WorldWideScience

Sample records for dye chemistry

  1. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Chemistry of Vat Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    From prehistoric times people have been fascinated with color; from cave paintings to the latest computers, color has been a constant companion. Textiles are made more beautiful by the alteration or application of colorants. This teaching resource investigates vat dyes, a colorant class which includes the oldest dyes known as well as important…

  3. The use of supramolecular chemistry in dye delivery systems

    CERN Document Server

    Merckel, D A S

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports an investigation into supramolecular recognition of the sulfate/ sulfonate oxoanionic group, a moiety present in the majority of reactive dyes. In the first section the problems associated with the use of reactive dyes in dyeing cotton fabrics together with a literature review of supramolecular approaches to anion recognition are discussed. Drawing on the current literature concerning anion recognition (in particular the recognition of phosphates), the main body of the thesis concerns the design and synthesis of several series ofC-shaped (tweezer) and tripodal potential sulfate/ sulfonate receptors. These receptors incorporate the H-bond donor groups guanidine and thiourea and to a lesser extent urea and amide functionalities. In addition the behaviour of potential tweezer-like receptor molecules based on s-triazine (derived from cyanuric chloride) has also been investigated. The sulfate/ sulfonate and related phosphonate association properties of these potential receptors have been studie...

  4. Adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes on activated carbons with different surface chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, P C C; Orfão, J J M; Pereira, M F R

    2004-04-01

    The influence of the surface chemical groups of an activated carbon on the removal of different classes of dyes is evaluated. Starting from the same material (NORIT GAC 1240 PLUS), the following treatments were carried out in order to produce a series of samples with different surface chemical properties but with no major differences in their textural properties: oxidation in the liquid phase with 6M HNO(3) and 10 M H(2)O(2) (acid materials) and heat treatment at 700 degrees C in H(2) or N(2) flow (basic materials). The specific micropores volume and mesopores surface area of the materials were obtained from N(2) adsorption equilibrium isotherms at 77K. The surface chemistry was characterised by temperature programmed desorption, by the determination of the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) and by the evaluation of the acidity/basicity of the samples. Elemental and proximate analyses were also carried out. Equilibrium isotherms of selected dyes (an acid, a basic and a reactive dye) on the mentioned samples were obtained and the results discussed in relation to their surface chemistry. In general, the Langmuir model provided the best fit for the adsorption data. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the activated carbon plays a key role in dye adsorption performance. The basic sample obtained by thermal treatment under H(2) flow at 700 degrees C is the best material for the adsorption of all the tested dyes.

  5. The Chemistry of Food Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    Dyes aren't just for fabrics--colorants have been added to food for centuries to enhance its appearance. This monograph and teaching guide investigates both the compounds that give foods their natural color and synthetic colorants currently approved for use in foods. Problem-solving inquiry based activities involve high school level students in…

  6. The Chemistry of Natural Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    From prehistoric times people have been fascinated with color; from cave paintings to the latest computers, color has been a constant companion. Textiles and craft items are made more beautiful by the alteration or application of colorants. This teaching resource investigates dyes obtained from natural sources, such as plants and animals. These…

  7. The Chemistry of Food Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    Dyes aren't just for fabrics--colorants have been added to food for centuries to enhance its appearance. This monograph and teaching guide investigates both the compounds that give foods their natural color and synthetic colorants currently approved for use in foods. Problem-solving inquiry based activities involve high school level students in…

  8. The Chemistry of Natural Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    From prehistoric times people have been fascinated with color; from cave paintings to the latest computers, color has been a constant companion. Textiles and craft items are made more beautiful by the alteration or application of colorants. This teaching resource investigates dyes obtained from natural sources, such as plants and animals. These…

  9. Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

  10. Linear Dichroism of Cyanine Dyes in Stretched Polyvinyl Alcohol Films: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, L. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information, procedures, and results of an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on the polarization of absorption spectra of cyanine dyes in stretched polyvinyl alcohol films. The experiment gives a simple demonstration of the concept of linear dichromism and the validity of the TEM method used in the analyses. (JN)

  11. Analysis of a Natural Yellow Dye: An Experiment for Analytical Organic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villela, A.; Derksen, G.C.H.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment exposes second-year undergraduate students taking a course in analytical organic chemistry to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantitative analysis using the internal standard method. This is accomplished using the real-world application of natural dyes for textiles

  12. Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2009-01-01

         The popular dye sensitized solar cell dyes N719 and Z-907 are in general accepted to be very stable under solar cell conditions below 45 ºC.1 The dyes, however, may undergo thiocyanate ligand substitution reactions with the DSC solvent and additive molecules at elevated temperatures (80-100 º......Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures.   Torben Lunda, Phuong Tuyet Nguyena and Hoang Thai Nguyenb aDepartment of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000, Denmark bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Sciences, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam......C).       Recently we have established the mechanism and kinetics of these thiocyanate exchange reactions in both homogeneous solutions and colloidal mixtures with the dyes attached to TiO2 particles.2,3 The half life’s at 85 ºC of  the N719 and Z-907 bound to TiO2 particles in colloidal solutions of 3...

  13. Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet

    2009-01-01

    Degradation chemistry of N719 and Z-907 dyes at elevated temperatures.   Torben Lunda, Phuong Tuyet Nguyena and Hoang Thai Nguyenb aDepartment of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000, Denmark bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Sciences, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam......C).       Recently we have established the mechanism and kinetics of these thiocyanate exchange reactions in both homogeneous solutions and colloidal mixtures with the dyes attached to TiO2 particles.2,3 The half life’s at 85 ºC of  the N719 and Z-907 bound to TiO2 particles in colloidal solutions of 3...

  14. Photocatalytic water splitting with acridine dyes: Guidelines from computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N. V.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic splitting of water into Hrad and OHrad radicals in hydrogen-bonded chromophore-water complexes has been explored with computational methods for the chromophores acridine orange (AO) and benzacridine (BA). These dyes are strong absorbers within the range of the solar spectrum. It is shown that low-lying charge-transfer excited states exist in the hydrogen-bonded AOsbnd H2O and BAsbnd H2O complexes which drive the transfer of a proton from water to the chromophore, which results in AOHradsbnd OHrad or BAHradsbnd OHrad biradicals. The AOHrad and BAHrad radicals possess bright ππ∗ excited states with vertical excitation energies near 3.0 eV which are predissociated by a low-lying repulsive πσ∗ state. The conical intersections of the πσ∗ state with the ππ∗ excited states and the ground state provide a mechanism for the photodetachment of the H-atom by a second photon. Our results indicate that AO and BA are promising chromophores for water splitting with visible light.

  15. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Michael C; Raker, Jeffrey R; Kobilka, Brandon; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2014-01-14

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world.

  16. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world. PMID:24501431

  17. Effect of surface chemistry of Fe-Ni nanoparticles on mechanistic pathways of azo dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Chikate, Rajeev C; Rode, Chandrashekhar V; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2007-11-01

    The degradation of Orange G, a monoazo dye, in aqueous solutions was investigated using as-synthesized and stored Fe-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles. Batch experiments with a nanocatalyst loading of 3 g/L showed complete dye degradation (150 mg/L) after 10 min of reaction time. HPLC-MS analysis of the degradation products showed that as-synthesized nanoparticles reductively cleaved the azo linkage to produce aniline as the major degradation product. However, 1-year-stored nanoparticles showed an oxidative degradation of Orange G through a hydroxyl-radical induced coupling of parent and/or product molecules. XPS analysis in corroboration with HPLC-MS data showed that the surface chemistry between Fe and Ni in as-synthesized and stored nanoparticles play a crucial role in directing the mode of degradation. Reductive dye degradation using as-synthesized nanoparticles proceeded through hydride transfer from nickel, whereas formation of a Fe2+ -Ni(0) galvanic cell in stored nanoparticles generated hydroxyl radicals from water in a nonFenton type reaction. The latter were responsible for the generation of radical centers on the dye molecule, which led to a coupling-mediated oxidative degradation of Orange G. The generation of hydroxyl radicals is further substantiated with radical quenching experiments using ascorbic acid indicating that stored nanoparticles degrade Orange G through a predominantly oxidative mechanism. HPLC-MS and XPS analysis of dye degradation using as-synthesized nanoparticles exposed to air and water confirmed that the reductive or oxidative degradation capability of Fe-Ni nanoparticles is decided by the time and type of catalyst aging process.

