and Moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis, and red rose (Rosa hybrida were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes. Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots. Results: Stained helminthes acquired a comparable level of pigmentation with the distinction of their internal structure in these natural dyes. The flukes (liver and rumen internal structure, oral and ventral/posterior sucker, cirrus sac, gravid uterus, testes, ovary, and vitallaria were appeared pink color in aqueous and alcoholic extract of either China or red rose and yellow to brown color in sugar beet stain. The interior of the proglottid of T. solium and M. expansa took yellow to brown color with good contrast in sugar beet stain and of pink to pink-red in China and red rose stain. Conclusion: The extract of roses (red rose followed by China rose followed by red beet possess the potential to replace the conventional stains in the taxonomic study of Platyhelminthes parasites.

  1. Vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; West, C.E.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Siebelink, E.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.; Lieshout, Machteld van; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Naber, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (microg) of beta-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral-faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted

  2. Vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, C.A.; West, C.E.; Breemen, van R.B.; Zhu, D.; Siebelink, E.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, van M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Naber, T.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (¿g) of ß-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral¿faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted in twenty-

  3. CD-R, DVD-R. Function and coating technique of organic dye film; CD-R, DVD-R. Yuki shikisomaku no yakuwari to tofu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuki, S. [TDK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-05

    This paper describes the function and coating technique of recording layer (organic dye film) of CD-R and DVD-R. The organic dye film is between the substrate and reflective film. When laser with an intensity in response to the information signal is irradiated to the organic dye film, the dye is decomposed and its reflectance is changed, to record the information. The recording characteristics are affected mainly by the composition of dye and thickness of the film. For the organic dye, safety and solubility in solvent are required from the viewpoint of the process, and optical constants, thermal properties, high-temperature/high-humidity resistance properties and optical resistance properties are required from the viewpoint of recording characteristics. The organic dye is classified into the cyanine dye, phthalocyanine dye and azo dye. The process of disk production consists of the substrate forming, due spin coating, reflective film spattering, UV protective layer coating, and disk pasting. For the spin coating, the dye solution is dropped on the substrate rotating at the low speed, and is uniformly coated by accelerating the rotation to remove the excess dye solution from the disk. Thickness of the film can be controlled by the rotating speed and its acceleration. Control of the dye film thickness is a significant control item of characteristics. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of organic azo dyes by using strength of nonlinearity parameter and Z-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiei, H.; Jafari, A.; Naderali, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, two chemically synthesized organic azo dyes, 2-(2,5-Dichloro-phenyazo)-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (i)) and 5,5-Dimethyl-2-tolylazo-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (ii)), have been studied from optical Kerr nonlinearity point of view. These materials were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Experiments were performed using a continous wave diode-pumped laser at 532 nm wavelength in three intensities of the laser beam. Nonlinear absorption (β), refractive index (n2) and third-order susceptibility (χ (3)) of dyes, were calculated. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of dyes have been calculated from two methods; 1) using theoretical fits and experimental data in the Z-scan technique, 2) using the strength of nonlinearity curves. The values of β obtained from both of the methods were approximately the same. The results demonstrated that azo dye (ii) displays better nonlinearity and has a lower two-photon absorption threshold than azo dye (i). Calculated parameter related to strength of nonlinearity for azo dye (ii) was higher than azo dye (i), It may be due to presence of methyl in azo dye (ii) instead of chlorine in azo dye (i). Furthermore, The measured values of third order susceptibility of azo dyes were from the order of 10-9 esu . These azo dyes can be suitable candidate for optical switching devices.

  5. Characterising the exchangeability of phenanthrene associated with naturally occurring soil colloids using an isotopic dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Juhasz, Albert; Donner, Erica; Lombi, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with inorganic and organic colloids is an important factor influencing their bioavailability, mobility and degradation in the environment. Despite this, our understanding of the exchangeability and potential bioavailability of PAHs associated with colloids is limited. The objective of this study was to use phenanthrene as a model PAH compound and develop a technique using (14)C phenanthrene to quantify the isotopically exchangeable and non-exchangeable forms of phenanthrene in filtered soil water or sodium tetraborate extracts. The study was also designed to investigate the exchangeability of colloidal phenanthrene as a function of particle size. Our findings suggest that the exchangeability of phenanthrene in sodium tetraborate is controlled by both inorganic and organic colloids, while in aqueous solutions inorganic colloids play the dominant role (even though coating of these by organic matter cannot be excluded). Filter pore size did not have a significant effect on phenanthrene exchangeability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S. Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber. PMID:22272108

  7. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Perveen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  8. Short communication: milk output in llamas (Lama glama) in relation to energy intake and water turnover measured by an isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an isotope dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the isotope dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the isotope dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by isotope dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas.

  9. Hemodiafiltration using pre-dilutional on-line citrate dialysate: A new technique for regional citrate anticoagulation: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhouane Bousselmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, observational, feasibility study was carried out on four patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing bicarbonate hemodialysis to study the feasibility of an on-line hemodiafiltration technique using a citrate dialysate with pre-dilutional infusion of citrate as a technique for regional citrate anticoagulation. All patients had contraindication to systemic heparin anticoagulation. The dialysis technique consisted of an on-line hemodiafiltration with a citrate dialysate without calcium using a Fresenius 4008S dialysis machine and Fresenius Polysulfone F60 dialyzers. The infusion solution was procured directly from the dialysate and was infused into the arterial line. To avoid the risk of hypocalcemia, calcium gluconate was infused to the venous return line. The study was carried out in two stages. During the first stage, the citrate infusion rate was 80 mL/min and the calcium infusion rate was 9 mmol/h. At the second stage, the rates were 100 mL/min and 11 mmol/h, respectively. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of thrombosis in the extracorporeal blood circuit and/or the dialyzer. A total of 78 sessions were conducted. All the sessions were well tolerated clinically and there were no major incidents in any of the four patients. At the first stage of the study, there were five incidences of small clots in the venous blood chamber, an incidence of extracorporeal blood circuit thrombosis of 12.5%. At the second stage of the study, no cases of extracorporeal blood circuit or dialyzer thrombosis were noted. Hemodiafiltration with on-line citrate dialysate infusion to the arterial line is safe and allows an effective regional anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit without the need for systemic anticoagulation.

  10. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; Naber, Ton H J; van Breemen, Richard B; Zhu, Dongwei; Dicke, Heleen; Siebelink, Els; Hulshof, Paul J M; Russel, Frans G M; Schaafsma, Gertjan; West, Clive E

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study. Each subject followed both diets for 2 weeks: a diet containing vegetables low in beta-carotene content with supplemental beta-carotene in salad dressing oil ('oil diet'; mean beta-carotene intake 3.1 mg/d) and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in beta-carotene content ('mixed diet'; mean beta-carotene intake 7.6 mg/d). Daily each subject consumed a mean of 190 microg [13C10]beta-carotene and 195 microg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum. Apparent absorption of beta-carotene was determined with oral-faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]beta-carotene in oil of 3.6:1 (95 % CI 2.8, 4.6) regardless of dietary matrices differences. The apparent absorption of (labelled and dietary) beta-carotene from the 'oil diet' (30 %) was 1.9-fold higher than from the 'mixed diet' (16 %). This extrinsic labelling technique can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in oil capsules, but it does not represent the effect of different dietary matrices.

  11. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadmanesh, Y.; Ghasemi, Jahan B.

    2016-08-01

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100 μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26 ± 0.01), 1:1 (1.53 ± 0.08), 1:1 (3.11 ± 0.04), 1:1 (1.06 ± 0.12), and 2:1 (5.27 ± 0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper.

  12. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadmanesh, Y; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-08-05

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26±0.01), 1:1 (1.53±0.08), 1:1 (3.11±0.04), 1:1 (1.06±0.12), and 2:1 (5.27±0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper.

  13. Photoelectrode Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Nanosolar Cells Using Multiple Spray Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spray coating technique for fabricating nanoporous film of photoelectrode in dye-sensitized nanosolar cells (DSSCs. Spray coating can quickly fabricate nanoporous film of the photoelectrode with lower cost, which can further help the DSSCs to be commercialized in the future. This paper analyzed photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs using spray coated photoelectrode in comparison with the photoelectrode made with the doctor blade method. Spray coating can easily control transmittance of the photoelectrode through the multiple spray coating process. This work mainly used a dispersant with help of ultrasonic oscillation to prepare the required nano-TiO2 solution and then sprayed it on the ITO glasses. In this work, a motor-operated conveyor belt was built to transport the ITO glasses automatically for multiple spray coating and drying alternately. Experiments used transmittance of the photoelectrode as a fabrication parameter to analyze photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. The influencing factors of the photoelectrode transmittance during fabrication are the spray flow rate, the spray distance, and the moving speed of the conveyor belt. The results show that DSSC with the photoelectrode transmittance of ca. 68.0 ± 1.5% and coated by the spray coating technique has the best photoelectric conversion efficiency in this work.

  14. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films prepared by HWCVD technique without hydrogen dilution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Shariatmadar Tehrani

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on Si(111) by the hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) technique using silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) gases without hydrogen dilution. The effects of SiH4 to CH4 gas flow ratio (R) on the structural properties, chemical composition and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the films deposited at the different gas flow ratios were investigated and compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed a structural transition from amorphous SiC to cubic nano-crystalline SiC films with the increase in the gas flow ratio. Raman scattering confirmed the multi-phased nature of the films. Auger electron spectroscopy showed that the carbon incorporation in the film structure was strongly dependent on the gas flow ratio. A similar broad visible room-temperature PL with two peaks was observed for all SiC films. The main PL emission was correlated to the band to band transition in uniform a-SiC phase and the other lower energy emission was related to the confined a-Si : H clusters in a-SiC matrix. SiC nano-crystallites exhibit no significant contribution to the radiative recombination.

  15. A dilution technique for the direct measurement of viral production: a comparison in stratified and tidally mixed coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, S W; Brigden, S M; Suttle, C A

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and viruses, as well as rates of viral production and virus-mediated mortality, were measured in Discovery Passage and the Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) along a gradient of tidal mixing ranging from well mixed to stratified. The abundances of bacteria and viruses were approximately 10(6) and 10(7) mL(-1), respectively, independent of mixing regime. Viral production estimates, monitored by a dilution technique, demonstrated that new viruses were produced at rates of 10(6) and 10(7) mL(-1)h(-1) across the different mixing regimes. Using an estimated burst size of 50 viruses per lytic event, ca. 19 to 27% of the standing stock of bacteria at the stratified stations and 46 to 137% at the deep-mixed stations were removed by viruses. The results suggest that mixing of stratified waters during tidal exchange enhances virus-mediated bacterial lysis. Consequently, viral lysis recycled a greater proportion of the organic carbon required for bacterial growth under non-steady-state compared to steady-state conditions.

  16. Determination of the phthalocyanine textile dye, reactive turquoise blue, by electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osugi Marly E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Turquoise blue 15 (AT15 is a reactive dye widely used in the textile industry to color natural fibers. The presence of these dyes in effluent and industrial wastewater is of considerable interest due ecotoxicological and environmental problems. The electrochemical reduction of this dye has been investigated in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential electrolysis and cathodic stripping voltammetry. Optimum conditions for dye discoloration by controlled potential electrolysis use an alkaline medium. Using cathodic stripping voltammetry a linear calibration graph was obtained from 5.00x10-8 mol L-1 to 1.00x10-6 mol L-1 of AT15 at pH 4.0, using accumulation times of 180 and 240 s and an accumulation potential of 0.0 V. The proposed method was applied in direct determination of the dye in tap water and in textile industry effluent.

  17. In situ investigation of dye adsorption on TiO2 films using a quartz crystal microbalance with a dissipation technique

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2012-01-01

    Dye adsorption plays a crucial role in dye-sensitized solar cells. Herein, we demonstrate an in situ liquid-phase analytical technique to quantify in real time adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on flat and mesoporous TiO 2 films. For the first time, a molar ratio of co-adsorbed Y123 and chenodeoxycholic acid has been measured. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  18. Fluorescence properties of dyes adsorbed to silver islands, investigated by picosecond techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, A.; Lippitsch, M. E.; Draxler, S.; Riegler, M.; Aussenegg, F. R.

    1985-02-01

    The fluorescence properties of dye molecules (rhodamine 6G and erythrosin) adsorbed on pure glass surfaces and on silver islands films are investigated by cw and picosecond time-resolved methods. On pure glass surfaces we observe concentration quenching below a critical intermolecular distance (reduction of the fluorescence power per molecule as well as shortened and non-exponential fluorescence decay). On silver islands films the shortening in fluorescence lifetime is more drastic and is nearly independent of the intermolecular distance. This behavior suggests an electrodynamic interaction between dye monomers and plasmons in the metal particles, modified by a damping influence of dye dimers.

  19. Dye Tracer Technique and Color Image Analysis For Describing Saturation State and 3d Axi-symmetrical Flow Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriak, N. E.; Gandola, F.; Haverkamp, R.

    Dye tracer techniques have been widely used for visualising water flow pattern in soils and particularly, for determining the volumetric water content in a one dimensional and two dimensional laboratory experiments. The present study deals a 3 dimensional laboratory experiment (axi-symmetrical condition) using color visualisation technique and the image analysis technique for determining the spatial distribution of the water content. The infiltration of a dye (fluorescein) mixed with water is achieved under ax- isymmetrical condition in a Plexiglas tank (50t'50t'60cm) filled with a low saturated sand. Both infiltration and drainage processes are visualised under blue light condi- tion and recorded on videotape. The image analysis technique used for determining the saturation state is based on the use of a limited colors palette which allows to quan- tify the evolution of the saturation state in the sand. Simultaneously, nine tensiometers connected to a data acquisition system, are used to determine the negative water pres- sure in the sand. The measurement of the succion values confirms the existence of a second water wetting front (after the dye flow) due to the initial mobile water content in the sand.

  20. Nonlinear optical properties of natural laccaic acid dye studied using Z-scan technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zongo, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the nonlinear optical properties, including the optical limiting behaviour for five different concentrations of laccaic acid dye in solution and a thin film obtained through doping in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer...

  1. Study of Modern Nano Enhanced Techniques for Removal of Dyes and Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Samavia Batool; Shatirah Akib; Mushtaq Ahmad; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Industrial effluent often contains the significant amount of hexavalent chromium and synthetic dyes. The discharge of wastewater without proper treatment into water streams consequently enters the soil and disturbs the aquatic and terrestrial life. A range of wastewater treatment technologies have been proposed which can efficiently reduce both Cr(VI) and azo dyes simultaneously to less toxic form such as biodegradation, biosorption, adsorption, bioaccumulation, and nanotechnology. Rate of si...

  2. A review of analytical techniques for determination of Sudan I-IV dyes in food matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebane, Riin; Leito, Ivo; Yurchenko, Sergei; Herodes, Koit

    2010-04-23

    Sudan dyes are a family of lipophilic azo dyes, extensively used in industrial and scientific applications but banned for use as food colorants due to their carcinogenicity. Due to the continuing illicit use of Sudan dyes as food colorants their determination in different food matrices--especially in different chilli and tomato sauces and related products--has during the recent years received increasing attention all over the world. This paper critically reviews the published determination methods of Sudan I-IV dyes. LC-UV-vis and LC-MS are the dominating methods for analysis of Sudan I-IV dyes. Sudan dyes are usually found in food at mg kg(-1) levels at which it may be necessary to use a preconcentration step in order to attain the desired detection limits. Liquid-solid extraction is the dominating sample preparation procedure. In recent years it has been supplemented by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Various solid phase extraction types have been used for sample cleanup. The large majority of works use conventional C18 columns and conventional LC eluents. Traditionally the UV-vis absorbance detection has been the most frequently used. In the recent years MS detection is applied more and more often as it offers more reliable identification possibilities.

  3. Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Squarylium Dyes with Benzothiazole Donor Groups Measured Using the Picosecond Z-Scan Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Yu; Xu, Song; Chen, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Fu-Shi; Kasatani, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearities of two squarylium dyes with benzothiazole donor groups (BSQ1 and BSQ2) in chloroform solution are measured by a picosecond Z-scan technique at 532 nm. It is found that the two compounds show the saturation absorption and nonlinear self-focus refraction effect. The molecular second hyperpolarizabilities are calculated to be 7.46 × 10-31 esu and 5.01 × 10-30 esu for BSQ1 and BSQ2, respectively. The large optical nonlinearities of squarylium dyes can be attributed to their rigid and intramolecular charge transfer structure. The difference in γ values is attributed to the chloro group of benzene rings of BSQ2 and the one-photon resonance effect. It is found that the third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of two squarylium dyes are mainly determined by the real parts of χ(3), and the large optical nonlinearities of studied squarylium dyes can be attributed to the nonlinear refraction.

  4. Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Squarylium Dyes with Benzothiazole Donor Groups Measured Using the Picosecond Z-Scan Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-Yu; XU Song; CHEN Zi-Hui; ZHANG Fu-Shi; KASATANI Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    @@ Third-order optical nonlinearities of two squarylium dyes with benzothiazole donor groups (BSQ1 and BSQ2)in chloroform solution are measured by a picosecond Z-scan technique at 532 nm.It is found that the two compounds show the saturation absorption and nonlinear self-focus refraction effect.The molecular second hyperpolarizabilities are calculated to be 7.46×10-31 esu and 5.01×10-30 esu for BSQ1 and BSQ2, respectively.The large optical nonlinearities of squarylium dyes can be attributed to their rigid and intramolecular charge transfer structure.The difference in γvalues is attributed to the chloro group of benzene rings of BSQ2 and the one-photon resonance effect.It is found that the third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of two squarylium dyes are mainly determined by the real parts of X(3), and the large optical nonlinearities of studied squarylium dyes can be attributed to the nonlinear refraction.

  5. Retrograde loading of nerves, tracts, and spinal roots with fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blivis, Dvir; O'Donovan, Michael J

    2012-04-19

    Retrograde labeling of neurons is a standard anatomical method(1,2) that has also been used to load calcium and voltage-sensitive dyes into neurons(3-6). Generally, the dyes are applied as solid crystals or by local pressure injection using glass pipettes. However, this can result in dilution of the dye and reduced labeling intensity, particularly when several hours are required for dye diffusion. Here we demonstrate a simple and low-cost technique for introducing fluorescent and ion-sensitive dyes into neurons using a polyethylene suction pipette filled with the dye solution. This method offers a reliable way for maintaining a high concentration of the dye in contact with axons throughout the loading procedure.

  6. In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO 2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Harms, Hauke A.

    2013-09-11

    Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-π-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale. © 2013 SPIE.

  7. Effects of the technique of cryopreservation and dilution/centrifugation after thawing on the motility and vitality of spermatozoa of oligoasthenozoospermic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteves Sandro C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Comparing in human semen samples with low initial quality, the effects of 2 techniques of cryopreservation and dilution/centrifugation after thawing on the spermatic motility and vitality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen samples from 15 oligo and/or asthenozoospermic individuals assisted in the infertility sector of a tertiary hospital were obtained through masturbation. The samples were divided into 2 portions of equal volume, and diluted (1:1; v/v with the cryoprotector containing glycerol (Test yolk buffer. One portion was frozen through the technique of liquid nitrogen vapor with static phases (group I - GI, while the other was frozen through a programmable biological freezer with linear speed (Planer, Kryo 10, series III (group II - GII. The following parameters were assessed before freezing and after thawing: percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility (Prog% and percentage of live spermatozoa (Vit%. After defrosting, Prog% was assessed before and after removal of cryoprotector diluent, in different time intervals (zero, 3 h, and 24 h. The statistical analysis has been accomplished by using the non-parametric tests of Wilcoxon and Friedman. RESULTS: There was significant reduction of Prog% and Vit% from before freezing to after defrosting in both groups, I and II (p < 0.001. Values of Prog% and Vit% were not statistically different between groups, after thawing. It has been observed a significant reduction in Prog% among portions frozen with the automated technique after dilution and centrifugation for removal of cryoprotector (p = 0.006. After cryoprotector removal, Prog% has been kept unaltered, in both groups, during the first 3 hours of incubation, although being superior in group I (p = 0,04. There was a significant decrease in Prog% after 24 hours of incubation, in both groups (p < 0,01. CONCLUSION: For human semen samples with low initial quality, freezing through vapor technique or through the automated technique

  8. Thermomechanical and Photophysical Properties of Crystal-Violet-Dye/H2O Based Dissolutions via the Pulsed Laser Photoacoustic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Torres-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different thermoelastic parameters, for example, the acoustic attenuation and the speed of sound, are fundamental for instrumental calibration and quantitative characterization of organic-based dissolutions. In this work, these parameters as functions of the concentration of an organic dye (crystal-violet: CV in distillated water (H2O based dissolutions are investigated. The speed of sound was measured by the pulsed-laser photoacoustic technique (PLPA, which consists in the generation of acoustic-waves by the optical absorption of pulsed light in a given material (in this case a liquid sample. The thermally generated sound-waves traveling through a fluid are detected with two piezoelectric sensors separated by a known distance. An appropriate processing of the photoacoustic signals allows an adequate data analysis of the generated waves within the system, providing an accurate determination of the speed of sound as function of the dye-concentration. The acoustic attenuation was calculated based on the distance of the two PZT-microphones to an acoustic-source point and performing linear-fitting of the experimental data (RMS-amplitudes as function of the dye-concentration. An important advantage of the PLPA-method is that it can be implemented with poor or null optical transmitting materials permitting the characterization of the mechanical and concentration/aggregate properties of dissolved organic compounds.

  9. Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K.

    2013-02-01

    Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

  10. Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi - 835215, Jharkhand (India)

    2013-02-05

    Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

  11. Dye tracer infiltration technique to investigate macropore flow paths in Maka Mountain, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家明; 徐则民

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the differences of macropores vertical distribution under different surface plants, and to assess the influences of root systems, organic matter and texture on macropore flow paths, two dye tracer infiltration experiments were performed in slopes under two different plants (Campylotropis polyantha (Franch.) Schindl vs.Cynodon dactylon(Linn.) Pers). Dye tracer infiltration experiments with field observations and measurements of soil properties were combined. Results show that the discrepancy in macropores distribution between two slopes under different plants is significant. Root systems have significant effects on macropore flow paths distribution and the effect become more pronounced as the diameter of roots become larger. Organic matter and stone are important factors to affect macropores distribution. Root-soil interface, inter-aggregate macropore and stone-soil interface are important macropore flow paths in well vegetated slopes.

  12. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  13. A New Flow Control Technique Using Diluted Epinephrine in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Embolization of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmorif@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshito [National Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sato, Hideki [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Taniguchi, Fumihiro [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Although n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been used as an effective liquid embolization material, its indication for pseudoaneurysms has seemingly been limited because of the technical difficulties of using NBCA, such as reflux to the parent artery and causing significant infarction. Thus, considerable skill in using NBCA or a device to control blood flow during its polymerization is required to achieve embolization without severe complications. We report our new technique for controlling blood flow using diluted epinephrine in transcatheter arterial NBCA embolization of five pseudoaneurysms in four cases secondary to hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  14. Combination of Small Molecule Microarray and Confocal Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Staining Fluorescent Dye Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Bokros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1–10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.

  15. Combined Methylene Blue Dye andRadioactive Tracer Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Talei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a technique used to identify the axillary node most likely to contain tumor cells that have metastasized from a primarycarcinoma of the breast. This technique provides accurate staging with fewer complications than axillary dissection and may result in decreased costs. We designed the present study to determine the accuracy and success rate of a combined blue dyeand radioactive tracer technique in sentinel node localization. Methods: This prospective study included 70 patients with early stage (tumor>5cm; T1, T2 operable breast cancer and nonpalpable axillary lymphadenopathy seen between 2005 and 2009. Patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization using 4mL of blue dye combined with radioactive colloid. After identification and removal of the sentinel node(s, the axilla was checked for any residual radioactivity. A sentinelnode was defined as any node that was hot, hot and blue or only blue.Results:The sentinel node was identified in 66 patients with a detection rate of 94.2%,and a mean of 1.5 sentinel nodes were identified and harvested (range of 1-4. In 23cases, the sentinel lymph node contained metastatic disease on pathological assessment.There was no pathological evidence of any metastases in the sentinel node in the remaining 43 patients. All sentinel lymph nodes were located in level I of the axillary region. In four patients, no sentinel lymph node was found, so axillary dissection was performed. The sensitivity of the procedure in predicting further axillary disease was 95.6% with a specificity of 97.6%.Conclusion: The present study describes the blue dye and radioisotope localization technique as successful in identifying the sentinel lymph node in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  16. Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solutions onto Date Palm Fiber by Adsorption Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashael Alshabanat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of crystal violet (CV onto date palm fibers (DPFs was examined in aqueous solution at 25°C. The experimental maximum adsorption capacity value was 0.66×10−6. Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich and Temkin models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The influence of pH and temperature on dye removal was evaluated. The percentage removal of CV dye by adsorption onto DPF at different pH and temperatures showed that these factors play a role in the adsorption process. Thermodynamic analysis was performed, and the Gibbs free energy ΔGο, enthalpy change ΔHο, and entropy ΔSο were calculated. The negative values of ΔGο indicate spontaneous adsorption. The negative value of ΔHο indicates that the interaction between CV and DPF is exothermic, and the positive value of ΔSο indicates good affinity between DPF and CV. The kinetic data were fitted to a pseudo-second-order model.

  17. Study of the conditions affecting dye adsorption on titania films and of their effect on dye photodegradation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strataki, Nikoleta; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2007-07-31

    Nanocrystalline titania films have been deposited on glass slides by the sol-gel technique in the presence of surfactant, which plays the role of template of the nanostructure. Several different dyes, both anionic and cationic, have been adsorbed on these films from aqueous solutions. Some of these dyes were adsorbed at large quantities some at lower quantities. Some of them were adsorbed in monomeric form and others formed aggregates. Aggregates are easily distinguished by absorption spectrophotometry, since absorption of light is observed at a different wavelength than monomer absorption in a dilute solution. In all cases, aggregation demonstrated a hypsochromic shift, indicating repulsive interactions, which are justified in view of the fact that titania surface is charged and that adsorbed molecules are aligned in parallel. The above titania films are hydroxylated. Therefore, cationic dyes were readily adsorbed. Anionic dyes could be adsorbed only from aqueous solutions brought at low pH. Photodegradation rates of adsorbed dyes were generally fast since these films are efficient photocatalysts. Nevertheless, photodegradation of an adsorbed dye was faster when the quantity of the dye was smaller. When the adsorbed dyes formed aggregates, aggregation had adverse effect on photodegradation rates.

  18. An Evaluation Method for the Suppression of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum by Soil Microorganisms Using the Dilution Plate Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Soil-borne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are one of the main factors responsible for the decline in crop yields in farmlands. Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum causes serious damage to various crops, and, thus, a feasible diagnostic method for soil-borne diseases is required. We herein examined a simple method to evaluate the suppressiveness of soil microorganisms against a pathogen by co-cultivating indigenous soil microorganisms and a pathogenic fungus (F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae). We inoculated F. oxysporum onto the center of agar medium plates mixed with a dilution series of a suspension of organic fertilizers or soil. After an approximately one-week cultivation, the growth degree of F. oxysporum was estimated based on the size of the colonies that formed on the plates. The growth degree of F. oxysporum significantly differed among the organic fertilizers tested, indicating the usefulness of the method for evaluating suppressiveness by organic fertilizers. Differences in the growth degrees of F. oxysporum were associated with the incidence of disease in spinach on soil treated with organic fertilizers and inoculated with a pathogenic F. oxysporum strain. These results suggested that this method provides some useful information on the suppressiveness of organic fertilizers and soil against Fusarium wilt.

  19. The Application of Electrochemical Impedance Techniques in Analyzing the AC Response of Some Two-electron Transfer Dye Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Rashwan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic techniques (EIS were used to investigate the behavior of some dye compounds (quinoid systems characterized with 2e-transfer processes. For this purpose, Alizarin Red S (ARS, Alizarin Cyanine (AC, Alizarin Viridin (AV and carminic acid were chosen for the measurements. The EIS experiments were performed using a small AC amplitude (10 mV p-p in addition to a relatively wide frequency range (0.01 Hz ≤ f ≤ 105 Hz. The investigations were carried out at room temperature in aqueous media (HClO4, NaClO4 and KNO3 on the Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE and for comparison one experiment only was measured in aprotic solvent (DMF on the Pt-disc electrode. The EIS diagrams of these systems were characterized in the complex plane by two fundamental observations, the first of which is a straight line crossing the real axis at an angle of 45° (or at least nearly so and the second one is two semicircles beside each other corresponding to high-frequency and low-frequency regions, which are implying the presence of well-separated time constants. The EIS characteristic parameters for these dye systems were calculated and discussed.

  20. Linking optical and electrical small amplitude perturbation techniques for dynamic performance characterization of dye solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Janne

    2011-07-21

    This paper unifies the analytical models used widely but thus far mostly separately for electrical and optical small amplitude perturbation measurements of nanostructured electrochemical dye solar cells (DSC): electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS). The models are linked by expressing the kinetic boundary condition used for solving the time-dependent continuity equation of electrons in IMPS and IMVS analysis in terms of the series and parallel impedance components found in the complete equivalent circuit impedance model of DSC. As a result, analytical expressions are derived for potentiostatic IMPS and galvanostatic IMVS transfer functions of complete DSCs that are applicable at any operating point along the solar cell current-voltage (IV) curve. In agreement with the theory, impedance spectrum calculated as a ratio of IMVS and IMPS transfer functions measured near the maximum power point matches exactly with the impedance spectrum measured directly with EIS. Consequently, both IMPS-IMVS and EIS yield equal estimates for the electron diffusion length. The role of the chemical capacitance of the nanostructured semiconductor photoelectrode in the interpretation of the so-called RC attenuation of the IMPS response is clarified, as well as the capacitive frequency dispersion in IMPS and IMVS. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  1. Sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis using methylene blue dye technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Vinayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Penile carcinoma is a common disease in India. This paper shows the results of sentinel node biopsy using methylene blue and discusses the incidence of false-negative rates. Materials and Methods: From September 2005 to March 2008, 22 newly diagnosed penile carcinoma patients (T1, T2, N0 were included in this prospective study. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping was done using methylene blue dye and the sentinel node was identified and removed. Lymphadenectomy was performed for positive inguinal lymph node metastasis. Results : There were 22 patients (mean age 52.7. The tumors were mostly located in the glans (73%. Eighty six percent was T1 lesions and 14% was T2. Ninety one percent of the patients underwent partial penectomy, and 9% underwent total penectomy. Sentinel node was identified in 20 patients (90.9%. In total, 49 sentinel nodes were identified (2.45 nodes per person. Only one patient had a positive pathological lymph node metastasis at the time of the surgery. Additionally, two patients became inguinal lymph node positive at the follow-up. This data yielded a sensitivity rate of 33% and a false-negative rate of 66%. There were no complications due to methylene blue. Conclusion : Sentinel node biopsy using only methylene blue for penile carcinoma has a very low sensitivity and a high false-negative rate. However, methylene blue can be used as a substitute for lymphazurin.

  2. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Flummer, Christine; Hurley, W L

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how...... were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n = 10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n = 8 per diet......) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil + 4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations...

  3. Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Layer Farms in Northern Jordan Using Microbroth Dilution and Disc Diffusion Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Alaboudi, Akram R; Osaili, Tareq M; Obaidat, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen of significant public health importance. This pathogen is associated with human infection and has been isolated from mammals and birds. Ninety-two cloacal C. jejuni isolates were identified from 35 layer farms in Northern Jordan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion techniques with variable suggested breakpoints. Using MIC and EUCAST cut-off values, the study revealed a significantly high resistance level (100%) among the layers' isolates against ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. A relatively high resistance (41%) toward gentamicin and amoxicillin and low resistance to nalidixic acid (21%), erythromycin (14%), and florfenicol (6.5%) were also found. This high level of resistance may indicate abuses in the handling of antibiotics, which may require stricter control in the local layer industry. A good agreement between the 2 techniques used was demonstrated and the disc diffusion technique could be used as a rapid screening test for antimicrobial susceptibility of C. jejuni to many antibiotics using specific Campylobacter breakpoints. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Energy expenditure of grazing cows and cows fed grass indoors as determined by the 13C bicarbonate dilution technique using an automatic blood sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, L D; Münger, A; Rérat, M; Junghans, P; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Dohme-Meier, F

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the 13C bicarbonate dilution technique using an automatic blood sampling system and to use this technique to estimate energy expenditure (EE) based on the CO2 production of 14 lactating Holstein cows on pasture or in a freestall barn. The effects of physical activity and eating behavior on EE were also assessed. Cows were exposed to each feeding system in a crossover design with two 14-d experimental periods, each consisting of an adaptation period and a 7-d data collection period. Cows either grazed on pasture or had ad libitum access, in the freestall barn, to grass cut daily from the same paddock. All cows were supplemented with a cereal-based concentrate. The EE of each cow was determined from 0700 to 1300 h on 1 d of each collection period. Blood samples for the 13C bicarbonate dilution technique were taken either manually in the barn or using an automatic blood sampling system on pasture. Eating pattern and physical activity were recorded from 0700 to 1300 h using a behavior recorder and an activity meter, respectively. Milk yield was recorded daily. Individual feed intake was estimated using the alkane double-indicator technique. Two preceding experiments confirmed that the sampling technique (manual or automatic) and the following storage of the blood samples (frozen directly after withdrawal or first cooled on ice and then frozen 6 h later) had no effect on 13CO2 enrichment in the extracted blood CO2 or on the subsequent calculation of CO2 production. During the 6-h measurement period, the EE of cows on pasture was higher than that of cows in the freestall barn. Daily feed intake and milk production were not affected by the feeding treatment. Grazing cows spent more time walking and less time standing and lying than did cows fed indoors. Time spent eating was greater and time spent ruminating was lower for cows on pasture compared with grass-fed cows in the barn. In conclusion, the 13C bicarbonate dilution

  5. Resin/Dye Infusion Technique of Composite Integral Armor Targets for Post-Impact Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moy, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed to study the interior fracture surfaces on alumina oxide ceramic tiles as well as the delamination zones of S-2 Glass laminates within ballistic-impacted composite integral armor (CIA) targets...

  6. Optical nonlinearity of organic dyes as studied by Z-scan and transient grating techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umakanta Tripathy; R Justin Rajesh; Prem B Bisht; A Subrahamanyam

    2002-12-01

    The excited state absorption cross-section of 5,5′-dichloro-11-diphenylamino- 3,3′-diethyl-10,12-ethylinethiatricarbocyanine perchlorate (IR140) have been measured by using a single beam transmission technique. Z-scan experiments have been used to find out a few nonlinear parameters. The excited state relaxation times have also been measured by using laser induced transient grating (LITG) technique.

  7. Successful treatment of plantar warts with very diluted bleomycin using a translesional multipuncture technique: pilot prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Khalid M; Khurram, Huma

    2012-01-01

    Plantar warts are common and often painful. Treatment of plantar warts is difficult and requires multiple treatments. Several clinical trials have proven the efficacy of bleomycin, but relatively high concentrations have been required and considerable side effects have been experienced. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-concentration (0.1 U/mL) bleomycin using a translesional injection technique for the treatment of plantar warts. The study included 23 patients with single or multiple plantar warts. Very low-concentration bleomycin was injected into a single wart or the largest plantar wart in the case of multiple lesions. Injections were performed at 4-week intervals until resolution of the warts or development of side effects. The translesional multipuncture technique was used. Thirteen patients were male (56.5%), and the mean age was 27.7 years. The results revealed complete clearance of warts in 17 of 23 (74%) patients, partial response in 1 (4.3%) patient, and no response in 3 (13%) patients. Recurrence was observed in 2 patients at 3 months of follow-up. Among those two, one patient showed complete clearance after the second injection at 6 months of follow-up. All patients were followed for 6 months after the initial treatment. No significant long-term adverse effects were noted. Only three patients (13%) had localized moderate pain for 2 to 3 days after the injection. Translesional injection by very low-concentration (0.1 U/mL) bleomycin appears to be a simple, effective, and safe treatment modality for plantar warts.

  8. Determining the adulteration of spices with Sudan I-II-II-IV dyes by UV-visible spectroscopy and multivariate classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Anibal, Carolina V; Odena, Marta; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Callao, M Pilar

    2009-08-15

    We propose a very simple and fast method for detecting Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) in commercial spices, based on characterizing samples through their UV-visible spectra and using multivariate classification techniques to establish classification rules. We applied three classification techniques: K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). A total of 27 commercial spice samples (turmeric, curry, hot paprika and mild paprika) were analysed by chromatography (HPLC-DAD) to check that they were free of Sudan dyes. These samples were then spiked with Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) up to a concentration of 5 mg L(-1). Our final data set consisted of 135 samples distributed in five classes: samples without Sudan dyes, samples spiked with Sudan I, samples spiked with Sudan II, samples spiked with Sudan III and samples spiked with Sudan IV. Classification results were good and satisfactory using the classification techniques mentioned above: 99.3%, 96.3% and 90.4% of correct classification with PLS-DA, KNN and SIMCA, respectively. It should be pointed out that with SIMCA, there are no real classification errors as no samples were assigned to the wrong class: they were just not assigned to any of the pre-defined classes.

  9. [Usefulness of systematic chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique for the detection of dysplasia in patients with premalignant gastric lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yep-Gamarra, Víctor; Díaz-Vélez, Cristian; Araujo, Isis; Ginès, Àngels; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Premalignant gastric lesions have an increased risk to develop gastric cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of systematic endoscopy that includes chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique for the detection of dysplasia in patients with premalignant gastric lesions. This longitudinal, prospective study was performed in patients with gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia who were referred for endoscopy less than 6 months after the initial diagnosis. The second endoscopy was performed in three phases: phase 1, exhaustive and systematic review of the mucosa with photographic documentation and biopsies of suspicious areas; phase 2, chromoendoscopy with a double dye staining technique using acetic acid 1.2% and indigo carmine 0.5%; phase 3, topographic mapping and random biopsies. A total of 50 patients were included. Nine (18%) had atrophic gastritis, 38 (76%) had intestinal metaplasia, and 3 (6%) had low-grade dysplasia. Systematic endoscopy with chromoendoscopy using a double dye staining technique detected more patients with dysplasia (9 versus 3, plesions (6 vs. 3, p=NS). In one patient, initial low-grade dysplasia was not detected again in the systematic endoscopy, giving a global endoscopic performance for the detection of lesions of 92%. Patients with premalignant gastric lesions have synchronous lesions with greater histological severity, which are detected when systematic endoscopy is conducted with indigo carmine dye added to acetic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  10. ‘Dose-to-Mother’ Deuterium Oxide Dilution Technique: An Accurate Strategy to Measure Vitamin A Intake in Breastfed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Lopez-Teros

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, infants (0–2 years old show the highest prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD, measured by serum retinol concentrations. Thus, we consider that low vitamin A (VA intake through breast milk (BM combined with poor weaning practices are the main factors that contribute to VAD in this group. We combined the assessment of VA status in lactating women using BM retinol and a stable isotope ‘dose-to-mother’ technique to measure BM production in women from urban and agricultural areas. Infants’ mean BM intake was 758 ± 185 mL, and no difference was observed between both areas (p = 0.067. Mean BM retinol concentration was 1.09 μmol/L, which was significantly lower for the agricultural area (p = 0.028. Based on BM retinol concentration, 57% of women were VAD; although this prevalence fell to 16% when based on fat content. Regardless of the VA biomarker used here, infants from the urban and agricultural areas cover only 66% and 49% of their dietary adequate intake from BM, respectively (p = 0.054. Our data indicate that VAD is still a public health concern in Mexico. Adopting both methods to assess VA transfer from the mother to the breastfed child offers an innovative approach towards the nutritional assessment of vulnerable groups.

  11. Facile synthesis of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide semiconducting nanocomposite using pulsed laser ablation technique and its performance in photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ilyas, A.M. [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Baig, Umair [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Scientific Research Collaboration with MIT, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SiC–TiO{sub 2} semiconducting nanocomposites synthesized by nanosecond PLAL technique. • Synthesized nanocomposites were morphologically and optically characterized. • Nanocomposites were applied for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic dye. • Photovoltaic performance was investigated in dye sensitized solar cell. - Abstract: Separation of photo-generated charge carriers (electron and holes) is a major approach to improve the photovoltaic and photocatalytic performance of metal oxide semiconductors. For harsh environment like high temperature applications, ceramic like silicon carbide is very prominent. In this work, 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of pre-oxidized silicon carbide was coupled with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) to form nanocomposite semiconductor via elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique using second harmonic 532 nm wavelength of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. In addition, the effect of silicon carbide concentration on the performance of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as photo-anode in dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in photodegradation of methyl orange dye in water was also studied. The result obtained shows that photo-conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell was improved from 0.6% to 1.65% and the percentage of methyl orange dye removed was enhanced from 22% to 77% at 24 min under ultraviolet–visible solar spectrum in the nanocomposite with 10% weight of silicon carbide. This remarkable performance enhancement could be due to the improvement in electron transfer phenomenon by the presence of silicon carbide on titanium dioxide.

  12. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  13. Morphological studies of vertical arrays TiO2 nanotubes by electrochemical anodization technique for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'ait, M. S.; Alamgir, F.; Scardi, P.; Ahmad, A.

    2013-11-01

    A vertical array titanium dioxide nanotube (n-TiO2) for photovoltaic materials in dye sensitized solar cell has been synthesized by electrochemical anodization technique in NH4F aqueous solution. The morphological observation performed by SEM analysis on the scratch film showed that the distribution growths of TiO2 nanotubes on Ti subtract were uniform. The duration of growth is varied up to 12 h, with tubes length approximately 1 μm. However, at the maximum duration, a compact TiO2 layers were formed. This phenomenon is due to the field-assisted anodic oxidation at the interfaces of Ti/TiO2 is at equal rate with the field-assisted dissolution rate of the top TiO2 nanotube's surface, resulting from the decreased quantity of F- ions to form fluoro complexes, [TiF6]2-. A slight increase in the rate of the chemical dissolution reaction produced a precipitated TiO2. Hence, [TiF6]2- complexes which are required for tubes formation are difficult to exist.

  14. Vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in healthy adults: limitation of the extrinsic dual-isotope dilution technique to measure matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; West, Clive E; van Breemen, Richard B; Zhu, Dongwei; Siebelink, Els; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M; van Lieshout, Machteld; Russel, Frans G M; Schaafsma, Gertjan; Naber, Ton H J

    2009-06-01

    Data on the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in food are inconsistent. We quantified the vitamin A equivalency (microg) of beta-carotene in two diets using the dual-isotope dilution technique and the oral-faecal balance technique. A diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study was conducted in twenty-four healthy adults. Each subject followed two diets for 3 weeks each: a diet containing vegetables low in beta-carotene with supplemental beta-carotene in salad dressing oil ('oil diet') and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in beta-carotene ('mixed diet'). During all 6 weeks, each subject daily consumed a mean of 55 (sd 0.5) microg [13C10]beta-carotene and 55 (sd 0.5) microg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum and from apparent absorption by oral-faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]beta-carotene in oil of 3.4 microg (95 % CI 2.8, 3.9), thus the bio-efficacy of the beta-carotene in oil was 28 % in the presence of both diets. However, data from oral-faecal balance estimated vitamin A equivalency as 6:1 microg (95 % CI 4, 7) for beta-carotene in the 'oil diet'. beta-Carotene in the 'oil diet' had 2.9-fold higher vitamin A equivalency than beta-carotene in the 'mixed diet'. In conclusion, this extrinsic labelling technique cannot measure effects of mixed vegetables and fruits matrices, but can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of the beta-carotene in oil capsules.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of basic dye sorption on phosphoric acid esterifying soybean hull with solid phase preparation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Renmin; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Demin; Zhong, Keding; Zhu, Guoping

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the solid phase preparation method of a cationic sorbent, which bears hydroxyl groups of phosphoric acid derived from esterified soybean hull (ESH), was reported. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamics of two basic dyes, acridine orange (AO) and malachite green (MG), from aqueous solution onto ESH were investigated with a batch system. The isothermal data of dye sorptions followed the Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity (Q(m)) of ESH for AO and MG was 238.1 mg/g and 178.57 mg/g, respectively. The dye sorption processes could be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study indicated that the dye sorptions were spontaneous and exothermic. Lower temperatures were favorable for the sorption processes.

  16. Simple and rapid analytical method for detection of amino acids in blood using blood spot on filter paper, fast-GC/MS and isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2010-11-15

    A simple and rapid method for quantitative analysis of amino acids, including valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), methionine (Met) and phenylalanine (Phe), in whole blood has been developed using GC/MS. In this method, whole blood was collected using a filter paper technique, and a 1/8 in. blood spot punch was used for sample preparation. Amino acids were extracted from the sample, and the extracts were purified using cation-exchange resins. The isotope dilution method using ²H₈-Val, ²H₃-Leu, ²H₃-Met and ²H₅-Phe as internal standards was applied. Following propyl chloroformate derivatization, the derivatives were analyzed using fast-GC/MS. The extraction recoveries using these techniques ranged from 69.8% to 87.9%, and analysis time for each sample was approximately 26 min. Calibration curves at concentrations from 0.0 to 1666.7 μmol/l for Val, Leu, Ile and Phe and from 0.0 to 333.3 μmol/l for Met showed good linearity with regression coefficients=1. The method detection limits for Val, Leu, Ile, Met and Phe were 24.2, 16.7, 8.7, 1.5 and 12.9 μmol/l, respectively. This method was applied to blood spot samples obtained from patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), hypermethionine and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), and the analysis results showed that the concentrations of amino acids that characterize these diseases were increased. These results indicate that this method provides a simple and rapid procedure for precise determination of amino acids in whole blood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dye analysis of Shosoin textiles using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rikiya; Tanaka, Yoko; Ogata, Atsuhiko; Naruse, Masakazu

    2009-07-15

    The dyes of 8th century textiles, treasured for more than 1250 years in the Shosoin treasure repository in Japan, were analyzed by nondestructive methods, i.e., excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) reflectance spectrometry, in combination with natural dye references extracted from plants, which have been widely used from ancient times. In this analysis, five dyes were found in the following objects: embroidered shoes dedicated to Great Buddha of the Todaiji temple by the empress of that time, the cloth lining for a case holding a mirror belonging to the emperor of that time, two rolls of yellow and light green plain-weave silks, and a sleeveless coat used for a musical in a Buddhist ceremony in 752 A.D. EEM fluorescence spectrometry distinguished kihada yellow (Amur cork tree), kariyasu yellow (eulalia), and akane red (Japanese madder). UV-vis spectrometry also distinguished kariyasu yellow, ai blue (knotweed), akane red, and shikon purple (murasaki); the characteristic peaks of these dyes were detected by a second derivatization. The results show that although the dyes used easily degrade with age, EEM fluorescence and UV-vis reflectance spectrometry are useful for distinguishing dyes used in the Shosoin textiles, which had been stored for more than 1250 years.

  18. Facile synthesis of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide semiconducting nanocomposite using pulsed laser ablation technique and its performance in photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M. A.; Ilyas, A. M.; Baig, Umair

    2016-08-01

    Separation of photo-generated charge carriers (electron and holes) is a major approach to improve the photovoltaic and photocatalytic performance of metal oxide semiconductors. For harsh environment like high temperature applications, ceramic like silicon carbide is very prominent. In this work, 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of pre-oxidized silicon carbide was coupled with titanium dioxide (TiO2) to form nanocomposite semiconductor via elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique using second harmonic 532 nm wavelength of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. In addition, the effect of silicon carbide concentration on the performance of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as photo-anode in dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in photodegradation of methyl orange dye in water was also studied. The result obtained shows that photo-conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell was improved from 0.6% to 1.65% and the percentage of methyl orange dye removed was enhanced from 22% to 77% at 24 min under ultraviolet-visible solar spectrum in the nanocomposite with 10% weight of silicon carbide. This remarkable performance enhancement could be due to the improvement in electron transfer phenomenon by the presence of silicon carbide on titanium dioxide.

  19. [Determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Lü, Bing; Ding, Hao; Zou, Jianhong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong

    2014-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) with isotope dilution technique. The red wine samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and the extracts were cleaned up with dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using the mixture of N-propyl ethylene diamine (PSA) and C18 powder as sorbent. The extracted components were separated on a BEH C18 column by gradient elution. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated under full scan/data dependent MS/MS (ddms2) and targeted selective ion monitoring (tSIM) by high resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. Carbendazim-D4, chlorpyrifos-D10, imidacloprid-D4, methoxyfenozide-D9, pyrimethanil-D5 and tebuconazole-D6 were used as the internal standards to reduce the matrix effects. The response of each pesticide showed a good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 microg/kg with the correlation coefficient more than 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification for the 18 pesticides in the spiked blank red wine were 0.5 microg/kg and 1.0 microg/kg, respectively. The recovery results with spiked blank red wine samples at the levels of 1 to 40 microg/kg were satisfactory with average recoveries of 85.4% - 117.9% and the RSDs of 0.5%-6.1%. The method was applied for the determination of the red wine real samples from the market. Carbendazim, imidacloprid, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole and triadimenol were detected in the samples. The results show that the method is suitable for the rapid screening and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in red wine.

  20. Impact of dyes on the nonlinear optical response of liquid crystals implementing the Z-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosales, A. A.; Ortega-Martínez, R.; Morales-Saavedra, O. G.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the nonlinear refractive index response γ of several organic dyes and their impact on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of nematic liquid crystals (LC) was performed via Z-scan measurements. For his purpose, a low power CW He-Ne laser system (λ approx 633 nm) was implemented. Studies were carried out at the low absorption spectroscopic region of the implemented samples (dyes, liquid crystals and mixtures at different ratios of these materials). Samples were prepared at 1% weight of the used solvent (THF) and were sandwiched in glass cells with a gap thickness of ~100 μm. The implemented dyes have shown the largest optical nonlinearities and represent the main contributors to the cubic NLO-properties of the LC:Dye mixtures. In our particular studies, 5CB liquid crystal doped with DR1 azo-dye, resulted in the simultaneous positive and negative exhibition of nonlinear refractive indexes γ, depending on the polarization state of the excitation laser beam. Experimental conditions and results are described in detail.

  1. Sentinel lymph node detection by combined dye-isotope technique and its predictive value for cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with lingual carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国慧; 樊卫; 张伟光; 彭汉伟

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical value of combined dye-isotope technique in detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) and to examine whether the characteristics of SLN accurately predict cervical lymph node metastasis in lingual carcinoma. Methods Thirty patients with lingual carcinoma without lymph metastasis were injected with a dose of about 18.5 MBq of 99mTc-SC (sulfur colloid), around the tumor tissues before surgery, and lymphoscintigraphy was performed 5, 10, 30, 60 minutes, and 6 hours after injection. In the following day, all patients were injected with isosulfan blue dye around the primary tumor during surgery to trace SLN and underwent standard cervical lymph node dissection after SLN dissection. The pathological results of SLN were compared with standard lymph node dissection for their ability to accurately predict the final pathological status of the cervical lymph nodes.Results SLN was successfully identified in 100% of the patients. Both positive and negative predictive values of SLN were 100%. The accuracy rate was 100%, and there were no false negatives. Conclusions The detection of SLN using combined dye-isotope technique could accurately predict cervical lymph node metastasis in lingual carcinoma.

  2. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (Pcolostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (Pcolostrum composition.

  3. 三甲川花菁染料合成工艺优化研究%Study on the Optimization of Synthesis Technique of Trimethine Cyanine Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海波; 郭建莹

    2015-01-01

    Based on the traditional production technique of trimethine cyanine dyes, which takes naphthalene hydrazine hydrochloride as raw material and involves processes of reduction, alkylation and condensation, this paper improves the tra-ditional production control conditions and the proportion of raw materials to reduce the variety and quantity of by-products and increase the yield of target products. After the process optimization, the production rate of dyes has increased by 20%. This improvement offers reference to the industrial production of other kinds of cyanine dyes.%以β-萘肼盐酸盐为原料,通过还原、烷基化、缩合生产三甲川花菁染料的工艺,改进传统生产控制条件以及原料比例,降低副产物种类和数量,提高目标产物产率.工艺优化后,染料生产率提高 20%,以上,为工业生产其他种类的花菁染料提供了借鉴.

  4. [Tattooing dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Pierchalla, P

    1988-01-01

    Nine different tattoo dyes were analysed by various tests. Mixtures of organic dyes and inorganic filler were found; the inorganic filler consisted mainly of titanium dioxide (TiO2). Heavy metals, e.g. mercury, cadmium, or chrome as the common components of the traditional tattoo dyes, are capable of evoking unwanted skin reactions, but were not detected. Tattoo dyes are not officially controlled, and thus it is not known which substances-in addition to those identified by us-are presently used to produce ornamental tattoos. However, our results suggest that classic dyes have been superceded by newer, mainly synthetic dyes.

  5. In-situ fluorimetry: a powerful non-invasive diagnostic technique for natural dyes used in artefacts. Part II. Identification of orcein and indigo in Renaissance tapestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, C; Miliani, C; Romani, A; Santamaria, U; Morresi, F; Mlynarska, K; Favaro, G

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, three Renaissance tapestries depicting scenes painted by Raffaello Sanzio, conserved at the Vatican Museum, were investigated using in-situ UV-Visible fluorimetric measurements. The results show that this technique is suitable for the detection of natural organic colorants used for dyeing the threads woven in these tapestries. The emission signals detected on red-purple colours were assigned to the colorant orcein and those on different nuances of blue and green colours to indigo by comparison with data from reference laboratory samples. The assignments were supported by chromatographic experiments carried out on threads taken from the back side of the tapestry in the same points analysed by spectrofluorimentry.

  6. Cationic effect on dye-sensitized solar cell properties using electrochemical impedance and transient absorption spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Bedja, Idriss

    2017-06-01

    Redox-couple polymer electrolytes, (poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile) blend/MI-I2, where M  =  Li or K, were prepared by the solution cast method. Owing to the plasticizing property of K+ ions, the K+ ion-based electrolyte exhibited better electrical conductivity than the Li+ ion-based electrolyte, which did however exhibit better photovoltaic properties. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed faster redox species diffusions and interfacial processes in the Li+ ion-based dye-sensitized solar cells than in the K+ ion-based ones. Transient absorption spectroscopy ascertained faster dye-regeneration by the Li+ ion-based electrolyte than the K+ ion-based electrolyte.

  7. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  8. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  9. Combined epiretinal and internal limiting membrane peeling facilitated by high dilution indocyanine green negative staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Kaehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the utilization of indocyanine green (ICG dye to facilitate combined/en bloc removal of epiretinal membranes (ERM along with internal limiting membranes (ILM. The method utilizes a highly diluted preparation of ICG in dextrose water solvent (D5W. Elimination of fluid air exchange step facilitating staining in the fluid phase and low intensity lighting help minimize potential ICG toxicity. The technique demonstrates how ICG facilitates negative staining of ERMs and how ILM peeling concomitantly can allow complete and efficient ERM removal minimizing surgical time and the necessity for dual or sequential staining.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cell based on optically transparent TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline electrode prepared by atomized spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, H.M.N., E-mail: hmnb@pdn.ac.l [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Rajapakse, R.M.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Murakami, K. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Kumara, G.R.R.A.; Anuradha Sepalage, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > Transparent TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by the atomized spray pyrolysis method. > These films contain 3-5 nm discrete particles, interconnected to give a crack-free thin film structure. > Dye-absorption of the TiO{sub 2} film is 2.16 times higher than those used in conventional DSCs. > Conversion efficiency of 8.2% can be achieved with 1000 W m{sup -2} irradiation. - Abstract: Preparation of crack-free thin films of interconnected and non-agglomerated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on electronically conducting fluorine doped tin oxide surfaces is instrumental in designing and developing transparent dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A novel technique called 'Atomized Spray Pyrolysis' (ASP) has been designed and developed to achieve such perfectly transparent thin films. Optical transmittance of TiO{sub 2} films produced on FTO surface by this ASP method has been compared with those obtained by doctor-blading and by hand spray methods and found that the atomized spray pyrolysis technique give films with high transparency. Dye adsorption per gram of TiO{sub 2} is 2.16 times higher in the sample produced by the ASP method when compared to the film produced by the hand spray method and is 1.60 times higher than that produced by the doctor-blading method using a commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline paste. SEM studies show the presence of interconnected discrete particles in the film produced by the ASP method. The fill factor (ff) remains almost constant for the cells with thickness from 6 {mu}m to 13 {mu}m but the highest photovoltage and photocurrent were found in {approx}10 {mu}m film based DSC which gave 8.2% conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 irradiation for cells of 0.25 cm{sup 2} active area.

  11. Invoking the frequency dependence in square modulated light intensity techniques for the measurement of electron time constants in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaithan, Hamid M.; Qaid, Saif M.; Hezam, Mahmoud; Siddique, Muhemmad B.; Bedja, Idriss M.; Aldwayyana, Abdullah S.

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been considered as one of the most promising new generation solar cells. Enormous research efforts have been invested to improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion which is determined by the light harvesting efficiency, electron injection efficiency and undesirable electron lifetime. A simple, cheap and trustable laser-induced photovoltage and photocurrent decay (LIPVCD) technique is adopted in this work in order to determine the electron lifetime (τe) and electron transport (τtr) in DSSCs. In LIPVCD technique, DSSC is illuminated by a small squared intensity-modulated laser beam. Time-based response of the DSSC is recorded using a transient digitized oscilloscope for further analysis. Frequency-based response was also investigated in this work. The frequency-dependent measurements turned out to be a powerful method to determine electron time constants in a fast, real-time fashion. Measurements were carried out using a standard dye-sensitized solar cell, and results were in excellent agreement with results obtained from traditional IMVS-MPS measurements. Measurements were also performed for a variety of DSSCs, having various electrodes including TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets and ZnO vertically aligned nanowires. Results will also be presented and discussed in this work.

  12. Tin sulfide (SnS) nanostructured films deposited by continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique for dye-sensitized solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Firoz; Dutta, Viresh, E-mail: vdutta@ces.iitd.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Single phase, perfectly stoichiometric tin sulfide (SnS) films have been deposited by continuous spray pyrolysis technique. • Structural and morphological investigations show the orthorhombic SnS with nanoflakes. • SnS film shows excellent electrochemical stability. • SnS films have been used as a counter electrode (CE) in an I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} based dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Tin sulfide (SnS) nanostructured films have been deposited on transparent conducting glass substrate using continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique using aqueous spray solution of tin chloride and thiourea. Structural, morphological and optical properties of as-synthesized SnS nanostructured films showed the formation of (1 0 1) oriented orthorhombic SnS with nanoflakes having a direct band gap of 1.40 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirms the formation of pure SnS with Sn in +2 oxidation state. The SnS nanostructured film has also been characterized using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) technique to determine the surface area and pore volume which are found to be 11.4 m{sup 2}/g and 0.02 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The film has been used as a counter electrode (CE) in a triiodide/iodide (I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −}) based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSCs of 0.25 cm{sup 2} area with SnS nanostructured CE exhibits a lower power conversion efficiency (2.0 ± 0.06%) than that for the cell with standard platinum (Pt) CE (4.5 ± 0.13%). However, the usefulness of the CoSP technique for deposition of nanostructures SnS CE film has been established in the present study.

  13. Degradation of acid red 97 dye in aqueous medium using wet oxidation and electro-Fenton techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayan, Berkant; Gözmen, Belgin; Demirel, Muhammet; Gizir, A Murat

    2010-05-15

    Degradation of the acid red 97 dye using wet oxidation, by different oxidants, and electro-Fenton systems was investigated in this study. The oxidation effect of different oxidants such as molecular oxygen, periodate, persulfate, bromate, and hydrogen peroxide in wet oxidation system was compared. Mineralization of AR97 with periodate appeared more effective when compared with that of the other oxidants at equal initial concentration. When 5 mM of periodate was used, at the first minute of the oxidative treatment, the decolorization percentage of AR97 solution at 150 and 200 degrees C reached 88 and 98%, respectively. The total organic carbon removal efficiency at these temperatures also reached 60 and 80%. The degradation of AR97 was also studied by electro-Fenton process. The optimal current value and Fe(2+) concentration were found to be 300 mA and 0.2 mM, respectively. The results showed that electro-Fenton process can lead to 70 and 95% mineralization of the dye solution after 3 and 5h giving carboxylic acids and inorganic ions as final end-products before mineralization. The products obtained from degradation were identified by GC/MS as 1,2-naphthalenediol, 1,1'-biphenyl-4-amino-4-ol, 2-naphthalenol diazonium, 2-naphthalenol, 2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedion, phthalic anhydride, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phthaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4-amino-benzoic acid, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid.

  14. A simplified post preparation technique after Thermafil obturation: evaluation of apical microleakage and presence of voids using methylene blue dye penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusinanti, Luca; Rubini, Riccardo; Pellati, Agnese; Zerman, Nicoletta

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To evaluate the apical microleakage of Thermafil obturations after three different post space preparation techniques. Materials and methods 33 root canals of mono-radiculated extracted teeth were prepared with M two and then obturated with Thermafil. Teeth so treated were then divided into three groups and the post space to middle root was prepared using three different techniques. In samples in group A the housing for the post was created using a Torpan bur, and the carrier was partially removed only in the coronal portion. In samples in group B the carrier was completely removed and gutta-percha was hand compacted, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. In samples in group C the carrier was completely removed, without guttapercha compaction, before canal preparation using a Torpan bur. The roots were immersed for 72 hours in methylene blue dye solution and sectioned transversely at 1-3-5 mm from the apex for evaluation of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. The data collected were processed using Win CAD software and subjected to statistical analysis using the Student t test for p<0.05. Results There were no significant differences between the three groups, except for the presence of voids in the intermediate section of teeth in groups B and C. Conclusions Post space preparation did not influence the apical seal, and gutta-percha without voids was always found in the last millimetre of the canal obturation. This study proposes a post preparation technique which provides for complete carrier removal using pliers, hand compaction of residual gutta-percha with a manual plugger and enlargement of the root canal, using appropriate post space burs, free of any interference from the carrier. Operating time is reduced, as is the risk of creating ledges or iatrogenic perforations. PMID:23991269

  15. In vivo fluorescence imaging of lysosomes: a potential technique to follow dye accumulation in the context of PDT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1995-03-01

    Lysosomes and intracellular acidic compartments seem to play an important role in the context of PDT. Some photosensitizers are localized in the lysosomes of tumor-associated macrophages. Liposomes, which are lysosomotropic drug carriers, are used to deliver photosensitizers in tumors. Liposomes are taken up by the liver cells after intravenous injection. Intracellular pathway and liposomes localization in the different liver cells require sacrifice of the animals, cell separation, and observation by electronic microscopy. Little is known about liposomes kinetic uptake by the acidic intracellular compartments in vivo. We propose in this study a new method to follow liposomes uptake in the liver in vivo using a fluorescent pH-sensitive probe. We have already demonstrated the ability of fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging using a pH-dependent probe to monitor pH in living tissues. As pH of lysosome is very low, the kinetic of liposome uptake in this intracellular acidic compartment is followed by monitoring the pH of the whole liver in vivo and ex vivo. Liposomes-encapsulated carboxyfluorescein are prepared by the sonication procedure. Carboxyfluorescein is used at high concentration (100 mM) in order to quench its fluorescence. Liposomes are injected to Wistar rats into the peinil vein. After laparotomy, fluorescence spectra and images are recorded during two hours. Results show a rapid fluorescence increase followed by a slow phase of fluorescence decrease. pH decreases from physiological value to 6.0. After sacrifice and flush with cold saline solution, pH of liver ex vivo is found to be 5.0 - 5.5. These data show a rapid clearance of released dye and an uptake of liposomes by the liver cells and, as liposomes penetrate in the acidic compartment, dye is released from liposomes and is delivered in lysosomes leading to the decrease of pH.

  16. High performance dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene modified fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ki-Min; Jo, Eun-Hee; Chang, Hankwon; Han, Tae Hee; Jang, Hee Dong

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with low fabrication cost and high power conversion efficiency, extensive studies have been carried out to improve the charge transfer rate and performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we present DSSCs that use surface modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates with reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) sheets prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to decrease the charge recombination at the TiO2/FTO interface. R-GO sheets were excellently attached on FTO surface without physical deformations such as wrinkles; effects of the surface coverage of r-GO on the DSSC performance were also investigated. By using graphene modified FTO substrates, the resistance at the interface of TiO2/FTO was reduced and the power conversion efficiency was increased to 8.44%.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell using graphene-TiO2 photoanode prepared by a novel in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Dai, Hui; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-04-21

    Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a DSSC using graphene-TiO2 photoelectrodes prepared by our recent in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique (Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202349, in press) was achieved. The DSSCs based on the G-TiO2 nanocomposites improved their overall energy conversion efficiency to 7.1%. The results prove that the promoting effect of graphene is strongly dependent on its content; namely, the efficiency of DSSCs increases and then decreases with increasing graphene content in TiO2-graphene composites. Excessive graphene in the nanocomposite leads to a decrease of the light harvest of dye molecules and thus a negative effect on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  18. Characteristics of the pulmonary transport functions for heat and dye in pulmonary edema and orthostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böck, J C; Hoeft, A; Korb, H; Hellige, G

    1989-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in the distribution of pulmonary blood flow and disturbances of the pulmonary microcirculation can be detected by use of inflow-outflow indicator-dilution measurements. In 18 anesthetized (N2O-piritramide) mongrel dogs 221 thermal-indocyanine green dye indicator dilution kinetics were recorded in the pulmonary artery and aorta after central venous indicator injection. The lagged normal density function was used as a model for the pulmonary transport functions for heat and dye. The parameters of the lagged normal density function were computed by a non-linear least squares procedure by iterative convolution. After baseline measurements, in nine dogs, pulmonary edema was induced by central venous application of oleic acid. In nine other dogs, measurements were performed before and after postural changes. Our data show that both the microvascular injury caused by oleic acid edema and the perfusion heterogeneity caused by orthostasis can be detected by the indicator dilution technique since the both relative dispersion and skewness of the transport functions for heat and dye were significantly increased after these interventions.

  19. Isothermal, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on basic dye sorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... obtained by diluting the dye stock solutions in accurate proportions to different ... with a 752 W Grating Spectrophotometer (Shanghai, China) and computing from the ... The ion exchange mechanism could be used to explain.

  20. The influence of solid/liquid separation techniques on the sugar yield in two-step dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood followed by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbe Mats

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-step dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood, either as a stand-alone process or as pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis, is considered to result in higher sugar yields than one-step acid hydrolysis. However, this requires removal of the liquid between the two steps. In an industrial process, filtration and washing of the material between the two steps is difficult, as it should be performed at high pressure to reduce energy demand. Moreover, the application of pressure leads to more compact solids, which may affect subsequent processing steps. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of pressing the biomass, in combination with the effects of not washing the material, on the sugar yield obtained from two-step dilute acid hydrolysis, with and without subsequent enzymatic digestion of the solids. Results Washing the material between the two acid hydrolysis steps, followed by enzymatic digestion, resulted in recovery of 96% of the mannose and 81% of the glucose (% of the theoretical in the liquid fraction, regardless of the choice of dewatering method (pressing or vacuum filtration. Not washing the solids between the two acid hydrolysis steps led to elevated acidity of the remaining solids during the second hydrolysis step, which resulted in lower yields of mannose, 85% and 74% of the theoretical, for the pressed and vacuum-filtered slurry, respectively, due to sugar degradation. However, this increase in acidity resulted in a higher glucose yield (94.2% from pressed slurry than from filtered slurry (77.6%. Conclusion Pressing the washed material between the two acid hydrolysis steps had no significant negative effect on the sugar yields of the second acid hydrolysis step or on enzymatic hydrolysis. Not washing the material resulted in a harsher second acid hydrolysis step, which caused greater degradation of the sugars during subsequent acid hydrolysis of the solids, particularly in case of the vacuum

  1. High performance dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene modified fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Ki-Min [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Eun-Hee; Chang, Hankwon [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nanomaterials Science and Engineering Major, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hee Dong, E-mail: hdjang@kigam.re.kr [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nanomaterials Science and Engineering Major, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with low fabrication cost and high power conversion efficiency, extensive studies have been carried out to improve the charge transfer rate and performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we present DSSCs that use surface modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates with reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) sheets prepared using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique to decrease the charge recombination at the TiO{sub 2}/FTO interface. R-GO sheets were excellently attached on FTO surface without physical deformations such as wrinkles; effects of the surface coverage of r-GO on the DSSC performance were also investigated. By using graphene modified FTO substrates, the resistance at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/FTO was reduced and the power conversion efficiency was increased to 8.44%. - Graphical abstract: DSSCs with graphene modified FTO glass were fabricated with the Langmuir Blodgett technique. GO sheets were transferred to FTO at various surface pressures in order to change the surface density of graphene and the highest power conversion efficiency of the DSSC was 8.44%. - Highlights: • By LB technique, r-GO sheets were coated on FTO without physical deformation. • DSSCs were fabricated with, r-GO modified FTO substrates. • With surface modification by r-GO, the interface resistance of DSSC decreased. • Maximum PCE of the DSSC was increased up to 8.44%.

  2. Fabrication and investigation of MnFe2O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite by hydrothermal technique and adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafshgari, Leila Asadi; Ghorbani, Mohsen; Azizi, Asghar

    2017-10-01

    In present study, MnFe2O4/MWCNT nanocomposite synthesized using the hydrothermal technique and has been used for removal of DR16 and Y40 dyes from aqueous solutions. The characteristics results of FTIR, XRD, FESEM and TEM indicated that the nanoadsorbent was successfully fabricated. Magnetic sensitivity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles with saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 8.93 emu g-1 would have a fast magnetic response. The performance of adsorption was investigated in a batch reactor employing parameters expected to affect the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) such as pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. The highest sorption capacities of DR16 and Y40 after 300 min at 328 K were found to be 607.79 mg/g and 280 mg/g at pH of 2 and 6, respectively. The adsorption behavior over the time was assessed through pseudo-first, pseudo-second and Weber-Morris intra particle diffusion models. It was found that the pseudo-second order model gave the best agreement to the experimental data. Adsorbate-adsorbent interactions as a function of temperature was evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Sips isotherm models from which Sips isotherm had the highest consistency with the experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters including ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH° were determined over the temperature range of 298-328 K. The results revealed that the adsorption reaction of DR16 onto MnFe2O4/MWCNT was spontaneous and exothermic, whilst the sorption process of Y40 was spontaneous and endothermic. In addition, activation energy values implied that the removal process of DR16 and Y40 was physical in nature.

  3. Determination of ground water flow using dilution technique. Modification of equipment and supplementary field measurements; Bestaemning av grundvattenfloedet med utspaedningsteknik. Modifiering av utrustning och kompletterande faeltmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Erik [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Equipment for in-situ measurements of ground water flow was modified and improved. Performance data on the dilution sond are discussed in the report, as well as possibilities for further improvements of the equipment. The most important results and conclusions from the tests are: If an accuracy of 10% is acceptable, the lowest measurable flow rate is of the order of 10{sup -11} m/s in fractured granite. Low flows take long time to measure. Measuring the flow through a section with hydraulic conductivity 10{sup -8} at the gradient 0.01 will take 30-50 days in a 110 mm borehole. A 56 mm borehole will need half that time. The optical in-situ measurement of trace element concentration is disturbed, in particular at the beginning of the measurement, by sedimenting particles that have loosened when the sond was lowered into the borehole. The background transmission T{sub b} is a measure of the amount of disturbing particles in the measurement section and is present, as a constant, in the calibration equation. By delaying the trace element injection until the variation of T{sub b} is less than 7.5x10{sup -3} /h the disturbance from sedimenting particles is negligible. The field measurements were performed without problems in 2 m long sections with hydraulic conductivity around 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -8} m/s. The measured flow rates were in the interval 10{sup -8} - 10{sup -9} m/s. Good correlations were established between changes in ground water flow and measured changes in the hydraulic gradient in the test area. Indirect comparisons with hydraulic tests also show small differences, inside the margin of error for the methods.

  4. Low Temperature Dyeing of Cashmere Fibers and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Shu-ying; ZHU Ping; CHEN Guo-hua; LI Ru-qin

    2005-01-01

    A special designed multi-functional dyeing auxiliary, SFR503, is adopted in mordant dyeing process for cashmere fibers, sliver and fabric. The results of decreasing dyeing temperature, shortening the dyeing period, reducing the fiber damage and improved quality of the cashmere have been obtained. The percentage of dyeing exhaustion and color fastness of final products were further improved in this regards. A suggested technique, bath ratio, dyeing process curve and dye recipe were raised in the paper. SFR-503s swelling, wetting, leveling, brightening effect for cashmere during dyeing process were discussed.

  5. In situ fluorimetry: a powerful non-invasive diagnostic technique for natural dyes used in artefacts Part I. Spectral characterization of orcein in solution, on silk and wool laboratory-standards and a fragment of Renaissance tapestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, C; Miliani, C; Romani, A; Favaro, G

    2006-07-01

    In this paper the potentialities of spectrophotometric and fluorimetric techniques for identifying the materials used in artistic textiles are investigated. A portable non-destructive instrument suitable to record fluorescence spectra on surfaces was set up and successfully experienced. A naturally occurring dye, orcein, which was widely used in antiquity for textile dyeing, has been spectrally characterized in both solution and powder. Laboratory samples of wool and silk orcein-dyed threads were analysed before and after ageing. An original fragment of Renaissance tapestry was also analysed. The textile (wool) and the colourant (orcein) were recognised by comparison with the data from the laboratory samples.

  6. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient.