  18. Adsorption of dyes by ACs prepared from waste tyre reinforcing fibre. Effect of texture, surface chemistry and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Beatriz; Rocha, Raquel P; Pereira, Manuel F R; Figueiredo, José L; Barriocanal, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares the importance of the texture and surface chemistry of waste tyre activated carbons in the adsorption of commercial dyes. The adsorption of two commercial dyes, Basic Astrazon Yellow 7GLL and Reactive Rifafix Red 3BN on activated carbons made up of reinforcing fibres from tyre waste and low-rank bituminous coal was studied. The surface chemistry of activated carbons was modified by means of HCl-HNO3 treatment in order to increase the number of functional groups. Moreover, the influence of the pH on the process was also studied, this factor being of great importance due to the amphoteric characteristics of activated carbons. The activated carbons made with reinforcing fibre and coal had the highest SBET, but the reinforcing fibre activated carbon samples had the highest mesopore volume. The texture of the activated carbons was not modified upon acid oxidation treatment, unlike their surface chemistry which underwent considerable modification. The activated carbons made with a mixture of reinforcing fibre and coal experienced the largest degree of oxidation, and so had more acid surface groups. The adsorption of reactive dye was governed by the mesoporous volume, whilst surface chemistry played only a secondary role. However, the surface chemistry of the activated carbons and dispersive interactions played a key role in the adsorption of the basic dye. The adsorption of the reactive dye was more favored in a solution of pH 2, whereas the basic dye was adsorbed more easily in a solution of pH 12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maya chemistry of organic inorganic hybrid materials: isomerization, cyclicization and redox tuning of organic dyes attached to porous silicates

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIO DOMÉNECH CARBÓ; Valle-Algarra, Francisco M.; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; Osete Cortina, Laura; Domine ., Marcelo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Association of indigo and lapachol dyes to aluminosilicate clays yields polyfunctional organic – inorganic hybrid materials forming Maya Blue-like systems. Upon partial removing of clay's zeolitic water by moderate thermal treatment, abundant isomerization, cyclicization and oxidation reactions occur defining a‘ Maya chemistry whose complexity could explain the versatile use of such materials in the pre-Columbian cultures and permits the...

  20. Thermal modification of activated carbon surface chemistry improves its capacity as redox mediator for azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Ricardo; Pereira, M. F. R.; Van der Zee, F. P.; Cervantes, F. J.; Alves, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The surface chemistry of a commercial AC (AC0) was selectively modified, without changing significantly its textural properties, by chemical oxidation with HNO3 (ACHNO3 ) and O2 (ACO2 ), and thermal treatments under H2 (ACH2) or N2 (ACN2 ) flow. The effect of modified AC on anaerobic chemical dye reduction was assayed with sulphide at different pH values 5, 7 and 9. Four dyes were tested: Acid Orange 7, Reactive Red 2, Mordant Yellow 10 and Direct Blue 71. Batch experiments with l...

  1. A ``plasmonic cuvette'': dye chemistry coupled to plasmonic interferometry for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Vince S.; Feng, Jing; Flanigan, Patrick W.; Palmore, G. Tayhas R.; Pacifici, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    A non-invasive method for the detection of glucose is sought by millions of diabetic patients to improve personal management of blood glucose over a lifetime. In this work, the synergistic advantage of combining plasmonic interferometry with an enzyme-driven dye assay yields an optical sensor capable of detecting glucose in saliva with high sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor, coined a "plasmonic cuvette," is built around a nano-scale groove-slit-groove (GSG) plasmonic interferometer coupled to an Amplex-red/Glucose-oxidase/Glucose (AR/GOx/Glucose) assay. The proposed device is highly sensitive, with a measured intensity change of 1.7×105%/m (i.e., one order of magnitude more sensitive than without assay) and highly specific for glucose sensing in picoliter volumes, across the physiological range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva (20-240 μm). Real-time glucose monitoring in saliva is achieved by performing a detailed study of the underlying enzyme-driven reactions to determine and tune the effective rate constants in order to reduce the overall assay reaction time to ˜2 min. The results reported suggest that by opportunely choosing the appropriate dye chemistry, a plasmonic cuvette can be turned into a general, real-time sensing scheme for detection of any molecular target, with high sensitivity and selectivity, within extremely low volumes of biological fluid (down to femtoliters). Hereby, we present the results on glucose detection in artificial saliva as a notable and clinically relevant case study.

  2. Adsorption of a Textile Dye on Commercial Activated Carbon: A Simple Experiment to Explore the Role of Surface Chemistry and Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Angela; Nunes, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an adsorption experiment is proposed using commercial activated carbon as adsorbent and a textile azo dye, Mordant Blue-9, as adsorbate. The surface chemistry of the activated carbon is changed through a simple oxidation treatment and the ionic strength of the dye solution is also modified, simulating distinct conditions of water…

  3. Extraction and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 from Beverages Containing Cranberry Juice: A College-Level Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Henry F., III; Rizzo, Jacqueline; Zimmerman, Devon C.; Usher, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical separation experiment can be an interesting addition to an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. We have developed an experiment to extract FD&C Red Dye #40 from beverages containing cranberry juice. After extraction, the dye is quantified using colorimetry. The experiment gives students hands-on experience in using solid…

  4. Extraction and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 from Beverages Containing Cranberry Juice: A College-Level Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Henry F., III; Rizzo, Jacqueline; Zimmerman, Devon C.; Usher, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical separation experiment can be an interesting addition to an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. We have developed an experiment to extract FD&C Red Dye #40 from beverages containing cranberry juice. After extraction, the dye is quantified using colorimetry. The experiment gives students hands-on experience in using solid…

  5. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells with improved thermal dye stability. The various ruthenium dye...

  6. Degradation chemistry of RuLL´(NCS)2 complexes in the Dye-sensitized solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben

    In the last decade dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have extensively been studied. From an economical point of view DSCs are of high interest because the manufacturing costs of DSCs devices are significantly lower in contrast to the costs of other solar devices such as silicon cells. One...... on the surface of a semiconductor anode (TiO2). In order to be able to predict the life time of the dye during solar cell operation it is essential to map all the possible side reactions and their rates initiated from the excited (S*), oxidized (S+) and ground state of the sensitizer (S). In my lecture I...... will present and overview of our degradation investigations of the ruthenium dyes N719, Z907 and C106 with the general structure RuLL´(NCS)2 and show how detailed degradation mechanistic knowledge is important in the developing of DSC cells with improved thermal dye stability. The various ruthenium dye...

  7. Mechanisms and chemistry of dye adsorption on manganese oxides-modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Degs, Yehya S; Khraisheh, Majeda A M; Ahmad, Mohammad N; Allen, Stephen J

    2009-08-01

    The investigations into structural changes which occur during adsorbent modification and the adsorption mechanisms are essential for an effective design of adsorption systems. Manganese oxides were impregnated onto diatomite to form the type known as delta-birnessite. Initial investigations established the effectiveness of manganese oxides-modified diatomite (MOMD) to remove basic and reactive dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption capacity of MOMD for methylene blue (MB), hydrolysed reactive black (RB) and hydrolysed reactive yellow (RY) was 320, 419, and 204mg/g, respectively. Various analytical techniques were used to characterise the structure and the mechanisms of the dye adsorption process onto MOMD such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectrometry (A.A.). A small shift to higher values of the d-spacing of dye/MOMD was observed indicating that a small amount of the dye molecules were intercalated in the MOMD structure and other molecules were adsorbed on the external surface of MOMD. Two mechanisms of dye adsorption onto MOMD were proposed; intercalation of the dye in the octahedral layers and adsorption of the dye on the MOMD external surface. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the MOMD structure was changed upon insertion of MB and RY with an obvious decrease in the intensity of the second main peak of the MOMD X-ray pattern.

  8. Cycloruthenated sensitizers: improving the dye-sensitized solar cell with classical inorganic chemistry principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Bomben, Paolo G; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2012-07-14

    A divergence from the conventional approach to chromophore design has led to the establishment of many exciting new benchmarks for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), including the first documented power conversion efficiency in excess of 12% at 1 sun illumination [Yella et al., Science 2011, 334, 629]. Paramount to these advances is the deviation from polypyridyl ruthenium dyes bearing NCS(-) ligands, such as [Ru(dcbpy)(2)(NCS)(2)] (N3; dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine). While metal-free and porphyrin dyes have demonstrated much promise, the discovery that the NCS(-) ligands of N3 can be replaced by anionic, chelating cyclometalating ligands without compromising device efficiencies has ushered in a new era of ruthenium dye development. A particularly appealing feature of this class of dyestuff is that they offer acute control of the frontier molecular orbitals to enable the precise attenuation of both the ground and excited state redox potentials through judicious chemical modification of the aryl ring. This Perspective summarizes very recent developments in the field, and demonstrates how the new and rapidly expanding class of Ru-based sensitizers provides a conduit for enhancing the performance (and potentially the stability) of the DSSC.

  9. The history, chemistry and modes of action of carmine and related dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, R W

    2007-08-01

    Carmine has been used in biological staining to demonstrate selectively nuclei, chromosomes or mucins, depending on the formulation. Throughout its history in science, complaints and frustrations have been expressed about dye quality. Inconsistencies in dye quality or identity have prevented thorough understanding of staining mechanisms and have caused many stain solutions to behave unsatisfactorily. The aim of this review is to (1) detail causes of these problems, which are rooted in history, geography and production, (2) offer ways to minimize problems and (3) provide modern explanations for stain behavior. Carmine is a "semi-synthetic" dye, i.e., a complex of aluminum and the natural dye cochineal (carminic acid). Carmine shows considerable batch-to-batch variability. Geography, politics, history, agricultural practices and iconography all contribute to the variability of cochineal. In addition, widely divergent manufacturing methods are used to produce carmine. Also, confusion in terminology has led to mislabeling. Pressure from the food industry for a more satisfactory colorant for acidic foods led to the introduction of a new dye, aminocarminic acid, which could enter the biological market inadvertantly. Improved methods of analysis should help the certification process by the Biological Stain Commission. Further standardization could be achieved by replacing most of the methods of solubilizing carmine. The majority of these methods use heat, which is likely to damage the dye molecule. Fortunately, carmine is readily dissolved by raising the pH of the aqueous solvent above 12, and a new form of the dye, now available commercially, is soluble in water without the need for heat or pH adjustment. Chemical structures and physical properties of carminic acid, carmine, aminocarminic acid and kermesic acid are reviewed. A new configuration for carmine is proposed, as well as possible changes to carminic acid and carmine molecules as a result of decomposition caused

  10. Accuracy of color prediction of anthraquinone dyes in methanol solution estimated from first principle quantum chemistry computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysewski, Piotr; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2013-10-01

    The electronic spectrum of four different anthraquinones (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, 1-aminoanthraquinone, 2-aminoanthraquinone and 1-amino-2-methylanthraquinone) in methanol solution was measured and used as reference data for theoretical color prediction. The visible part of the spectrum was modeled according to TD-DFT framework with a broad range of DFT functionals. The convoluted theoretical spectra were validated against experimental data by a direct color comparison in terms of CIE XYZ and CIE Lab tristimulus model color. It was found, that the 6-31G** basis set provides the most accurate color prediction and there is no need to extend the basis set since it does not improve the prediction of color. Although different functionals were found to give the most accurate color prediction for different anthraquinones, it is possible to apply the same DFT approach for the whole set of analyzed dyes. Especially three functionals seem to be valuable, namely mPW1LYP, B1LYP and PBE0 due to very similar spectra predictions. The major source of discrepancies between theoretical and experimental spectra comes from L values, representing the lightness, and the a parameter, depicting the position on green→magenta axis. Fortunately, the agreement between computed and observed blue→yellow axis (parameter b) is very precise in the case of studied anthraquinone dyes in methanol solution. Despite discussed shortcomings, color prediction from first principle quantum chemistry computations can lead to quite satisfactory results, expressed in terms of color space parameters.

  11. Radiation chemistry of cyanine dyes: Oxidation and reduction of merocyanine 540. [Accelerated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriman, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Shoute, L.C.T.; Neta, P. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1991-03-21

    Merocyanine 540 (MC) shows promise as a treatment for certain types of leukemia. It is shown that MC readily undergoes one-electron reduction under pulse radiolytic conditions. The {pi}-radical anion, produced by reduction with hydrated electrons and 2-hydroxypropyl radicals, disproportionates rapidly (k = 1.9 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}) under anaerobic conditions but reduces O{sub 2} to superoxide ions (k = 1.6 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}) in aerated solution. The dye reacts with trichloromethylperoxyl radicals (k = 9 {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}) to form several products, one of which is believed to be an adduct formed by addition of CCl{sub 3}OO{sup {sm bullet}} to the bridgehead carbon atom of the benzoxazole subunit. This species decays via first-order kinetics (k = 4.0 {times} 10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}) under pulse radiolytic conditions to form cleavage products. A second primary product is believed to arise from addition of CCl{sub 3}O{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}} to the polymethine chain to form an {alpha}-amino carbon-centered radical capable of reducing O{sub 2} to superoxide ions. Preliminary studies indicate that the breakdown products are cytotoxic and could be important intermediates for the known antiviral activity of MC.

  12. J-Aggregates of Amphiphilic Cyanine Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Combination between Computational Chemistry and Experimental Device Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and structure principles of 5,5′-6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′-dioctyl-3,3′-bis-(3-carboxypropyl-benzimidacarbocyanine (Dye 1. Such metal-free amphiphilic cyanine dyes have many applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. AFM surface topographic investigation of amphiphilic molecules of Dye 1 adsorbed on TiO2 anode reveals the ability of spontaneous self-organization into highly ordered aggregates of fiber-like structure. These aggregates are known to exhibit outstanding optical properties of J-aggregates, namely, efficient exciton coupling and fast exciton energy migration, which are essential for building up artificial light harvesting to the photovoltaic device. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the metal free amphiphilic Dye 1 is η=3.75, which is about 50% of that based on metal-based N719 Ru-dye (Di-tetrabutylammoniumcis-bis(isothiocyanatobis(2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylatoruthenium(II. DFT and TD-DFT studies show that large intramolecular charge transfer takes place from the HOMO to LUMO. HOMO is localized on a part of the molecule with almost no contribution from the carboxylic moiety. This clearly indicates that the anchoring carboxylic group plays a minor role.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of CuGeO3 photocatalyst using Green Chemistry and its application for the degradation of direct black dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok. V. Borhade

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report synthesis of CuGeO3 photocatalyst by mechanochemical, solid state synthesis, method with green chemistry approach. The product obtained was characterized by various investigative techniques like UV-Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, and BET Surface area. The study confirm orthorhombic pervoskite crystal structure of photocatalyst with band gap 3.7 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the catalysts CuGeO3 was evaluated by photochemical bleaching of Direct black dye, under sun light.

  14. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Hawkes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates, the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  15. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie

    2013-02-13

    This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety.

  16. Application of Near-IR Absorption Porphyrin Dyes Derived from Click Chemistry as Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yongsheng; Liang, Pengxia; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Dong; Cao, Hui; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai; Yu, Lian

    2016-02-01

    Recently, third-order nonlinear properties of porphyrins and porphyrin polymers and coordination compounds have been extensively studied in relation to their use in photomedicine and molecular photonics. A new functionalized porphyrin dye containing electron-rich alkynes was synthesized and further modified by formal [2+2] click reactions with click reagents tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The photophysical properties of these porphyrin dyes, as well as the click reaction, were studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In particular, third-order nonlinear optical properties of the dyes, which showed typical d-π-A structures, were characterized by Z-scan techniques. In addition, the self-assembly properties were investigated through the phase-exchange method, and highly organized morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the click post-functionalization on the properties of the porphyrins were studied, and these functionalized porphyrin dyes represent an interesting set of candidates for optoelectronic device components.