  7. Soil available nitrogen measurement by the electro-ultrafiltration and isotopic dilution technique; Medida do nitrogenio disponivel do solo pela tecnica da eletro-ultrafiltracao e diluicao isotopica ({sup 15} N)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, J.A.; Polo, A. [Consejo Superior de Invetsigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales

    1991-12-31

    The goal of this work was the evaluation of the available nitrogen of a soil by means of the electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) technique in comparison with the nitrogen taken up plants. The experiment was carried out in posts maintained in a greenhouse, using a yellow Latosol from the Central Amazon rain forest. It was fertilized with labelled K N O{sub 3} (10,616 at % {sup 15} N), using a dose of 254,5 mg N/pot Soil samples were submitted to an extraction by EUF for the quantification of the available nitrogen and after Brachiaria humidicola was cultivated for 60 days. The origin of the nitrogen (fertilizer or soil) was measured by the isotopic dilution technique in soil, EUF extracts and plants. The results showed that both technique values were in the same order of magnitude, with similar percentages of mobilized nitrogen in relation to the total nitrogen in the soil. In relation to the nitrogen derived from fertilizer, the EUF technique extracted 3,48 times more nitrogen than the plants. Nevertheless we have to take into account that the dose of fertilizer was excessive for a species with low capacity of nitrogen assimilation. (author) 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. The paired deuterated retinol dilution technique can be used to estimate the daily vitamin A intake required to maintain a targeted whole body vitamin A pool size in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marjorie J; Jamil, Kazi M; Peerson, Janet M; Wahed, Mohammed A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2011-03-01

    The estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin A (VA) of adult males is based on the amount of dietary VA required to maintain adequate function and provide a modest liver VA reserve (0.07 μmol/g). In the present study, the paired-deuterated retinol dilution technique was used to estimate changes in VA pool size in Bangladeshi men from low-income, urban neighborhoods who had small initial VA pool sizes (0.059 ± 0.032 mmol, or 0.047 ± 0.025 μmol/g liver; n = 16). The men were supplemented for 60 d with 1 of 8 different levels of dietary VA, ranging from 100 to 2300 μg/d (2 men/dietary VA level). VA pool size was estimated before and after the supplementation period. The mean change (plus or minus) in VA pool size in the men was plotted against their corresponding levels of daily VA intake and a regression line was fit to the data. The level of intake at which the regression line crossed the x-axis (where estimates of VA pool size remained unchanged) was used as an estimate of the EAR. A VA intake of 254-400 μg/d was sufficient to maintain a small VA pool size (0.059 ± 0.032 mmol) in the Bangladeshi men, corresponding to a VA intake of 362-571 μg/d for a 70-kg U.S. man, which is lower than their current EAR of 625 μg/d. The data suggest that the paired-deuterated retinol dilution technique could be used for estimating the EAR for VA for population subgroups for which there are currently no direct estimates.

  10. Novel Fluorescent Dyes Based on Coumarin System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Seven novel fluorescent coumarin derivatives were synthesized from 7-diethylamino-4-chloro-3-formyl coumarin. The spectra of absorption, excitation and emission were dependent not only on the structures and also on the concentration of dyes. The PPP-MO predictions can only be consistent with the spectra in dilute solutions.

  11. Hybridizing pines with diluted pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1967-01-01

    Diluted pollens would have many uses by the tree breeder. Dilutions would be particularly advantageous in making many controlled pollinations with a limited amount of pollen. They also would be useful in artificial mass pollinations of orchards or single trees. Diluted pollens might help overcome troublesome genetic barriers to crossing. Feasibility o,f using diluted...

  12. Influence of PVP template on the formation of porous TiO2 nanofibers by electrospinning technique for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayappan, Vijayakumar; Panneerselvam, Pratheep; Nemala, Sivasankar; Nallathambi, Karthick S.; Angaiah, Subramania

    2015-09-01

    The porous TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as template as well as pore-forming agent at the calcination temperature of 475 °C for 5 h. The influence of various concentrations of PVP (5, 8 and 10 wt%) on the surface area and porosity of the prepared TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) were studied by using BET-specific surface area analyzer. The TiO2 NFs obtained by using 5 wt% of PVP had higher surface area and porosity than those obtained by using 8 and 10 wt% of PVP. The prepared electrospun TiO2 NFs were characterized by using TG analysis, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FE-SEM and TEM studies. Finally, dye-sensitized solar cells were assembled using the prepared TiO2 NFs as the photoanode, Pt as the cathode and 0.5 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 4-tertbutylpyridine in acetonitrile as an electrolyte. Among the three photoanodes, the cell assembled using porous TiO2 NFs obtained by using 5 wt% of PVP showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.81 % than those obtained by using 8 and 10 wt% of PVP, which showed the lower PCE of 4.13 and 3.42 %, respectively.

  13. Morphological appearances and photo-controllable coloration of dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer coaxial microfibers fabricated by coaxial electrospinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-De; Chen, Che-Pei; Chen, Lin-Jer; Chuang, Yu-Chou; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-02-08

    This study systematically investigates the morphological appearance of azo-chiral dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC)/polymer coaxial microfibers obtained through the coaxial electrospinning technique and examines, for the first time, their photocontrollable reflection characteristics. Experimental results show that the quasi-continuous electrospun microfibers can be successfully fabricated at a high polymer concentration of 17.5 wt% and an optimum ratio of 2 for the feeding rates of sheath to core materials at 25 °C and a high humidity of 50% ± 2% in the spinning chamber. Furthermore, the optical controllability of the reflective features for the electrospun fibers is studied in detail by changing the concentration of the azo-chiral dopant in the core material, the UV irradiation intensity, and the core diameter of the fibers. Relevant mechanisms are addressed to explain the optical-control behaviors of the DDCLC coaxial fibers. Considering the results, optically controllable DDCLC coaxial microfibers present potential applications in UV microsensors and wearable smart textiles or swabs.

  14. Growth of the [110] oriented TiO2 nanorods on ITO substrates by sputtering technique for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIJIAN eMENG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have been deposited on ITO substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique. It has been found that the sputtering pressure is a very important parameter for the structure of the deposited TiO2 films. When the pressure is lower than 1 Pa, the deposited film has a dense structure and shows a preferred orientation along the [101] direction. However, the nanorod structure has been obtained as the sputtering pressure is higher than 1 Pa. These nanorods structure TiO2 film shows a preferred orientation along the [110] direction. The phases of the deposited TiO2 films have been characterized by the x-ray diffraction and the Raman scattering measurements. All the films show an anatase phase and no other phase has been observed. The results of the SEM show that these TiO2 nanorods are perpendicular to the ITO substrate. The TEM measurement shows that the nanorods have a very rough surface. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have been assembled using these TiO2 nanorod films prepared at different sputtering pressures as photoelectrode. And the effect of the sputtering pressure on the properties of the photoelectric conversion of the DSSCs has been studied.

  15. Functional characterisation of semen in honeybee queen (A.m.ligustica S. spermatheca and efficiency of the diluted semen technique in instrumental insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences over time in the quality of semen present in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica queen spermatheca werestudied. An increase in the non-vital spermatozoa was shown to be evident (P>0.05 between the 12th and 24th month.The study of semen viability demonstrated that the passage of the semen to the spermatheca is due to sperm motility.In the queen inseminated with non-viable spermatozoa, no semen was detected in the spermatheca. Queens inseminatedtwice with a Hyes solution/semen mixture (1:1 stored as many spermatozoa in their spermatheca as those inseminatedonce with the classic technique. Queen replacement, oviposition and other functional characteristics were similarto those observed in the classic insemination procedure.

  16. Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Property of POLY(HEXA-2,4-DIYNYLENE-1,6-DIOXYDICINNAMATE) Containing a Polar Azo Dye, Determined by Z-Scan Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alejandra; Perez-Martinez, Ana Laura; Ogawa, Takeshi; Smith, Francis; Walser, Ardie; Dorsinville, Roger

    A highly-conjugated polar dye with three aromatic rings connected with azo groups was prepared and it was incorporated in polycinnamate. It showed a third-order nonlinear susceptibility of 8 × 10-10 esu determined by a Z-scan technique. The unpoled and poled films show the same susceptibility indicating the polymer film could not be poled. The open aperture Z-scan showed negligible two-photon absorption at 1064 nm.

  17. Measurements Of Coronary Mean Transit Time And Myocardial Tissue Blood Flow By Deconvolution Of Intravasal Tracer Dilution Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, H.; Hoeft, A.; Hellige, G.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that intramyocardial blood volume does not vary to a major extent even during extreme variation of hemodynamics and coronary vascular tone. Based on a constant intramyocardial blood volume it is therefore possible to calculate tissue blood flow from the mean transit time of an intravascular tracer. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable method for measurement of coronary blood flow. The new method was based on indocyanine green, a dye which is bound to albumin and intravasally detectable by means of a fiberoptic catheter device. One fiberoptic catheter was placed in the aortic root and another in the coronary sinus. After central venous dye injection the resulting arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves were processed on-line by a micro-computer. The mean transit time as well as myocardial blood flow were calculated from the step response function of the deconvoluted arterial and coronary venous signals. Reference flow was determined with an extracorporeal electromagnetic flowprobe within a coronary sinus bypass system. 38 steady states with coronary blood flow ranging from 49 - 333 ml/min*100g were analysed in 5 dogs. Mean transit times varied from 2.9 to 16.6 sec. An average intracoronary blood volume of 13.9 -7 1.8 m1/100g was calculated. The correlation between flow determined by the dye dilution technique and flow measured with the reference method was 0.98. According to these results determination of coronary blood flow with a double fiberoptic system and indocyanine green should be possible even under clinical conditions. Furthermore, the arterial and coronary venous oxygen saturation can be monitored continuously by the fiberoptic catheters. Therefore, additional information about the performance of the heart such as myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial efficiency is available with the same equipment.

  18. Laser-induced fluorescence and optical reflection spectra of Japanese natural dyes on silk

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Tadaki; Matsuda, Yasunori

    1987-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra under nitrogen-laser excitation were measured for silk cloth dyed with Japanese natural dyes. An identification of the dyes on silk was carried out using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique since dyed cloth has a characteristic fluorescence spectra. Moreover, it is possible to identify dyes on faded cloth and on cloth prepared by a combination dyeing using two kinds of dyes. The LIF technique can identify dyes on cloth which is difficult to identify using the ref...

  19. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry.

  20. Waterless Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; AVİNÇ, Osman Ozan; Arzu YAVAŞ

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO), having liquid-like densities, hereby provides hydrophobic dyes an advantage on dissolving. Their gas-like low viscosities and diffusion properties can lead to shorter dyeing durations compared to conventional water dyeing process. Supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing, a novel dyeing process, is an anhydrous dyeing and this process involves the use of less energy and chemicals than conventional water dyeing processes resulting in a potential of up to 50% low...

  1. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  2. Commercial double-indicator-dilution densitometer using heavy water: Evaluation in oleic-acid pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leksell, L.G.; Schreiner, M.S.; Sylvestro, A.; Neufeld, G.R. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-04-01

    We evaluated a commercially available, double-indicator-dilution densitometric system for the estimation of pulmonary extravascular water volume in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Indocyanine green and heavy water were used as the nondiffusible and diffusible tracers, respectively. Pulmonary extravascular water volume, measured with this system, was 67% of the gravimetric value (r = 0.91), which was consistent with values obtained from the radioisotope methods. The measured volume was not influenced by changes in cardiac index over a range of 1 to 4 L.min.m2. This system is less invasive than the thermal-dye technique and has potential for repeated clinical measurements of pulmonary extravascular lung water and cardiac output.

  3. Multidimensional monitoring of anaerobic/aerobic azo dye based wastewater treatments by hyphenated UPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-Q-TOF-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frindt, Benjamin; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Griesbeck, Axel G; Rehorek, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    Sulfonated reactive azo dyes, such as Reactive Orange 107, are extensively used in textile industries. Conventional wastewater treatment systems are incapable of degrading and decolorizing reactive azo dyes completely from effluents, because of their stability and resistance to aerobic biodegradation. However, reactive azo dyes are degradable under anaerobic conditions by releasing toxic aromatic amines. To clarify reaction mechanisms and the present toxicity, the hydrolyzed Reactive Orange 107 was treated in anaerobic-aerobic two-step batch experiments. Sulfonated transformation products were identified employing coupled ICP-MS and Q-TOF-MS measurements. Suspected screening lists were generated using the EAWAG-BBD. The toxicity of the reactor content was determined utilizing online measurements of the inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. The OCHEM web platform for environmental modeling was instrumental in the estimations of the environmental impact of generated transformation products.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing behavior of heterocyclic acid dyes and mordent acid dyes on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hitendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic acid and mordent acid dyes were synthesized by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2- butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoylbenzofuran. The resulting heterocyclic acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR spectral studies and UV- visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the heterocyclic acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

  5. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  6. Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Lidén, Carola; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2017-08-09

    The high risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers, caused by skin exposure to irritants and sensitizers, such as hair dye substances, is of great concern. The aim of the present study was to assess how the various tasks involved in hair dyeing contribute to hairdressers' exposure to hair dye, in order to enable the formulation of well-founded recommendations on working routines that will reduce exposure and prevent occupational disease. Skin exposure to hair dye was measured for 20 hairdressers applying highlights and all-over hair colour with the hand rinsing technique. Resorcinol was used as a proxy for hair dye exposure. Applying hair dye and cutting the newly dyed hair were the tasks that contributed most to exposure in treatments for highlights. After cutting all-over-coloured hair, all hairdressers had measurable amounts of hair dyes on both hands. Hairdressers are exposed to hair dye ingredients during all steps of the hair dyeing procedure. Cutting newly dyed hair contributes significantly to exposure. As initial steps for the prevention of occupational disease resulting from hair dye exposure, we suggest cutting hair before dyeing it, and wearing gloves during all other work tasks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by gold-silver alloy nanoparticles fabricated under laser ablation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azawi, Mohammed A.; Bidin, Noriah; Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bououdina, Mohamed; Azzez, Shrook A.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (Au-Ag alloy NPs) by a two-step process with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser without any additives is presented. Mixtures of Au and Ag colloidal suspensions were separately obtained by 1064-nm laser ablation of metallic targets immersed in ethanol. Subsequently, the as-mixed colloidal suspensions were reirradiated by laser-induced heating at the second-harmonic generation (532 nm) for different irradiation periods of time. The absorption spectra and morphology of the colloidal alloys were studied as a function of exposure time to laser irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a homogeneous size distribution in all the synthesized samples. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were also employed to characterize the changes in the light absorption and emission of N719 dye solution with different concentrations of Au-Ag colloidal alloys, respectively. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au-Ag alloy NPs enhanced the absorption and fluorescence peak of the dye solution. The mixture of dye molecules with a higher concentration of alloy NPs exhibited an additional coupling of dipole moments with the LSPR, thereby contributing to the improvement of the optical properties of the mixture.

  8. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2014-07-15

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  9. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  10. Dyeing of Organic Cotton Fabric using Conventional and Ultrasonic Exhaust Dyeing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research dyeing behavior of organic cotton woven fabric using ultrasonic technique and conventional dyeing method has been compared. The fabric samples were dyed with reactive dyes Drimarene Red Cl-5B and Drimarene Blue Cl-BR (0.5% owf using exhaust dyeing method. The samples were ultrasonically dyed at varied temperature (60, 50 and 40oC for 60, 50, 40 and 30 minutes and for conventional method at varied temperature but at recommended time, 60 minutes. For optimizing the dyeing behavior, the samples were causticized by pad-batch method and then dyed with ultrasonic technique at varied temperature and time. It has been observed organic cotton fabric dyed using ultrasonic exhaust method at 60oC for 50 minutes gives highest (K/S?max value, excellent fastness property, deeper dye diffusion and less surface deterioration compared to the conventional dyeing method. Moreover, causticized and dyed sample with ultrasonic technique at 60oC for 30 minutes gives colour strength value almost equal to the conventional recommended dyeing method. Hence, dyeing of organic material using ultrasonic exhaust method saves energy and time

  11. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  12. Dye Sysentized Solar Cell (Dyssc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dileep,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Dye sensitized solar cell (DYSSC, which is called as future generation solar cell. It is a new class of green photovoltaic cell based on photosynthesis principle in nature. DYSSCs are fabricated using two different natural dyes as sensitizers, which extracted from the materials existing in nature and our life, such as flowers, leaves, fruits, traditional Chinese medicines, and beverages. The use of sensitizers having a broad absorption band in conjunction with oxide films of nanocrystalline morphology permits to harvest a large fraction of sunlight. There are good prospects to produce these cells at lower cost and much better efficiency than conventional semiconductor devices by introducing various chemical and natural dyes. DYSSC are implemented with simple and new technique to overcome the energy crisis and excess cost of semiconductor solar cells.

  13. Spectral characteristics and nonlinear studies of crystal violet dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, V. Sindhu; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-03-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this paper, the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye crystal violet are studied. The spectral characteristics of crystal violet dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique, by exciting with He-Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye crystal violet show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  14. 印染废水回用的连续微滤/反渗透技术%Continuous microfiltration/reverse osmosis technique for reuse of dyeing effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云

    2012-01-01

    Advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater is carried out with continuous micro filtration (CMF)and reverse osmosis (RO) combined process, and its effect is studied. The results show that the system of the combined process with CMF and RO works smoothly,and can effectively remove over 98% of the total CODcr, chromaticity, turbidity and conductivity. The water quality of RO effluent is superior to that of tap water. The main water quality indexes of the treated water can meet the demands of dyeing and printing process.%采用连续微滤(CMF)+反渗透(RO)技术对印染废水进行深度处理,研究CMF+ RO集成工艺的处理效果.试验结果表明,CMF+ RO处理系统运行稳定,对CODCr、色度、浊度、电导率的去除率均达98%以上,RO出水水质优于自来水,各项水质指标均满足印染工艺回用水的要求.

  15. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution with adsorption technique using Limonia acidissima (wood apple shell as low cost adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish S. Sartape

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the use of low-cost, abundantly available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbent wood apple shell (WAS has been reported as an alternative to the current expensive methods of removing of malachite green (MG dye from aqueous solution. The effects of different variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, contact time, temperature etc. were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The Langmuir isotherm model has given a better conformity than the Freundlich model with 80.645 mg/g as maximum adsorption capacity at 299 K. The adsorption of MG on WAS was confirmed by FTIR, SEM study, as it showed the change in characterization before and after adsorption. It was found that the Lagergren’s model could be used for the prediction of the system’s kinetics, while intraparticle diffusion study and Boyd plot were used to furnish the mechanistic study. Thermodynamic study concluded the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption. Present investigation and comparison with other reported adsorbents concluded that, WAS may be applied as a low-cost attractive option for removal of MG from aqueous solution.

  16. 氧化技术在染料废水处理中的应用%Oxidation Techniques for Treatment Dyeing Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 闫海生; 刘冬雪

    2006-01-01

      The organic refractory or high biotoxicity pollutants in dyeing wastewater can be removed effectively by oxidation processes including chemical oxidation(ClO2 and ozone), Fenton oxidation, wet oxidation (wet air oxidation, catalytic wet air oxidation,super critical wet oxidation and catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation) and photocatalytic oxidation. The development of these treatment processes on dyeing wastewater is reviewed in this paper.%  应用氧化技术能够有效地分解染料废水中大量生物难降解或生物毒性很大的污染物质,提高废水的可生化性。本文重点介绍了化学氧化(包括二氧化氯和臭氧氧化)法、Fenton氧化法、湿式氧化法(包括湿式氧化、催化湿式氧化、超临界催化湿式氧化和催化湿式过氧化)和光催化氧化法在染料废水处理过程中的应用和研究进展。

  17. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  18. Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique des Milieux Complexes (LCPMC), Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J{sub cs} exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given.

  19. Colorimetric studies of some newly synthesized bisazo reactive dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A series of cold brand bisazo reactive dyes (4a–h) were obtained by the coupling of tetrazotised 4,4′-methylene-bis(2-methyl-5-nitro aniline) (2) with various cyanurated coupling components (3a–h) in good yield. Their dyeing performances as reactive dyes have been assessed on silk, wool and cotton fabrics. These dyes were characterized by UV–Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques elemental analysis. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on different fibers were found to be very ...

  20. Dyeing Properties of Basofil Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; DAI Jin-jin

    2002-01-01

    The structures and properties of Basofil fiber were studied using X- rays small angle diffraction analysis,differential- scanuing calorimeter and scanning electron microscopy. Disperse dyes, acid dyes and reactive dyes had been tried for dyeing Basefil fiber. It was shown disperse dyes were superior to other ones. The two series of high temperature dyes and low temperature dyes were compared for their suitability for Basofil fiber, and their dyeing behaviors were determined.

  1. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  2. Use of slag for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, K.R.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-09-01

    Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the present study investigates dye removal characteristics of slag from colored waters. Aqueous solutions prepared from commercial grade acid, basic, and disperse dyes were used in this study, and batch pH, kinetic, and isotherm studies were undertaken on a laboratory scale. The data were evaluated for applicability to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherm models, and the removal capacity of slag was compared with that of granular activated carbon. Results indicated approximately 94% removal of the disperse dye by slag, compared with a removal of approximately 49% achieved by activated carbon. Removal of acid dyes (dyes containing anionic groups) was reasonably good (approximately 47 and 74%), though not as good as obtained using activated carbon (approximately 100%). Column studies were conducted with a disperse dye (nonionic, slightly soluble in water), and analysis of data showed a sorption capacity of 1.3 mg of disperse dye per gram of slag. However, effluent dye concentrations were found to be higher than the permissible levels for discharge to receiving waters.

  3. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  4. Dyeing of Polypropylene Fibers with Vat Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hang; ETTERS J. Nolan; LEONAS Karen K

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene fibers have been extensively used in a variety of products, including carpets and upholstery, due to their non-absorbency, good weather resistance, good resistance to microorganisms and so on. Because of their hydrophobic and highly crystalline nature, those well-established conventional dyeing processes are difficult to apply to unmodified polypropylene. Colors of polypropylene fibers are primarily obtained by mass coloration which has the disadvantages of limited number of colors available and difficulties in inventory control due to the rapidly changing color needs of the market. In this paper, the use of vat dyes to dye polypropylene fabrics is investigated. Seventeen vat dyes were screened and factors influencing uptake of dyes by polypropylene fabrics were studied.

  5. A New Technique to Produce Electricity Using Solar Cell in Aspect of Bangladesh: Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC and It’s Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bangladesh is a developing country where electricity crisis is the most serious problem now-a-days. In order to meet electricity demand of our country we need to change the procedure of electricity production. For that we have to implement our renewable energy resources properly like solar cell. The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs is another new method to produce electricity which is more cost effective and also efficient comparing conventional silicon solar cell. When the visible light is absorbed by the thin film such as TiO2, an electron is injected by the excited sensitizer molecules into the conduction band of that thin film (TiO2. These electrons are then transported toward and collected by a back-contact electrode which travel in a big circle and create an electrical circuit which powers a device. In this paper we tried to describe the new DSSCs technology compared to conventional silicon solar cell according to the electricity demand of Bangladesh.

  6. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  7. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  8. Direct Analysis of Textile Fabrics and Dyes Using IR Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Electrospray Ionization (MALDESI) Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Kristin H.; Barry, Jeremy A.; Muddiman, David C.; Hinks, David

    2012-01-01

    The forensic analysis of textile fibers uses a variety of techniques from microscopy to spectroscopy. One such technique that is often used to identify the dye(s) within the fiber is mass spectrometry (MS). In the traditional MS method, the dye must be extracted from the fabric and the dye components are separated by chromatography prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Direct analysis of the dye from the fabric allows the omission of the lengthy sample preparation involved in extraction, ther...

  9. Study on Dyeing of a Novel, Pro-environment Polylactic Acid (PLA) Fiber Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ke-jie; MIN Jie; LI Zheng-rong; YANG Li-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Seventeen disperse dyes including anthraquinone, azo, methine, nitro, and quinoline dyes were applied to dye the Polylactic Acid (PLA) yarns at different conditions, and the dyebath exhaustion was determined. The result shows that C.I. disperse red 167, C.I. disperse orange 30, and C.I. disperse blue 284 have dye-uptakes greater than 80%. Therefore, they can be used as the three principal dyes for PLA yams. The experiment discovered that the dyes, because of their Monoazo and ester group contents, have a higher dye-uptake for the PLA fiber. The research on the optimization of dyeing techniques suggests that PLA yarn can obtain a high level of dyeing effectiveness at the following conditions: pH 4-5, dyeing temperture 110℃ for 30- 40 min. Color fastness to perspiration, and water-washing fastness increased 1 - 1. 5 by the addition of the abstergent FB during the reduction clearing.

  10. Photodynamic properties of vital dyes for vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Dawczynski, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate photodynamic properties of indocyanine green (ICG), brilliant blue G (BBG) and trypan blue (TB) as currently used vital dyes for chromovitrectomy. Under consideration of intraoperative illumination intensities and dye concentrations, a simulative in vitro investigation was set up. Therefore, standardized dilutions of original ICG, BBG and TB vials were irradiated at a wavelength of 366 nm with an intensity of 14 µW/cm2 between 0 and 48 h. After this, all samples were measured spectroscopically in a 220- to 750-nm bandwidth. Analyzing the vital dyes over the time course, an exponential photolysis was observed for ICG, whereas BBG and TB presented photostable properties. Regarding ICG, 5% of the concentration was degraded to toxic metabolites every 20 min. For this reason, our study provides evidence that intraocular dye concentrations and modern endoillumination systems alone cannot fully prevent ICG photodegradation.

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  12. Isolation of murine muscle-derived stem cells with preplate technique combined with limited dilution technique%应用改良差速贴壁法和有限稀释技术分离培养小鼠来源肌源干细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁维进; 唐乙; 宋艳玲; 苏志达; 李翠; 刘安堂; 胡霞; 江华

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs), a newly discovered adult stem cell possessing utility potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have been isolated from skeletal muscle tissue. The MDSCs isolating method varies a lot. OBJECTIVE: To isolate and culture MDSCs and its clone as well as sub-clone through the use of modified preplate technique combined with limited dilution technique. METHODS: The muscle tissue was obtained from new born mice under microscopy and then digested and filtered, from which MDSCs were isolated by modified preplate technique with first round plating period of 1 hour. The muscle derived cells were counted and MDSCs were marked with immunohistochemistry method. The MDSC clone and its subclone were obtained with limited dilution technique. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During the isolation procedure with preplate technique, muscle derived cells made up a progressively higher ratio in the cell culture and the procedure with first round plating period of 1 hour provided plenty cells for MDSCs isolation. MDSCs presented with adherent growth 72 hours after the sixth suspension, grew into cell population of 300-500 cells in 10 days about, and proliferated with its small round and spindle morphology persisted. MDSCs clone and sub-clone were obtained through limited dilution technique and found desmin positively expressed and Sca-1 positively expressed at ratio of (92.3±4.1)%. The MDSCs and its clone from mice may provide proper cell resource for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine research.%背景:研究者们通过多种方法从肌组织中分离得到肌源干细胞,并应用于各类组织工程和再生医学研究.目的:结合改良的差速贴壁法和有限稀释技术分离小鼠来源肌源干细胞,并培养其单细胞克隆和亚克隆集落.方法:以新生C57BL/6小鼠四肢作为肌组织取材对象,经三重酶消化和细胞筛过滤,运用改良的差速贴壁法分离出肌源干细胞,予细胞

  13. Dyes as teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, S

    1992-01-01

    The main fats and problems of the role of dyes in prenatal pathology are reviewed. The first section deals with the practical aspects related to teratological screening of industrial dyes (including also the results obtained in this laboratory). In the second section, various aspects of azo-dye teratogenesis are largely discussed, including also the experimental contributions of this laboratory. Concluding remarks are made with respect to the importance and to the perspectives of this field of research.

  14. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two hair dyes used in the formulation of black color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafurt-Cardona, Yaliana; Suares-Rocha, Paula; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-12-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), some hair dyes are considered mutagenic and carcinogenic in in vitro assays and exposed human populations. Epidemiological studies indicate that hairdressers occupationally exposed to hair dyes have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer. In Brazil, 26% of the adults use hair dye. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of two hair dyes, Basic Red 51 (BR51) and Basic Brown 17 (BB17), which are temporary dyes of the azo group (R-N=N-R'), used in the composition of the black hair dye. To this end, MTT and trypan blue assays (cytotoxicity), comet and micronucleus assay (genotoxicity) were applied, with HepG2 cells. For cytotoxic assessment, dyes were tested in serial dilutions, being the highest concentrations those used in the commercial formula for hair dyes. For genotoxic assessment concentrations were selected according to cell viability. Results showed that both dyes induced significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the cells, in concentrations much lower than those used in the commercial formula. Genotoxic effects could be related to the azo structure present in the composition of the dyes, which is known as mutagenic and carcinogenic. These results point to the hazard of the hair dye exposure to human health.

  15. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  16. Photophysical properties of pyronin dyes in reverse micelles of AOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktutan, Tuğba; Meral, Kadem; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-01-15

    The photophysical properties of pyronin B (PyB) and pyronin Y (PyY) in reverse micelles formed with water/sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane were investigated by UV–vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. This study was carried out a wide range of reverse micelle sizes, with hydrodynamic radii ranging from 1.85 to 9.38 nm. Significant photophysical parameters as band shifts, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined to understand how photophysical and spectroscopic features of the dye compounds were affected by the variation of reverse micelle sizes. In this regard, control of reverse micelle size by changing W{sub 0}, the molar ratio of water to surfactant, allowed tuning the photophysical properties of the dyes in organic solvent via reverse micelle. Non-fluorescent H-aggregates of pyronin dyes were observed for the smaller reverse micelles whereas an increase in the reverse micelle size induced an increment in the amount of dye monomers instead of dye aggregates. Thus, the fluorescence intensities of the dyes were improved by increasing W{sub 0} due to the predomination of the fluorescent dye monomers. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yields also increased. The fluorescence lifetimes of the dyes in the reverse micelles were determined by the time-resolved fluorescence decay studies. Evaluation of the fluorescence lifetimes calculated for pyronin dyes in the reverse micelles showed that the size of reverse micelle affected the fluorescence lifetimes of pyronin dyes. -- Highlights: • The photophysical properties of pyronin dyes were examined by spectroscopic techniques. • Optical properties of the dyes were tuned by changing of W{sub 0} values. • The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield values of the dyes in reverse micelles were discussed.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and application of new azo dyes derived from uracil for polyester fibre dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Mohamad-reza; Abbasnia, Masoumeh; Sheykhan, Mehdi; Ma'mani, Leila

    2010-08-01

    Some novel uracil derived azo compounds were synthesized by diazotization of substituted aromatic amines, amidine- and guanidine-like amines such as 2-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine, ortho-hydroxy aniline and ortho-hydroxy naphthyl amines and coupling reaction with 6-amino-1,3-dimethyluracil. Structures of the dyes were fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, CHN and IR). The dyes were applied to polyester, affording orange-yellow shades and the wash fastness of the dyeings was excellent.

  18. Plasmachemical degradation of azo dyes by humid air plasma: Yellow Supranol 4 GL, Scarlet Red Nylosan F3 GL and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, F; Gharbi, S; Benstaali, B; Addou, A; Brisset, J L

    2004-05-01

    A recent non-thermal plasma technique (i.e., a gliding arc discharge which generates reactive species at atmospheric pressure) is tested for pollution abatement of dyes dispersed in synthetic solutions and industrial effluents. Yellow Supranol 4 GL (YS) and Scarlet Red Nylosan F3 GL (SRN) are toxic synthetic dyes widely used in the Algerian textile industry and frequently present in liquid wastes of manufacture plants. Classical removal treatment processes are not efficient enough, so that the presence of dyes in liquid effluents may cause serious environmental problems, in connection with reusing waste waters for irrigation. The degradation processes achieved by the oxidising species formed in the plasma are followed by UV/VIS spectroscopy and by chemical oxygen demand measurements. They are almost complete (i.e., 92.5% for YS and 90% for dilute SRN) and rapidly follow pseudo-first-order laws, with overall estimated rate constants 3 x 10(-4) and 4 x 10(-4)s-1 for YS and SRN, respectively. The degradation rate constant for the industrial mixture (i.e., k = 1.45 x 10(-3)s-1) is a mean value for two consecutive steps (210(-3) and 6 x 10(-5)s-1) measured at the absorption peaks of the major constituent dyes, YS and SRN.

  19. Study on the interaction between different solute molecules in a molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique: an application to dendrimer/dye system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Ge, Maofa; Shinohara, Hidenori; Kimura, Katsumi; Mashiko, Shinro

    2003-10-01

    We report on an investigation into the interaction between different neutral non-volatile solute molecules in a molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique that enables us to produce a molecular beam from a sprayed mist of a sample solution. This technique is applied to poly(propylene imine) dendrimer and 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6- p-dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran (DCM) systems. Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization of DCM in the DCM/dendrimer molecular beam leads to an efficient reaction between the dendrimer and DCM. The REMPI excitation spectra provide insights into the interaction between DCM and dendrimer molecules in the gas phase for the first time in these experiments.

  20. Uranium determination in sea water using the isotopic dilution technique and HR-ICPMS; Determinacao de uranio em agua do mar por meio da tecnica de diluicao isotopica e HR-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Henrique da Costa; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio, E-mail: mhcper@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos R.L. [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the uranium total and the isotopic composition in seawater were calculated using the isotopic dilution applied to the mass spectrometry. The used tracer was a {sup 233}U solution . Near 99 % of the present salts in the matrix were separated by evaporation up to the saturation point. The uranium present in aqueous phase was separated from the matrix through the ion exchange chromatography using the strong Dowex 1 x 8 200-400 mesh anionic resin in chloridric medium 12 M. The analyses were performed in a high resolution mass spectrometer with plasma inductively coupled source. The method validation was done using the seawater standard CASS-4 (Near shore Seawater Reference Material for Trace metals) produced by the NRC C. The procedure allowed to obtain the fractions exempt of salts, having as consequence a greater stability in the analytical signal, and a rise in the instrumental revenue for a great number of samples. The uranium found in the samples was present in levels considered naturals and were obtained with a precision near 2 %

  1. Natural Dye Extracted from Vitex negundo as a Potential Alternative to Synthetic Dyes for Dyeing of Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Swamy, Venkataramanappa; Gowda, Kurikempanadoddi Ninge; Sudhakar, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Since the last decade, the application of natural dyes on textile material has been gaining popularity all over the world, possibly because of the increasing awareness of issues concerning the environment, ecology and pollution control. The present paper investigates extraction of natural dye from leaves of the plant Vitex negundo, which is an abundant, cheap, and readily available agricultural by-product. Water extracts from V. negundo was used to dye silk fabrics. Optimum extraction conditions included pH 9, duration 120 min, and temperature 90 °C. Optimum dyeing conditions included dyeing pH 5 and duration of 60 min. Potash alum, tannic and tartaric acid were used as mordants, all of which are benign to human health and the environment. Color strength and color coordinates in terms of L*, a*, b*, C, and h were examined. A range of shades were obtained when fabrics were dyed with different mordants and mordanting techniques. The extracted dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were found to be lower than the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The dyed silk fabrics showed acceptable fastness properties and were also found to possess antibacterial activity. It can be concluded that the abundantly available agricultural by-product V. negundo has great potential to be effectively utilized as a natural dye for silk.

  2. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites.

  3. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo

  4. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also b

  5. Highly efficient catalytic reductive degradation of various organic dyes by Au/CeO₂-TiO₂ nano-hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRANJAL SAIKIA; ABU T MIAH; PARTHA P DAS

    2017-01-01

    Highly improved catalytic reductive degradation of different organic dyes, in the presence of excess NaBH₄ over Au/CeO₂-TiO₂ nano-hybrid as the catalyst is reported in this study. CeO₂-TiO₂ nanocomposite was prepared by a facile co-precipitation method using ultra-high dilute aqueous solutions. Small amount of Au (only 1 wt%) was loaded onto the nanocomposite material by deposition-precipitation with urea (DPU) method to fabricate the ternary Au/CeO₂-TiO₂ nano-hybrid. The catalysts were characterized by the representative techniques like XRD, BET surface area, ICP-AES, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, TEM and XPS. The Au/CeO₂-TiO₂ nano-hybrid along with NaBH₄ exhibited remarkable catalytic activities towards all the probed dyes, namely Methylene Blue, Methyl Orange, Congo Red, Rhodamine B and Malachite Green, with a degradation efficiency of ~100% in a short reaction time. The degradation reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to the concentration of the dye. Different parameters that affect the rate of the reaction are discussed. A plausible mechanism for methylene blue degradation has also been proposed.

  6. Application of Purified Lawsone as Natural Dye on Cotton and Silk Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahabub Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The color which is obtained from the leaves of Henna, that is, Lawsonia inermis L., is used frequently in hair coloring. It is the chemical lawsone that is responsible for the reddish brown color. Its content makes it a substantive dye for dyeing the textile materials. This work concerns with the extraction and purification of natural dyestuff from a plant Lawsonia inermis L. and dyeing of cotton and silk fabric in exhaust dyeing method. The dye portion is isolated from the total extract by column chromatography and is evaluated by dyeing cotton and silk under different dyeing conditions. The color strength and fastness properties of the dye are undertaken by changing mordant and techniques of mordanting. The changes of colors have been noticed by using different types of mordant. The dye exhaustion percentage, wash, rubbing, and light fastness results reveal that the extract of henna can be used for coloration of cotton and silk fabric.