  17. Application of Near‐IR Absorption Porphyrin Dyes Derived from Click Chemistry as Third‐Order Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yongsheng; Liang, Pengxia; Cao, Hui; He, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recently, third‐order nonlinear properties of porphyrins and porphyrin polymers and coordination compounds have been extensively studied in relation to their use in photomedicine and molecular photonics. A new functionalized porphyrin dye containing electron‐rich alkynes was synthesized and further modified by formal [2+2] click reactions with click reagents tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 7, 7, 8, 8‐tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The photophysical properties of these porphyrin dyes, as well as the click reaction, were studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In particular, third‐order nonlinear optical properties of the dyes, which showed typical d‐π‐A structures, were characterized by Z‐scan techniques. In addition, the self‐assembly properties were investigated through the phase‐exchange method, and highly organized morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the click post‐functionalization on the properties of the porphyrins were studied, and these functionalized porphyrin dyes represent an interesting set of candidates for optoelectronic device components. PMID:27308215

  18. The Chemistry of Formazan Dyes: Synthesis and Characterization of a Stable Verdazyl Radical and a Related Boron-Containing Heterocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David E.; Hicks, Robin G.; Gilroy, Joe B.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis and characterization of a formazan dye, and its subsequent conversion to a stable verdazyl radical and a boron-nitrogen heterocycle (boratatetrazine). Each of these compounds is intensely colored and is prepared and handled under aerobic conditions, which often surprises students as free radicals are…

  19. The Chemistry of Formazan Dyes: Synthesis and Characterization of a Stable Verdazyl Radical and a Related Boron-Containing Heterocycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David E.; Hicks, Robin G.; Gilroy, Joe B.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis and characterization of a formazan dye, and its subsequent conversion to a stable verdazyl radical and a boron-nitrogen heterocycle (boratatetrazine). Each of these compounds is intensely colored and is prepared and handled under aerobic conditions, which often surprises students as free radicals are…

  20. A review of the chemistry and uses of crocins and crocetin, the carotenoid natural dyes in saffron, with particular emphasis on applications as colorants including their use as biological stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathaie, S Z; Farajzade, A; Hoshyar, R

    2014-08-01

    The perennial flowering plant, saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.), is the source of the most expensive spice in the world. The dried stigmas of saffron flowers are the source of a natural dye, saffron, which has been used from ancient times for dyeing silk and fabric rugs, and for painting; it also has been used for cooking and in medicine. The yellow compounds present in the dye include crocins, which are 20-carbon water soluble glycosyl derivatives of the carotenoid, crocetin, and the dicarboxylic acid itself. We review the chemistry of these compounds and discuss various applications of saffron as a natural dye. We review in particular the use of saffron or its constituents in histopathologic techniques.

  1. Product length, dye choice, and detection chemistry in the bead-emulsion amplification of millions of single DNA molecules in parallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Curtis, Christina; Shinde, Deepali N; Goodman, Daniel B; Tavaré, Simon; Arnheim, Norman

    2009-07-15

    The amplification of millions of single molecules in parallel can be performed on microscopic magnetic beads that are contained in aqueous compartments of an oil-buffer emulsion. These bead-emulsion amplification (BEA) reactions result in beads that are covered by almost-identical copies derived from a single template. The post-amplification analysis is performed using different fluorophore-labeled probes. We have identified BEA reaction conditions that efficiently produce longer amplicons of up to 450 base pairs. These conditions include the use of a Titanium Taq amplification system. Second, we explored alternate fluorophores coupled to probes for post-PCR DNA analysis. We demonstrate that four different Alexa fluorophores can be used simultaneously with extremely low crosstalk. Finally, we developed an allele-specific extension chemistry that is based on Alexa dyes to query individual nucleotides of the amplified material that is both highly efficient and specific.

  2. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little attention has thus far been paid to probes containing these dyes internally attached, a fact which is mainly due to the quite challenging synthesis of such oligonucleotide probes. Herein, by using 2'-O-propargyl uridine phosphoramidite and a series of xanthenes and cyanine azide derivatives, we have for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable Stokes shifts (40-110 nm), quenched fluorescence of single-stranded probes accompanied by up to 7.7-fold light-up effect of emission upon target DNA/RNA binding, remarkable sensitivity to single-nucleotide mismatches, generally high fluorescence brightness values (FB up to 26), and hence low limit of target detection values (LOD down to <5 nM).

  3. Textile Dye Enterprises Must Follow The Production Principles Of Green Chemistry%纺织染料企业生产必须遵循绿色化学原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚丽; 何承尧

    2015-01-01

    It combines with green chemistry 12 principles to put forward improvement methods from the aspects of design, material and energy use, process optimization, catalyst use etc according to production of textile dyes process. It reduces energy consumption and pollutant during textile dyes production process.%文章根据纺织染料生产工艺,结合绿色化学12条原则,从设计、原料和能源使用、工序优化、催化剂使用等方面提出改进方法,减少纺织染料在生产过程中产生的能耗和污染物。

  4. The importance of dye chemistry and TiCl4 surface treatment in the behavior of Al2O3 recombination barrier layers deposited by atomic layer deposition in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to fabricate Al 2O 3 recombination barriers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs) employing an organic hole transport material (HTM) for the first time. Al 2O 3 recombination barriers of varying thickness were incorporated into efficient ss-DSSCs utilizing the Z907 dye adsorbed onto a 2 μm-thick nanoporous TiO 2 active layer and the HTM spiro-OMeTAD. The impact of Al 2O 3 barriers was also studied in devices employing different dyes, with increased active layer thicknesses, and with substrates that did not undergo the TiCl 4 surface treatment. In all instances, electron lifetimes (as determined by transient photovoltage measurements) increased and dark current was suppressed after Al 2O 3 deposition. However, only when the TiCl 4 treatment was eliminated did device efficiency increase; in all other instances efficiency decreased due to a drop in short-circuit current. These results are attributed in the former case to the similar effects of Al 2O 3 ALD and the TiCl 4 surface treatment whereas the insulating properties of Al 2O 3 hinder charge injection and lead to current loss in TiCl 4-treated devices. The impact of Al 2O 3 barrier layers was unaffected by doubling the active layer thickness or using an alternative ruthenium dye, but a metal-free donor-π-acceptor dye exhibited a much smaller decrease in current due to its higher excited state energy. We develop a model employing prior research on Al 2O 3 growth and dye kinetics that successfully predicts the reduction in device current as a function of ALD cycles and is extendable to different dye-barrier systems. © This journal is the Owner Societies 2012.

  5. optimization of crystal violet dye removal from aqueous solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maje malamiyo

    ... Atika M. Ibrahim. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria ... dyes (Crini, 2006). Dyes are basically chemical compounds that ..... American-Eurasian J. ... Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. [Tattooing dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Pierchalla, P

    1988-01-01

    Nine different tattoo dyes were analysed by various tests. Mixtures of organic dyes and inorganic filler were found; the inorganic filler consisted mainly of titanium dioxide (TiO2). Heavy metals, e.g. mercury, cadmium, or chrome as the common components of the traditional tattoo dyes, are capable of evoking unwanted skin reactions, but were not detected. Tattoo dyes are not officially controlled, and thus it is not known which substances-in addition to those identified by us-are presently used to produce ornamental tattoos. However, our results suggest that classic dyes have been superceded by newer, mainly synthetic dyes.

  7. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  8. Dye Painting!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  9. Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Anna Schuttelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD, toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD, a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.

  10. Enhanced adsorption of the cationic dyes in the spherical CuO/meso-silica nano composite and impact of solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhijie; Zhao, Zhiwei; Sun, Tianyi; Shi, Wenxin; Cui, Fuyi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the spherical mesoporous silica (meso-silica MCM-41) and that inorganically modified with CuO (CuO/MCM-41 nano composite) were synthesized and characterized. It was demonstrated that CuO were successfully loaded in the synthesized nano composite CuO/MCM-41. Importantly, the loaded CuO had a significant enhancement effect on the adsorption of Crystal violet and Methylene blue. Adsorption kinetic of the tested cationic dyes in the synthesized materials fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Weber's intra-particle diffusion model well. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) of the CuO/MCM-41 towards Crystal violet and Methylene blue increased to 52.9 and 87.8mg/g, while those of the pure MCM-41 were 46.2 and 65.7mg/g, respectively. Due to the surface charge of CuO and the protonation of the dye molecules, the electrostatic forces between the loaded CuO and the organic cationic dyes contributed to the enhancement effect. Additionally, the presented results indicated that the adsorption of the cationic dyes in the CuO/MCM-41 depended on pH and ion strength of the solution but insignificantly on the coexisted humic acid due to the mesoporous character of CuO/MCM-41 nano composite.

  11. 1983 Annual Report on Laser Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    absorption at the lasing wavelength due to the accumula- tion of reaction products from the photodegradation of a laser dye is analyzed thioretically...Laser Dyes O by A. N. Fletcher Research DopetMrnt APRIL 1984 NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE, CALIFORNIA 93555 Appoved for ftc qesege dt"" ba n ftsd...work presented in seven open literature publications on laser dyes . This work originated within the Chemistry Division and was performed and/or

  12. Investigation of the azo-hydrazone tautomeric equilibrium in an azo dye involving the naphthalene moiety by UV-vis spectroscopy and quantum chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Arslan; Eren, Bilge; Eren, Erdal

    2013-10-01

    Photophysical properties of the azo-hydrazone tautomerism of Eriochrome Blue Black B (1-(1-hydroxy-2-naphthylazo)-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid) in DMF, MeCN and water were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The optimized molecular structure parameters, relative energies, mole fractions, electronic absorption spectra and HOMO-LUMO energies for possible stable tautomeric forms of EBB were theoretically calculated by using hybrid density functional theory, (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G(d) basis set level and polarizable continuum model (PCM) for solvation effect. The effects of varying pH-, dye concentration-, solvent-, temperature-, and time-dependences on the UV-vis spectra of Eriochrome Blue Black B were also investigated experimentally. The calculations showed that the dye exhibited acid-base, azo-hydrazone and aggregate equilibria in DMF solution, while the most probably preferred form in MeCN solution was azo form. Thermodynamic parameters of dimerization reaction in DMF solution proved that entropy was the driving force of this reaction.

  13. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  14. Click chemistry with DNA

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The advent of click chemistry has led to an influx of new ideas in the nucleic acids field. The copper catalysed alkyne–azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is the method of choice for DNA click chemistry due to its remarkable efficiency. It has been used to label oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes, sugars, peptides and other reporter groups, to cyclise DNA, to synthesise DNA catenanes, to join oligonucleotides to PNA, and to produce analogues of DNA with modified nucleobases and backbone...

  15. A theoretical-experimental proposal, in teaching sequences about intermolecular interactions on teaching chemistry using varations of the test of adulteration in gasline and urucum dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir de Souza Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports presents the results of a research developed with students of the high school in the Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, with the objective of proposing a theoretical-experimental teaching sequences, potentially significant, approaching the theme Intermolecular Interactions. The teaching sequence was developed with 44 students of the last year of the high school, with the duration of 9 classes of 50 minutes. The methodology presents the characteristics of the qualitative research, being based on David Ausubel's theoretical. We used, as advance organizer, the test determination of the ethanol content in gasoline, adapting, along the experiments, to the use of the natural dyes of the urucum seeds communly used through the region the research was done. The instruments used to collect the information was through the use of questionnaires and observations of the classes. At the end 32 students presented arguments, developing in each stage, as well as in participation, as in classroom discussion, evidencing the evolution conceptual on the process of significant learning.

  16. Surface functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles with cationic polymers via the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Characterization and enhanced removal of organic dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Xu, Dazhuang; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Jiang, Ruming; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-28

    Monodispersed SiO2 particles functionalized with cationic polymers poly-((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PAPTCl) were prepared using mussel inspired surface modification strategy and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta potential were employed to characterize these SiO2 samples. The adsorption performance of the functionalized SiO2 (donated as SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl) towards anionic organic dye Congo red (CR) was investigated to evaluate their potential environmental applications. We demonstrated that the surface of SiO2 particles can be successfully functionalized with cationic PAPTCl. The adsorption capability of as-prepared SiO2 was found to increases from 28.70 and 106.65mg/g after surface grafted with cationic polymers. The significant enhancement in the adsorption capability of SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl is mainly attributed to the introduction of cationic polymers. More importantly, this strategy is expected to be promising for fabrication of many other functional polymer nanocomposites for environmental applications due to the universality of mussel inspired chemistry and well designability and good monomer adaptability of SI-ATRP.

  17. Waterless Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; AVİNÇ, Osman Ozan; Arzu YAVAŞ

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO), having liquid-like densities, hereby provides hydrophobic dyes an advantage on dissolving. Their gas-like low viscosities and diffusion properties can lead to shorter dyeing durations compared to conventional water dyeing process. Supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing, a novel dyeing process, is an anhydrous dyeing and this process involves the use of less energy and chemicals than conventional water dyeing processes resulting in a potential of up to 50% low...

  18. Facile preparation of MoS2 based polymer composites via mussel inspired chemistry and their high efficiency for removal of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Chen, Junyu; Wan, Qing; Tian, Jianwen; Huang, Long; Jiang, Ruming; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-10-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a novel type of two-dimensional nanomaterial, which has attracted great research attention for its excellent physicochemical properties and possible applications. In this work, we prepared a novel MoS2 composite (MoS2-PDOPA) through the self-polymerization of levodopa (DOPA) on the surface of MoS2 under a weak alkaline solution. The obtained samples, including pure MoS2 and MoS2-PDOPA composite were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The potential environmental applications of MoS2-PDOPA were evaluated by using MoS2-PDOPA as adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of various operational parameters such as contact time, initial MB concentration, solution pH and temperature on the adsorption of MB by MoS2-PDOPA. According to the adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics analysis, the MB adsorption onto MoS2-PDOPA follows the intraparticle diffusion model and Langmuir isotherm model, and the MB adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The maximum adsorption capacity of MoS2-PDOPA is calculated to be 244.03 mg/g at 298 K. As compared with unmodified MoS2, the adsorption capacity of MoS2-PDOPA is obviously improved. Taken together, we developed a facile method to prepare MoS2-PDOPA composites based on mussel inspired chemistry. The resultant composites could be utilized as efficient adsorbents with great potential for environmental adsorption applications.

  19. JCE Resources for Chemistry and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2001-01-01

    Includes an annotated bibliography of articles featured in this journal on art, dyes, glass, pottery and ceramics, interdisciplinary courses in art and chemistry, light and color, metalwork, and music. (YDS)

  20. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  1. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  2. Primary Photoprocesses in Dyes and Other Complex Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    photobiology are given . -~~~~~ 3.2 Reports and Manuscripts in Preparation TR— l3. A Study of the Photodegradation of the Blue—Green Laser Dye , AC3F , A...the contract a preliminary study of the photodegradation of the laser dye , AC3F [Blue—Green Dye Laser Development , Annual Report F4—75 , NELC F233 b...I AD—A0b2 568 WASHINGTON STATE UNIV PULLMAN DEPT OF CHEMISTRY FFG 713 ‘c — F, PRIMARY PHOTOPROCESSES IN DYES AND OTHER COMPLEX MOLECULES. (U) OCT 78

  3. The Chemistry of Photographic Color Dye Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory activity that can be used at a number of levels from high school to college is discussed. This activity can be used to teach chemical concepts such as oxidation and reduction, stoichiometry, acids and bases, pH, nucleophilic reactions, conjugation, leaving groups, complexation, solubility, and reversibility.

  4. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  5. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  6. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  7. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  8. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  9. Dyeing Properties of Basofil Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; DAI Jin-jin

    2002-01-01

    The structures and properties of Basofil fiber were studied using X- rays small angle diffraction analysis,differential- scanuing calorimeter and scanning electron microscopy. Disperse dyes, acid dyes and reactive dyes had been tried for dyeing Basefil fiber. It was shown disperse dyes were superior to other ones. The two series of high temperature dyes and low temperature dyes were compared for their suitability for Basofil fiber, and their dyeing behaviors were determined.

  10. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  11. Dyeing of Polypropylene Fibers with Vat Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hang; ETTERS J. Nolan; LEONAS Karen K

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene fibers have been extensively used in a variety of products, including carpets and upholstery, due to their non-absorbency, good weather resistance, good resistance to microorganisms and so on. Because of their hydrophobic and highly crystalline nature, those well-established conventional dyeing processes are difficult to apply to unmodified polypropylene. Colors of polypropylene fibers are primarily obtained by mass coloration which has the disadvantages of limited number of colors available and difficulties in inventory control due to the rapidly changing color needs of the market. In this paper, the use of vat dyes to dye polypropylene fabrics is investigated. Seventeen vat dyes were screened and factors influencing uptake of dyes by polypropylene fabrics were studied.