  7. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  8. The application of isotopic ({sup 32}P and {sup 15}N) dilution techniques to evaluate the interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium to improve the agronomic efficiency of rock phosphate for legume crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, J.M. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain)]. E-mail: jmbarea@eez.csic.es; Toro, M.; Azcon, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain); Orozco, M.O. [Instituto de Sistematica y Ecologia, Academia Cubana de Ciencias, Habana (Cuba); Campos, E. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Quimica Ambiental Estacion Experimental del Zaidin (CSIC), Granada (Spain); Azcon, R. [Departamento de Microbiologia del Suelo y Sistemas Simbioticos (Spain)

    2002-05-15

    A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the interactive effects of multifunctional microbial inoculation treatments and rock phosphate (RP) application on N and P uptake by alfalfa through the use of {sup 15}N and {sup 32}P isotopic dilution approaches. The microbial inocula consisted of a wild type (WT) Rhizobium meliloti strain, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, and a phosphate solubilizing rhizobacterium (Enterobacter sp.). Inoculated microorganisms were established in the root tissues and/or in the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.). Improvements in N and P accumulation in alfalfa corroborate beneficial effects of Rhizobium and AM interactions. Inoculation with selected rhizobacteria improved the AM effect on N or P accumulation in both the RP-added soil and in the non RP-amended controls. Measurements of the {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio in plant shoots indicate an enhancement of the N{sub 2} fixation rates in Rhizobium-inoculated AM-plants, over that achieved by Rhizobium in non-mycorrhizal plants. Whether or not RP was added, AM-inoculated plants showed a lower specific activity ({sup 32}P/{sup 31}P) than did their comparable non-mycorrhizal controls, suggesting that the plant was using otherwise unavailable P sources. The phosphate-solubilizing, AM-associated, microbiota could in fact release phosphate ions, either from the added RP or from the indigenous 'less-available' soil phosphate. A low Ca concentrations in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. Under field conditions, the inoculation with AM fungi significantly increased plant biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria improved mycorrhizal responses in soil dually receiving RP and organic matter amendments. Organic matter addition favoured RP solubilization. This, together with a tailored microbial inoculation, increased the agronomic efficiency of RP in the

  9. Boiling heat transfer in dilute emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Roesle, Matthew Lind

    2013-01-01

    Boiling Heat Transfer in Dilute Emulsions synthesizes recent advances and established understanding on the subject of boiling in dilute emulsions. Experimental results from various sources are collected and analyzed, including contemporary experiments that correlate visualization with heat transfer data. Published models of boiling heat transfer in dilute emulsions, and their implementation, are described and assessed against experimental data.

  10. Determining Compatibilities of Reactive Dyes in Pad Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠天民

    2001-01-01

    Compatibilities of reactive dyes were conventionally shown by exhausting curves. But the change of proportion of dyes in padding dyebath was difficult for pad dyeing to be described by these curves. In this paper, a kind of simulation of pad dyeing process was used to determine dyestuff compatibility in pad dyeing for ramie and linen fabrics. Seven reactive dyes were divided into three groups and tested., The group with Cibacron Yellow C - 2R, Red C - R, and Blue C - R showed very good compatibility both for ramie and linen,and the other two groups of dyes gave out correspondingly low compatibilities in the pad dyeing tests. The results of the method for determining the compatibility of dyes displayed good consistency with the actul pad dyeing process.

  11. A comparative microleakage evaluation of three different base materials in Class I cavity in deciduous molars in sandwich technique using dye penetration and dentin surface interface by scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A major objective in restorative dentistry is the control of marginal leakage, which may occur because of dimensional changes or lack of adaptation of restorative material to the cavity preparation. Numerous techniques have been advocated to overcome polymerization shrinkage in composite restorations. Aim and Objectives: This study investigated microleakage of three different bases under composite resin in sandwich technique using dye penetration and dentin surface interface using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted deciduous molars were stored in distilled water and Class I cavities with a width of about one-fourth of intercuspal distance and a depth of 0.5-1 mm below the dentino-enamel junction was prepared without bevels. In Group 1 - glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group 2 - mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group 3 - Biodentine™ was placed as a base under composite. Teeth were longitudinally sectioned in two halves, through the centers of the restoration, immersed in 2% methylene blue and microleakage was evaluated under stereomicroscope and surface interface between base and dentin was evaluated under SEM. Results:Under the condition of in vitro study, less microleakage and less internal gaps were seen in Biodentine™ (0.00 ± 0.00 and 4.00 ± 1.59 group than MTA (0.00 ± 0.00 and 6.08 ± 1.82 and GIC (25.25 ± 6.57 and 14.73 ± 3.72, respectively and showed very strong positive correlation between microleakage and internal gaps. Conclusion: Biodentine™ exhibits superior marginal sealing ability as well as marginal adaptation under composite resin as compared to MTA and GIC.

  12. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  13. Optical processes in dilute nitrides Semiconductors; Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, R J

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the narrow bandgap semiconductor alloys known as dilute nitrides. The initial part of this project was concerned with characterisation of chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) grown samples so that growth techniques could be refined. Early samples show evidence of structural/compositional disorder resulting from the large miscibility gap induced by nitrogen. Non-equilibrium growth was employed to overcome this, eventually resulting in improved material. In the second part of this project, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, along with photomodulated reflectance were employed to investigate the optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GalnNAs, GaNAs and InGaAs quantum wells (QWs). Low temperature results show evidence of carrier localization, which was interpreted in terms of structural/compositional fluctuations induced by the nitrogen incorporation. Poor photoluminescence efficiency and rapid decay of emission kinetics indicate the presence of strong non-radi...

  14. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  15. VIABILITY AND ISOLATION OF MARINE-BACTERIA BY DILUTION CULTURE - THEORY, PROCEDURES, AND INITIAL RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTON, DK; SCHUT, F; QUANG, P; MARTIN, R; ROBERTSON, BR

    1993-01-01

    Dilution culture, a method for growing the typical small bacteria from natural aquatic assemblages, has been developed. Each of 11 experimental trials of the technique was successful. Populations are measured, diluted to a small and known number of cells, inoculated into unamended sterilized seawate

  16. Turbulence in dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, A.; Guala, M.; Lüthi, B.; Kinzelbach, W.; Tsinober, A.

    2005-03-01

    The work reported below is a comparative study of the properties of turbulence with weak mean flow in a Newtonian fluid and in a dilute polymer solution with an emphasis on the small scale phenomena. The main tool used is a three-dimensional particle tracking system allowing to measure and follow in a Lagrangian manner the field of velocities, as well as velocity derivatives, and thus vorticity, strain, and a variety of related and dynamically significant quantities. The comparison of data from the two flows allows to directly observe the influence of polymers on these quantities as well as the evolution of material elements in the presence of polymers.

  17. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  18. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  19. Fong's: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong's Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong's National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong's Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  20. Dilute Acid and Autohydrolysis Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210°C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such “steam gun” devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems.

  1. Optimization of electrochemical decolorization of certain arylazo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocatalytic decolorization of the arylazo pyridone dyes has been investigated in the presence of sodium chloride using DSA Ti/PtOx electrode in the diluted sodium hydroxide. Decolorization can be attributed to the indirect oxidation of the investigated dyes by the electrogenerated hypochlorite formed from the chloride oxidation. Electrochemical decolorization has been investigated for the different sodium hydroxide concentration in the range from 40 mg dm-3 to 4 g dm-3, sodium chloride concentration in the range from 15 to 40 g dm-3, agitation speed in the range from 150 to 500 rpm, currents in the range of 100 to 250 mA, and dye concentration from 5 to 20 mg dm-3. The optimum electrolysis conditions have been suggested. Effect of substituents on the reaction rate has also been studied. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI172013, OI172046

  2. Diode-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukova, O. A.; Gorbunkov, M. V.; Petukhov, V. A.; Semenov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    This letter reports diode pumping for dye lasers. We offer a pulsed dye laser with an astigmatism-compensated three-mirror cavity and side pumping by blue laser diodes with 200 ns pulse duration. Eight dyes were tested. Four dyes provided a slope efficiency of more than 10% and the highest slope efficiency (18%) was obtained for laser dye Coumarin 540A in benzyl alcohol.

  3. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Uganda is a home of thousands of largely unknown and undocumented plants. ... Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the ... Asteraceae characterized by bitter leaves, traditionally used for treating fever.

  4. 盐度对稀释平板法研究红树林区土壤微生物数量的影响%Effect of salinity on microbial densities of soil in the dilution plate technique applied in mangrove areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜斌; 林鹏; 魏小勇; 庄铁诚

    2008-01-01

    When the soil microbial densities are determined in mangroves and corresponding mudflat at the same tidal level by the dilution plate method, the agar media and dilution water are generally made up of aged seawater in most cases, and effects of salinity in agar media and dilution water on the enumeration of microbes is seldom taken into consideration. The effects of salinity on soil microbial counting from the samples in mangrove areas in Jiulongjiang Estuary of Fujian, and Futian Mangrove Nature Reserve of Shenzhen, China, were tested by dilution plate technique. The results showed that the soil microbial densities in mangroves and mudflat were significantly influenced by the salinity of dilution water and agar media. For the bacteria, the seawater served as sterilized dilution water was significantly (P<0.05) more benefic to the enumeration on the plates than the freshwater, but in reverse for the actinomycetes and fungi. The increasing salinity of media within 35 significantly decreased microbial colonies on the plates, especially for the actinomycetes, in spite of the fact that the effect of salinity of media on fungal numbers was not indefinite. The bacterial colonies were more abundant on the agar plates with low salinity than with high salinity or without any NaCl. It was proposed that some methodological improvements were needed when the dilution plate technique was applied to microbial counting in the samples of mangrove forest and mudflat at the same tidal level in inter-tidal zone. The sterilized dilution water should be prepared with seawater for the bacteria, but with freshwater or low saline water for the actinomycetes and fungi. The salinity of agar media should be low for the microbial isolation and enumeration of soil samples from the mangrove areas including mudflats.%在使用稀释平板法分离潮间带红树林及其对照光滩土壤微生物以及计数时,多数情况下使用陈海水制作培养基和稀释水,很少考虑培养基和

  5. Molecular design of donor-acceptor dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells I: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Aziz, Saadullah G; Elroby, Shaaban A K

    2014-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have drawn great attention as low cost and high performance alternatives to conventional photovoltaic devices. The molecular design presented in this work is based on the use of pyran type dyes as donor based on frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) and theoretical UV-visible spectra in combination with squaraine type dyes as an acceptor. Density functional theory has been used to investigate several derivatives of pyran type dyes for a better dye design based on optimization of absorption, regeneration, and recombination processes in gas phase. The frontier molecular orbital (FMO) of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels plays an important role in the efficiency of DSSCs. These energies contribute to the generation of exciton, charge transfer, dissociation and exciton recombination. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures for the predicted dyes were performed using the B3LYP/6-31+G** level of theory. The FMO energies (EHOMO, ELUMO) of the studied dyes are calculated and analyzed in the terms of the UV-visible absorption spectra, which have been examined using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) techniques. This study examined absorption properties of pyran based on theoretical UV-visible absorption spectra, with comparisons between TD-DFT using B3LYP, PBE, and TPSSH functionals with 6-31+G (d) and 6-311++G** basis sets. The results provide a valuable guide for the design of donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes with high molar absorptivity and current conversion in DSSCs. The theoretical results indicated 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye (D2-Me) can be effectively used as a donor dye for DSSCs. This dye has a low energy gap by itself and a high energy gap with squaraine acceptor type dye, the design that reduces the recombination and improves the photocurrent generation in solar cell.

  6. Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, T.

    2000-09-12

    A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of concentration s for which a spin

  7. Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Timothy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-12

    A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi2Ge2. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi2Ge2 is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of

  8. Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

    It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

  9. Environmental application of millimetre-scale sponge iron (s-Fe{sup 0}) particles (I): Pretreatment of cationic triphenylmethane dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yongming, E-mail: juyongming@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Liu, Xiaowen, E-mail: liuxiaowen@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Li, Zhaoyong; Kang, Juan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yukui; Fang, Jiande [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Millimetric s-Fe{sup 0} particles effectively reduce BG, MG, CV, and EV dyes. • s-Fe{sup 0} displays similar contaminant removal efficiency compared to nZVI. • s-Fe{sup 0} shows greater economic advantages than nZVI, iron powder, and iron scurf. • The reductive mechanism of BG over s-Fe{sup 0} under US condition is elucidated. - Abstract: To investigate the removal capability of millimetric zero valent iron (mmZVI), sponge iron (s-Fe{sup 0}) particles were characterized with XRD, XPS, TEM, HRSEM and EDS techniques. Moreover, the roles of particle size, catalyst dosage, dye concentration, mixing conditions (e.g. ultrasound (US), stirring or shaking), and regeneration treatment were studied with the removal of cationic triphenylmethane dyes. Notably, the reduction process was also revealed as compared to nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI), microscale iron power, and iron scurf. Furthermore, the reductive mechanism was exemplified with brilliant green. The results demonstrated that (1) the synergetic effect between US and s-Fe{sup 0} greatly enhanced the removal of dyes, (2) the dosage of preferred s-Fe{sup 0} (1–3 mm) particles was optimized as 30.0 g/L; (3) reuse cycles of s-Fe{sup 0} catalyst were enhanced with the assistance of diluted HCl solution; (4) the main degradation routes included the cleavage of conjugated structure reactions, N-de-ethylation reactions, hydroxylation reactions, the removal of benzene ring reactions, and opening ring reactions. Accordingly, the pretreatment of aqueous solution over s-Fe{sup 0} was hypothesized to achieve mainly through direct reduction reaction by electron transfer and indirect reductive reactions by the highly activated hydrogen atom. Additionally, decoration with noble metals was utilized to reveal the reaction mechanism.

  10. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy of black dyes on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Laurence C; Batchelor, Stephen N; Smith, John R Lindsay; Moore, John N

    2010-10-10

    Resonance Raman and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded from samples of cotton, viscose, polyester, nylon, and acrylic textile swatches dyed black with one of seven single dyes, a mixture of two dyes, or one of seven mixtures of three dyes. The samples generally gave characteristic Raman spectra of the dyes, demonstrating that the technique is applicable for the forensic analysis of dyed black textiles. Survey studies of the widely used dye Reactive Black 5 show that essentially the same Raman spectrum is obtained on bulk sampling from the dye in solution, on viscose, on cotton at different uptakes, and on microscope sampling from the dye in cotton threads and single fibres. The effects of laser irradiation on the Raman bands and emission backgrounds from textile samples with and without dye are also reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative Analysis by Isotopic Dilution Using Mass Spectroscopy: The Determination of Caffeine by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Devon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory technique for quantitative analysis of caffeine by an isotopic dilution method for coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Discusses caffeine analysis and experimental methodology. Lists sample caffeine concentrations found in common products. (MVL)

  12. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  13. Mean-field approximation for the potts model of a diluted magnet in the external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    The Potts model of a diluted magnet with an arbitrary number of states placed in the external field has been considered. Phase transitions of this model have been studied in the mean-field approximation, the dependence of the critical temperature on the external field and the density of magnetic atoms has been found, and the magnetic susceptibility has been calculated. An improved mean-field technique has been proposed, which provides more accurate account of the effects associated with nonmagnetic dilution. The influence of dilution on the first-order phase transition curve and the magnetization jump at the phase transition has been studied by this technique.

  14. Colorimetric studies of some newly synthesized bisazo reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh R. Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of cold brand bisazo reactive dyes (4a–h were obtained by the coupling of tetrazotised 4,4′-methylene-bis(2-methyl-5-nitro aniline (2 with various cyanurated coupling components (3a–h in good yield. Their dyeing performances as reactive dyes have been assessed on silk, wool and cotton fabrics. These dyes were characterized by UV–Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques elemental analysis. The percentage dye bath exhaustion and fixation on different fibers were found to be very good. The dyed fabric showed moderate to very good light fastness and good to excellent washing and rubbing fastness properties. Spectral properties and colorimetric data (L∗, a∗, b∗, C∗, H∗, K/S have also been studied in detail.

  15. Enhanced decomposition of reactive blue 19 dye in ultrasound assisted electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Maria; Farooq, Robina; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Khan, Zarsher; Shaukat, S F

    2011-01-01

    Textile industry effluents contain reactive dyes that may harm our receiving waters. A typical reactive blue (RB) 19 dye is frequently detected in significant concentrations in textile industry effluents. Such dyes have generally shown resistance to decomposition and tend to persist in the environment for long periods and multiply the impacts to water and environment. Therefore, the present investigation focused on high-rate decomposition of a typical reactive dye RB 19 under various ultrasound and electrochemical process conditions. The decomposition of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed forms of reactive blue (RB) 19 dye by ultrasound assisted electrochemical process was investigated using various parameters including dye concentration, pH, ultrasonic frequency and reaction time. Reaction kinetics, organic carbon and mechanism for dye decomposition were determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, TOC (total organic carbon) analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Almost complete 90% color removal and a maximum of 56% TOC removal for 50 mg L(-1) dye concentration of un-hydrolyzed RB 19 dye was achieved at an ultrasonic frequency of 80 kHz, pH of 8 after 120 min. GC-MS analysis showed that a sonoelectrochemical treatment of un-hydrolyzed RB 19 dye for 30 min resulted in the formation of products e.g. acetic acid, benzoic acid etc. with the complete removal of dye. For hydrolyzed dye, a treatment of 10 min was enough and the results were comparable with 30 min treatment of un-hydrolyzed dye. Kinetics of ultrasound assisted electrolysis showed that the dye decomposition followed 1st order. The ultrasound assisted electrolysis for dye decomposition and hence decolorization proved to be more effective and the total energy consumption reduced to half as compared with simple electrolysis/sonochemical decomposition. Therefore, ultrasound assisted electrolysis was found to be more effective technique for dye decomposition of an otherwise environmentally

  16. Development and Validation of a Triple Quad LC/MS Method for Fiber Dye Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly-Ingram, Ceirin M.

    This study aims to determine whether the analysis of dyed fiber through liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) can be used as a reliable alternative to the current chemical techniques used to differentiate dyes. Other methods of analysis involving HPLC and MS have proven to be capable of distinguishing chemically different dyes within a few dye classifications, but none have proven capable of providing a complete alternative to the current accepted technique of thin layer chromatography (TLC). In theory, HPLC-triple quad MS is capable of providing more reproducible and reliable data than the conventional TLC methods with a much greater depth of measurable information with which to characterize dye components. In this study, dyes will be extracted from various types of fibers, including commonly worn types like cotton, polyester, nylon, and wool, and examine dyes from most of the eight different dye classes.

  17. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and column operations for the removal of hazardous dye, Tartrazine from aqueous solutions using waste materials--Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

    2006-08-25

    Adsorbents, Bottom Ash (a power plant waste) and De-Oiled Soya (an agricultural waste) exhibit good efficacy to adsorb a highly toxic dye, Tartrazine. Through the batch technique equilibrium uptake of the dye is observed at different concentrations, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents and sieve size of adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms are successfully employed on both the adsorbents and on the basis of these models the thermodynamic parameters are evaluated. Kinetic investigations reveal that more than 50% adsorption of dye is achieved in about 1h in both the cases, whereas, equilibrium establishment takes about 3-4h. The linear plots obtained in rate constant and mass transfer studies further confirm the applicability of first order rate expression and mass transfer model, respectively. The kinetic data treated to identify rate controlling step of the ongoing adsorption processes indicate that for both the systems, particle diffusion process is predominant at higher concentrations, while film diffusion takes place at lower concentrations. The column studies reveal that about 96% saturation of both the columns is attained during their exhaustion, while about 88 and 84% of the dye material is recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns, respectively.

  18. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and column operations for the removal of hazardous dye, Tartrazine from aqueous solutions using waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462 007 (India)]. E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in; Mittal, Jyoti [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462 007 (India); Kurup, Lisha [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462 007 (India)

    2006-08-25

    Adsorbents, Bottom Ash (a power plant waste) and De-Oiled Soya (an agricultural waste) exhibit good efficacy to adsorb a highly toxic dye, Tartrazine. Through the batch technique equilibrium uptake of the dye is observed at different concentrations, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents and sieve size of adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms are successfully employed on both the adsorbents and on the basis of these models the thermodynamic parameters are evaluated. Kinetic investigations reveal that more than 50% adsorption of dye is achieved in about 1 h in both the cases, whereas, equilibrium establishment takes about 3-4 h. The linear plots obtained in rate constant and mass transfer studies further confirm the applicability of first order rate expression and mass transfer model, respectively. The kinetic data treated to identify rate controlling step of the ongoing adsorption processes indicate that for both the systems, particle diffusion process is predominant at higher concentrations, while film diffusion takes place at lower concentrations. The column studies reveal that about 96% saturation of both the columns is attained during their exhaustion, while about 88 and 84% of the dye material is recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns, respectively.

  19. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  20. Photoelectric characterization of fabricated dye-sensitized solar cell using dye extracted from red Siahkooti fruit as natural sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Saeidi, Mahsa; Rahmanian, Reza

    2015-05-05

    Natural dye extracted from Siahkooti fruit with/without purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) technique was used in the fabrication of DSSC as natural sensitizer. The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were employed to indicate the presence of anthocyanins in the fruit of red Siahkooti. The photoelectrochemical performance and the efficiency of assembled DSSC using Siahkooti fruit dye extract were evaluated and efficiency enhancement was obtained by a preliminary purification of extracted dye. The efficiency and fill factor of the DSSC using purified Siahkooti fruit dye were 0.32% and 0.73%, respectively. The results successfully showed that the DSSC, using Siahkooti fruit extract as a dye sensitizer, is useful for the preparation of environmentally friendly, low-cost, renewable and clean sources of energy.

  1. Metal-free organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: from structure: property relationships to design rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amaresh; Fischer, Markus K R; Bäuerle, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as they offer the possibility of low-cost conversion of photovoltaic energy. This Review focuses on recent advances in molecular design and technological aspects of metal-free organic dyes for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Special attention has been paid to the design principles of these dyes and on the effect of various electrolyte systems. Cosensitization, an emerging technique to extend the absorption range, is also discussed as a way to improve the performance of the device. In addition, we report on inverted dyes for photocathodes, which constitutes a relatively new approach for the production of tandem cells. Special consideration has been paid to the correlation between the molecular structure and physical properties to their performance in DSSCs.

  2. Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Treatment of Some Organic Dyes in Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, M. I.; Adnan A. Abdul Razak; Hussein Al-Timimi, Dhiyaa A.

    2014-01-01

    In Iraq, a large quantity of basic orange and methyl violet dyes contaminated wastewater from textile industries is discharged into Tigris River. So the aim of this work is to found an efficient and fast technique that can be applied directly for removal of such dyes from the wastewater before discharging into river. Accordingly, CNTs as a new approach prepared by CCVD technique were purified, functionalized, and used as adsorption material to remove dyes from wastewater. The effect of pH, co...

  3. Spectral and nonlinear studies of night blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu Sukumaran, V.; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this Letter the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye night blue are studied. The spectral characteristics of night blue dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique [S.-B., Mansoor, A.A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26 (1990) 760], by exciting with He Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye night blue show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  4. Croatian Traditional Herbal Dyes For Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Sutrlović, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Textiles, namely protein fibers, in continental part of central Europe have been traditionally dyed by natural dyes. In the process textile materials were pre or after treated by metal salts – mordants (usually: KAl(SO4)2•12H2O, SnCl2•2H2O, FeSO4•7H2O, CuSO4•5H2O). Most represented active substances in herbal extracts are flavonoid derivatives, which by complexing with metal ions constitute colored complexes. Depending on herb species and mordant applied, a wide palette of colors is available...

  5. Laser dye technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  6. Turbulence of Dilute Polymer Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Heng-Dong; Xu, Haitao

    2013-01-01

    In fully developed three dimensional fluid turbulence the fluctuating energy is supplied at large scales, cascades through intermediate scales, and dissipates at small scales. It is the hallmark of turbulence that for intermediate scales, in the so called inertial range, the average energy flux is constant and independent of viscosity [1-3]. One very important question is how this range is altered, when an additional agent that can also transport energy is added to the fluid. Long-chain polymers dissolved at very small concentrations in the fluid are such an agent [4,5]. Based on prior work by de Gennes and Tabor [6,7] we introduce a theory that balances the energy flux through the turbulent cascade with that of the energy flux into the elastic degrees of freedom of the dilute long-chain polymer solution. We propose a refined elastic length scale, $r_\\varepsilon$, which describes the effect of polymer elasticity on the turbulence energy cascade. Our experimental results agree excellently with this new energy ...

  7. Phase transitions in diluted negative-weight percolation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolo, L; Melchert, O; Hartmann, A K

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the geometric properties of loops on two-dimensional lattice graphs, where edge weights are drawn from a distribution that allows for positive and negative weights. We are interested in the appearance of spanning loops of total negative weight. The resulting percolation problem is fundamentally different from conventional percolation, as we have seen in a previous study of this model for the undiluted case. Here, we investigate how the percolation transition is affected by additional dilution. We consider two types of dilution: either a certain fraction of edges exhibits zero weight, or a fraction of edges is even absent. We study these systems numerically using exact combinatorial optimization techniques based on suitable transformations of the graphs and applying matching algorithms. We perform a finite-size scaling analysis to obtain the phase diagram and determine the critical properties of the phase boundary. We find that the first type of dilution does not change the universality class compared to the undiluted case whereas the second type of dilution leads to a change in the universality class.

  8. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  9. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  10. Dispersal and dilution of wastewater from an ocean outfall at Davis Station, Antarctica, and resulting environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jonathan S; Bridgen, Phil; Dunshea, Glenn; Galton-Fenzi, Ben; Hunter, John; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Leeming, Rhys; Palmer, Anne; Smith, James; Snape, Ian; Stark, Scott; Riddle, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The Antarctic Treaty permits the discharge of wastewater into Antarctic marine waters providing that conditions exist for initial dilution and rapid dispersal. We investigated the dilution and dispersal of macerated wastewater around Australia's Davis Station in East Antarctica and examined sediments for evidence of contaminants. Methods used to examine hydrodynamic conditions included current meters, dye release experiments and measurement of sewage-associated microbial markers and surfactants in the water column. We measured marine sediments for metals, nutrients, PBDEs, hydrocarbons and faecal sterols. We propose that if there is adequate dilution and dispersal there would be no significant difference in contaminant concentrations in sediments around the outfall compared to distant control sites. Currents were strongly correlated with prevailing wind conditions. Modelling indicated that diffusivity of wastewater had the greatest effect on dilution factors and that neither discharge rates nor local currents had as much effect. During summer conditions of open water, wastewater is likely to be constrained in a narrow plume close to the coast. Concentrations of sewage bacteria were high around the outfall and detected up to 1.5 km away, along with dye. There were significant differences in sediment concentrations of metals, PBDEs, hydrocarbons, nutrients and faecal sterols between sites within 2 km of the outfall and control sites. We conclude that dilution and dispersal conditions at the Davis outfall are insufficient to prevent the accumulation of contaminants in local sediments and that microbial hazards posed by wastewater are an environmental risk to local wildlife.

  11. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  12. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P.R.; Atkins, R.L.; Henry, R.A.; Fletcher, A.N.

    1978-07-25

    The invention provides a dye laser comprising a lasing solution of a 7-substituted azaquinolone-2 in which the aza nitrogen occupies at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions. The 7-substituent is hydroxy, alkoxy, amino or substituted amino. Substituents may be attached to other ring positions. The present lasing compounds are aza analogs of corresponding quinolone compounds and, hence, are named ''azaquinolone'' compounds. The dye lasers lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  13. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cummings_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3362 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cummings_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DYE SOLAR CELL RESEARCH Franscious... Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2...

  14. Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Amit; Madamwar, Datta

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited by the dyes. Visible spectroscopy and TLC confirmed that color removal was due to degradation of the dyes.

  15. The removal of textile dyes by diatomite earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emin; Cölgeçen, Gülay; Donat, Ramazan

    2005-02-15

    The adsorption of some textile dyes by diatomite was investigated using Sif Blau BRF (SB), Everzol Brill Red 3BS (EBR), and Int Yellow 5GF (IY). Adsorption of these textile dyes onto diatomite earth samples was studied by batch adsorption techniques at 30 degrees C. The adsorption behavior of textile dyes on diatomite samples was investigated using a UV-vis spectrophotometric technique. The effect of particle size of diatomite, diatomite concentration, the effect of initial dye concentrations, and shaking time on adsorption was investigated. Adsorption coverage over the surface of diatomite was studied using two well-known isotherm models: Langmuir's and Freundlich's. These results suggest that the dye uptake process mediated by diatomite has a potential for large-scale treatment of textile mill discharges. According to the equilibrium studies, the selectivity sequence can be given as IY > SB > EBR. Values of the removal efficiency of the dyes ranged from 28.60 to 99.23%. These results show that natural diatomite holds great potential to remove textile dyes from wastewater.

  16. Polyester Fabric's Fluorescent Dyeing in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and its Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yanyan; Zheng, Laijiu; Yan, Jun; Zhao, Hongjuan; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    As one of the most important coumarin-like dyes, disperse fluorescent Yellow 82 exhibits exceptionally large two-photon effects. Here, it was firstly introduced into the supercritical CO2 dyeing polyester fabrics in this work. Results of the present work showed that the dyeing parameters such as the dyeing time, pressure and temperature had remarkable influences on the color strength of fabrics. The optimized dyeing condition in supercritical CO2 dyeing has been proposed that the dyeing time was 60 min; the pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature was 120 °C. As a result, acceptable products were obtained with the wash and rub fastness rating at 5 or 4-5. The polyester fabrics dyed with fluorescent dyes can be satisfied for the requirement of manufacturing warning clothing. Importantly, the confocal microscopy imaging technology was successfully introduced into textile fields to observe the distribution and fluorescence intensity of disperse fluorescent Yellow 82 on polyester fabrics. As far as we know, this is the first report about supercritical CO2 dyeing polyester fabrics based on disperse fluorescent dyes. It will be very helpful for the further design of new fluorescent functional dyes suitable for supercritical CO2 dyeing technique.

  17. PVA with nopal dye as holographic recording material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Pinto-Iguanero, B.

    2011-09-01

    Cactus nopal dye is introduced into a polyvinyl alcohol matrix achieving a like brown appearance thick film, such that they can be used as a recording medium. This dye material provides excellent property as photosensitizer, i.e., easy handling, low cost and can be used in real time holographic recording applications. The experimental results show the diffraction efficiencies obtained by recording grating patterns induced by a He-Cd laser (442nm). For the samples, a thick film of polyvinyl alcohol and dye from cactus nopal was deposited by the gravity technique on a glass substrate. This mixture dries to form a photosensitive emulsion.

  18. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  20. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  1. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  2. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  3. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  4. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  5. Synthesis of Some Novel 2-Amino-5-arylazothiazole Disperse Dyes for Dyeing Polyester Fabrics and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem E. Gaffer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the synthesis of a series of four novel biologically active 2-amino-5-arylazothiazole disperse dyes containing the sulfa drug nucleus. The structures of the synthesized thiazole derivatives are confirmed using UV-spectrophotometry, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and elemental analysis. The synthesized dyes are applied to polyester fabrics as disperse dyes and their fastness properties to washing, perspiration, rubbing, sublimation, and light are evaluated. The synthesized compounds exhibit promising biological efficiency against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as well as fungi.

  6. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  7. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Ušćumlić Gordana S.; Valentić Nataša V.; Marinković Aleksandar D.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments) have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were use...

  8. TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING JOURNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Optim is dyed with Lanasol CE series dyes by micro-suspension technology, and the dyeing result is compared with that by traditional process. The optimal micro-suspension dyeing process is determined as follows: formic acid 1.5% (owl), micro-suspension promoter WR1.0% (owf), micro-suspension promoter TS 0.5 % (owl), dyestuff 5% (owf). The results show that micro-suspension dyeing increases the dye uptake percentage and colour fixation rate significantly; improves the handle and bulkiness without damaging the colour fastness of the dyed fabric.

  9. Use of Empty Fruit Bunches from the oil palm for bioethanol production: a thorough comparison between dilute acid and dilute alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, S; Gnansounou, E

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, two pretreatment techniques using either dilute acid (H2SO4) or dilute alkali (NaOH) have been compared for producing bioethanol from Empty Fruit Bunches (EFBs) from oil palm tree, a relevant feedstock for tropical countries. Treatments' performances under different conditions have been assessed and statistically optimized with respect to the response upon standardized enzymatic saccharification. The dilute acid treatment performed at optimal conditions (161.5°C, 9.44 min and 1.51% acid loading) gave 85.5% glucose yield, comparable to those of other commonly investigated feedstocks. Besides, the possibility of using fibers instead of finely ground biomass may be of economic interest. Oppositely, treatment with dilute alkali has shown lower performances under the conditions explored, most likely given the relatively significant lignin content, suggesting that the use of stronger alkali regime (with the associated drawbacks) is unavoidable to improve the performance of this treatment.

  10. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TEXTILE DYES: A BIOREMEDIAL ASPECT OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Shertate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Large number of textile industries are located on the coastal areas due to ease of transport to the various places in world and help in building nations economy, but on the contrary the effluents released from these industries are proving a great problem for the marine life. Therefore, industrial effluents containing dyes must be treated before their safe discharge into the environment. There are various physiochemical methods are conventionally used. These methods are effective but quite expensive leading to the production of solid sludge. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dye-contaminated textile wastewaters. Most of the Scientists used chemical coagulation, Flocculation and Precipitation techniques for the removal of dye colors from waste waters. But this method is not cost beneficial as it generates huge amount of Sludge and to dispose the sludge is major problem. The physical methods are also not cost effective. So only biological treatment using acclimatized microorganisms could remove 99-100% dye colour from wastewater. Hence now a day most of the workers concentrated on biotransformation of textile azo dyes by adapted organisms. The use of co substrates also slightly increased the decolorization of dye solution. Some scientists showed that the products of dye degradation are not toxic to biological system. Products formed can be determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS technique, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR etc.

  11. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  12. Dye Aggregation in Ink Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Paul; Sarfraz Hussain

    2004-01-01

    Dye aggregation has long been recognised as a key factor in performance, and this is no less so in ink jet applications. The aggregation state was shown to be important in many different areas ranging from the use of dyes in photodynamic therapies all the way to colorants for dying of fabrics. Therefore different methods to investigate dye association qualitatively and quantitatively were developed. A simple procedure to study aggregation could be a useful tool to characterise dyes for ink jet printing. It is critically reviewed the methods used to study dye aggregation, and discussed some of the main conclusions. This will be illustrated by examples of ink jet dye aggregation and its study in aqueous and ink systems. The results are used to correlate the solution behaviour of dyes with their print performance.

  13. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李戎; 陈东辉

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes have been widely used these years.Because of the special optical performance, conventional CCM systems seem to be unable to predict the recipes of fabrics dyed with fluorescent dyes. In order to enhance the functions of CCM systems, the optical properties of fluorescent dyes in their absorption region were investigated. It has been found that there was a fixed maximum absorption wavelength for each fluorescent dyes whatever its concentration is. Both absorption region and maximum absorption wavelength of the dyes in solution are the same to those in fabric, and that the absorption is directly proportional to the concentration of the dye. So the optical properties obtained in solutions cna be applied for describing the optics performance of fluorescent dyes in fabrics.

  14. Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) using CyDye DIGE fluor minimal dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Bulbul; Gallagher, Sean R; Chakravarti, Deb N

    2005-02-01

    One- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE) have been widely used for the separation and quantitative estimation of proteins. Following electrophoresis, the gels are stained appropriately to visualize the proteins. Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) is a new technique in which different protein samples, individually labeled with specific CyDyes, are combined together followed by electrophoresis and post electrophoretic co-detection and co-analysis on the same gel. CyDye DIGE fluor minimal dyes, which consist of three different CyDyes with different spectral characteristics, have been widely used for such purposes. The technique is highly sensitive with a wide dynamic range for detection of proteins and compatible with state-of-the-art protein identification techniques using mass spectrometry. Although DIGE is mainly used to compare differential expression of various protein samples using 2-D SDS-PAGE, 1-D DIGE also has important applications in quantitative proteomic studies.

  15. Mössbauer Studies of dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Gislason, H P; Debernardi, A; Dlamini, W B

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of (dilute) magnetic semiconductors with wide band gaps, e.g. GaN, ZnO and other oxides, having Curie temperatures, T$_{\\textrm{c}}$, well above room temperature, has prompted extraordinary experimental and theoretical efforts to understand, control and exploit this unexpected finding not least in view of the obvious potential of such materials for the fabrication of "spin-(elec)tronic" or magneto-optic devices. Ferromagnetism (FM) was achieved mostly by doping with dilute 3d transition metal impurities, notably Mn, Fe, and Co (in \\% concentrations), during growth or by subsequent ion implantation. However, it is fair to state that experimentally the conditions for the occurrence of ferro-, antiferro- or paramagnetism with these impurities are not yet controlled as generally at least two conflicting forms of magnetism or none have been reported for each system - albeit often produced by different techniques. Theory is challenged as "conventional" models seem to fail and no generally accep...

  16. Individual Tracer Atoms in an Ultracold Dilute Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Michael; Kindermann, Farina; Lausch, Tobias; Mayer, Daniel; Schmidt, Felix; Lutz, Eric; Widera, Artur

    2017-06-30

    We report on the experimental investigation of individual Cs atoms impinging on a dilute cloud of ultracold Rb atoms with variable density. We study the relaxation of the initial nonthermal state and detect the effect of single collisions which has so far eluded observation. We show that, after few collisions, the measured spatial distribution of the tracer atoms is correctly described by a Langevin equation with a velocity-dependent friction coefficient, over a large range of Knudsen numbers. Our results extend the simple and effective Langevin treatment to the realm of light particles in dilute gases. The experimental technique developed opens up the microscopic exploration of a novel regime of diffusion at the level of individual collisions.

  17. Are allergenic disperse dyes used for dyeing textiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marléne

    2012-09-01

    There are no data showing that disperse dyes, used to patch test patients, are currently being used for dyeing synthetic garments. It is unknown whether disperse dyes, which are currently routinely patch tested, are in fact present in synthetic textiles on the market. To determine whether eight disperse dyes, hitherto most widely cited as allergenic, are still used in textiles that are sold in various countries. Textiles from 13 countries in Europe, Asia and the United States were analysed. The procedure used for dye identification was thin-layer chromatography. When there were matching spots from the textile extract and reference dye, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Of 121 analysed items, three showed positive results for some of the investigated disperse dyes. Four dyes in these items could be detected and confirmed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. A pair of light brown ladies' tights manufactured and purchased in Italy contained Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Blue 124, and Disperse Blue 106, and a set of black bra and panties purchased in India contained Disperse Orange 1. The eight disperse dyes that are most frequently incriminated in textile dye dermatitis are very rarely used in textiles nowadays. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    by block number) Dye Lasers Laser Dyes Tunable Lasers Photodegradation Rhodamine Dyes 20. ABSTRACT (Continue n resld* it necesiry and Identify by block...limited usefulness as a portable military device because of the photodegradation of the dye solution. Although there have been state-of-the-art reviews...on laser dyes , 1𔃼 the photodegradation of laser dyes ,3 and dye lasers, 4- 6 only authors from, or funded by, military organizations have given strict

  19. Research on Natural Printing and Dyeing Technique Based on Plants’ Pigment and Form%基于植物色素和形态的天然印染手法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟要娟; 徐海燕; 伍美君

    2016-01-01

    By printing and dyeing the specific form of plant on fabric with natural pigment, natural pigment and form of plants ( flowers, leaves) were used for fabric printing and dyeing;by combining fabric and garment styles and selecting different colors and forms of plants, natural patterns of relevant styles were designed, printed and dyed.%利用植物(花朵、树叶)固有的色素和形态对织物进行印染,采用将植物某一特定的形态通过其固有的色素印染于织物上的方法;同时结合织物和服装的风格,选择不同颜色和形态的植物,设计印染成相应风格的天然图案。

  20. Plantas Tintureiras Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma vasta bibliografia, até ao séc. XVIII, sobre plantas produtoras de corantes naturais, sendo que apenas um número limitado foi utilizado no tingimento de têxteis antigos, devido à capacidade de resistência à lavagem e ao desvanecimento. O cultivo de plantas ou a sua existência no mundo silvestre tiveram uma enorme importância sócio-económica para muitas comunidades espalhadas pelo mundo e pelas intensas trocas comerciais que geraram. A extracção dos corantes era feita a partir de diferentes partes de plantas ou árvores. Nalgumas plantas eram utilizadas as folhas, enquanto noutras se aproveitavam as flores, as raízes, os frutos, troncos ou sementes. Os corantes podiam ser extraídos através de processos complexos que envolviam diversas operações como maceração, destilação, fermentação, decantação, precipitação, filtração, etc. Neste âmbito, são apresentadas algumas das plantas cultivadas em Portugal e em muitos outros países europeus e que foram usadas em tinturaria. Este trabalho pretende ser um contributo para obstar à perda de conhecimentos das condições de cultivo e da forma como se maximizava a produção de corantes.A vast bibliography exists, until the 18th cen-tury, on natural dyes obtained from plants, but only one limited number was used in the dyeing of old textiles, due to capacity of resistance to wash and light fading. The culture of plants or its existence in the wild world had an enormous economical importance for many communities spread for the world, and the intense commercial exchanges that had generated. The extraction of dyes was done from different parts of plants or trees. In some plants was used the leaves, others, only the roots, the fruits, trunks or seeds. The dyes could be extracted through complex processes that involved various operations as maceration, distillation, fermentation, decantation, precipitation, filtration, etc. In this scope, some of the plants cultivated in

  1. The antibacterial activity of diluted Tualang honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Roslan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tualang honey (TH is a Malaysian jungle honey obtained from the wild. The honey is produced by the rock bee (Apis dorsata, which builds hives on branches of tall Tualang (Koompassia excelsa (Becc. Taub trees located mainly in the north-western region of Peninsular Malaysia. Limited information is available on the antibacterial mechanism of local honey. The present study was conducted to determine the antibacterial activity of diluted ?Tualang? honey against Escherichia coli (E. coli. Three different Tualang honey concentrations, namely, 20, 30 and 40% were used to examine the effect of diluting Tualang honey on its antibacterial effect towards E. coli. The 40% diluted honey was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of E. coli, followed by honey diluted at 20 and 30%. The high antibacterial activity of honey towards E. Coli was thought to arise from the production of hydrogen peroxide, but requires further study to validate the action.

  2. A comparative study of two techniques for determining photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 nanotubes under visible light irradiation: Photocatalytic reduction of dye and photocatalytic oxidation of organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-Il; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Abrams, Billie

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen-doping (N-doping) is a popular strategy for promoting the absorption of visible light in TiO2 and other photocatalysts. We have grown TiO2 nanotubes onto non-conducting Pyrex in a one step process via single layer titanium films. In an attempt to improve the self-cleaning ability...... of vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays under visible light irradiation we have doped them with nitrogen and tested the resulting nanotube films by two representative test methods. The first method is an established dye-test which is typically used as a “quick-and-dirty” screening for activity. The second...... method is the gas-phase oxidation reaction of CO-oxidation and methane. The encouraging results of the dye tests are in conflict with the discouraging results of the gas-phase tests. The fact that the dye test gives a “false positive” underscores the dangers of extrapolating photocatalytic performance...

  3. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  4. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  5. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  6. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  7. The effects of hydrogen dilution on Voc in a-Si:H pin solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Crandall, R.S.; Han, D.

    1997-07-01

    The authors study the effects of hydrogen dilution on the open circuit voltage of a-Si:H pin solar cells fabricated by rf glow discharge growth. They keep the p and n layers the same and only vary the i-layer properties. A normal a-Si:H i-layer, an H-diluted i-layer, and a thin H-diluted layer inserted between p and normal i layer are selected for this study. They measure the JV characteristics and the internal electric field distribution using a transient-null-current technique both in annealed and light soaked states. They find that hydrogen dilution does stabilize the Voc either in a bulk H-diluted i layer or in a thin layer between p and normal i layer after 100 hours Am1 sun light soaking. From dark IV measurement, both H-diluted cells show little change in current at voltage near Voc before and after light soaking; while the normal a-Si:H cell does show a noticeable change. Also the internal field measurements find a stronger electric field starting from p and i interface for both H-diluted cells compared to the normal a-Si:H cell. Furthermore, there are no measurable changes in the field profiles after 100 hour AM1 light-soaking for both H-diluted and normal a-Si cells. All these suggest that hydrogen dilution increases the field strength near p and i interface, which is the key that leads to a more stable Voc of H-diluted cells.

  8. Environment and energy efficient dyeing of woollen fabric with sticta coronata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, Heba F. [Helwan University, Textile Printing, Dyeing and Finishing Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    For a trial to improve the natural dyeing cultural heritage to meet the environmental future demands technology to reach high quality dyed patterns. This paper deals with extraction, dyeing of woollen fabric with ''Sticta Coronata'' under ultrasonic energy and glucose/hydrogen peroxide based redox system. The efficiency of ultrasonic-assisted extraction in presence of 9:1 water:acetone solvent and dyeing in presence of redox system, followed by alum mordanting have been studied in compared when the system was absent and the traditional thermal technique. The influence of redox system, ultrasonic energy and alum mordanting on the rate of dyeing and dye fixation has been demonstrated, and the mechanism of glucose/hydrogen peroxide redox system has been tentatively suggested. The extraction with 9:1 water:acetone solvent possesses higher absorbency in shorter extraction time compared with the aqueous one. Redox system reduced the rate of dyeing at lower temperature with significant enhancement on the dye exhaustion and fixation, involving covalent bonding in addition to the usual coulombic bond. Mordanting process exhibited negligible effect and might decline the percentages of dye exhaustion and fixation in presence of redox system. Ultrasonic energy provided easy efficient route for dye extraction, dyeing, and mordanting processes in compared with the traditional thermal technique. (orig.)

  9. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  10. Measurement of cardiac output in adult and newborn animals by ascorbic acid dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, J K; Haselby, K A; Paradise, R R

    1984-05-01

    We have developed an ascorbic acid-dilution method for measuring cardiac output which requires minimal blood withdrawal. Ascorbate is injected into a central venous catheter. The indicator-dilution curve is obtained by drawing blood from an arterial catheter through an amperometric cell at 0.96 ml/min for 35 s. The current is measured by a picoammeter . A calibration curve is obtained in 15 s prior to each indicator-dilution curve. An on-line digital computer measures the curve areas and calculates the cardiac output. Cardiac outputs of heparinized dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital and halothane measured by this method (AA) compared closely to cardiac outputs measured by the dye-dilution method (CG) (AA = 0.96 CG + 20 ml/min, r = 0.98). Both the cardiac output and the arterial blood pressure remained stable during replicate measurements of the cardiac output of 1-day-old piglets. This system allows cardiac output determinations of neonatal subjects without excessive blood removal and, with further development, should be practical in human neonates.

  11. Laser dye stability. Pt. 3. Bicyclic dyes in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, A.N. (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (USA). Research Dept.)

    1977-11-01

    A commercial coaxial xenon flashlamp has been used to evaluate the stability of a variety of coumarin and quinolone laser dyes. The lasing characteristics of over 30 dyes have been quantitatively evaluated as a function of the total excitation energy to which recirculating dye solution has been exposed. Degradation constants were determined an an evaluation was made of the effects of functional group variation upon the stability of the dyes. Comparison with the data of other workers revealed that exclusion of excitation energy below 220 nm does not change the stability of 4-methyl coumarins, but can increase the stability of other coumarins as much as 50 fold.

  12. Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes from Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin were applied to silk fabric by pad-batch and pad-dry techniques under different conditions. Ferrous sulfate was used as a mordant. The dyeing properties were evaluated by measuring K/S and CIELAB values. In addition, the different fastness properties were evaluated. The effect of dyes at different concentration levels with respect to their colour strength was also studied.

  13. Fabrication and analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dye extracted from dragon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit dye has been prepared and used in the fabrication of DSSC as sensitizer. The properties of dragon fruit dye have been investigated by UV-Vis and FTIR technique. The absorption spectrum shows a peak value of 535 nm. Chemically dragon fruit dye shows present of intermolecular H-bond, conjugate C=O stretching and esters acetates C-O-C stretching vibration, which is due to the component of anthocyanin. On the other hand, the resistivity of TiO2 film on ITO glass before it is used for the fabrication of DSSC is also investigated. The TiO2 sheet resistivity increase from 1 layer = 22.1 Ω cm to 2 layers = 369.6 Ω cm. Finally, the efficiency of assemble DSSC was evaluated and simulated using a custom made technique. The result shows fill factor, Pmax and efficiency during the present of halogen lamp are 0.30, 13 μW, 0.22%, respectively. We have successfully showed that the DSSC using dragon fruit as a dye sensitizer is useful for the preparation of environmental friendly and low-cost DSSC.

  14. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  15. Synthesis and activation of Immobilized beads by natural dye extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization technique is used for preservation of enzymes. Here we are using different colors of natural dye in this technique. Our major emphasis would be to create beads of different colors which will act as different carriers for essential enzymes. The need for using colorful dye is because when we need to preserve more than one enzyme then it is helpful in identification of that which enzyme is to be preserved and in which color. Here we used natural dye because most of the chemical dyes are carcinogenic in nature and may alter the nature of preserved enzyme. For this different plant products like mint leaf, rose petal, beat root and Carrot are used for the extraction of dye. In our research studies, we have identified, extracted, characterized, optimized and standardized the natural dyes from plant and microbial sources and we did a comparative study between natural dyes and artificial dyes with respect to different solvent systems like petroleum ether, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, ethanol and water systems. The extraction methodologies, characterization, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration, and solubility studies will be discussed. These immobilization studies will help us to use this application in a variety of fields like in wine stabilization, in modifying the shelf life of food and other natural products which degrade quickly and are difficult to preserve under natural conditions. Here sodium Alginate beads are being used so that there is good number of beads formation and that will help for the proper entrapment of the essential enzymes required for an important reaction in Bio-systems.

  16. Full-field dye concentration measurement within saturated/unsaturated thin slabs of porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, D.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology; Glass, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents a full-field dye concentration measurement technique that extends our experimental capabilities to the measurement of transient dye concentration fields within steady state flow fields under unsaturated or saturated conditions. Simple light absorption theory provides a basis for translating images into high resolution dye concentration fields. A series of dye pulse experiments that demonstrate the combined use of the full-field saturation and dye concentration techniques was conducted at four different degrees of saturation. Each of these experimental sequences was evaluated with respect to mass balance, the results being within 5% of the known dye mass input. An image windowing technique allowed us to see increased dispersion due to decreasing moisture content, tailing of concentration at the rear of the dye pulse and slight velocity changes of the dispersive front due to changes in moisture content. The exceptional resolution of dye concentration in space and time provided by this laboratory technique allows systematic experimentation for examining basic processes affecting solute transport within saturated/unsaturated porous media. Future challenges for this work will be to use these techniques to analyze more complex systems involving heterogeneities, scaling laws, and detailed investigations of the relationship between transverse and longitudinal dispersion in unsaturated media.

  17. Extraction and Characterization of Natural Dye from Green Walnut Shells and Its Use in Dyeing Polyamide: Focus on Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of dyes from walnut using Soxhlet apparatus has been studied. The color components extracted and isolated from walnut shells were characterized by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, mass spectroscopy (MS, and infrared (IR techniques. Natural dye extract obtained from the walnut was used in dyeing polyamide fabrics with different mordants. The dyed fabrics were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria. As such, the relationship between antibacterial activity and dye concentration is investigated. Durability of antibacterial activity to laundering is also discussed. Results indicate that the polyamide dyed with walnut displayed excellent antibacterial activity in the presence of ferric sulfate, cupric sulfate, and potassium aluminum sulfate and exhibited good and durable fastness properties.

  18. A lattice Boltzmann method for dilute polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiwani; Subramanian, Ganesh; Ansumali, Santosh

    2011-06-13

    We present a lattice Boltzmann approach for the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids. The method is illustrated for the specific case of dilute polymer solutions. With the appropriate local equilibrium distribution, phase-space dynamics on a lattice, driven by a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) relaxation term, leads to a solution of the Fokker-Planck equation governing the probability density of polymer configurations. Results for the bulk rheological characteristics for steady and start-up shear flow are presented, and compare favourably with those obtained using Brownian dynamics simulations. The new method is less expensive than stochastic simulation techniques, particularly in the range of small to moderate Weissenberg numbers (Wi).

  19. Hydrogenated dilute nitride semiconductors theory, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ciatto, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    ""The electrical and optical properties of the technologically and scientifically important dilute nitride semiconductors are strongly influenced by the introduction of atomic hydrogen. This volume is an excellent summary and resource for the most recent understanding of experimental results and state-of-the-art theoretical studies of the formation, reversibility, and microscopic structure of nitrogen-hydrogen complexes in these materials. The book details how a wide variety of experimental techniques have provided a detailed understanding of the role of hydrogen. It is the premier sourc

  20. Orbital ordering and the dilute effect in copper fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatami, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)]. E-mail: tatam@iiyo.phys.tohoku.ac.jp; Ando, Y. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Niioka, S. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kira, H. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Onodera, M. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Nakao, H. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Iwasa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kakiuchi, T. [GraduateUniversity for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sawa, H. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Itoh, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    We have investigated the dilute effect on a typical orbital ordering system KCuF{sub 3} by partially substituting Zn for Cu. The crystal structure has been examined as a function of Cu concentration at room temperature by X-ray diffraction. It is found that the phase transition from a tetragonal structure to a cubic one occurs with decreasing Cu concentration. This structural phase transition is confirmed to be an orbital order-disorder transition by the resonant X-ray scattering (RXS) technique.

  1. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  2. Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, S M; Razvi, M A N; Khan, Salman A; Osman, Osman I; Bakry, Ahmed H; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration.

  3. Physicochemical and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Environmentally Benign Heterocyclic Azomethine Dyes: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, S. M.; Razvi, M. A. N.; Khan, Salman A.; Osman, Osman I.; Bakry, Ahmed H.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic azomethine dyes were prepared by the reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation. Structures of the azomethine dyes were confirmed by the elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and several spectroscopic techniques. We studied absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the azomethine dyes in various solvents. They are found to be good absorbers and emitters. We also report photophysical properties like, extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, stokes shift and transition dipole moment. This reflects physicochemical behaviors of synthesized dyes. In addition, their intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear optical properties, supported by natural bond orbital technique, were also studied computationally by density functional theory. The negative nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient were measured for these dyes using the closed and open aperture Z-scan technique with a continuous wave helium-neon laser. These are found to vary linearly with solution concentration. PMID:27631371

  4. Order Parameters of the Dilute A Models

    CERN Document Server

    Warnaar, S O; Seaton, K A; Nienhuis, B

    1993-01-01

    The free energy and local height probabilities of the dilute A models with broken $\\Integer_2$ symmetry are calculated analytically using inversion and corner transfer matrix methods. These models possess four critical branches. The first two branches provide new realisations of the unitary minimal series and the other two branches give a direct product of this series with an Ising model. We identify the integrable perturbations which move the dilute A models away from the critical limit. Generalised order parameters are defined and their critical exponents extracted. The associated conformal weights are found to occur on the diagonal of the relevant Kac table. In an appropriate regime the dilute A$_3$ model lies in the universality class of the Ising model in a magnetic field. In this case we obtain the magnetic exponent $\\delta=15$ directly, without the use of scaling relations.

  5. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  6. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  7. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  8. CLARITY-compatible lipophilic dyes for electrode marking and neuronal tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian HR; Berg, Rune W.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent lipophilic dyes, such as DiI, stain cellular membranes and are used extensively for retrograde/anterograde labeling of neurons as well as for marking the position of extracellular electrodes after electrophysiology. Convenient histological clearing techniques, such as CLARITY, enable...... immunostaining and imaging of large volumes for 3D-reconstruction. However, such clearing works by removing lipids and, as an unintended consequence, also removes lipophilic dyes. To remedy this wash-out, the molecular structure of the dye can be altered to adhere to both membranes and proteins so the dye...

  9. Ultrafast Fabrication of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Ultrasonic Spray-Coating Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun-Gyu; Weerasinghe, Hashitha C; Min Kim, Kwang; Soo Kim, Jeong; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Jones, David J; Holmes, Andrew B; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2015-09-30

    This study investigates novel deposition techniques for the preparation of TiO2 electrodes for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. These proposed new methods, namely pre-dye-coating and codeposition ultrasonic spraying, eliminate the conventional need for time-consuming processes such as dye soaking and high-temperature sintering. Power conversion efficiencies of over 4.0% were achieved with electrodes prepared on flexible polymer substrates using this new deposition technology and N719 dye as a sensitizer.

  10. IMPROVING AGREEMENT BETWEEN THORACIC BIOIMPEDANCE AND DYE DILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT ESTIMATION IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OCONNELL, AJ; TIBBALLS, J; COULTHARD, M

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) offers a continuous, non-invasive method for monitoring cardiac output (CO). For clinical use, agreement with a current standard should be demonstrated. We describe a modification to the manufacturer's suggested data entry into the NCCOM3-R6

  11. Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, I.; Gabrysch, M.; Von Weikersthal, B. Fischer; Jungmann, K.; Zu Putlitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid changes of the refractive index in the active medium of a pulsed, excimer laser pumped dye laser amplifier were investigated with an optical heterodyne technique. Time-dependent shifts in the phase of optical light waves could be observed which for Coumarin 102, 153 and 307 dyes at wavelengths

  12. Dynamic Dilution Effects in Polymeric Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    processes, namely the reptation of linear species within the network and the arm withdrawal process of star arms in the sol fraction and of dangling single-chain ends attached to the network. The relaxation spectra are influenced by the stoichiometry to a large extent due to dynamic dilution effects caused...... by the change in the amount of dangling arms and solubles with stoichiometry. The star arm relaxation is suppressed by washing out the sol fraction which is seen as a clear example of the dynamic dilution effect arising from the small amount of non-reactive PDMS....

  13. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  14. Plasma surface functionalization and dyeing kinetics of Pan-Pmma copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, C.; Canal, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Caballero, G.; Canal, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Fiber surface modification with air corona plasma has been studied through dyeing kinetics under isothermal conditions at 30 °C on an acrylic-fiber fabric with a cationic dye (CI Basic Blue 3) analyzing the absorption, desorption and fixing on the surface of molecules having defined cationic character. The initial dyeing rate in the first 60 s indicates an increase of 58.3% in the dyeing rate due to the effect of corona plasma on the acrylic fiber surface. At the end of the dyeing process, the plasma-treated fabrics absorb 24.7% more dye, and the K/S value of the acrylic fabric increases by 8.8%. With selected dyestuff molecules, new techniques can be designed to amplify the knowledge about plasma-treated surface modifications of macromolecules.

  15. Measurement of flow fluctuations in single longitudinal mode pulsed dye laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Rawat; N Kawade; G Sridhar; Sunita Singh; L M Gantayet

    2014-02-01

    A simple technique had been demonstrated for measuring flow-induced fluctuations in the single longitudinal mode (SLM) pulsed dye laser. Two prominent frequency components of 10.74 Hz and 48.83 Hz were present in the output of the Nd:YAG-pumped SLM dye laser. The flow-induced frequency component of 48.83 Hz was present due to the revolution per minute of the motor attached to the magnetically coupled gear pump. The time average bandwidth of 180 MHz has been obtained for this SLM dye laser. The effect of pump pulse energy on the bandwidth of the SLM dye laser was studied. The bandwidth of the SLM dye laser was increased to 285 MHz from 180 MHz, when the pump pulse energy was increased to 0.75 mJ from 0.15 mJ for a constant dye flow velocity of 0.5 m/s.

  16. Optimization of Extraction Parameters for Natural Dye from Pterocarpus santalinus by using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanthraj.K.P.M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus species has been admired for centuries for its dye, beautiful color, hardness and durability. The present study deals with the extraction of natural dye from Pterocarpus wood materials. Response surface methodology was used to study the optimal conditions for the extraction of dye. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting natural dye extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for dye extraction by different techniques such as Solvent, Ultrasonic and Microwave extraction method. Microwave assisted extraction method showed the highest natural dye yield percentage which is 50.0 for ethyl acetate solvent and 50.2 for methanol solvent.

  17. Visual Detection and Determination of Melamine Using Synthetic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Thimmasandra Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used spectroscopic technique for the detection of melamine. The effect of melamine on the colour as well as the pH of bromophenol, methyl red and alizarin red dye solutions was examined at different mole ratios. It is found that we observe color transition and the absorption maxima for bromophenol were at 598 nm, while for methyl red, and alizarin red-S dye they are at 520 nm and 423 nm, respectively. We observe an increase in the absorption intensities at 598 nm with increase in the concentration of melamine in bromophenol blue dye. The absorption intensities at 520 nm decreases and new peak at 420 nm emerges in methyl red dye-melamine mixture. While the absorption intensities at 420 nm decreases and 520 nm peak emerges in alizarin red S dye-melamine at higher mole ratios. The results indicate that we can choose the appropriate dye of suitable range to detect the concentration of melamine from 3 to 206 mg dm−3. The results demonstrate possible use of the simple method for the qualitative and quantitative detection of melamine in adulterated food samples.

  18. Quantum-chemical calculations of dye-sensitized semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P.; Lundqvist, M. J.; Nilsing, M.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Goddard, W. A., III

    2006-08-01

    Quantum chemical calculations providing detailed information of dye-sensitized semiconductor nanocrystals are presented. The calculations are used to elucidate both structural and electronic properties of photoelectrochemical devices, such as environmentally friendly Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs), at the molecular level. Quantum chemical calculations have recently been performed on both organic and organometallic dye molecules attached to titanium dioxide (TiO II) nanocrystals via different anchor and spacer groups. Strategies to make accurate quantum chemical calculations, e.g. at the DFT level of theory, on increasingly realistic models of such dye-sensitized semiconductor interfaces are presented. The ability of different anchor and spacer groups to act as mediators of ultrafast photo-induced electron injection from the dye molecules into the semiconductor nanocrystals is, in particular, discussed in terms of calculated electronic coupling strengths, and direct comparisons with experimental information are made whenever possible. Progress in the development of multi-scale simulation techniques using so called reactive force fields is illustrated for dye-sensitized solar cell systems.

  19. Cyanine-like dyes with large bond-length alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Karl J; Hales, Joel M; Kim, Hyeongeu; Ohira, Shino; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Perry, Joseph W; Anderson, Harry L

    2013-07-29

    Herein, the synthesis and properties of alkyne-bridged carbocations, which are analogous in structure to cyanine dyes, are reported. An alkene-bridged dye, linked at the third position of the indole, was also synthesized as a reference compound. These new carbocations are stable under ambient conditions, allowing characterization by UV/Vis and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopies. These techniques revealed a large degree of delocalization of the positive charge, similar to a previously reported porphyrin carbocation. The linear and nonlinear optical properties are compared with cyanine dyes and triarylmethyl cations, to investigate the effects of the bond-length alternation and the overall molecular geometry. The value of Re(γ), the real part of the third-order microscopic polarizability, of -1.3×10(-33)  esu for the alkyne-linked cation is comparable to that of a cyanine dye of similar length. Nondegenerate two-photon absorption spectra showed that the alkene-bridged dye exhibited characteristics of cyanines, whereas the alkyne-bridged dye is reminiscent of octupolar chromophores, such as the triarylmethyl carbocation brilliant green. Such attributes were confirmed and rationalized by quantum chemical calculations.

  20. Cell tracing dyes significantly change single cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulevich, Valentin; Shih, Yi-Ping; Lo, Su Hao; Liu, Gang-Yu

    2009-05-07

    Cell tracing dyes are very frequently utilized in cellular biology research because they provide highly sensitive fluorescent tags that do not compromise cellular functions such as growth and proliferation. In many investigations concerning cellular adhesion and mechanics, fluorescent dyes have been employed with the assumption of little impact on the results. Using the single cell compression technique developed by our team, the single cell mechanics of MDA-MB-468 and MLC-SV40 cells were investigated as a function of dye uptake. Cell tracing dyes increase living cell stiffness 3-6 times and cell-to-probe adhesion up to 7 times. These results suggest a more significant effect than toxins, such as thrombin. A simple analytical model was derived to enable the extraction of the Young's moduli of the cell membrane and cytoskeleton from the force-deformation profiles measured for individual cells. The increase in Young's modulus of the membrane is 3-7 times, which is more significant than that of the cytoskeleton (1.1-3.4 times). We propose that changes in cell mechanics upon the addition of fluorescent tracing dye are primarily due to the incorporation of amphiphilic dye molecules into the cellular plasma membrane, which increases the lateral interaction among phospholipid chains and thus enhances their rigidity and adhesion.

  1. Efficiency Investigations of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research study focuses upon the synthesis, characterization, and performances of optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic (hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells. Initially, polymer dye A was synthesized using condensation reaction between 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and polyethylenimine and was capped to ZnO nanoparticles. Size and morphology of polymer dye A capped ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using DLS, SEM, and XRD analysis. Further, the polymer dye was added to ruthenium metal complex (RuCl3 to form polymer-ruthenium composite dye B. Absorption and emission profiles of polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were further processed to solar cells using wet precipitation method under room temperature. The results of investigations revealed that, after addition of ruthenium chloride (RuCl3 metal complex dye, the light harvesting capacity of ZnO solar cell was enhanced compared to polymer dye A capped ZnO based solar cell. The polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO solar cell exhibited good photovoltaic performance with excellent cell parameters, that is, exciting open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short circuit current density (Jsc of 11.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.65. A maximum photovoltaic cell efficiency of 5.28% had been recorded under standard air mass (AM 1.5 simulated solar illuminations for polymer-ruthenium composite dye B based hybrid ZnO solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell was enhanced by 1.78% and 3.88% compared to polymer dye A (concentrated and polymer dye A (diluted capped ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. The hybrid organic/inorganic ZnO nanostructures can be implemented in a variety of optoelectronic applications in the future of clean and

  2. Direct analysis of textile fabrics and dyes using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Kristin H; Barry, Jeremy A; Muddiman, David C; Hinks, David

    2013-01-15

    The forensic analysis of textile fibers uses a variety of techniques from microscopy to spectroscopy. One such technique that is often used to identify the dye(s) within the fiber is mass spectrometry (MS). In the traditional MS method, the dye must be extracted from the fabric and the dye components are separated by chromatography prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Direct analysis of the dye from the fabric allows the omission of the lengthy sample preparation involved in extraction, thereby significantly reducing the overall analysis time. Herein, a direct analysis of dyed textile fabric was performed using the infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) source for MS. In MALDESI, an IR laser with wavelength tuned to 2.94 μm is used to desorb the dye from the fabric sample with the aid of water as the matrix. The desorbed dye molecules are then postionized by electrospray ionization (ESI). A variety of dye classes were analyzed from various fabrics with little to no sample preparation allowing for the identification of the dye mass and in some cases the fiber polymer. Those dyes that were not detected using MALDESI were also not observed by direct infusion ESI of the dye standard.

  3. Confluence Model or Resource Dilution Hypothesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories – for substantively different reasons – predict that sibship size should...

  4. Variational approach to the dilute Bose gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    1997-01-01

    We study the weakly interacting Bose gas in both two and three dimensions using a variational approach. In particular we construct the thermodynamic potential of the gas to within ladder approximation and find by minimization an accurate mean-field description of the dilute Bose gas. Using

  5. Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-08-01

    Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.

  6. Osmosis is not driven by water dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Eric M; Myers, David R

    2013-04-01

    There is a misconception among plant scientists that osmosis is driven by the tendency of solutes to dilute water. In this opinion article, we discuss the quantitative and qualitative failures of this view, and go on to review the correct kinetic picture of osmosis as it appears in physics textbooks.

  7. NIR fluorescent dyes: versatile vehicles for marker and probe applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged

    2013-02-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are increasingly used in the biological and medical field. The binding characteristics of NIR dyes to biomolecules are possibly controlled by several factors, including hydrophobicity, size and charge just to mention a few parameters. Binding characteristics of symmetric carbocyanines and found that the hydrophobic nature of the NIR dye is only partially responsible for the binding strength. Upon binding to biomolecules significant fluorescence enhancement can be observed for symmetrical carbocyanines. This fluorescence amplification facilitates the detection of the NIR dye and enhances its utility as NIR reporter. This manuscript discusses some probe and marker applications of such NIR fluorescent dyes. One application discussed here is the use of NIR dyes as markers. For labeling applications the fluorescence intensity of the NIR fluorescent label can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in nanoparticles. To decrease self quenching dyes that have relatively large Stokes' shift needs to be used. This is achieved by substituting meso position halogens with amino moiety. This substitution can also serve as a linker to covalently attach the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. We report here on the preparation of NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles that are modified with aminoreactive moieties can be used as bright fluorescent labels in bioanalytical applications. A new bioanalytical technique to detect and monitor the catalytic activity of the sulfur assimilating enzyme using NIR dyes is reported as well. In this spectroscopic bioanalytical assay a family of Fischer based n-butyl sulfonate substituted dyes that exhibit distinct variation in absorbance and fluorescence properties and strong binding to serum albumin as its

  8. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  9. Treatment of dilute methylene blue-containing wastewater by coupling sawdust adsorption and electrochemical regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, I; Chiron, C; Abdelhedi, R; Savall, A; Groenen Serrano, K

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the coupling of adsorption and electrochemical oxidation on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode to treat solutions containing dyes is studied. This coupling may be convenient for the treatment of diluted pollutant that is limited by the low rate of electrooxidation due to mass-transfer limitation. A pre-concentration step by adsorption could minimize the design of the electrochemical reactor. The adsorbent chosen was mixed with softwood sawdust, and methylene blue was chosen as the model dye molecule. Isotherms of adsorption and kinetics were investigated as well as the effects of current density and regeneration time. The BDD electrochemical oxidation of methylene blue adsorbed onto sawdust led simultaneously to its degradation and sawdust regeneration for the next adsorption. It was observed that multiple adsorption and electrochemical regeneration cycles led to an enhancement of adsorption capacity of the sawdust. This study demonstrated that adsorption–electrochemical degradation coupling offers a promising approach for the efficient elimination of organic dyes from wastewater.

  10. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Wang; gang Chen; Aimin Tang; Hongwei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp.Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together with said liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  11. Effect of Concentration on Isomerization of Rhodanine Derivatives of Merocyanine Dyes in Polar Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dimitriev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodanine derivatives of merocyanine dyes with residues of 1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indole and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline have been found to possess two molecular forms in diluted solutions of polar solvents such as dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N-methylpyrrolidinone. The first molecular form was observed to prevail at low concentrations of the dyes, normally up to 10−5 M. The second one prevails at higher concentrations and is displayed through a new band in the electronic absorption spectrum, which is red-shifted with respect to the absorption band of the first form. No similar effect was found for these dyes by use of nonpolar solvents or upon alkyl-substitution of the molecules at nitrogen atom in the rhodanine moiety. We assign the above two forms to different molecular isomers and the analogous spectral changes were shown to take place by light or heat influence which correspond to a typical isomerization effect for the related merocyanine dyes. It is discussed that the isomer transformation is facilitated by the increased mobility of the proton bonded to the nitrogen atom of the rhodanine moiety in the polar environment and the increased amount of dye-dye collisions.

  12. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO 2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-05-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell\\'s performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. (Figure Presented).

  13. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  14. Effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle on dyes biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Laura; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Alves, M.M.; Gavrilescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the biodecolourisation of two dyes, a xanthene dye, Erythrosine B (Ery B) and an azo dye, Reactive Red 51 (RR120), was investigated colourdecolourisationunder batch anaerobic conditions by using non - acclimated anaerobic granular sludge. The effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle (FN) (as adsorbent or mediator) on dyes removal was experienced.

  15. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  16. Survery on Actual Conditions of Food Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤,ひろみ

    1981-01-01

    Many food dyes are widely used as food additives in Japan, and many investigations have been pointed the problems of safety of these food dyes used in Japanese food. There are two types of commercial food dyes, one is synthetic dyes and the other is natural dyes.Recently Japanese food is not stained so colourfully, but it is stained faintly in colour near to natural food by using of mixed synthetic dyes. On their hand, many consumers have a tendency to prefer natural food dyes because they ha...

  17. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2002-01-01

    for separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  18. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara, E-mail: yuda.mechanical.engineer@student.uns.ac.id; Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Sutanto, Bayu, E-mail: bayu.sutanto@student.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Arifin, Zainal, E-mail: zainal-a@uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO} was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where E{sub red} = −0.37V, E{sub LUMO} = −4.28 eV, E{sub ox} = 1.15V, E{sub HOMO} = −5.83 eV, and E{sub band} {sub gap} = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Nonlinear optical properties and optical power limiting effect of Giemsa dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, Imad Al-Deen Hussein A.; Abdulkareem, Saif Al-Deen

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of Giemsa dye in chloroform solution for different concentrations and dye mixed with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) as a dye-doped polymer film were investigated using continuous wave (CW) low power solid-state laser (SSL) operating at wavelength of 532 nm as an excitation source. Using the single beam z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index (n2), the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(3)) of Giemsa dye were measured. The measurements reveal that both n2 and β are dependent on the dye concentration. The obtained results indicate that the Giemsa dye exhibits positive nonlinear saturable absorption (SA) and negative refraction nonlinearity, manifestation of self-defocusing effect. Optical power limiting characteristics of the Giemsa dye at different concentrations in solution and polymer film were studied. The observed large third-order optical nonlinearity of Giemsa dye confirms that Giemsa dye is a promising nonlinear material for the optical power limiting and photonic devices applications.

  1. Factor Affecting Textile Dye Removal Using Adsorbent From Activated Carbon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Razi Mohd Adib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial company such as textile, leather, cosmetics, paper and plastic generated wastewater containing large amount of dye colour. The removal of dye materials are importance as the presence of this kind of pollutant influence the quality of water and makes it aesthetically unpleasant. As their chemical structures are complicated, it is difficult to treat dyes with municipal waste treatment operations. Even a small quantity of dye does cause high visibility and undesirability. There have been various treatment technique reviewed for the removal of dye in wastewater. However, these treatment process has made it to another expensive treatment method. This review focus on the application of adsorbent in dye removal from textile wastewater as the most economical and effective method, adsorption has become the most preferred method to remove dye. The review provides literature information about different basis materials used to produce activated carbon like agricultural waste and industrial waste as well as the operational parameters factors in term of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH solution and initial dye concentration that will affect the process in removing textile dye. This review approach the low cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for replacing conventional activated carbon.

  2. 偶氮染料生产废水的处理工艺技术研究%Study on the Treatment Process Technique of Wastewater from Azo Dye Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庄; 曾光明; 高兴斋

    2001-01-01

    he wastewater of azo dye is characterized with high CODCr,high colority and complication of organic components. According to the characteristic of the wastewater, the high concentration wastewater of azo dye was firstly pre-treated by neutralization-electrolysis-ozonization process,then was compounded with low concentration wastewater in proportion,and treated by coagulating process.The whole process optimum conditions were determined as follows:pH of neutrality,10 V of electrolysis voltage,0.018 A/cm2 of electrical current density,2 h of ozonization, 250 mg/L of environment-protecting coagulant 1#,3#.The removal rates of CODCr and colority are 99.6% and 99.9% respectively. The effluent quality can reach requirements of wastewater discharge standards.%偶氮染料废水具有高CODCr、高色度、有机物成分复杂等特点。根据清污分流的原则,确定处理工艺方案为:首先对高浓度偶氮染料工艺废水采用中和—电解—臭氧氧化进行预处理后,再与低浓度废水按比例混合混凝处理。经大量工艺实验确定全流程工艺条件为:废水pH中性、电解电压10 V、电流密度0.018 A/cm2、电解时间2 h,O3氧化时间为2 h,混凝剂环保1#和3#浓度各为250 mg/L。CODCr、色度的去除率分别可以达到99.6%,99.9%。可以达标排放。

  3. Luminescence properties of dilute bismide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breddermann, B., E-mail: benjamin.breddermann@physik.uni-marburg.de [Faculty of Physics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Bäumner, A.; Koch, S.W.; Ludewig, P.; Stolz, W.; Volz, K. [Faculty of Physics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Hader, J.; Moloney, J.V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies Inc, 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, AZ 85705 (United States); Broderick, C.A.; O' Reilly, E.P. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-10-15

    Systematic photoluminescence measurements on a series of GaBi{sub x}As{sub 1−x} samples are analyzed theoretically using a fully microscopic approach. Based on sp{sup 3}s{sup ⁎} tight-binding calculations, an effective k·p model is set up and used to compute the band structure and dipole matrix elements for the experimentally investigated samples. With this input, the photoluminescence spectra are calculated using a systematic microscopic approach based on the semiconductor luminescence equations. The detailed theory-experiment comparison allows us to quantitatively characterize the experimental structures and to extract important sample parameters. - Highlights: • Measurement of photoluminescence spectra of a home grown series of dilute bismides. • Fully microscopic calculation of luminescence spectra from detailed band structure. • Quantitative experiment-theory comparison of luminescence spectra. • Thorough understanding of optoelectronic properties of dilute bismide material system. • Promising perspectives for the development of new device applications.