  12. Visible Light-Induced Carbonylation Reactions with Organic Dyes as the Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-Bao; Qi, Xinxin; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-09-08

    Dyes can CO do it: Organic dyes and pigments are usually applied in textile dyeing, which can be dated back to the Neolithic period. Interestingly, the possibility to use organic dyes as photoredox catalysts has also been noticed by organic chemists and applied in organic synthesis. Carbonylation reactions as a powerful procedure in carbonyl-containing compound preparation have also been studied. In this manuscript, the recent achievements in using organic dyes as visible-light sensitizers in carbonylation chemistry are summarized and discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  14. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  15. Electron Donor-Acceptor Quenching and Photoinduced Electron Transfer for Coumarin Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-31

    Mechanism of cousarin photodegradation . Ithe behavior of eoiuma dyes is water ad In aqueous detergent media,. and the effsects of medism aud, additives on...D-i36 345 ELECTRON DONOR-ACCEPTOR UENCHING AND PHOTOINDUCED i/i Ai ELECTRON TRANSFER FOR COUMARIN DYES (U) BOSTON UNIY MR DEPT OF CHEMISTRY G JONES...TYPE OF REPORT & PEIOD COVERED Electron Donor-acceptor Quenching and Photo- Technical, 1/1/82-10/31/82 induced Electron Transfer for Coumarin Dyes S

  16. Development of bioconjugated dye-doped poly(styrene-co-maleimide) nanoparticles as a new bioprobe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Materials Chemistry B Development of bioconjugated dye-doped poly(styrene-co- maleimide) nanoparticles as a new bioprobe A. Swanepoel, I. du Preez, T. Mahlangu, A. Chetty and B. Klumperman Abstract Fluorescent dye-doped poly...

  17. Dyes as teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, S

    1992-01-01

    The main fats and problems of the role of dyes in prenatal pathology are reviewed. The first section deals with the practical aspects related to teratological screening of industrial dyes (including also the results obtained in this laboratory). In the second section, various aspects of azo-dye teratogenesis are largely discussed, including also the experimental contributions of this laboratory. Concluding remarks are made with respect to the importance and to the perspectives of this field of research.

  18. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  19. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo

  20. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also b

  1. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  2. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  3. Heterocyclic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Hemming, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds is presented\\ud 2010 offered highlights in pericyclic chemistry, particularly 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry, asymmetric synthesis, gold catalysis, organocatalysis, hydroamination, C–H activation and multicomponent reactions.

  4. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  5. Biophysical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  6. Colour Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  7. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  8. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  9. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  10. Determining Compatibilities of Reactive Dyes in Pad Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠天民

    2001-01-01

    Compatibilities of reactive dyes were conventionally shown by exhausting curves. But the change of proportion of dyes in padding dyebath was difficult for pad dyeing to be described by these curves. In this paper, a kind of simulation of pad dyeing process was used to determine dyestuff compatibility in pad dyeing for ramie and linen fabrics. Seven reactive dyes were divided into three groups and tested., The group with Cibacron Yellow C - 2R, Red C - R, and Blue C - R showed very good compatibility both for ramie and linen,and the other two groups of dyes gave out correspondingly low compatibilities in the pad dyeing tests. The results of the method for determining the compatibility of dyes displayed good consistency with the actul pad dyeing process.

  11. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  12. Chemistry in the Time of the Pharaohs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Egyptians were known in the ancient world as experts in many applied chemistry fields such as metallurgy, wine and beer making, glass making, paper manufacture, paint pigments, dyes, cosmetics, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. They made significant developments in the extraction of metals from their ores, especially copper and gold. The…

  13. Chemistry in the Time of the Pharaohs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Egyptians were known in the ancient world as experts in many applied chemistry fields such as metallurgy, wine and beer making, glass making, paper manufacture, paint pigments, dyes, cosmetics, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. They made significant developments in the extraction of metals from their ores, especially copper and gold. The…

  14. Forensic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  15. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  16. Fong's: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong's Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong's National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong's Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  17. Diode-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukova, O. A.; Gorbunkov, M. V.; Petukhov, V. A.; Semenov, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    This letter reports diode pumping for dye lasers. We offer a pulsed dye laser with an astigmatism-compensated three-mirror cavity and side pumping by blue laser diodes with 200 ns pulse duration. Eight dyes were tested. Four dyes provided a slope efficiency of more than 10% and the highest slope efficiency (18%) was obtained for laser dye Coumarin 540A in benzyl alcohol.

  18. Extraction of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Uganda is a home of thousands of largely unknown and undocumented plants. ... Dyes of natural origins are great for color appreciation as any variation in the ... Asteraceae characterized by bitter leaves, traditionally used for treating fever.

  19. Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

    It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

  20. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  1. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  2. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  3. Adsorption of Remazol Black B dye on Activated Carbon Felt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnaperna Lucio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Remazol Black B (anionic dye on a microporous activated carbon felt is investigated from its aqueous solution. The surface chemistry of activated carbon is studied using X-ray microanalysis, "Boehm" titrations and pH of PZC measurements which indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly acidic in nature. The kinetics of Remazol Black B adsorption is observed to be pH dependent and governed by the diffusion of the dye molecules. The experimental data can be explained by "intra-particle diffusion model". For Remazol Black B, the Khan model is best suited to simulate the adsorption isotherms.

  4. Determination of Minimum Enzymatic Decolorization Time of Reactive Dye Solution by Spectroscopic & Mathematical Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mithat Celebi; Zafer Omer Ozdemir; Emre Eroglu; Melda Altikatoglu; Ibrahim Guney

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing,paper printing,color photography and petrole-um products.Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation,precipitation,adsorption,chemical degradation,photo degradation,and chemical coagulation.Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an im-portant issue for several research field (chemistry,environment)In this study,minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data.Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance de-crease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye.All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 ℃ constant temperature for 30 minutes.The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model.Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation.It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  5. Croatian Traditional Herbal Dyes For Textile Dyeing

    OpenAIRE

    Sutrlović, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Textiles, namely protein fibers, in continental part of central Europe have been traditionally dyed by natural dyes. In the process textile materials were pre or after treated by metal salts – mordants (usually: KAl(SO4)2•12H2O, SnCl2•2H2O, FeSO4•7H2O, CuSO4•5H2O). Most represented active substances in herbal extracts are flavonoid derivatives, which by complexing with metal ions constitute colored complexes. Depending on herb species and mordant applied, a wide palette of colors is available...

  6. Laser dye technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  7. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  9. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  10. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P.R.; Atkins, R.L.; Henry, R.A.; Fletcher, A.N.

    1978-07-25

    The invention provides a dye laser comprising a lasing solution of a 7-substituted azaquinolone-2 in which the aza nitrogen occupies at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions. The 7-substituent is hydroxy, alkoxy, amino or substituted amino. Substituents may be attached to other ring positions. The present lasing compounds are aza analogs of corresponding quinolone compounds and, hence, are named ''azaquinolone'' compounds. The dye lasers lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  11. Hair care and dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient.

  12. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cummings_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3362 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cummings_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 DYE SOLAR CELL RESEARCH Franscious... Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2...

  13. Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Amit; Madamwar, Datta

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited by the dyes. Visible spectroscopy and TLC confirmed that color removal was due to degradation of the dyes.

  14. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  15. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF DYEING PARAMETERS TO DYE COTTON WITH CARROT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRALLES Verónica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes derived from flora and fauna are believed to be safe because of non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and biodegradable nature. Furthermore, natural dyes do not cause pollution and waste water problems. Natural dyes as well as synthetic dyes need the optimum parameters to get a good dyeing. On some occasions, It is necessary the use of mordants to increase the affinity between cellulose fiber and natural dye, but there are other conditions to optimize in the dyeing process, like time, temperature, auxiliary porducts, etc. In addition, the optimum conditions are different depends on the type of dye and the fiber nature. The aim of this work is the use of carrot extract to dye cotton fabric by exhaustion at diverse dyeing conditions. Diffferent dyeing processes were carried out to study the effect of pH condition and the temperature, using 7, 6 and 4 pH values and 95 ºC and 130ºC for an hour. As a result some images of dyed samples are shown. Moreover, to evaluate the colour of each sample CIELAB parameters are analysed obtained by reflexion spectrophotometre. The results showed that the temperature used has an important influence on the colour of the dyed sample.