  4. Bond diluted anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akıncı, Ümit, E-mail: umit.akinci@deu.edu.tr

    2013-10-15

    Effects of the bond dilution on the critical temperatures, phase diagrams and the magnetization behaviors of the isotropic and anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model have been investigated in detail. For the isotropic case, bond percolation threshold values have been determined for several numbers of two (2D) and three (3D) dimensional lattices. In order to investigate the effect of the anisotropy in the exchange interaction on the results obtained for the isotropic model, a detailed investigation has been made on a honeycomb lattice. Some interesting results, such as second order reentrant phenomena in the phase diagrams have been found. - Highlights: • Anisotropic quantum Heisenberg model with bond dilution investigated. • Bond percolation threshold values given for 2D and 3D lattices in isotropic case. • Phase diagrams and ground state magnetizations investigated in detail. • Variation of the bond percolation threshold values with anisotropy determined.

  5. Bond diluted Ising model in 2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouamrane Rachid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The bond diluted Ising model is studied by Monte Carlo method. The simulation is carried out on a two dimensional square lattice with missing bonds and free boundary conditions. The aim of this work is to investigate the thermodynamical properties of this model for different disorder degree parameter σ. The critical temperature is determined from the Binder cumulant and is shown to decreases as the disorder parameter σ increases linearly.

  6. Water Metabolism of Walruses by Isotope Dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acquarone, M.; Born, E. W.; Chwalibog, A.;

    In August 2000, the hydrogen isotope dilution method was used on 7 adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) (weight: 1197±148 kg, mean±SD, range 1013-1508 kg) at a terrestrial haul-out in Northeastern Greenland to determine their body water pool sizes and body water turnover rate...... successfully be used on walruses to estimate water metabolism as well as other metabolic parameters....

  7. Visualizing Vector Fields Using Line Integral Convolution and Dye Advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Johnson, Christopher R.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1996-01-01

    We present local and global techniques to visualize three-dimensional vector field data. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) method to image the global vector field, our new algorithm allows the user to introduce colored 'dye' into the vector field to highlight local flow features. A fast algorithm is proposed that quickly recomputes the dyed LIC images. In addition, we introduce volume rendering methods that can map the LIC texture on any contour surface and/or translucent region defined by additional scalar quantities, and can follow the advection of colored dye throughout the volume.

  8. Angio-RM das artérias carótidas e vertebrais: análise de diferentes técnicas de volume e diluição de contraste em aparelho de 1,0 t e gradiente de 15 mt/m Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the carotid and vertebral arteries: analysis of different contrast volumes and dilution techniques at 1.0 T with 15 mT/m gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme C. Hartmann

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as artérias cervicais (carótidas e vertebrais por meio da angio-RM, utilizando-se diferentes dosagens e diluições de contraste paramagnético. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo em 15 pacientes, com análise de 30 artérias carótidas comuns, 30 artérias carótidas internas, 30 artérias carótidas externas e 30 artérias vertebrais, utilizando-se diferentes volumes e dosagens de contraste paramagnético: grupo I - dose única (14 ml de Gd-DTPA; grupo II -dose dupla (28 ml de Gd-DTPA; grupo III - dose única e diluída a 50%. A injeção de contraste foi realizada com a utilização de bomba injetora e com velocidades de injeção de 2 ml/s (grupo I e 3 ml/s (grupos II e III. Os segmentos arteriais foram analisados por três examinadores em consenso de forma subjetiva, avaliando-se o grau de visibilidade, intensidade de contrastação e definição de seus contornos. RESULTADOS: Em todos os itens analisados os pacientes do grupo II apresentaram melhor resultado (visibilização total, boa contrastação dos vasos e contornos bem definidos. No grupo I houve boa visibilização das artérias carótidas e vertebrais, porém a intensidade de contraste e a definição dos contornos apresentaram variabilidade qualitativa. O grupo III apresentou os piores resultados, com dificuldade de visibilização, intensidade de contrastação baixa e contornos mal definidos. CONCLUSÃO: Entre os grupos analisados, a técnica utilizando dose dupla de gadolínio é a que permite melhor avaliação das artérias cervicais. A utilização de contraste diluído prejudica a avaliação dos vasos do pescoço.PURPOSE: To evaluate the carotid and vertebral arteries by magnetic resonance angiography, using different contrast volumes and dilution techniques. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prospective study of 15 patients, which included the evaluation of 30 common carotid arteries, 30 internal carotid arteries, 30 external carotid arteries and 30

  9. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  10. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hitesh Sharma; S Prakash

    2007-04-01

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and Harrison interatomic potential is used to calculate the atomic force constants, the dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces. We have thoroughly investigated the atomic displacements using impurities from 3d, 4d and 5d series in the same host metal and the same impurity in different hosts. We have observed a systematic pattern in the atomic displacements for Cr-, Fe-, Nb-, Mo-, Ta- and W-based dilute alloys. The atomic displacements are found to increase with increase in the number of d electrons for all alloys considered except for V dilute alloys. The 3d impurities are found to be more easily dissolved in the 3d host metals than 4d or 5d TMs whereas 4d and 5d impurities show more solubility in 4d and 5d TMs. In general, the relaxation energy calculation suggests that impurities may be easily solvable in 5d TM hosts when compared to 3d or 4d TMs.

  11. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  12. Triplet losses in dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczynski, A.; Kossakowski, A.; Marszalek, T. (Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland). Instytut Fizyki)

    1977-01-01

    The expression for losses due to triplet states in dye laser considered as a six-level system is given. It is shown that triplet losses depend on pumping parameters and photon number. Depending on molecular and cavity parameters two differe types of behavior of dye lasers are expected. Physical conditions are discussed in which triplet losses as well as photon number undergo a jump at the threshold.

  13. Research on the technique application of the treatment and reuse of dyeing wastewater%印染废水处理与回用技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇庆; 马楫; 宋小康; 余杰

    2016-01-01

    The combined process,air flotation-membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis system,has been used for the advanced treatment and reuse of dyeing wastewater. Organic pollutants can be removed by the air flotation and mem-brane bioreactor,and the residual organic substances and salinity can be removed by the RO system. The actual op-eration results show that the water quality of RO fresh water can meet the requirements for the water used in techno-logical processes. The water quality of RO concentrated water can reach the 3rd level requirements specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard(GB 8976—1996).%采用气浮、膜生物反应器(MBR)与反渗透(RO)组合工艺,对某印染企业生产废水进行深度处理和回用。通过气浮、MBR去除有机污染物,利用RO系统去除剩余的有机物和盐分。实际运行结果表明,RO淡水水质可满足企业生产工艺用水要求,RO浓水水质达到了《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978—1996)的三级标准。

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and electrochemical studies on thiazolyl azo based disperse dyes bearing coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkütük, Müjgan; İpek, Ezgi; Aydıner, Burcu; Mamaş, Serhat; Seferoğlu, Zeynel

    2016-03-01

    In this study, seven novel thiazolyl azo disperse dyes (6a-g) were synthesized and fully characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectral techniques. The electronic absorption spectra of the dyes in solvents of different polarities cover a λmax range of 404-512 nm. The absorption properties of the dyes changed drastically upon acidification. This was due to the protonation of the nitrogen in the thiazole ring, which in turn increased the donor-acceptor interplay of the π system in the dyes, and therefore increased the absorption properties of the prepared dyes. Thermal analysis showed that these dyes are thermal stable up to 269 °C. Additionally, the electrochemical behavior of the dyes (6a-g) were investigated using cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques, in the presence of 0.10 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate, in dimethylsulfoxide, at a glassy carbon electrode. The number of transferred electrons, and the diffusion coefficient were determined by electrochemical methods. The results showed that, for all the dyes, one oxidation peak and two reduction peaks were observed.

  15. Removal of Color from Different Dye Wastewater by Using Ferric Oxide as an Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik H. Gonawala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are colored organic compounds that are used to impart colour to various substrates including paper, leather, fur, hair, drugs, cosmetics, waxes, greases, plastics and textile materials. The discharges of industrial wastewater containing dyes cause serious environmental problems. There are many colour removal techniques amongst which adsorption process is popular. Many removal techniques have been applied. But, adsorption process is inexpensive and readily available to control the various pollutants from the water and wastewater. The practical performance evaluation in batch reactor is carried out because of its feasibility and simplicity in action and also involving less economic aspects. Present work is carried out on colarane blue BGFS Anthraquinone dye. Powdered Fe2O3 has been used for dye removal practical. It was observed that maximum dye removal efficiency at pH 2 with Fe2O3 dosage of 0.3 gm and initial concentration is 125 ppm. Practicals were also carried out on actual wastewater. The work is right now done with the synthetic dye wastewater and will be focused with different parameters. The percentage removal efficiency by powdered Fe2O3, the dye waste water under experiment will be calculated. Kinetic study and adsorption study for dye wastewater under consideration.

  16. Isotopic Dilution Analysis and Secular Equilibrium Study: Two Complementary Radiochemistry Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Lipford, Levin C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a complementary pair of radiochemistry experiments for instruction of isotopic dilution analysis and secular equilibrium. Both experiments use the readily available cesium-137 nuclide and the simple precipitation technique for cesium with the tetraphenylborate anion. Procedures used and typical results obtained are provided and…

  17. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.

  18. Degradation of textile dyes mediated by plant peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Nair, R Aswathi; Abraham, T Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The peroxidase enzyme from the plants Ipomea palmata (1.003 IU/g of leaf) and Saccharum spontaneum (3.6 IU/g of leaf) can be used as an alternative to the commercial source of horseradish and soybean peroxidase enzyme for the decolorization of textile dyes, mainly azo dyes. Eight textiles dyes currently used by the industry and seven other dyes were selected for decolorization studies at 25-200 mg/L levels using these plant enzymes. The enzymes were purified prior to use by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic techniques. Peroxidase of S. spontaneum leaf (specific activity of 0.23 IU/mg) could completely degrade Supranol Green and Procion Green HE-4BD (100%) dyes within 1 h, whereas Direct Blue, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G and Chrysoidine were degraded >70% in 1 h. Peroxidase of Ipomea (I. palmata leaf; specific activity of 0.827 U/mg) degraded 50 mg/L of the dyes Methyl Orange (26%), Crystal Violet (36%), and Supranol Green (68%) in 2-4 h and Brilliant Green (54%), Direct Blue (15%), and Chrysoidine (44%) at the 25 mg/L level in 1 to 2 h of treatment. The Saccharum peroxidase was immobilized on a hydrophobic matrix. Four textile dyes, Procion Navy Blue HER, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G, Procion Green HE-4BD, and Supranol Green, at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L were completely degraded within 8 h by the enzyme immobilized on the modified polyethylene matrix. The immobilized enzyme was used in a batch reactor for the degradation of Procion Green HE-4BD and the reusability was studied for 15 cycles, and the half-life was found to be 60 h.

  19. Recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.

  20. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  1. Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom A.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

  2. Molecular analysis of two mouse dilute locus deletion mutations: Spontaneous dilute lethal20J and radiation-induced dilute prenatal lethal Aa2 alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, M.C.; Seperack, P.K.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. (National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research Facility, MD (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The dilute (d) coat color locus of mouse chromosome 9 has been identified by more than 200 spontaneous and mutagen-induced recessive mutations. With the advent of molecular probes for this locus, the molecular lesion associated with different dilute alleles can be recognized and precisely defined. In this study, two dilute mutations, dilute-lethal20J (dl20J) and dilute prenatal lethal Aa2, have been examined. Using a dilute locus genomic probe in Southern blot analysis, we detected unique restriction fragments in dl20J and Aa2 DNA. Subsequent analysis of these fragments showed that they represented deletion breakpoint fusion fragments. DNA sequence analysis of each mutation-associated deletion breakpoint fusion fragment suggests that both genomic deletions were generated by nonhomologous recombination events. The spontaneous dl20J mutation is caused by an interstitial deletion that removes a single coding exon of the dilute gene. The correlation between this discrete deletion and the expression of all dilute-associated phenotypes in dl20J homozygotes defines the dl20J mutation as a functional null allele of the dilute gene. The radiation-induced Aa2 allele is a multilocus deletion that, by complementation analysis, affects both the dilute locus and the proximal prenatal lethal-3 (pl-3) functional unit. Molecular analysis of the Aa2 deletion breakpoint fusion fragment has provided access to a previously undefined gene proximal to d. Initial characterization of this new gene suggests that it may represent the genetically defined pl-3 functional unit.

  3. Au/TiO2 Reusable Photocatalysts for Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silija Padikkaparambil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanogold doped TiO2 catalysts are synthesized, and their application in the photodegradation of dye pollutants is studied. The materials are characterized using different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed the strong interaction between the metallic gold nanoparticles and the anatase TiO2 support. Au doped systems showed very good photoactivity in the degradation of dye pollutants under UV irradiation as well as in sunlight. A simple mechanism is proposed for explaining the excellent photoactivity of the systems. The reusability studies of the photocatalysts exhibited more than 98% degradation of the dye even after 10 repeated cycles.

  4. Fabrication, Optimization and Characterization of Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Kang, Hyeonggon; Sheikh, Tajbik; Yadav, Sunil; Chavez-Gil, Tulio; Nesbitt, Fred; Uddin, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The dyes extracted from pomegranate and berry fruits were successfully used in the fabrication of natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSC). The morphology, porosity, surface roughness, thickness, absorption and emission characteristics of the pomegranate dye sensitized photo-anode were studied using various analytical techniques including FESEM, EDS, TEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy. Pomegranate dye extract has been shown to contain anthocyanin which is an excellent light harvesting pigment needed for the generation of charge carriers for the production of electricity. The solar cell’s photovoltic performance in terms of efficiency, voltage, and current was tested with a standard illumination of air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) having an irradiance of 100 mW/cm2. After optimization of the photo-anode and counter electrode, a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2%, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.39 mV, and a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 12.2 mA/cm2 were obtained. Impedance determination showed a relatively low charge-transfer resistance (17.44 Ω) and a long lifetime, signifying a reduction in recombination losses. The relatively enhanced efficiency is attributable in part to the use of a highly concentrated pomegranate dye, graphite counter electrode and TiCl4 treatment of the photo-anode. PMID:28128369

  5. Fabrication, Optimization and Characterization of Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Kang, Hyeonggon; Sheikh, Tajbik; Yadav, Sunil; Chavez-Gil, Tulio; Nesbitt, Fred; Uddin, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The dyes extracted from pomegranate and berry fruits were successfully used in the fabrication of natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSC). The morphology, porosity, surface roughness, thickness, absorption and emission characteristics of the pomegranate dye sensitized photo-anode were studied using various analytical techniques including FESEM, EDS, TEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy. Pomegranate dye extract has been shown to contain anthocyanin which is an excellent light harvesting pigment needed for the generation of charge carriers for the production of electricity. The solar cell’s photovoltic performance in terms of efficiency, voltage, and current was tested with a standard illumination of air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) having an irradiance of 100 mW/cm2. After optimization of the photo-anode and counter electrode, a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2%, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.39 mV, and a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 12.2 mA/cm2 were obtained. Impedance determination showed a relatively low charge-transfer resistance (17.44 Ω) and a long lifetime, signifying a reduction in recombination losses. The relatively enhanced efficiency is attributable in part to the use of a highly concentrated pomegranate dye, graphite counter electrode and TiCl4 treatment of the photo-anode.

  6. Use of image analysis for monitoring the dilution of Physalis peruviana pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Licodiedoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop linear models using the image analysis coupled with density measurements to monitor the dilution of the Physalis juice in the concentrations ranging from 0 to 100% in mass of juice pulp. A sample corresponding to 20% in the mass of juice pulp was for validating purposes and a prediction of 19.9±0.3%. The models with three parameters showed the best predictions, providing this technique with a promising future for the monitoring the dilution of fruit juices.

  7. Efficient isolation of multiphoton processes and detection of collective states in dilute samples

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique to sensitively and selectively isolate multiple-quantum coherences in a femtosecond pump-probe setup is presented. Detecting incoherent observables and imparting lock-in amplification, even weak signals of highly dilute samples can be acquired. Applying this method, efficient isolation of one- and two-photon transitions in a rubidium-doped helium droplet beam experiment is demonstrated and collective resonances up to fourth order are observed in a potassium vapor for the first time. Our approach provides new perspectives for coherent experiments in the deep UV and novel multidimensional spectroscopy schemes, in particular when selective detection of particles in dilute gas-phase targets is possible.

  8. Photocatalytic Removal of Azo Dye and Anthraquinone DyeUsing TiO2 Immobilised on Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 immobilized on different supports; cement and ceramic tile, was studied to decolorize two commercial dyes. The catalyst was immobilised by two different techniques, namely, slurry method on ceramic tile and powder scattering on cement. The degradation of the dyes was carried out using UV and solar irradiation. The comparative efficiency of the catalyst immobilised on two different supports was determined. The photodegradation process was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The catalyst immobilised on ceramic tile was found to be better than the catalyst immobilised on cement. Experimental results showed that both illumination and the catalyst were necessary for the degradation of the dyes and UV irradiation is more efficient compared to solar irradiation.

  9. EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil and nalidixic acid associated with serial dilution technique used to recover Leptospira spp from experimentally contaminated bovine semen Meio de EMJH com 5-fluorouracil e ácido nalidíxico associado a técnica das diluições seriadas usados para recuperar Leptospira spp do sêmen bovino experimentalmente contaminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Miraglia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine semen experimentally contaminated with Leptospira santarosai serovar Guaricura was submitted to the modified EMJH medium with 5-fluorouracil (300mg/L and nalidixic acid (20mg/L, named as "selective medium" and using the serial dilution technique, in order to evaluate the percentage of recovery of the added microorganism. The selective EMJH medium was found with higher percentage of recovery of leptospiras and minor losses of samples due to contamination with opportunistic microorganisms than the non-selective EMJH medium: 151/376 (40.0% of positive growth; and 38/376 (10.0% contamination and 58/376 (15% and 129/376 (34.0%, respectively. These results were statistically significant (pSêmen bovino experimentalmente contaminado com a estirpe Leptospira santarosai Sorovar Guaricura foi utilizado para verificar a porcentagem de recuperação de leptospiras, utilizando o meio de EMJH com 5-fluorouracil (300 mg/L e ácido nalidíxico (20 mg/L, denominado "meio seletivo", associado à técnica das diluições seriadas. O meio seletivo EMJH foi encontrado com porcentagem de recuperação mais elevada e com menos perda de amostras devido à contaminação com microorganismos oportunistas quando comparado com o meio EMJH não seletivo, que foram encontrados, respectivamente, com 151/376 (40.0% de crescimento positivo e 38/376 (10.0% de contaminação, 58/376 (15% e 129/376 (34.0%. Estes resultados foram estatíticamente significantes (p<0, 0001; Fisher. Diferenças foram encontradas quando as freqüências de leptospiras recuperadas foram comparadas com a técnica de diluição seriada (10-1 a 10-4 e entre os meios seletivo e não-seletivo, em diferentes níveis de diluição. À diluição de 1/10, as porcentagens encontradas foram (0%, 0/80 e (38%, 30/80; à diluição 1/100, (3%, 2/80 e (49%, 39/80; e à diluição 1/1000, (25%, 20/80 e (50%, 40/80, respectivamente. A porcentagem de recuperação de leptospiras foi diretamente proporcional

  10. Determining PCDDs/PCDFs in Combustion-residue of An Open-burning Municipal Waste Site and Its Peripheral Soil with Isotope Dilution HRGC/HRMS Technique%用HRGC/HRMS测定开放式生活垃圾焚烧残余物及周边土壤中的PCDDs/PCDFs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素坤; 李晓明; 彭平安; 任曼; 麦碧娴; 盛国英; 傅家谟

    2009-01-01

    以广东省东南沿海某开放式生活垃圾焚烧场为研究对象,用高分辨气相色谱/高分辨质谱同位素稀释法测定了垃圾焚烧场底灰、焚烧残余物及周边土壤中的多氯代二苯并对二嗯英和多氯代二苯并呋喃(PCDDs/PCDFs).结果表明,PCDDs/PCDFs的总浓度为161~4 670 ng·kg~(-1),毒性当量为1.10~45.8 ngWHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1),其中采自垃圾焚烧场的3个样品浓度为30~45 ngWHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1),剩余的土壤样品中有3个样品其浓度为4~35 ng WHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1),其余的2个样品浓度<4 ng WHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1).对比加拿大的土壤指导性标准,75%的测定样品浓度高于该标准,即土壤背景浓度,有25%的样品低于此背景浓度.将垃圾焚烧场焚烧残余物作为土壤改良剂造成受施土壤的PCDDs/PCDFs污染严重,需引起有关部门的高度重视.%An open-burning municipal waste site located in the southeast coast of Guangdong Province was taken as the subject for this study, and the technique of isotope dilution featuring high resolution gas chromatogram/high resolution mass spectrogram(HRGC/HRMS) was used to determine the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDDs/PCDFs) in the bottom ash and combustion-residue of the waste incineration site and in the peripheral soil. As shown by the analytical results, the total concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs was 161~4670 ng·kg~(-1), which corresponded to a toxic equivalent of 1.10~45.8 ngWHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1). The concentration for three samples collected from the waste incineration site ranged between 30~45 ngWHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1). In regard to the peripheral soil samples, three samples concentrations 4~35 ng WHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1), while the remaining two samples concentrations were lower than 4 ng WHO_(1998)-TEQ·kg~(-1). Based on the Canadian guideline for soil quality, 75% of the samples tested in our study concentrations were greater than the

  11. 分散固相萃取-同位素稀释高分辨质谱法测定植物油中16种邻苯二甲酸酯%Determination of 16 phthalate esters in vegetable oils by dispersive solid phase extraction-high resolution mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈达炜; 赵晓雪; 赵云峰; 苗虹

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用高效液相色谱-四级杆/静电场轨道阱高分辨质谱建立分散固相萃取法(dispersive solid phase extraction, d-SPE)快速分析植物油中16种邻苯二甲酸酯(Phthalate esters, PAEs)的检测方法。方法样品采用正己烷饱和的乙腈提取,经N-丙基乙二胺(primary secondary amine, PSA)和Nano Carb填料分散固相萃取净化,以BEH phenyl色谱柱为分析柱,0.1%甲酸乙腈及0.1%甲酸水溶液作为流动相进行梯度洗脱分离。采用正离子采集模式对植物油样品进行快速筛查,并对16种PAEs进行定量测定。结果16种PAEs在2~500μg/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,回归系数(r)大于0.995,该方法的定量限为8~10μg/kg。在不同加标水平下的平均回收率为77.9%~115.6%,相对标准偏差为0.3%~8.9%。结论本方法简单、灵敏、准确,适用于植物油中PAEs的快速筛查和定量测定。%Objective To establish a dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE)/high-resolution benchtop Q exactive mass spectrometry (HRMS) method for the rapid analysis of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs). Methods The samples were extracted with acetonitrile saturated with hexane, and cleaned up by d-SPE with the N-propyl ethlene diamine (PSA) and Nano Carb as the sorbents. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a BEH phenyl column with 0.1%formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1%formic acid solution as the mobile phase and a gradient elution program was used. The PAEs were analyzed in positive mode by Q exactive high-resolution mass spectrometry, which were applied in rapid analysis of PAEs for vegetable oils. 16 PAEs analytes were screened qualitatively in the vegetable oil samples and then quantified by isotope dilution technique. Results All the target 16 PAEs showed a good linearity in the range of 2~500μg/L , and the aver-age recovery rates of the spiked vegetable oil samples were in the range of 77.9%~115.6%with the RSD in the range of 0.3%-8.9%. The limit of quantification (LOQ

  12. EXAFS, ab Initio Molecular Dynamics, and NICIS Spectroscopy Studies on an Organic Dye Model at the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrode Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Johansson, Viktor; Trilaksana, Herri; Rosdahl, Jan; Andersson, Gunther G; Kloo, Lars

    2017-06-14

    The organization of dye molecules in the dye layer adsorbed on the semiconductor substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells has been studied using a combination of theoretical methods and experimental techniques. The model system is based on the simple D-π-A dye L0, which has been chemically modified by substituting the acceptor group CN with Br (L0Br) to offer better X-ray contrast. Experimental EXAFS data based on the Br K-edge backscattering show no obvious difference between dye-sensitized titania powder and titania film samples, thus allowing model systems to be based on powder slurries. Ab initio molecular dynamic (aiMD) calculations have been performed to extract less biased information from the experimental EXASF data. Using the aiMD calculation as input, the EXAFS structural models can be generated a priori that match the experimental data. Our study shows that the L0Br dye adsorbs in the trans-L0Br configuration and that adsorption involves both a proximity to other L0Br dye molecules and the titanium atoms in the TiO2 substrate. These results indicate direct coordination of the dye molecules to the TiO2 surface in contrast to previous results on metal-organic dyes. The molecular coverage of L0Br on mesoporous TiO2 was also estimated using NICIS spectroscopy. The NICISS results emphasized that the L0Br dye on nanoporous titania mainly forms monolayers with a small contribution of multilayer coverage.

  13. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.

  14. Novel cyanine dyes and homodimeric styryl dyes as fluorescent probes for assessment of lactic acid bacteria cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropcheva, Rositsa; Lesev, Nedyalko; Danova, Svetla; Stoitsova, Stoyanka; Kaloyanova, Stefka

    2015-02-01

    Innovations in labeling techniques and in the design and synthesis of dye structures are closely related to the development of service equipment such as light sources and detection methods. Novel styryl homodimers and monomethine cyanine dyes were synthesized and their staining abilities for discrimination between live and dead lactic acid bacterial cells were investigated. The dyes were combined in pairs based on their excitation and emission maxima and the capacity to penetrate through cell membranes of viable bacterial cells. The absorption maxima in the same region and the large Stocks shifts of the styryl derivatives allowed viability analysis to be done with epifluorescent microscope with a very basic configuration - one light source about 480nm and one filter for the fluorescent emissions. A staining protocol was developed and applied for live/dead analysis of Bulgarian yoghurt starters. The live cells quantification by the fluorescence dyes coincided well with the results of the much more time-consuming tests by plate counting. Thus, the proposed dye combinations are appropriate for rapid viability estimation in small laboratories that may have conventional equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of dyes from industrial wastewater by polyaniline nano-composite/ Fe3O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Manteghiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To supply healthy water and remove water contaminations are one of the serious concerns of modern societies. Various techniques and methods have been used to removecontaminants from industrial wastewater. The aim of this study was to remove yellow15 dye from industrial wastewater using nano-composite/Fe3O4. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4were synthesized firstly by chemical precipitation. Nanoparticles synthesis was confirmed by XRD and SEM techniques. Then, by polyanilinedeposition on nanoparticles, polyaniline nanocomposites were prepared and its synthesis was confirmed by TEM, SEM, and FTIR techniques. In addition, the effects of various parameters, including ph, contact time, adsorbent value, and temperature were investigated and optimized in the isolation of considered dye. Kinetics studies showed that the absorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order equation and this dye adsorption isotherm follows a Langmuir Equation. The results showed that this method is an appropriate method for considered dye.

  16. Homogeneous and heterogeneous photoredox-catalyzed hydroxymethylation of ketones and keto esters: catalyst screening, chemoselectivity and dilution effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel G. Griesbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous titanium- and dye-catalyzed as well as the heterogeneous semiconductor particle-catalyzed photohydroxymethylation of ketones by methanol were investigated in order to evaluate the most active photocatalyst system. Dialkoxytitanium dichlorides are the most efficient species for chemoselective hydroxymethylation of acetophenone as well as other aromatic and aliphatic ketones. Pinacol coupling is the dominant process for semiconductor catalysis and ketone reduction dominates the Ti(OiPr4/methanol or isopropanol systems. Application of dilution effects on the TiO2 catalysis leads to an increase in hydroxymethylation at the expense of the pinacol coupling.

  17. Diffusion dynamics in microfluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  18. Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, R; Gaffer, H E

    2013-08-14

    Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric using a new antibacterial reactive dye having a modified chemical structure to the commercial reactive dye CI Reactive Red 198 were studied. This modification was carried out by replacing metanilic acid in the commercial dye with 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfadimidine). Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were achieved at 60 g/l sodium sulphate and 20 g/l sodium carbonate for both dyes. The modified dye exhibited higher substantivity, exhaustion and fixation efficiency compared to the commercial dye. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The cotton dyed with the modified dye shows higher antibacterial efficacy compared to the dyed cotton fabric using the commercial dye, especially on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. All the reactive dyeings also exhibited high fastness properties.

  19. Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsanyi, S. [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Dierigl, M.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Fodor, Z. [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Katz, S.D. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; MTA-ELTE Lenduelet Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group, Budapest (Hungary); Mages, S.W. [Rgensburg Univ. (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Nogradi, D. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; MTA-ELTE Lenduelet Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group, Budapest (Hungary); Califonia Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Redondo, J. [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Szabo, K.K. [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC)

    2015-08-15

    Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility χ(T) of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine χ(T) in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses) and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA). A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.

  20. Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Borsanyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility χ(T of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine χ(T in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA. A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.

  1. Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, S; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Mages, S W; Nogradi, D; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Szabo, K K

    2015-01-01

    Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility $\\chi(T)$ of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine $\\chi(T)$ in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses) and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA). A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.

  2. Conventional and Unconventional Pairing and Condensates in Dilute Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, John W; Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Khodel, Victor A; Shaginyan, Vasily R; Zverev, Mikhail V

    2016-01-01

    This contribution will survey recent progress toward an understanding of diverse pairing phenomena in dilute nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry, with results of potential relevance to supernova envelopes and proto-neutron stars. Application of {\\it ab initio} many-body techniques has revealed a rich array of temperature-density phase diagrams, indexed by isospin asymmetry, which feature both conventional and unconventional superfluid phases. At low density there exist a homogeneous translationally invariant BCS phase, a homogeneous LOFF phase violating translational invariance, and an inhomogeneous translationally invariant phase-separated BCS phase. The transition from the BCS to the BEC phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from weak to strong coupling, of the pairing gap, condensate wave function, and quasiparticle occupation numbers and spectra. Additionally, a schematic formal analysis of pairing in neutron matter at low to moderate densities is presented that establishes...

  3. Mode of operation in fermentation of dilute acid hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liden, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering; Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    2002-05-01

    This report describes work done to find process solution for fermentation of dilute acid hydrolyzates. The work was carried out in the period July 1997 - December 1998. Financial support was initially given by the Swedish National Board of Technical Development, but as of July 1998 support was instead given by the Swedish National Energy Agency. The main findings and achievements of the project are summarized below: 1. It has been found possible to ferment strongly inhibiting hydrolyzates from both spruce and birch using fed-batch technique, i.e. by slowly feeding hydrolyzate to the fermentor. 2. A very promising on-line control algorithm for use in fed-batch fermentation, even with varying hydrolyzate composition, has been developed and tested for a range of different substrates. Previously unreported metabolites, of possible importance in the acute inhibition of glycolysis, have been identified in studies of kinetics of conversion of the inhibitors furfural and HMF in model synthetic media.

  4. Sonochemical co-deposition of antibacterial nanoparticles and dyes on textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Perelshtein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sonochemical technique has already been proven as one of the best coating methods for stable functionalization of substrates over a wide range of applications. Here, we report for the first time on the simultaneous sonochemical dyeing and coating of textiles with antibacterial metal oxide (MO nanoparticles. In this one-step process the antibacterial nanoparticles are synthesized in situ and deposited together with dye nanoparticles on the fabric surface. It was shown that the antibacterial behavior of the metal oxides was not influenced by the presence of the dyes. Higher K/S values were achieved by sonochemical deposition of the dyes in comparison to a dip-coating (exhaustion process. The stability of the antibacterial properties and the dye fastness was studied for 72 h in saline solution aiming at medical applications.

  5. Natural dyes as sensitizers to increase the efficiency in sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Bayron; Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a sandwich type solar cell consisting of a photoelectrode, a counter electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The photo electrode comprises of a titanium dioxide semiconducting thin film grown over a glass substrate which in-turn has a transparent thin conducting layer of tin oxide film doped with fluorine (FTO) coated over it. The aim of this work is to develop photoelectrodes with different dyes to increase the efficiency of this type of solar cells. Dyes obtained from fresh sources of maqui, black myrtle, spinach and a dye mixture of spinach and spinach-maqui-myrtle were used. The technique used for the extraction of the dyes was maceration for one day, in methanol. Colourants and photoelectrodes were studied using, UV-vis spectrophotometer for their spectral properties. Their photovoltaic properties such as efficiency, fill factor, open circuit voltage and short circuit current were studied using a solar simulator and source meter unit.

  6. Sonochemical co-deposition of antibacterial nanoparticles and dyes on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelshtein, Ilana; Lipovsky, Anat; Perkas, Nina; Tzanov, Tzanko; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    The sonochemical technique has already been proven as one of the best coating methods for stable functionalization of substrates over a wide range of applications. Here, we report for the first time on the simultaneous sonochemical dyeing and coating of textiles with antibacterial metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles. In this one-step process the antibacterial nanoparticles are synthesized in situ and deposited together with dye nanoparticles on the fabric surface. It was shown that the antibacterial behavior of the metal oxides was not influenced by the presence of the dyes. Higher K/S values were achieved by sonochemical deposition of the dyes in comparison to a dip-coating (exhaustion) process. The stability of the antibacterial properties and the dye fastness was studied for 72 h in saline solution aiming at medical applications.

  7. An Overview: Recent Development of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes as Photocatalyst for Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants release into environment especially from textile industry. It is highly toxic and hazardous to the living organism; thus, the removal of these dyes prior to discharge into the environment is essential. Varieties of techniques have been employed to degrade organic dyes and heterogeneous photocatalysis involving titanium dioxide (TiO2 appears to be the most promising technology. In recent years, TiO2 nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their high surface area and extraordinary characteristics. This paper presents a critical review of recent achievements in the modification of TiO2 nanotubes for dye degradation. The photocatalytic activity on dye degradation can be further enhanced by doping with cationic or anionic dopant.

  8. Coumarin Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells - A Long-Range-Corrected Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Bryan M; 10.1063/1.3025924

    2010-01-01

    The excited-state properties in a series of coumarin solar cell dyes are investigated with a long-range-corrected (LC) functional which asymptotically incorporates Hartree-Fock exchange. Using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), we calculate excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole moments in each of the dyes as a function of the range-separation paramenter, mu. To investigate the acceptable range of mu and assess the quality of the LC-TDDFT formalism, an extensive comparison is made between LC-BLYP excitation energies and approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles (CC2) calculations. When using a properly-optimized value of mu, we find that the LC technique provides a consistent picture of charge-transfer excitations as a function of molecular size. In contrast, we find that the widely-used B3LYP hybrid functional severely overestimates excited-state dipole moments and underestimates vertical excitations energies, especially for larger dye molecules. The results ...

  9. Combustion of hythane diluted with CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraiech Ibtissem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about energy shortage and environmental protection, improving engine fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions have become major research topics in combustion and engine development. Hythane (a blend of hydrogen H2 and natural gas NG has generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. This paper describes an experimental study of the effects of CO2 addition on the stability of a turbulent jet diffusion NG-H2 flame. The mole fraction of hydrogen (% H2 in NG-H2 mixture was varied from 0% to 50%. The equivalence ratio of the hythane/CO2/air mixture was kept at stoichiometry. The results show that the lift-off height increases with the addition of CO2 at various % H2 content in hythane. However, we observe that with 20% H2, we can obtain a stable flame diluted with 40% CO2, while for 0% H2, the flame is blown out above 20% CO2. This means that the limits of flame blowing out are pushed with the additions of H2. Moreover, the results show that for %H2 content in NG-H2 fuel up to 10%, the addition of CO2 could produce lifted flame if the % CO2 is low. At higher % CO2 dilution, flame would remain attached until blow-out. This is mainly due to the fact that the dilution leads to ejection velocities very high but reactivity of the mixture does not change so the flame tends to stretch.

  10. Stable isotope dilution analysis of hydrologic samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, J.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is employed in the determination of Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Ti, and Pb in nonsaline, natural water samples by stable isotope dilution analysis. Hydrologic samples were directly analyzed without any unusual pretreatment. Interference effects related to overlapping isobars, formation of metal oxide and multiply charged ions, and matrix composition were identified and suitable methods of correction evaluated. A comparability study snowed that single-element isotope dilution analysis was only marginally better than sequential multielement isotope dilution analysis. Accuracy and precision of the single-element method were determined on the basis of results obtained for standard reference materials. The instrumental technique was shown to be ideally suited for programs associated with certification of standard reference materials.

  11. Natural Dyes as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. El-Ghamri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled using Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles as a photoelectrode and natural dyes extracted from eight natural plants as photosensitizers. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were studied using XRD, SEM and TEM characterizations. Photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and overall conversion efficiency η for the fabricated cells were determined under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. It was found that the DSSC fabricated with the extracted safflower dye as a sensitizer showed the best performance. Also, its performance increased with increasing the sintering temperature of the semiconductor electrode with highest performance at 400 °C. Moreover, it was found that a semiconductor electrode of 7.5 μm thickness yielded the highest response.

  12. Water Metabolism of Walruses by Isotope Dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acquarone, M.; Born, E. W.; Chwalibog, A.

    In August 2000, the hydrogen isotope dilution method was used on 7 adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) (weight: 1197±148 kg, mean±SD, range 1013-1508 kg) at a terrestrial haul-out in Northeastern Greenland to determine their body water pool sizes and body water turnover rates...... was sampled via an epidural catheter, at regular intervals, for up to seven hours after the initial enrichment to assess isotope equilibration in the body water pools. Five individuals returned to the haul-out after feeding trips of varying duration (158±86 hr, 44-287 hr) where they were immobilized again...

  13. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  14. Laser dye toxicity, hazards, and recommended controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosovsky, J.A.

    1983-05-06

    Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated have been categorized according to their central chemical structures. These include the xanthenes (rhodamines and fluoresceins), polymethines (cyanines and carbocyanines), coumarins, and stilbenes. A few other miscellaneous dyes that do not fall into one of these categories have also been investigated. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -5/ molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

  15. USEBILITY OF HYDROGELS IN ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGHY FOR REMOVAL OF HEAVY METAL AND DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AÇIKEL Safiye Meriç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and Dyes are very toxic and nonbiodegradable in waste waters to cause adverse health effects in human body and to induce irreversible pollution. Adsorption offers many potential advantages for removal of toxic heavy metals being flexibility in design and operation, high-quality treated effluent, reversible nature for multiple uses, and many commercially available adsorbent materials, such as activated carbon, zeolite, clay, sawdust, bark, biomass, lignin, chitosan and other polymer adsorbents. Compared to conventional adsorbent materials above, hydrogelbased adsorbents recently have attracted special attention to their highly potential for effective removal of heavy metals and dyes. Hydrogels are named “Hydrophilic Polymer” because of care for water. Hydrogels is not solved in water; however they have been swollen to their balance volume. Because of this swell behavior, they can adsorb big quantity of water in this structure. So they can term of “three sized polymers” due to protect their existing shape [9]. Hydrogels with porous structures and chemically-responsive functional groups, enable to readily capture metal ions and dyes from wastewater. Hydrogels with porous structures and chemically-responsive functional groups, enable to readily capture metal ions and dyes from wastewater. In adsorption applications, hydrogels are used in water purification, heavy metal/dying removing, controlled fertilizer released, ion exchange applications, chromatographic applications, dilute extractions, waste water treatments. This article general inform about usage of hydrogels in Dye and Heavy Metal adsorption.

  16. Diluted Equilibrium Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, Amol V; Kishimoto, Chad T; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ~ keV to ~ MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, large scale structure, and X-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ~ TeV to ~ EeV rest mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to ...

  17. Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    We present a model where sterile neutrinos with rest masses in the range ˜keV to ˜MeV can be the dark matter and be consistent with all laboratory, cosmological, and large-scale structure, as well as x-ray constraints. These sterile neutrinos are assumed to freeze out of thermal and chemical equilibrium with matter and radiation in the very early Universe, prior to an epoch of prodigious entropy generation ("dilution") from out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy particles. In this work, we consider heavy, entropy-producing particles in the ˜TeV to ˜EeV rest-mass range, possibly associated with new physics at high-energy scales. The process of dilution can give the sterile neutrinos the appropriate relic densities, but it also alters their energy spectra so that they could act like cold dark matter, despite relatively low rest masses as compared to conventional dark matter candidates. Moreover, since the model does not rely on active-sterile mixing for producing the relic density, the mixing angles can be small enough to evade current x-ray or lifetime constraints. Nevertheless, we discuss how future x-ray observations, future lepton number constraints, and future observations and sophisticated simulations of large-scale structure could, in conjunction, provide evidence for this model and/or constrain and probe its parameters.

  18. Dilute Potts model in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaofeng; Deng, Youjin; Blöte, Henk W J

    2005-11-01

    We study the two-dimensional dilute q-state Potts model by means of transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo methods. Using the random-cluster representation, we include noninteger values of q. We locate phase transitions in the three-dimensional parameter space of q, the Potts coupling K>0, and the chemical potential of the vacancies. The critical plane is found to contain a line of fixed points that divides into a critical branch and a tricritical one, just as predicted by the renormalization scenario formulated by Nienhuis et al for the dilute Potts model. The universal properties along the line of fixed points agree with the theoretical predictions. We also determine the density of the vacancies along these branches. For q=2-squareroot of 2 we obtain the phase diagram in a three-dimensional parameter space that also includes a coupling V> or = 0 between the vacancies. For q=2, the latter space contains the Blume-Capel model as a special case. We include a determination of the tricritical point of this model, as well as an analysis of percolation clusters constructed on tricritical Potts configurations for noninteger q. This percolation study is based on Monte Carlo algorithms that include local updates flipping between Potts sites and vacancies. The bond updates are performed locally for and by means of a cluster algorithm for q>1. The updates for q>1 use a number of operations per site independent of the system size.

  19. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  20. Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (φ) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  2. and dyes metabolized to benzidine were

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAB

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... intermediate in the production of various dyes, color salts and naphthols. In the past ... liver, kidney, nervous system, and various other organs of human's body ..... dye reduction: status review with emphasis on direct UV.

  3. Textile dyeing by dyestuffs of natural origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the biggest industrial consumers of water especially dye houses which utilize synthetic dyes and other chemicals. Natural dyes are generally environmental friendly and have many advantages over synthetic dyes with respect to production and application. In recent years, there has been an interest in the application of these dyes due to their bio-degradability and higher compatibility with the environment. A review of previous work in the field of applying dyestuffs of natural source as possible textile dyes is given. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes by 'natural products' in textile dyeing may be feasible and may represent not only a strategy to reduce risks and pollutants, but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses which can develop from the inclusion of ecology in trade policy.

  4. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat exchanger, either a CFV or a PDP will also function as a passive flow controller in a CVS system.... For any type of diluted exhaust flow meter, condition the flow as needed to prevent wakes, eddies... to at least 10 pipe diameters) or by using specially designed tubing bends, orifice plates or...

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of changes induced by solvent and substituent in electronic absorption spectra of some azo disperse dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Asadollah; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Farahnak, Lahya

    2012-04-01

    Five azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4'-aminoacetophenone and p-anisidine and coupling with varies N-alkylated aromatic amines. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The electronic absorption spectra of dyes are determined at room temperature in fifteen solvents with different polarities. The solvent dependent maximum absorption band shifts, were investigated using dielectric constant (ɛ), refractive index (n) and Kamlet-Taft polarity parameters (hydrogen bond donating ability (α), hydrogen bond accepting ability (β) and dipolarity/polarizability polarity scale (π*)). Acceptable agreement was found between the maximum absorption band of dyes and solvent polarity parameters especially with π*. The effect of substituents of coupler and/or diazo component on the color of dyes was investigated. The effects of acid and base on the visible absorption maxima of the dyes are also reported.

  7. Dye solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid is an alternative solvent for the water of the traditional dyeing. The solubility of dyestuff affects greatly the dyeing process. A theoretical model for predicting the dye solubility is proposed and verified experimentally. The paper concludes that the pressure has a greater impact on the dyestuff solubility than temperature, and an optimal dyeing condition is suggested for the highest distribution coefficient of dyestuff.

  8. Water in supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lai-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of water serving as entrainer on the dyeing of wool fabrics in supercritical carbon dioxide. Compared with previous supercritical dyeing methods, addition of water makes the dyeing process more effective under low temperature and low pressure. During dyeing process, dyestuff can be uniformly distributed on fabrics’s surface due to water interaction, as a result coloration is enhanced while color difference is decreased.

  9. Fong’s: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong’s Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong’s National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong’s Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  10. Adsorption of azo dyes on polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panić Vesna V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymeric adsorbents for the removal of azo dyes from solution has been reviewed. Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of azo dyes as pollutants from wastewaters of textile, paper, printing, leather, pharmaceutical and other industries has been addressed by the researchers. The wider use of already available adsorbents is restricted due to their high costs which lead to investigation and development of new materials that can be cheaper, eficient and easy regenerated. The aim of this article is to present to the readers the widespread investigations in recent years of synthetic and natural polymers as adsorbents and potential replacement of conventional adsorbents. This review presents only the data obtained using raw, hydrogel, grafted and crosslinked forms of synthetic and nature based polymers, and the discussion is limited to these polymer-based materials and their adsorption properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43009 i br. 172062.

  11. One-bath Dyeing of Polyester/Wool Blend with Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡翔; 宋心远

    2001-01-01

    The role of auxiliary LAB as vehicle in dyeing polyester/wool blends with disperse dyes is described. Dye exhaustion and bonding on polyester/wool samples are studied under different experimental conditions - the LAB amount, the temperature and pH value- to achieve optimum conditions. The results are compared with those obtained with and without conventional dyeing auxiliary products. Although dye exhaustion is higher in the presence of commercial carriers, the dye bonded increases markedly in the presence of auxiliary LAB in both fibers. The role played by auxiliary LAB in polyester/wool blend dyeing can provide a new method for this process.

  12. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  13. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women and indigo dye (fabric whitener are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+, fair (+, and poor (- and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  14. In silico designing of power conversion efficient organic lead dyes for solar cells using todays innovative approaches to assure renewable energy for future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Juganta K.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Advances in solar cell technology require designing of new organic dye sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells with high power conversion efficiency to circumvent the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cells. In silico studies including quantitative structure-property relationship analysis combined with quantum chemical analysis were employed to understand the primary electron transfer mechanism and photo-physical properties of 273 arylamine organic dyes from 11 diverse chemical families explicit to iodine electrolyte. The direct quantitative structure-property relationship models enable identification of the essential electronic and structural attributes necessary for quantifying the molecular prerequisites of 11 classes of arylamine organic dyes, responsible for high power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Tetrahydroquinoline, N,N'-dialkylaniline and indoline have been least explored classes under arylamine organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Therefore, the identified properties from the corresponding quantitative structure-property relationship models of the mentioned classes were employed in designing of "lead dyes". Followed by, a series of electrochemical and photo-physical parameters were computed for designed dyes to check the required variables for electron flow of dye-sensitized solar cells. The combined computational techniques yielded seven promising lead dyes each for all three chemical classes considered. Significant (130, 183, and 46%) increment in predicted %power conversion efficiency was observed comparing with the existing dye with highest experimental %power conversion efficiency value for tetrahydroquinoline, N,N'-dialkylaniline and indoline, respectively maintaining required electrochemical parameters.

  15. Contrast-enhanced angiographic cone-beam computed tomography without pre-diluted contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, K.I.; Kim, S.R.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, K.H.; Jeon, P. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Contrast-enhanced cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been introduced and accepted as a useful technique to evaluate delicate vascular anatomy and neurovascular stents. Current protocol for CBCT requires quantitative dilution of contrast medium to obtain adequate quality images. Here, we introduce simple methods to obtain contrast-enhanced CBCT without quantitative contrast dilution. A simple experiment was performed to estimate the change in flow rate in the internal carotid artery during the procedure. Transcranial doppler (TCD) was used to evaluate the velocity change before and after catheterization and fluid infusion. In addition, 0.3 cm{sup 3}/s (n = 3) and 0.2 cm{sup 3}/s (n = 7) contrast infusions were injected and followed by saline flushes using a 300 mmHg pressure bag to evaluate neurovascular stent and host arteries. Flow velocities changed -15 ± 6.8 % and +17 ± 5.5 % from baseline during catheterization and guiding catheter flushing with a 300 mmHg pressure bag, respectively. Evaluation of the stents and vascular structure was feasible using this technique in all patients. Quality assessment showed that the 0.2 cm{sup 3}/s contrast infusion protocol was better for evaluating the stent and host artery. Contrast-enhanced CBCT can be performed without quantitative contrast dilution. Adequate contrast dilution can be achieved with a small saline flush and normal blood flow. (orig.)

  16. In vitro Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Methods for Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, most Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing is done with ß-lactamase and agar dilution tests with common therapeutic agents. Generally, in bacteriological diagnosis laboratories in Argentina, study of antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae is based on ß-lactamase determination and agar dilution method with common therapeutic agents. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS has recently described a disk diffusion test that produces results comparable to the reference agar dilution method for antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae, using a dispersion diagram for analyzing the correlation between both techniques. We obtained 57 gonococcal isolates from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina. Antibiotic susceptibility tests using agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques were compared. The established NCCLS interpretive criteria for both susceptibility methods appeared to be applicable to domestic gonococcal strains. The correlation between the MIC's and the zones of inhibition was studied for penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, spectinomycin, cefotaxime, cephaloridine, cephalexin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and kanamycin. Dispersion diagrams showed a high correlation between both methods.

  17. New TiO2/DSAT Immobilization System for Photodegradation of Anionic and Cationic Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Izhan Nawawi Wan Ismail; S. K. Ain; R. Zaharudin; Ali H. Jawad; M. A. M. Ishak; Khudzir Ismail; Sudirman Sahid

    2015-01-01

    A new immobilized TiO2 technique was prepared by coating TiO2 solution onto double-sided adhesive tape (DSAT) as a thin layer binder without adding any organic additives. Glass plate was used as support material to immobilized TiO2/DSAT. Two different charges of dyes were applied, namely, anionic reactive red 4 (RR4) and cationic methylene blue (MB) dyes. Photocatalytic degradation of RR4 and MB dyes was observed under immobilized TiO2/DSAT with the degradation rate slightly lower and higher,...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  19. Synthesis and dyeing performance of a novel polycarboxylic acid azo dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Xu; Bing Tao Tang; Shu Fen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A novel reactive polycarboxylic acid dye was synthesized by the reaction of polymaleic anhydride (PMA) with 3-methyl-l-(4-sulfonylphenyl)-4-(4-aminophenylazo)-2-pyrazoline-5-one. The structure of the novel dye was characterized by FTIR, UV-vis and 13C NMR spectra. The dyeing properties of dye on cotton were tested, and the novel dye possessed high fixation and good fastness.

  20. Descoloration of industrial dyes and simulated textile effluents dyes by turnip peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Maria Cristina; Angelita D Corrêa; Torres, Juliana A.; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de

    2012-01-01

    The removal of important textile dyes by turnip peroxidase (TNP) was evaluated. The textile effluents besides the residual dyes contain also chemical auxiliaries such as salts, dispersing and wetting agents. The effect of these was evaluated in the removal of the dyes reactive blue 21 and reactive blue 19 by TNP in synthetic effluents. A decrease of the efficency decolorization was observed. The action of the enzyme on colour removal of dye mixture was equivalent to the dyes alone. The chemic...

  1. Stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan [Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Lebensmittelchemie der Technischen, Garching (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    The principle and applications of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) in mycotoxin analysis are critically reviewed. The general section includes historical aspects of SIDAs, the prerequisites and limitations of the use of stable isotopically labelled internal standards, and possible calibration procedures. In the application section actual SIDAs for the analysis of trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin, and ochratoxin A are presented. The syntheses and availability of labelled mycotoxins for use as internal standards is reviewed and specific advances in food analysis and toxicology are demonstrated. The review indicates that LC-MS applications, in particular, require the use of stable isotopically labelled standards to compensate for losses during clean-up and for discrimination due to ion suppression. As the commercial availability of these compounds continues to increase, SIDAs can be expected to find expanding use in mycotoxin analysis. (orig.)

  2. Diluted magnetic semiconductors with narrow band gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bo; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2016-10-01

    We propose a method to realize diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) with p - and n -type carriers by choosing host semiconductors with a narrow band gap. By employing a combination of the density function theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate such semiconductors using Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , which has a band gap of 0.2 eV. In addition, we found a nontoxic DMS Mn-doped BaZn2Sb2 , of which the Curie temperature Tc is predicted to be higher than that of Mn-doped BaZn2As2 , the Tc of which was up to 230 K in a recent experiment.

  3. Physics of Spin Casting Dilute Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Karpitschka, Stefan; Riegler, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the spin casting of dilute (ideal) binary mixtures of non-volatile solutes in volatile solvents as a prototype for evaporation-controlled processes that are increasingly used to deposit specifically structured (sub)monolayers ("evaporation-induced self-assembly"). The first analytical description of the thinning of a volatile liquid film simultaneously subject to spinning and evaporation is presented. It shows, that the duration of a spin casting process is linked to the process parameters via power laws. A diffusion-advection model leads analytically to the equation governing the spatio-temporal evolution of the internal film composition. Its solution reveals that the solute concentration enrichment, its gradient, and its time evolution are related to the process parameters via power laws. The physics behind the power laws is uncovered and discussed. This reveales universal insights into the interplay between the control parameters and their impact on the spatiotemporal evolution of the film compo...

  4. Fermi Surface of the Most Dilute Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Zhu, Zengwei; Fauqué, Benoît; Behnia, Kamran

    2013-04-01

    The origin of superconductivity in bulk SrTiO3 is a mystery since the nonmonotonous variation of the critical transition with carrier concentration defies the expectations of the crudest version of the BCS theory. Here, employing the Nernst effect, an extremely sensitive probe of tiny bulk Fermi surfaces, we show that, down to concentrations as low as 5.5×1017cm-3, the system has both a sharp Fermi surface and a superconducting ground state. The most dilute superconductor currently known therefore has a metallic normal state with a Fermi energy as little as 1.1 meV on top of a band gap as large as 3 eV. The occurrence of a superconducting instability in an extremely small, single-component, and barely anisotropic Fermi surface implies strong constraints for the identification of the pairing mechanism.

  5. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, O [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Hervieux, P-A; Manfredi, G [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: morandi@dipmat.univpm.it

    2009-07-15

    We present a dynamical model that successfully explains the observed time evolution of the magnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells after weak laser excitation. Based on the pseudo-fermion formalism and a second-order many-particle expansion of the exact p-d exchange interaction, our approach goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation. It includes both the sub-picosecond demagnetization dynamics and the slower relaxation processes that restore the initial ferromagnetic order in a nanosecond timescale. In agreement with experimental results, our numerical simulations show that, depending on the value of the initial lattice temperature, a subsequent enhancement of the total magnetization may be observed within the timescale of a few hundred picoseconds.

  6. Tunnel backfill erosion by dilute water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The goal was to estimate smectite release from tunnel backfill due to dilute groundwater pulse during post glacial conditions. The plan was to apply VTT's two different implementations (BESW{sub D} and BESW{sub S}) of well-known model of Neretnieks et al. (2009). It appeared difficult to produce repeatable results using this model in COMSOL 4.2 environment, therefore a semi-analytical approximate approach was applied, which enabled to take into account both different geometry and smectite content in tunnel backfill as compared to buffer case. The results are quite similar to buffer results due to the decreasing effect of smaller smectite content and the increasing effect of larger radius. (orig.)

  7. Stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Michael; Asam, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The principle and applications of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) in mycotoxin analysis are critically reviewed. The general section includes historical aspects of SIDAs, the prerequisites and limitations of the use of stable isotopically labelled internal standards, and possible calibration procedures. In the application section actual SIDAs for the analysis of trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, patulin, and ochratoxin A are presented. The syntheses and availability of labelled mycotoxins for use as internal standards is reviewed and specific advances in food analysis and toxicology are demonstrated. The review indicates that LC-MS applications, in particular, require the use of stable isotopically labelled standards to compensate for losses during clean-up and for discrimination due to ion suppression. As the commercial availability of these compounds continues to increase, SIDAs can be expected to find expanding use in mycotoxin analysis.

  8. Critical exponents for diluted resistor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenull, O; Janssen, H K; Oerding, K

    1999-05-01

    An approach by Stephen [Phys. Rev. B 17, 4444 (1978)] is used to investigate the critical properties of randomly diluted resistor networks near the percolation threshold by means of renormalized field theory. We reformulate an existing field theory by Harris and Lubensky [Phys. Rev. B 35, 6964 (1987)]. By a decomposition of the principal Feynman diagrams, we obtain diagrams which again can be interpreted as resistor networks. This interpretation provides for an alternative way of evaluating the Feynman diagrams for random resistor networks. We calculate the resistance crossover exponent phi up to second order in epsilon=6-d, where d is the spatial dimension. Our result phi=1+epsilon/42+4epsilon(2)/3087 verifies a previous calculation by Lubensky and Wang, which itself was based on the Potts-model formulation of the random resistor network.

  9. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Shahin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PET fabric was noticed to increase as a result of alkali treatment which may be attributed to the alteration in the hydrophobicity of polyester fibre. The most effective parameters that may affect the dye uptake of the natural dye on alkali-treated PET fabric and the final dyeing properties including dye bath pH, dyeing temperature and time were studied in details. The behaviour of the selected and used natural dye was found to be similar to that of disperse dyes. Addition of salicylic acid to the dye bath accelerated the rate of dyeing and subsequently higher colour strength was attained. Non- ionic dispersing agent was also used to ensure better dyeing uniformity and higher dispersion stability of dye liquor.

  10. Preparation of a Novel Chitosan Based Biopolymer Dye and Application in Wood Dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye possessing antibacterial properties was synthesized by reaction of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and Acid Red GR. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, degree of substitution (DS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, water solubility test, antibacterial property test, and dyeing performance, including dye uptake, color difference, and fastness. Results showed that the synthesized dye was combined by –NH3+ of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and the sulfonic group of Acid Red GR. According to the comprehensive analysis of XRD and water solubility, the introduction of the carboxymethyl group and acid dye molecule changed the structure of the chitosan from compact to loose, which improved the synthesized dye’s water solubility. However, the thermal stability of the synthesized dye was decreased. The antibacterial property of the poplar wood dyed with the synthesized dye was enhanced and its antibacterial rate, specifically against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, also increased to a rate of more than 99%. However, the dye uptake of the synthesized dye was lower than that of the original dye. Despite this, though, the dyeing effect of the synthesized dye demonstrated better water-fastness, and light-fastness than the original dye. Therefore, the novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye can be a promising product for wood dyeing.

  11. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  12. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  13. Determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique%超高效液相色谱-同位素稀释高分辨质谱法测定红葡萄酒中的18种农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈达炜; 吕冰; 丁颢; 邹建宏; 杨欣; 赵云峰; 苗虹

    2014-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 18 pesticide residues in red wine was developed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spec-trometry( UPLC-HRMS)with isotope dilution technique. The red wine samples were extracted with acetonitrile,and the extracts were cleaned up with dispersive solid phase extraction( d-SPE)using the mixture of N-propyl ethylene diamine( PSA)and C18 powder as sorbent. The extracted components were separated on a BEH C 18 column by gradient elution. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated under full scan/data dependent MS/MS( ddms 2 )and targeted selective ion monitoring( tSIM)by high resolution mass spectrometry,respectively. Carbendazim-D4,chlorpyrifos-D10,imidacloprid-D4,methoxyfenozide-D9,pyrimethanil-D5 and tebuconazole-D6 were used as the internal standards to reduce the matrix effects. The response of each pesticide showed a good linearity in the range of 0. 5-50 μg/kg with the correlation coefficient more than 0. 999. The limits of detection and quantification for the 18 pesticides in the spiked blank red wine were 0. 5 μg/kg and 1. 0 μg/kg,respectively. The recovery results with spiked blank red wine samples at the levels of 1 to 40 μg/kg were satisfactory with average recoveries of 85. 4%-117. 9% and the RSDs of 0. 5%-6. 1%. The method was applied for the determination of the red wine real samples from the market. Carbendazim, imidacloprid, pyrimethanil,tebuconazole and triadimenol were detected in the samples. The results show that the method is suitable for the rapid screening and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in red wine.%建立了采用超高效液相色谱-同位素稀释高分辨质谱法同时快速测定红葡萄酒中18种农药残留的方法。样品采用乙腈提取,以 N-丙基乙二胺(PSA)和 C18作为吸附剂的分散固相萃取法(d-SPE)进行净化,以 BEH C18色谱柱进行色谱分离,分别通过高分辨质谱的全

  14. 同位素稀释-固相萃取-超快速液相色谱/串联质谱联用法测定鳝鱼中9种雌激素%Simultaneous determination of nine estrogens in eel by ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution technique and solid-phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓红; 姚珊珊; 李小平; 赵永纲; 金米聪

    2012-01-01

    Objective Developing a rapid and sensitive analytical method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( UFLC-MS/MS) with solid-phase extraction ( SPE) for the simultaneous determination of nine estrogens (dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, hexestrol, 17-alpha-estradiol, 17-beta-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol and estradiol valerate) in eel. Methods After the sample was extracted by acetonitrile and cleaned by Waters Oasis" HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge, the UFLC separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II column ( 100mm × 2. 0mm, 2. 2μm) with a linear gradient elution program of methanol solution containing 0.04% ammonia (v/v) and 0.04% ammonia aqueous solution ( v/v) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization was applied and operated in the negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantitation was used by isotope internal standard dilution technique. Results The results showed that the limits of quantitation (LOQs, S/N(10) were in the range of 0. 07-0. 4μg/kg, the calibration curves were in good linearities for the nine analytes in the range of 0. 5-50. 0μg/L with the correlative coefficients ( r2 ) more than 0. 998 , the recoveries were between 81. 0% and 110. 0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.92%-8. 24%. Additional, the mass spectra characterization of the nine estrogens was discussed and the fragmentation pathways were speculated. Conclusion The developed method is rapid, sensitive, specific and reproducible, and adapts not only to the simultaneous determination of the nine trace estrogens including the epimer of 17-alpha-estradiol and 17-beta-estradiol but also to the identified detection in other fish tissues.%目的 建立一种快速、灵敏的鳝鱼中己二烯雌酚、己烯雌酚、雌酮、己烷雌酚、17α-雌二醇、17β-雌二醇、雌三醇、17α-炔雌醇和戊酸雌二醇等9种雌激素残留的固相萃取超快速液相色谱-串联质谱(UFLC-MS/MS

  15. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Annals of Epidemiology 2014; 24(2),151–159. [PubMed ... in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. Cancer Science 2009; 100(6):1088-1091. [PubMed Abstract] Related ...

  16. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  17. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment s...

  18. Photodissociation Dye Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    synthesis routes and experimental technique usec ip the preparation o£ these compounds are given In Appendix I. It sltouid be pointed out that these...Candidates In the following pages, we have diagrammed, and outlined the reported synthesis routes from commercially available starting materials which we...solution of spiro-(fluorene-9.3,- indazole ) (10.0 g, 37.3 mmole, 10), in 80 ml. of decalin was slowly heated to reflux (186 ) employing a magnetic

  19. Biodegradation and detoxification potential of rotating biological contactor (RBC) with Irpex lacteus for remediation of dye-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachova, Katerina; Rybkova, Zuzana; Sezimova, Hana; Cerven, Jiri; Novotny, Cenek

    2013-12-01

    Use of fungal organisms in rotating biological contactors (RBC) for bioremediation of liquid industrial wastes has so far been limited in spite of their significant biodegradation potential. The purpose was to investigate the power of RBC using Irpex lacteus for decolorization and detoxification of industrial dyes and dyeing textile liquors. Recalcitrant dye Methylene Blue (150 mg L(-1)) was decolorized within 70 days, its mutagenicity removed, and the biological toxicity decreased more than 10-fold. I. lacteus biofilm in the RBC completely decolorized within 26 and 47 days dyeing liquors containing disperse or reactive dyes adjusted to pH4.5 and 5-fold diluted with the growth medium, respectively. Their respective biological toxicity values were reduced 10- to 10(4)-fold in dependence of the test used. A battery of toxicity tests comprising Vibrio fisheri, Lemna minor and Sinapis alba was efficient to monitor the toxicity of textile dyes and wastewaters. Strong decolorization and detoxification power of RBC using I. lacteus biofilms was demonstrated.

  20. Decolorization and degradation of dyes with mediated fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Barry; Qian, Yuhui; Jellison, Jody; Richard, Mike

    2004-01-01

    A mediated Fenton system has been evaluated for decolorization of several types of dyes. The result shows that the Fenton system with a dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) chelator-mediator effectively reduced the color of a diluted solution of Carta Yellow RW liquid, Carta Yellow G liquid, and Cartasol Red 2GF liquid dye to a colorless level after 90 minutes of treatment with 100 microM iron II (Fe[II]), 100 microM DHBA, and 10 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at room temperature. Our results show that compared to a neat Fenton process, the mediated Fenton decolorization process increased the production, and therefore the effective longevity, of hydroxyl radical (OH) species to increase the decolorization efficiency. Our results suggest that application of this system would also result in an increase in dissolved oxygen (DO) in solution, which in turn would result in reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and total organic carbon (TOC).

  1. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  2. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  3. Toxicity of contaminated sediments in dilution series with control sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.K.; Landrum, P.F.; Burton, G.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Crecelius, E.A.; Byl, T.D.; Gossiaux, Duane C.; Tsymbal, V.N.; Cleveland, L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Sasson-Brickson, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of dilutions has been the foundation of our approach for assessing contaminated water, and accordingly, it may be important to establish similar or parallel approaches for sediment dilutions. Test organism responses to dilution gradients can identify the degree of necessary sediment alteration to reduce the toxicity. Using whole sediment dilutions to represent the complex interactions of in situ sediments can identify the toxicity, but the selection of the appropriate diluent for the contaminated sediment may affect the results and conclusions drawn. Contaminated whole sediments were examined to evaluate the toxicity of dilutions of sediments with a diversity of test organisms. Dilutions of the contaminated sediments were prepared with differing diluents that varied in organic carbon content, particle size distribution, and volatile solids. Studies were conducted using four macroinvertebrates and a vascular, rooted plant. Responses by some test organisms followed a sigmoidal dose-response curve, but others followed a U-shaped curve. Initial dilutions reduced toxicity as expected, but further dilution resulted in an increase in toxicity. The type of diluent used was an important factor in assessing the sediment toxicity, because the control soil reduced toxicity more effectively than sand as a diluent of the same sediment. Using sediment chemical and physical characteristics as an indicator of sediment dilution may not be as useful as chemical analysis of contaminants, but warrants further investigation.

  4. Dilution in a Dense Bottom Jet in Cross Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    A 3-dimensional numerical model describing the dilution in the near field around dense vertical jets in a cross flow is formulated and validated against laboratory experiments. The validation shows that the model reproduces the flow pattern well, though the dilution is underestimated by 20%. The ......%. The model is applied to a case study where the dilution from two vertical jets at an angle in shallow water is described. It is demonstrated that a 20% increase in dilution is possible. It is concluded that the model may become a valuable tool in diffusor design....

  5. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500... a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to dispense or serially dilute very...

  6. Analyses of beyond design basis accident homogeneous boron dilution scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kereszturi, Andras; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Trosztel, Istvan; Tota, Adam [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Budapest (Hungary); Karsa, Zoltan [NUBIKI Nuclear Safety Research Institute, Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    Homogeneous boron dilution scenarios in a VVER-440 reactor were analyzed using the coupled KIKO3D-ATHLET code. The scenarios are named ''homogeneous'' because of the very slow dilution caused by a rupture in the heat exchanger of the makeup system. Without the presented analyses, a significant contribution of the homogeneous boron dilution to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) had to be assumed in the Probabilistic Safety Analyses (PSA). According to the combined results of the presented deterministic and probabilistic analyses, the final conclusion is that boron dilution transients don't give significant contribution to the CDF for the investigated VVER-440 NPP.

  7. Dilution in a Dense Bottom Jet in Cross Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    A 3-dimensional numerical model describing the dilution in the near field around dense vertical jets in a cross flow is formulated and validated against laboratory experiments. The validation shows that the model reproduces the flow pattern well, though the dilution is underestimated by 20......%. The model is applied to a case study where the dilution from two vertical jets at an angle in shallow water is described. It is demonstrated that a 20% increase in dilution is possible. It is concluded that the model may become a valuable tool in diffusor design....

  8. Overlap amplitude and localization properties in aperiodic diluted and non-diluted direct electric transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, E.; Castro, C. E.; Cortés-Cortés, F.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we study the relationship existing between the localization properties of the diluted and non-diluted direct electrical transmission lines with the overlap amplitude Cijω = 2 | Iiω Ijω | , where Ijω is the amplitude of the electric current function at jth cell of the transmission line for the state with frequency ω. We distribute two values of inductances LA and LB, according to the generalized aperiodic Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. We find that the behavior of Ci,jω is directly related to the localization properties of the aperiodic sequences measured by the ξ normalized participation number, the Rq Rényi entropies and the μq moments. In addition, we generalize the scaling relationship for the overlap amplitude Ci,jω, i.e., =(2/N) 2 q.

  9. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  10. VISCOSITY BEHAVIOR OF PS/TOLUENE SOLUTION IN DILUTE AND EXTREMELY DILUTE CONCENTRATION REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Dengxue; ZUO Ju; CHEN Yu; NING Hui

    2003-01-01

    The influences of both the volume of PS/toluene solution in the Ubbelohde viscometer and the precision of the time measuring on the viscosity behavior in dilute and extremely diluteconcentration region are investigated It was found that the influence of the former can neglect, but that of the latter is so prominent that the data fluctuate bitterly and linearity of the curve of the reduced viscosity vs. Concentration (ηsp/c~c) becomes too bad to obey the Huggins equation down to the extremely dilute region, despite the error of the flow times △t ≤ 0.2s, which is permitted by the conventional method of viscosity measurement. Through strict mathematical analyses, it was found that thc error (E) of the reduced viscosity is in proportion and inverse proportion to △t and concentration c, respectively. So the less the concentration, the more the error is. Consequently, a lowest concentration limit cL corresponding to given experimental error may exist and it will be meaningless for further operation below cL because of the great fluctuation of the data. Therefore, itneeds to seriously reconsider the application of the conventional method of Ubbelohde viscosity measurement in the extremely dilute polymer solution under traditional conditions because of the great influence of the experimental error.

  11. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    OpenAIRE

    HINOJOSA Belén; MONTAVA Ignacio; BOU-BELDA Eva; Díaz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generate...

  13. Novel column-based protein refolding strategy using dye-ligand affinity chromatography based on macroporous biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Dong, Ping-Jun; Zhuang, Qian-Fen

    2009-05-15

    A novel column-based chromatographic protein refolding strategy was developed using dye-ligand affinity chromatography (DLAC) based on macroporous biomaterial. Chitosan-silica (CS-silica) biomaterial with macroporous surface was used as the supporting matrix for the preparation of the DLAC material. The dye-ligand Cibacron Blue F3GA (CBF) was selected as affinity handle and could be covalently immobilized to form dye-ligand affinity adsorbent (CBF-CS-silica) using the reactivity of NH(2) on CS-silica biomaterial. After the model protein catalase was denatured with 6mol/L urea, the denaturant could be rapidly removed and catalase could be successfully refolded as facilitated by the adsorption of CBF-CS-silica. The urea denaturation process and the elute condition for the chromatographic refolding were optimized by measuring tryptophan fluorescence and activity of catalase. The refolding performance of the proposed DLAC was compared with dilution refolding. The protein concentration during the proposed chromatographic refolding increased by a factor of 20 without reducing the yield achieved as compared to dilution refolding. The column-based protein refolding strategy based on dye-ligand affinity chromatography with porous biomaterial being matrix possessed potential in chromatographic refolding of protein.

  14. Van Gieson's picrofuchsin. The staining mechanisms for collagen and cytoplasm, and an examination of the dye diffusion rate model of differential staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P

    1993-01-01

    , and so puts AcF at a disadvantage compared to PA. Staining of non-collagen proteins is mainly by hydrophobic bonding, involving ionic attractions, apolar bonds, and release of water. This mode of binding is relatively strong, decreases swelling and leads to slow dye exchange. Dye binding to collagen......The staining mechanism of van Gieson's picrofuchsin was studied by use of simple protein model systems and tissue sections, and by spectrophotometry and dialysis experiments. At the endpoint of the staining reaction (equilibrium) cytoplasm is yellow. Dye dilution experiments demonstrated...... that the highest affinity in the tissue section--picrofuchsin system is between binding sites in cytoplasmic protein and acid fuchsin. Nevertheless sections that were first stained in acid fuchsin (AcF) and then in picrofuchsin ended up with cytoplasm stained yellow. It was concluded that differences in the dye...