  17. Current developments in optical data storage with organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustroph, Heinz; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Bressau, Volker

    2006-03-20

    The main motivation for the development of digital data storage has been the improvement in play-back quality and the increase in storage capacity. In 1982 Philips and Sony introduced the first technically and economically successful system based on this-the compact disc (CD) and a compatible player. A very broad diversity of optical data recording formats are available today, and a difference is drawn between prerecorded, recordable, and rewritable media. This Review gives an overview of the systems used, the main features of production, and then concentrates on the properties of the organic dyes that are used in recordable systems. Dyestuffs chemistry has gained the reputation of having become a mature field of activity. Is this prejudice or a justified swan song for dyestuffs chemistry? When applications in optical data storage are considered, it is evident that even today progresses such as CD-R and DVD/R would not be feasible without functional dyes.

  18. Photoredox Catalysis in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, photoredox catalysis has come to the forefront in organic chemistry as a powerful strategy for the activation of small molecules. In a general sense, these approaches rely on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to convert visible light into chemical energy by engaging in single-electron transfer with organic substrates, thereby generating reactive intermediates. In this Perspective, we highlight the unique ability of photoredox catalysis to expedite the development of completely new reaction mechanisms, with particular emphasis placed on multicatalytic strategies that enable the construction of challenging carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:27477076

  19. Photoredox Catalysis in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Megan H; Twilton, Jack; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-19

    In recent years, photoredox catalysis has come to the forefront in organic chemistry as a powerful strategy for the activation of small molecules. In a general sense, these approaches rely on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to convert visible light into chemical energy by engaging in single-electron transfer with organic substrates, thereby generating reactive intermediates. In this Perspective, we highlight the unique ability of photoredox catalysis to expedite the development of completely new reaction mechanisms, with particular emphasis placed on multicatalytic strategies that enable the construction of challenging carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds.

  20. Levitated droplet dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  1. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  2. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  3. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  4. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  5. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  6. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  7. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  8. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Ušćumlić Gordana S.; Valentić Nataša V.; Marinković Aleksandar D.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments) have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were use...

  9. TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING JOURNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Optim is dyed with Lanasol CE series dyes by micro-suspension technology, and the dyeing result is compared with that by traditional process. The optimal micro-suspension dyeing process is determined as follows: formic acid 1.5% (owl), micro-suspension promoter WR1.0% (owf), micro-suspension promoter TS 0.5 % (owl), dyestuff 5% (owf). The results show that micro-suspension dyeing increases the dye uptake percentage and colour fixation rate significantly; improves the handle and bulkiness without damaging the colour fastness of the dyed fabric.

  10. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  11. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  12. Dye Aggregation in Ink Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Paul; Sarfraz Hussain

    2004-01-01

    Dye aggregation has long been recognised as a key factor in performance, and this is no less so in ink jet applications. The aggregation state was shown to be important in many different areas ranging from the use of dyes in photodynamic therapies all the way to colorants for dying of fabrics. Therefore different methods to investigate dye association qualitatively and quantitatively were developed. A simple procedure to study aggregation could be a useful tool to characterise dyes for ink jet printing. It is critically reviewed the methods used to study dye aggregation, and discussed some of the main conclusions. This will be illustrated by examples of ink jet dye aggregation and its study in aqueous and ink systems. The results are used to correlate the solution behaviour of dyes with their print performance.

  13. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李戎; 陈东辉

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes have been widely used these years.Because of the special optical performance, conventional CCM systems seem to be unable to predict the recipes of fabrics dyed with fluorescent dyes. In order to enhance the functions of CCM systems, the optical properties of fluorescent dyes in their absorption region were investigated. It has been found that there was a fixed maximum absorption wavelength for each fluorescent dyes whatever its concentration is. Both absorption region and maximum absorption wavelength of the dyes in solution are the same to those in fabric, and that the absorption is directly proportional to the concentration of the dye. So the optical properties obtained in solutions cna be applied for describing the optics performance of fluorescent dyes in fabrics.

  14. A Dark Excited State of Fluorescent Protein Chromophores, Considered as Brooker Dyes

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Seth

    2010-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore is an asymmetric monomethine dye system. In the resonance color theory of dyes, a strong optical excitation arises from interactions of two valence-bond structures with a third, higher structure. We use correlated quantum chemistry to show that the anionic chromophore is a resonant Brooker dye, and that the third structure corresponds to a higher stationary electronic state of this species. The excitation energy of this state should be just below the first excitation energy of the neutral form. This has implications for excited state mechanism in GFPs, which we discuss.

  15. Are allergenic disperse dyes used for dyeing textiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Laura; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Isaksson, Marléne

    2012-09-01

    There are no data showing that disperse dyes, used to patch test patients, are currently being used for dyeing synthetic garments. It is unknown whether disperse dyes, which are currently routinely patch tested, are in fact present in synthetic textiles on the market. To determine whether eight disperse dyes, hitherto most widely cited as allergenic, are still used in textiles that are sold in various countries. Textiles from 13 countries in Europe, Asia and the United States were analysed. The procedure used for dye identification was thin-layer chromatography. When there were matching spots from the textile extract and reference dye, high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. Of 121 analysed items, three showed positive results for some of the investigated disperse dyes. Four dyes in these items could be detected and confirmed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography. A pair of light brown ladies' tights manufactured and purchased in Italy contained Disperse Yellow 3, Disperse Blue 124, and Disperse Blue 106, and a set of black bra and panties purchased in India contained Disperse Orange 1. The eight disperse dyes that are most frequently incriminated in textile dye dermatitis are very rarely used in textiles nowadays. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    by block number) Dye Lasers Laser Dyes Tunable Lasers Photodegradation Rhodamine Dyes 20. ABSTRACT (Continue n resld* it necesiry and Identify by block...limited usefulness as a portable military device because of the photodegradation of the dye solution. Although there have been state-of-the-art reviews...on laser dyes , 1𔃼 the photodegradation of laser dyes ,3 and dye lasers, 4- 6 only authors from, or funded by, military organizations have given strict

  17. Plantas Tintureiras Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma vasta bibliografia, até ao séc. XVIII, sobre plantas produtoras de corantes naturais, sendo que apenas um número limitado foi utilizado no tingimento de têxteis antigos, devido à capacidade de resistência à lavagem e ao desvanecimento. O cultivo de plantas ou a sua existência no mundo silvestre tiveram uma enorme importância sócio-económica para muitas comunidades espalhadas pelo mundo e pelas intensas trocas comerciais que geraram. A extracção dos corantes era feita a partir de diferentes partes de plantas ou árvores. Nalgumas plantas eram utilizadas as folhas, enquanto noutras se aproveitavam as flores, as raízes, os frutos, troncos ou sementes. Os corantes podiam ser extraídos através de processos complexos que envolviam diversas operações como maceração, destilação, fermentação, decantação, precipitação, filtração, etc. Neste âmbito, são apresentadas algumas das plantas cultivadas em Portugal e em muitos outros países europeus e que foram usadas em tinturaria. Este trabalho pretende ser um contributo para obstar à perda de conhecimentos das condições de cultivo e da forma como se maximizava a produção de corantes.A vast bibliography exists, until the 18th cen-tury, on natural dyes obtained from plants, but only one limited number was used in the dyeing of old textiles, due to capacity of resistance to wash and light fading. The culture of plants or its existence in the wild world had an enormous economical importance for many communities spread for the world, and the intense commercial exchanges that had generated. The extraction of dyes was done from different parts of plants or trees. In some plants was used the leaves, others, only the roots, the fruits, trunks or seeds. The dyes could be extracted through complex processes that involved various operations as maceration, distillation, fermentation, decantation, precipitation, filtration, etc. In this scope, some of the plants cultivated in

  18. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  19. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  20. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  1. Laser dye stability. Pt. 3. Bicyclic dyes in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, A.N. (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (USA). Research Dept.)

    1977-11-01

    A commercial coaxial xenon flashlamp has been used to evaluate the stability of a variety of coumarin and quinolone laser dyes. The lasing characteristics of over 30 dyes have been quantitatively evaluated as a function of the total excitation energy to which recirculating dye solution has been exposed. Degradation constants were determined an an evaluation was made of the effects of functional group variation upon the stability of the dyes. Comparison with the data of other workers revealed that exclusion of excitation energy below 220 nm does not change the stability of 4-methyl coumarins, but can increase the stability of other coumarins as much as 50 fold.