  15. Yfiler(Ⓡ) Plus population samples and dilution series: stutters, analytic thresholds, and drop-out probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2017-03-07

    The Yfiler (Ⓡ) Plus Amplification Kit amplifies 27 Y chromosomal small tandem repeat (STR) markers. The kit has five-fluorescent dye chemistry and the improved PCR buffer system of modern STR kits. We validated the kit for accredited investigations of crime scene samples by a thorough study of kit dynamics and performance. We determined dye-dependent analytical thresholds by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and made a customised artefact filter that includes theoretical known artefacts by use of previously analysed population samples. Dilution series of known male DNA and a selection of crime scene samples were analysed with the customised thresholds and artefact filters. The Yfiler (Ⓡ) Plus Amplification Kit was sensitive giving full profiles down to 70 pg of male DNA. The balances between the fluorescent dyes as well as between loci were very good. The kit was able to produce full Y-STR profiles from crime scene samples containing small amounts of male DNA and large amounts of female DNA (although unspecific reactions were evident for very unbalanced mixtures). A decrease in the drop-out rate was found for both the dilution series and population samples, as well as a small increase in the drop-in rate for population samples, using the customised threshold and artefact filters compared to company-provided thresholds and artefact filters. The additional drop-ins were all of a nature that would be detected by inspection of the results. For the crime scene samples, large amounts of female DNA complicated the analysis by causing drop-ins of characteristic female DNA artefacts. Even though the customised analytical threshold in combination with the custom-made artefact filters gave more alleles, crime scene samples still needed special attention from the forensic geneticist.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  17. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  18. Extended-range spectroscopic pH measurement using optimized mixtures of dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, B; Gustavson, G; Van Hal, R E G; Dressaire, E; Zhdaneev, O

    2006-12-01

    The spectroscopic technique for pH measurement is a well-established laboratory technique that can give high-accuracy pH values. Recent studies have shown the advantage of this technique over standard potentiometric methods for pH measurements in fresh water and seawater and also at high temperatures and pressures. However, a limitation of the spectroscopic technique is that a single pH dye is sensitive only over a narrow pH range. We have developed optimized dye mixtures that are both sensitive and accurate over a broad pH range. The measurement is robust and simple, requires a minimum of two wavelengths, and is independent of the volume of the dye mixture added. Optimization of the dye mixture formulation to maximize accuracy in a broad range of pH involves varying both the dye type and its mole fraction and also accounting for spectral noise. This technique has been successfully applied for in situ pH measurements of oilfield formation waters.

  19. Visualizing water-conduction pathways of living trees: selection of dyes and tissue preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuzou; Okamura, Yasuko; Utsumi, Yasuhiro

    2005-03-01

    To visualize water-conduction pathways in living trees, we introduced aqueous solutions of safranin and acid fuchsin into stems of Populus sieboldii Miquel. To examine the spread of each dye in the trees, we compared several techniques for preparing tissue for light microscopy. Acid fuchsin was distributed more rapidly and more widely than safranin, reflecting differences between the dye molecules in state of ionization. We prepared some sections without allowing the dye to redissolve after it had been stabilized by freeze-drying. In these sections, the dye was observed in vessels and in some of the adjacent ray parenchyma cells. Other sections were prepared without stabilizing the dye. In these sections, acid fuchsin in the sap stream left cell walls unstained, whereas safranin stained wood fibers in the vicinity of vessels, as well as the vessels themselves, provided that the sections were mounted in glycerin, which dissolves safranin. Although stained with safranin, the wood fibers contained no water. The results indicate that stabilization of the introduced dye and subsequent preparation of tissues under conditions that avoid dye resolublilization allow accurate visualization of water-conduction pathways at the cellular level.

  20. Dye-enhanced cataract surgery. Part 2: learning critical steps of phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L; Pandey, S K; Escobar-Gomez, M; Hoddinott, D S; Apple, D J

    2000-07-01

    To use capsule dyes to enhance visualization to learn and perform various critical steps of the phacoemulsification procedure in a laboratory setting using postmortem human eyes. Center for Research on Ocular Therapeutics and Biodevices, Storm Eye Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. Indocyanine green 0.5% (ICG) and trypan blue 0.1% were used to enhance visualization for performing critical steps of phacoemulsification in 8 human eyes obtained postmortem. All eyes were prepared according to the Miyake-Apple posterior video technique. After a continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) was made, the dyes were used to enhance visualization for hydrodissection, hydrodelineation, and various maneuvers for nuclear emulsification and cortical cleanup. In 8 eyes, all the aforementioned steps were performed without using dye (control group). Both dyes helped enhance visualization during the critical steps of phacoemulsification. The use of a dye solution instead of balanced salt solution (BSS) for hydrodissection/delineation helped localize the complete plane of cleavage between the capsule and cortex and the nucleus-epinucleus complex. During various nuclear sculpting maneuvers, the use of dye helped visualization of the position of the phaco tip and its relation to the posterior capsule. It also helped localize remaining cortical fibers, facilitating complete cleaning of the capsular bag. Dye-enhanced cataract surgery was useful in learning various critical steps of phacoemulsification in a wet laboratory setting.

  1. Mechanisms and chemistry of dye adsorption on manganese oxides-modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Degs, Yehya S; Khraisheh, Majeda A M; Ahmad, Mohammad N; Allen, Stephen J

    2009-08-01

    The investigations into structural changes which occur during adsorbent modification and the adsorption mechanisms are essential for an effective design of adsorption systems. Manganese oxides were impregnated onto diatomite to form the type known as delta-birnessite. Initial investigations established the effectiveness of manganese oxides-modified diatomite (MOMD) to remove basic and reactive dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity of MOMD for methylene blue (MB), hydrolysed reactive black (RB) and hydrolysed reactive yellow (RY) was 320, 419, and 204mg/g, respectively. Various analytical techniques were used to characterise the structure and the mechanisms of the dye adsorption process onto MOMD such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectrometry (A.A.). A small shift to higher values of the d-spacing of dye/MOMD was observed indicating that a small amount of the dye molecules were intercalated in the MOMD structure and other molecules were adsorbed on the external surface of MOMD. Two mechanisms of dye adsorption onto MOMD were proposed; intercalation of the dye in the octahedral layers and adsorption of the dye on the MOMD external surface. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the MOMD structure was changed upon insertion of MB and RY with an obvious decrease in the intensity of the second main peak of the MOMD X-ray pattern.

  2. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, S.; Kerasidou, A. P.; Sone, B. T.; Diallo, A.; Mthunzi, P.; Iliopoulos, K.; Nkosi, M.; Maaza, M.; Sahraoui, B.

    2015-06-01

    Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10-21 m2 V-2 or 0.72 × 10-13 esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  3. Binding and Inhibitory Effect of the Dyes Amaranth and Tartrazine on Amyloid Fibrillation in Lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2017-02-16

    Interaction of two food colorant dyes, amaranth and tartrazine, with lysozyme was studied employing multiple biophysical techniques. The dyes exhibited hypochromic changes in the presence of lysozyme. The intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme was quenched by both dyes; amaranth was a more efficient quencher than tartrazine. The equilibrium constant of amaranth was higher than that of tartarzine. From FRET analysis, the binding distances for amaranth and tartrazine were calculated to be 4.51 and 3.93 nm, respectively. The binding was found to be dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. Both dyes induced alterations in the microenvironment surrounding the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of the protein, with the alterations being comparatively higher for the tryptophans than the tyrosines. The interaction caused significant loss in the helicity of lysozyme, the change being higher with amaranth. The binding of both dyes was exothermic. The binding of amaranth was enthalpy driven, while that of tartrazine was predominantly entropy driven. Amaranth delayed lysozyme fibrillation at 25 μM, while tartrazine had no effect even at 100 μM. Nevertheless, both dyes had a significant inhibitory effect on fibrillogenesis. The present study explores the potential antiamyloidogenic property of these azo dyes used as food colorants.

  4. Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, Bruce

    2010-06-04

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

  5. Self-assembled structure of cyanine dyes: J-aggregates characteristicson optical information storing microcrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaoli; LI Xiaowei; LAI Weidong; MENG Tao; FENG Xiaomin; ZHANG Jixian

    2006-01-01

    Dye sensitization is a fundamental function for solar cell and silver halide (AgX) microcrystal to increase the optoelectronic conversion efficiency. In this paper, the spectral properties and self-assembled structure of three types of cyanine dyes, adsorbed both on (100) surface of 0.4 μm AgBr cubic crystal and (111) surface of 1.8 μm AgBr tabular crystal, were studied with combination ofspectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Rectangular aggregation structure is formed on the crystal faces of (100) and (111) for both anionic and cationic dyes, while herringbone-stacking structure is formed by anionic-cationic dye, and a J-band spectrum is correspondingly detected. The photoelectron property of dye-sensitized samples was also investigated with microwave absorption and dielectric spectrum detection technology. After excited by a 355 nm fast-pulse laser, the photoelectron decay process of anionic-cationic dye sensitized sample is the fastest. This indicates that the affection of anionic-cationic dye aggregates to the photoelectron decay is the biggest, and the sensitization is more efficient.

  6. Microscopic Study of Static and Dynamical Properties of Dilute One-Dimensional Soft Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruzzi, M.; Galli, D. E.; Bertaina, G.

    2017-01-01

    We study static properties and the dynamical structure factor of zero-temperature dilute bosons interacting via a soft-shoulder potential in one dimension. Our approach is fully microscopic and employs state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo and analytic continuation techniques. By increasing the interaction strength, our model reproduces the Lieb-Liniger gas, the Tonks-Girardeau and the hard-rods models.

  7. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  8. Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.

    1998-01-05

    This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

  9. Single-molecule studies of oligomer extraction and uptake of dyes in poly(dimethylsiloxane) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jeffrey J; Collinson, Maryanne M; Culbertson, Christopher T; Higgins, Daniel A

    2009-12-15

    Single-molecule microscopic methods were used to probe the uptake, mobility, and entrapment of dye molecules in cured poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films as a function of oligomer extraction. The results are relevant to the use of PDMS in microfluidic separations, pervaporation, solid-phase microextraction, and nanofiltration. PDMS films were prepared by spin-casting dilute solutions of Sylgard 184 onto glass coverslips, yielding approximately 1.4 microm thick films after curing. Residual oligomers were subsequently extracted from the films by "spin extraction". In this procedure, 200 microL aliquots of isopropyl alcohol were repeatedly dropped onto the film surface and spun off at 2000 rpm. Samples extracted 5, 10, 20, and 40 times were investigated. Dye molecules were loaded into these films by spin-casting nanomolar dye solutions onto the films. Both neutral perylene diimide (N,N'-bis(butoxypropyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide) and cationic rhodamine 6G (R6G) dyes were employed. The films were imaged by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The images obtained depict nonzero populations of fixed and mobile molecules in all films. Cross-correlation methods were used to quantitatively determine the population of fixed molecules in a given region, while a Bayesian burst analysis was used to obtain the total population of molecules. The results show that the total amount of dye loaded increases with increased oligomer extraction, while the relative populations of fixed and mobile molecules decrease and increase, respectively. Bulk R6G data also show greater dye loading with increased oligomer extraction.

  10. Characterization and biological treatment of colored textile wastewaters from the typical Tunisian hat Chechia dyeing using newly isolated Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Barouni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize and investigate, for the first time, the treatment of real colored wastewaters from the artisanal dyeing of the typical Tunisian hat Chechia, using a newly isolated fungal strain. This textile effluent was a mixture called Mix of colored wastewaters from the three main types of Chechia. The major pollutant of the Mix was the toxic Azo dye Amaranth Acid or Acid Red 27. The fungal strain that made the cleanup was discovered in a Chechia dyeing wastewater’s container and identified by ITS rDNA gene sequencing. This isolated Aspergillus niger showed interesting performances on the demonstration of Chechia wastewater’s biodegradation in batch cultures. In order to understand the effect of agitation, Mix dilution and inoculum size on decolourisation and pollution removal, a full factorial experimental design 23 was set up. At the optimal conditions which were 20% inoculum size, 25% Chechia Mix dilution and an agitation of 100 rpm, Aspergillus niger was able to remove color as high as 70.18±2.84% at an initial dye concentration of 1346.6±0.01 mg/L, and to reduce COD to 74.17±14.52% at an initial COD of 4157±422 mg/L. FT-IR spectra analysis confirmed the decolourisation by biodegradation and transformation of the dyes. The treatment by the isolated Aspergillus niger could be successfully applied as a sustainable method to solve one of handicraft dyeing plants environmental management issues.

  11. Performance of the TCDQ diluter system

    CERN Document Server

    Presland, A

    2005-01-01

    A single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of the superconducting quadrupole Q4 magnets in IR6, in order to protect it and other downstream LHC machine elements from destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. The TCDQ and associated elements should also intercept spurious particles in the beam abort gap to prevent quenches from occurring during regular beam aborts, and must also intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime without provoking quenches. In this note the conceptual design of the TCDQ system is briefly presented, with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA energy deposition simulations are described, and the results discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for LHC operation, in particular for the problems associated with quenching the downstream superconducting Q4 magnet. Optio...

  12. Brewing Bokashi: Strengthening Student Skills in Dilution Theory through Fermentation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Zdor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

  13. Differences in vancomycin MIC among MRSA isolates by agar dilution and E test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Tandel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the correlation between vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC obtained by the E test technique and the Clinical And Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI agar dilution method was evaluated. A total of 53 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains were tested by both the methods in the present study. MICs of vancomycin obtained by the E test method were consistently higher (+0.5 to 2 log2 dilutions than those obtained by the agar dilution method. Out of 53 MRSA isolates, 49 isolates showed higher MIC results by E test than by agar dilution method. Three isolates showed same MIC result by both methods. Since many studies have demonstrated increased clinical failure with MRSA isolates for which vancomycin MICs are increased (>1 μg/ml but still within the susceptibility range (≤ 2 μg/ml, our findings suggest the requirement to re-look into the breakpoints for vancomycin for determining sensitivity of MRSA isolates. Guidelines should also specify the method to be used for determining the MIC.

  14. Removal of Textile Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Heterogeneous Photo-Fenton Reaction Using Modified PAN Nanofiber Fe Complex as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueting Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified PAN nanofiber Fe complex was prepared by the amidoximation and Fe coordination of PAN nanofiber was obtained using electrospinning technique and then used for the heterogeneous Fenton degradation of textile dyes as a novel catalyst. Some main factors affecting dye degradation such as Fe content of catalyst, irradiation intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, the solution pH as well as dye structure, and initial concentration were investigated. UV-Vis spectrum analysis and TOC measurement were also used to evaluate the dye degradation process. The results indicated that the modified PAN nanofiber Fe complex exhibited a much better catalytic activity for the heterogeneous Fenton degradation of textile dyes than the Fe complex prepared with conventional PAN yarns in the dark or under light irradiation. Increasing Fe content of catalyst or irradiation intensity would accelerate the dye degradation. And the highest degradation efficiency was obtained with 3.0 mmol L−1 H2O2 at pH 6. Moreover, this complex was proved to be a universal and efficient catalyst for degradation of three classes of textile dyes including azo dye, anthraquinone dye, and triphenylmethane dye. Additionally, the dye mineralization was also significantly enhanced in the presence of this complex.

  15. [Benzidine dyes and risk of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O

    1989-12-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benzidine and that the azo linkage of benzidine dyes is reduced by Escherichia coli and soil bacteria. These experimental findings were reported previously. In this report, we outline an approach to these studies. Many of the dyes used to color paper, textiles, lipstick, bait used by fishermen, as well as hair dyes, and dyes used in research, for pharmaceutical products, and by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents, have been shown to be potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. We review the literature on these dyes.

  16. Zeolite-dye micro lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO URINE DILUTION TESTS: THEIR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main physiological test currently used for evaluating renal dilution capability is the hypotonic infusion test (HIT, which also evaluates proximal and thick ascending limb of Henle´s loops (TALH function. There is another urine dilution test: oral water load test, and it is simpler than HIT. However, it has not been documented yet if oral water load test performs an adequate evaluation of proximal tubule and TAHL activity, as HIT does. Thus, we decided to evaluate if there was any significant difference between both tests by evaluating: maximum urinary dilution capability, proximal sodium clearance, and TAHL sodium reabsorption. Materials and Method: Both urine dilution evaluating tests were prospectively performed to forty healthy volunteers with the aim of measuring the following physiological parameters by them: maximum urine hypotonicity, free water clearance, proximal tubule sodium clearance, and TALH sodium reabsorption. Results: All volunteers were able to maximally dilute their urine during HIT, while only 4 volunteers (10% were not able to do it during the oral water load tests. No significant difference was documented in the three studied parameters between both tests, in those patients who were able to maximally dilute their urine (n: 36 (p= NS. In conclusion this study has documented that HIT and oral water load test showed to be adequate studies for evaluating urine dilution capability, proximal and TAHL function. However, while HIT was more effective in obtaining the maximal dilution status, the oral water load test showed to be a simpler study.

  18. Dilution in Transition Zone between Rising Plumes and Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The papers presents some physical experiments with the dilution of sea outfall plumes with emphasize on the transition zone where the relative fast flowing vertical plume turns to a horizontal surface plume following the slow sea surface currents. The experiments show that a considerable dilution...

  19. Dilution of Dense Bottom Plumes in Turbulent Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    The dilution of negatively buoyant discharges released into a turbulent current has been studied both in the laboratory and by means of advanced numerical models. The experiments showed that the dilution is mainly due to vertical turbulent mixing and depends on a buoyancy induced dispersion...

  20. Sibship Size and Gendered Resource Dilution in Different Societal Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Resource dilution theory hypothesizes that children’s educational attainment suffers from being raised with many siblings, as the parental resources have to be shared with more children. Based on economic and cultural theories, we hypothesize that resource dilution is gendered: especially a larger n

  1. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method.

  2. Decolorization of hair dye by lignocellulosic waste materials from contaminated waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib eZahir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic yellow 57 (BY57 was chosen as a model hair dye due to its prevalence in cosmetics wastewaters. This study proposes the use of lignocellulosic materials like spent tea leaves of peppermint (PM, chai tea (CT and chamomile (CM as raw adsorbents for the removal of BY57 from contaminated solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at room temperature to achieve the maximum adsorption capacity. Results indicate that the highest removal is achieved at pH 6 – 8, with a minimum adsorbent mass of 75 mg and in the absence of salinity, crowding agents and heavy metals. Adsorption equilibria were modeled according to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm theories and reported the following trend: PM>CT>CM, reaching qmax values of 105, 80, and 38 mg of dye per gram of adsorbent, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that diluted solution of HCl is able to desorb the up to 80% of the dye and recover the adsorbent to be used in consecutive cycles. Finally, the adsorbents were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, indicating that the adsorbents have a porous and heterogeneous surface, showing pockets and protrusions that are potential adsorption sites for the dye.

  3. The dilution effect on the extinction of wall diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiti Nadjib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process of the interaction between a turbulent jet diffusion methane flame and a lateral wall was experimentally studied. The evolution of the flame temperature field with the Nitrogen dilution of the methane jet flame was examined. The interaction between the diffusion flame and the lateral wall was investigated for different distance between the wall and the central axes of the jet flame. The dilution is found to play the central role in the flame extinction process. The flame response as the lateral wall approaches from infinity and the increasing of the dilution rate make the flame extinction more rapid than the flame without dilution, when the nitrogen dilution rate increase the flame temperature decrease.

  4. Dynamic dilution exponent in monodisperse entangled polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, T.; Huang, Qian; Oosterlinck, F.

    2017-01-01

    We study and model the linear viscoelastic properties of several entangled semi-dilute and concentrated solutions of linear chains of different molar masses and at different concentrations dissolved in their oligomers. We discuss the dilution effect of the oligomers on the entangled long chains...... of the long chain extremities. Then we discuss the influence of the polymer concentration on the terminal relaxation time of the solutions and how this can be modelled by the enhanced contour length fluctuation process (CR-CLF). We point out that this larger dilution effect is not only a function...... of concentration but also depends on the molar mass of the chains. While the proposed approach successfully explains the viscoelastic properties of a large number of semi-dilute solutions of polymers in their own oligomers, important discrepancies are found for semi-dilute entangled polymers in small...

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Changes Induced by Solvent and Substituent in Electronic Absorption Spectra of New Azo Disperse Dyes Containig Barbiturate Ring

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Six azo disperse dyes were prepared by diazotizing 4-amino hippuric acid and coupled with barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid. Then, the products were reacted with aromatic aldehyde, sodium acetate, and acetic anhydride, and oxazolone derivatives were formed. Characterization of the dyes was carried out by using UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The solvatochromic behavior of azo disperse dyes was evaluated in various solvents. The effects of substitu...

  6. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

  7. Study on time-resolved fluorescence dynamics of cyanine dye sensitizing AgBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra of three different dyes adsorbed on the tabular and cubic AgBr microcrystals are obtained by the picosecond time-resolved streak camera technique. The dependence of the ultrafast electron transferring from dye-aggre-gates to the conduction band of AgBr and the efficiency of spectral sensitization on different kinds of dyes with different concentrations is analyzed. Further more,the microcosmic mechanism of the sensitization process is discussed. It is found that the fluorescence decay curves are fitted very well by the double exponential func-tion,consisting of a slow component and a fast one with large amplitude. We con-sider this fast one mainly attributable to the electron transfer from dye J-aggre-gates to the conduction band of AgBr.

  8. Synthesis of a New Optoelectronic Material Based on Oriented Adsorption of Dyes to Nanoparticles Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-an; SONG Jian-ping; LI Xiu

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of the optoelectronic storage material with structure for coating by nanosized metal and azo-dye was reported. The characterization of composites was made by using transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-Vis) and thermogravity analyzer (TGA). It is found that, due to the specific structure, in which azo-dye molecules are oriented and adsorbed on the spherical surface of nanosized metal, the absorption maximum of azo-dye methyl orange shift towards shorter wavelength band. The experimental results show that the proposed technique here would offer a promising way to synthesize short wavelength optoelectronic storage material by doping of metal nanoparticles coated with dyes in polymer. Furthermore, the composites based on the structure can present excellent thermal properties suitable for the requirements of optical storage. This new type of material is capable of matching semiconductor laser (GaN) in optoelectronic storage technology.

  9. Homogeneous plate based antibody internalization assay using pH sensor fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Zimprich, Chad; Dwight, Stephen J; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Urh, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated antibody internalization is a key mechanism underlying several anti-cancer antibody therapeutics. Delivering highly toxic drugs to cancer cells, as in the case of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), efficient removal of surface receptors from cancer cells and changing the pharmacokinetics profile of the antibody drugs are some of key ways that internalization impacts the therapeutic efficacy of the antibodies. Over the years, several techniques have been used to study antibody internalization including radiolabels, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and cellular toxicity assays. While these methods allow analysis of internalization, they have limitations including a multistep process and limited throughput and are generally endpoint assays. Here, we present a new homogeneous method that enables time and concentration dependent measurements of antibody internalization. The method uses a new hydrophilic and bright pH sensor dye (pHAb dye), which is not fluorescent at neutral pH but becomes highly fluorescent at acidic pH. For receptor mediated antibody internalization studies, antibodies against receptors are conjugated with the pHAb dye and incubated with the cells expressing the receptors. Upon binding to the receptor, the dyes conjugated to the antibody are not fluorescent because of the neutral pH of the media, but upon internalization and trafficking into endosomal and lysosomal vesicles the pH drops and dyes become fluorescent. The enabling attributes of the pHAb dyes are the hydrophilic nature to minimize antibody aggregation and bright fluorescence at acidic pH which allows development of simple plate based assays using a fluorescent reader. Using two different therapeutic antibodies--Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) and Cetuximab (anti-EGFR)--we show labeling with pHAb dye using amine and thiol chemistries and impact of chemistry and dye to antibody ration on internalization. We finally present two new approaches using the pHAb dye, which will be

  10. DFT Study of the Structure, Reactivity, Natural Bond OrbitalandHyperpolarizabilityofThiazoleAzoDyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman I. Osman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure, reactivity, natural bond orbital (NBO, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO properties of three thiazole azo dyes (A, B and C were monitored by applying B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The geometrical parameters,dipolemoments,HOMO-LUMO(highestoccupiedmolecularorbital,lowestunoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps, absorption wavelengths and total hyperpolarizabilities were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 chloroform (CHCl3, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 and dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO. The donor methoxyphenyl group deviates from planarity with the thiazole azo moiety by ca. 38◦; while the acceptor dicyanovinyl, indandione and dicyanovinylindanone groups diverge by ca. 6◦. The HOMOs for the three dyes are identical. They spread over the methoxyphenyl donor moiety, the thiazole and benzene rings as π-bonding orbitals. The LUMOs are shaped up by the nature of the acceptor moieties. The LUMOs of the A, B and C dyes extend over the indandione, malononitrile and dicyanovinylindanone acceptor moieties, respectively, as π-antibonding orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO splittings showed that Dye C is much more reactive than dyes A and B. Compared to dyes A and B, Dye C yielded a longer maximum absorption wavelength because of the stabilization of its LUMOs relative to those of the other two. The three dyes show solvatochromism accompanied by significant increases in hyperpolarizability. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of C compared to those of AandBisduetothecumulativeactionofthelongπ-conjugationoftheindanoneringandthestronger electron-withdrawingabilityofthedicyanovinylmoietythatformthedicyanovinylindanoneacceptor group. These findings are facilitated by a natural bond orbital (NBO technique. The very high total hyperpolarizabilities of the three dyes define their potent nonlinear optical (NLO behaviour.

  11. Dye Photodestruction in a Solid-State Dye Laser with a Polymeric Gain Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Sergei

    1998-09-01

    The process of dye photodestruction in a solid-state dye laser is studied, and implemented is a polymeric gain medium doped with a strongly concentrated dye. The behavior of the conversion efficiency in the polymeric gain medium pumped with different laser-pulse repetition rates and the process of dye photobleaching are analyzed. The contribution of the heating of the host material into the dye molecules deactivation is discussed. The negative effect of high dye concentration on the dye stability under a high pump repetition rate is reported and analyzed for the first time to my knowledge. A comparison of the present results with recently published data demonstrates the major role of photodestruction, rather than direct thermodestruction, in the dye stability of the solid-state gain medium. The role of additives with low molecular weights in the polymeric matrix, for increasing the stability of the gain material, is discussed.

  12. Laser dye stability. Pt. 4. Photodegradation relationships for bicyclic dyes in alcohol solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, A.N. (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (USA). Research Dept.)

    1978-05-01

    Changes in the absorption of a dye laser solution are examined after excitation with a xenon flashlamp. It is found that the rate of bleaching as a function of the total input energy of coumarin or quinolone dyes in ethanol increases in direct proportion to the dye concentration. This relationship suggests that the dye reacts with a photoproduct of the solvent rather than being directly decomposed by the xenon flash. We have measured the conversion of the dye to form products, P, absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Results correspond to the dye reacting with a precursor of P to form either insoluble products or ones not absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Thus larger total amounts of bleached dye do not proportionately increase P, and hence do not proportionately inhibit lasing. Furthermore, we find that P increases with the total input energy fairly independent of the rate of bleaching for a given bicyclic dye in an alcohol solution.

  13. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  14. Biological wastewater treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1988-09-01

    EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, undertook a study to determine the fate of specific water soluble azo dye compounds in the activated sludge process (ASP). The study was approached by dosing the feed to the pilot ASP systems with various water soluble azo dyes and by monitoring each dye compound through the system, analyzing both liquid and sludge samples. The fate of the parent dye compound was assessed via mass balance calculations. These data could determine if the compound was removed by adsorption, apparent biodegradation, or not removed at all. The paper presents results for 18 dye compounds tested from June 1985 through August 1987. The study was conducted at EPAs Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the ASP.

  15. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric

  16. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  17. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  18. Adsorptive Properties of Dyes to Cellulosic Sheet and Discoloration of Dye Solution by UV-ray Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yu; Iida Ikuho; Minato Kazuya; Kurosu Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorptive properties and selectivity of dyes and water molecules to cellulosic sheet, dependence of adsorptive properties of dyes on the concentration of dye solution, and discoloration of the dye solution due to the UV-ray irradiation were determined for 18 kinds of commercial dyes. The results are as follows: 1) the adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulose sheet differed greatly, but did not depend on the dye types such as acidic, basic and so on; 2) adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulosic sheet depended on the concentration of dye solution and were classified into 4 types: concentration-independent, increasing or decreasing with dye concentration, and having a maximum. This classification was irrelevant to the dye types; 3) the irradiation of UV-ray did not cause significant discoloration of dye solution itself, which suggested that wood components as well as dye molecules influence the discoloration of wood.

  19. Effects of dietary dilution source and dilution level on feather damage, performance, behaviour, and litter condition in pullets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaisrani, S.N.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary dilution sources and levels on feather damage, performance, feeding behavior, and litter condition in rearing pullets. It was hypothesized that dietary dilution increases feeding-related behavior and improves feather condition, partic

  20. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Kinetics of Monoclonal Antibody Aggregation from Dilute toward Concentrated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Jagielski, Jakub; Pfister, David; Lazzari, Stefano; Massant, Jan; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-04-07

    Gaining understanding on the aggregation behavior of proteins under concentrated conditions is of both fundamental and industrial relevance. Here, we study the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody (mAb) under thermal stress over a wide range of protein concentrations in various buffer solutions. We follow experimentally the monomer depletion and the aggregate growth by size exclusion chromatography with inline light scattering. We describe the experimental results in the frame of a kinetic model based on population balance equations, which allows one to discriminate the contributions of the conformational and of the colloidal stabilities to the global aggregation rate. Finally, we propose an expression for the aggregation rate constant, which accounts for solution viscosity, protein-protein interactions, as well as aggregate compactness. All these effects can be quantified by light scattering techniques. It is found that the model describes well the experimental data under dilute conditions. Under concentrated conditions, good model predictions are obtained when the solution pH is far below the isoelectric point (pI) of the mAb. However, peculiar effects arise when the solution pH is increased toward the mAb pI, and possible explanations are discussed.

  2. Infiltrated Embolization of Meningioma with Dilute Cyanoacrylate Glue

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHNISHI, Hiroyuki; MIYACHI, Shigeru; MURAO, Kenichi; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; TAKAHASHI, Kenkichi; OHNISHI, Hideyuki; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    We describe the efficacy and technical aspects of infiltrated preoperative embolization of meningioma by penetration of very dilute glue. In this method, a 13% n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture is injected extremely slowly from the middle meningeal artery (MMA) in a similar manner to plug and push injection of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer mixed with tantalum and dimethyl sulfoxide (Onyx®) after the tortuous side feeders are proximally embolized. The glue is infiltrated into small tumor arteries and extends to inaccessible feeders from deep meningeal arteries. Since 2011, we have used this technique in the embolization of 32 cases preoperatively diagnosed with meningioma. Intratumoral embolization was possible in 30 cases (94%), and a greater than 50% reduction in contrast area of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging (T1-WI) was achieved in 18 cases (56%). Two cases achieved complete devascularization, showing a remarkable shrinkage in tumor size after embolization. If excessive reflux of embolization and the resulting migration of glue into normal arteries is achieved, this method provides extremely effective devascularization on surgical extirpation. It might also be applicable to surgically untreatable meningiomas as a semi-radical treatment option. PMID:27646010

  3. Uniform Doping in Quantum-Dots-Based Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Avijit; Shetty, Amitha; Pavan, A R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro; Viswanatha, Ranjani

    2016-07-01

    Effective manipulation of magnetic spin within a semiconductor leading to a search for ferromagnets with semiconducting properties has evolved into an important field of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). Although a lot of research is focused on understanding the still controversial origin of magnetism, efforts are also underway to develop new materials with higher magnetic temperatures for spintronics applications. However, so far, efforts toward quantum-dots(QDs)-based DMS materials are plagued with problems of phase separation, leading to nonuniform distribution of dopant ions. In this work, we have developed a strategy to synthesize highly crystalline, single-domain DMS system starting from a small magnetic core and allowing it to diffuse uniformly inside a thick CdS semiconductor matrix and achieve DMS QDs. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-EDX) indicates the homogeneous distribution of magnetic impurities inside the semiconductor QDs leading to superior magnetic property. Further, the versatility of this technique was demonstrated by obtaining ultra large particles (∼60 nm) with uniform doping concentration as well as demonstrating the high quality magnetic response.

  4. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  5. 1983 Annual Report on Laser Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    absorption at the lasing wavelength due to the accumula- tion of reaction products from the photodegradation of a laser dye is analyzed thioretically...Laser Dyes O by A. N. Fletcher Research DopetMrnt APRIL 1984 NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE, CALIFORNIA 93555 Appoved for ftc qesege dt"" ba n ftsd...work presented in seven open literature publications on laser dyes . This work originated within the Chemistry Division and was performed and/or

  6. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  7. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Mahmood; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zilli Huma Nazli; Tariq Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of...

  8. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Shahin; Ahmed, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET) fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PE...

  9. Sub-wavelength Lithography of Complex 2D and 3D Nanostructures without Dyes

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhary, Raghvendra P; Ummethala, Govind; Hawal, Suyog R; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    One-photon or two photon absorption by dye molecules in photopolymers enable direct 2D & 3D lithography of micro/nano structures with high spatial resolution and can be used effectively in fabricating artificially structured nanomaterials. However, the major bottleneck in unleashing the potential of this useful technique is the indispensable usage of dyes that are extremely expensive, highly toxic and usually insoluble in commercially available photopolymers. Here we report a simple, inexpensive and one-step technique for direct-writing of micro/nanostructures, with sub-wavelength resolution at extremely high speeds without using any one photon or two photon absorbing dye. We incorporated large amount (20 weight %) of inexpensive photoinitiator into the photopolymer and utilized its two-photon absorbing property for sub-wavelength patterning. Complex 2D and 3D patterns were fabricated with sub-micron resolution, in commercially available liquid photopolymer to show the impact/versatility of this technique...

  10. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  11. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them.

  12. Tunable Optofluidic Third Order DFB Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present a low-threshold polymer-based nanofluidic dye laser. By employing a third order DFB laser resonator, we demonstrate a threshold fluence of ~7 muJ/mm2 and a tunability of 45 nm using a single laser dye......We present a low-threshold polymer-based nanofluidic dye laser. By employing a third order DFB laser resonator, we demonstrate a threshold fluence of ~7 muJ/mm2 and a tunability of 45 nm using a single laser dye...

  13. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  14. Release Control of Dye from Agar Ball

    OpenAIRE

    板屋, 智之; 山村, 俊貴; 唐澤, 有太朗

    2013-01-01

    Agar is a special product of Nagano prefecture. To utilize agar gel as adsorbing or releasing material of dyes or drugs, spherical agar gel “agar ball” was prepared by dropping aqueous agar solution into salad oil. And releasing behavior of a dye (rhodamine B) from agar ball was studied. The dye is released easily from agar ball, but the release can be controlled by hybiridazation of agar and galatin. In addition, it was found that agar ball could extract the dye from oil phase containing the...

  15. The microbial degradation of azo dyes: minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengalroyen, M D; Dabbs, E R

    2013-03-01

    The removal of dyes in wastewater treatment plants still involves physical or chemical processes. Yet numerous studies currently exist on degradation based on the use of microbes-which is a well-studied field. However progress in the use of biological methods to deal with this environmentally noxious waste is currently lacking. This review focuses on the largest dye class, that is azo dyes and their biodegradation. We summarize the bacteria identified thus far which have been implicated in dye decolorization and discuss the enzymes involved and mechanisms by which these colorants are broken down.

  16. Molecular structure and reversible photodegradation in anthraquinone dyes

    CERN Document Server

    Dhakal, Prabodh

    2016-01-01

    Reversible photodegradation is a process that has been observed in several dye molecules, but the underlying mechanisms are not still well understood. In this contribution, we characterize a series of anthraquinone dyes to determine how self-healing depends on molecular structure. Past studies have used probing techniques that rely on linear absorption, two-photon fluorescence, and amplified spontaneous emission. Each of these probes provide an indirect measure of the populations of the damaged and undamaged species, requiring calibrations or assumptions to be made that might affect the accuracy of the results. The present studies use fluorescence as a probe, which is shown to directly measure the undamaged population. It is found that certain anthraquinone classes share common structural features that are associated with self healing. Furthermore, the time and temperature dependence of photodegradation and self-healing is found to be consistent with the domain model of self healing.

  17. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  18. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYEING EFFICIENCY AND RETENTION CAPACITY OF HERBAL HAIR DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingle R.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, attempts were made to make a powder herbal hair dye that gives dark brown to black colour to hair, resembling natural hair colour with better dyeing effect and greater retention capacity on comparison with marketed herbal hair dye formulation. Most of the marketed herbal hair dye formulations contain para-phenylenediamine at 20-25% concentrations which is the main ingredient of commercial synthetic dyes. It is known to trigger allergic skin reactions in many people. Ayurvedic powder hair dye devoid of any synthetic agent was prepared in present research work and evaluated for dyeing efficiency. Different combinations of powdered leaves, fruits of plants like Madayantika, Bhringraj, Amla and Nilini were evaluated as hair dyes. The polyherbal hair dye compositions containing large proportion of Nili, Mehendi and 5% Bhringraj and Amla, blended with 5% loha bhasma were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters like particle size, colour, pH, angle of repose and bulk density. Ayurvedic polyherbal powder hair dye of present investigation is semi-permanent in nature and exhibit better dyeing efficiency than marketed herbal hair dye.

  20. Synthesis, spectral features and biological activity of some novel hetarylazo dyes derived from 6-amino-1,3-dimethyluracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hessamoddin; Yahyazadeh, Asieh; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Rassa, Mehdi; Moradi-e-Rufchahi, Enayat O.'llah

    2012-05-01

    A series of hetarylazoaminouracil dyes were prepared by coupling of 6-amino-1,3-dimethyluracil with eight diazotized heterocyclic amines in nitrosyl sulphuric acid. The prepared azo dyes were characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, 13C NMR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The solvatochromism of dyes was evaluated with respect to wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax) in seven solvents with different polarities: acetic acid, methanol, water, chloroform, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl formamide. The effects of acid, base and concentration of the dye on the visible absorption spectra were also reported. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized dyes was evaluated on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus leuteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.