  2. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  3. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  4. Colorful Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. Teal; Carsten Conner, L. D.; Guthrie, Mareca; Pompea, Stephen; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Tzou, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a chemistry/art activity that originated in an National Science Foundation--funded two-week STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math) academy for grade 4-6 girls. The authors recommend using this investigation in conjunction with other activities focusing on chemical change as a step toward fulfilling the…

  5. Fluorescent Polymer Nanoparticles Based on Dyes: Seeking Brighter Tools for Bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Andreas; Klymchenko, Andrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Speed, resolution and sensitivity of today's fluorescence bioimaging can be drastically improved by fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) that are many-fold brighter than organic dyes and fluorescent proteins. While the field is currently dominated by inorganic NPs, notably quantum dots (QDs), fluorescent polymer NPs encapsulating large quantities of dyes (dye-loaded NPs) have emerged recently as attractive alternative. These new nanomaterials, inspired from the fields of polymeric drug delivery vehicles and advanced fluorophores, can combine superior brightness with biodegradability and low toxicity. Here, we describe the strategies for synthesis of dye-loaded polymer NPs by emulsion polymerization and assembly of pre-formed polymers. Superior brightness requires strong dye loading without aggregation caused quenching (ACQ). Only recently several strategies of dye design were proposed to overcome ACQ in polymer NPs: aggregation induced emission (AIE), dye modification with bulky side groups and use of bulky hydrophobic counterions. The resulting NPs now surpass the brightness of QDs by ~10-fold for comparable size and start reaching the level of the brightest conjugated polymer NPs. Other properties, notably photostability, color, blinking as well as particle size and surface chemistry are also systematically analyzed. Finally, major and emerging applications of dye-loaded NPs for in vitro and in vivo imaging are reviewed. PMID:26901678

  6. Homogeneous plate based antibody internalization assay using pH sensor fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Zimprich, Chad; Dwight, Stephen J; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Urh, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated antibody internalization is a key mechanism underlying several anti-cancer antibody therapeutics. Delivering highly toxic drugs to cancer cells, as in the case of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), efficient removal of surface receptors from cancer cells and changing the pharmacokinetics profile of the antibody drugs are some of key ways that internalization impacts the therapeutic efficacy of the antibodies. Over the years, several techniques have been used to study antibody internalization including radiolabels, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and cellular toxicity assays. While these methods allow analysis of internalization, they have limitations including a multistep process and limited throughput and are generally endpoint assays. Here, we present a new homogeneous method that enables time and concentration dependent measurements of antibody internalization. The method uses a new hydrophilic and bright pH sensor dye (pHAb dye), which is not fluorescent at neutral pH but becomes highly fluorescent at acidic pH. For receptor mediated antibody internalization studies, antibodies against receptors are conjugated with the pHAb dye and incubated with the cells expressing the receptors. Upon binding to the receptor, the dyes conjugated to the antibody are not fluorescent because of the neutral pH of the media, but upon internalization and trafficking into endosomal and lysosomal vesicles the pH drops and dyes become fluorescent. The enabling attributes of the pHAb dyes are the hydrophilic nature to minimize antibody aggregation and bright fluorescence at acidic pH which allows development of simple plate based assays using a fluorescent reader. Using two different therapeutic antibodies--Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) and Cetuximab (anti-EGFR)--we show labeling with pHAb dye using amine and thiol chemistries and impact of chemistry and dye to antibody ration on internalization. We finally present two new approaches using the pHAb dye, which will be

  7. Industrial chemistry engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-15

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  8. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  9. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  10. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  11. First-Principles Calculation of the Optical Properties of an Amphiphilic Cyanine Dye Aggregate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Frank; Stradomska, Anna; Vries, Alex H. de; Knoester, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Using a first-principles approach, we calculate electronic and optical properties of molecular aggregates of the dye amphi-pseudoisocyanine, whose structures we obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the self-aggregation process. Using quantum chemistry methods, we translate the struct

  12. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The use of harmful organic solvents in classrooms has become a critical issue of concern in the field of chemistry education. This article describes a classroom activity at a high school in which an acrylic fabric was used as the extraction medium in the analysis of the detergent concentration in water instead of organic solvents. Dyes were used…

  13. Synthesis of Triarylmethane and Xanthene Dyes Using Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James V.; Daggett, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of dyes has long been a popular topic in organic chemistry laboratory experiments because it allows students to see first hand that reactions learned in class can be used to make compounds with useful applications. In this experiment electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used to synthesize several triarylmethane and…

  14. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  15. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  16. Adsorption of dyes using different types of clay: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Aderonke Ajibola; Adeoye, Idowu Olatunbosun; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2015-09-01

    Increasing amount of dyes in the ecosystem particularly in wastewater has propelled the search for more efficient low-cost adsorbents. The effective use of the sorption properties (high surface area and surface chemistry, lack of toxicity and potential for ion exchange) of different clays as adsorbents for the removal of different type of dyes (basic, acidic, reactive) from water and wastewater as potential alternatives to activated carbons has recently received widespread attention because of the environmental-friendly nature of clay materials. Insights into the efficiencies of raw and modified/activated clay adsorbents and ways of improving their efficiencies to obtain better results are discussed. Acid-modified clay resulted in higher rate of dye adsorption and an increased surface area and porosity (49.05 mm2 and 53.4 %). Base-modified clay has lower adsorption capacities, while ZnCl2-modified clay had the least rate of adsorption with a surface area of 44.3 mm2 and porosity of 43.4 %. This review also explores the grey areas of the adsorption properties of the raw clays and the improved performance of activated/modified clay materials with particular reference to the effects of pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of the clays. Various challenges encountered in using clay materials are highlighted and a number of future prospects for the adsorbents are proposed.

  17. Thermal stability of the C106 dye in robust electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Pechy, Peter

    Thermal stability of the C106 dye in robust electrolytes. We have investigated the thermal stability and degradation chemistry of the ruthenium dye C106 (Figure 1) at 80 ◦C in the “robust” electrolyte “B” comprised of 1.0 M DMII, 0.03 M I2, 0.5 M NBB, and 0.1 M GuNCS in 3-methoxypropionitrile (3......-MPN) introduced by Gao et al. in 2008. [1]. Figure 1 Thermal degradation of C106 bound to TiO2 at 80 ºC in dark as a function of heating time. ● C106 = RuLL´(NCS)2 ■ RuLL´(NCS)(NBB)+ ▲ RuLL´(NCS)(3-MPN)+ The C106 dye was attached to the surface of TiO2 nano-particles and stable colloidal solutions...... of the particles were prepared in electrolyte mixture B. The solutions were thermally treated at 80 ◦C for 0-2000 hours followed by dye extraction and analysis by HPLC coupled to UV/Vis and electro spray mass spectrometry [2]. Figure 1 shows the concentration profiles of C106 samples prepared under ambient...

  18. Adsorption of dyes using different types of clay: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Aderonke Ajibola; Adeoye, Idowu Olatunbosun; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2017-05-01

    Increasing amount of dyes in the ecosystem particularly in wastewater has propelled the search for more efficient low-cost adsorbents. The effective use of the sorption properties (high surface area and surface chemistry, lack of toxicity and potential for ion exchange) of different clays as adsorbents for the removal of different type of dyes (basic, acidic, reactive) from water and wastewater as potential alternatives to activated carbons has recently received widespread attention because of the environmental-friendly nature of clay materials. Insights into the efficiencies of raw and modified/activated clay adsorbents and ways of improving their efficiencies to obtain better results are discussed. Acid-modified clay resulted in higher rate of dye adsorption and an increased surface area and porosity (49.05 mm2 and 53.4 %). Base-modified clay has lower adsorption capacities, while ZnCl2-modified clay had the least rate of adsorption with a surface area of 44.3 mm2 and porosity of 43.4 %. This review also explores the grey areas of the adsorption properties of the raw clays and the improved performance of activated/modified clay materials with particular reference to the effects of pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of the clays. Various challenges encountered in using clay materials are highlighted and a number of future prospects for the adsorbents are proposed.

  19. Quantitative comparison of long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes to Cy dyes: fluorescence of the dyes and their bioconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Judith E; Rothe, Anca; Buller, Gayle; Bradford, Jolene; Gray, Diane R; Filanoski, Brian J; Telford, William G; Yue, Stephen; Liu, Jixiang; Cheung, Ching-Ying; Chang, Wesley; Hirsch, James D; Beechem, Joseph M; Haugland, Rosaria P; Haugland, Richard P

    2003-12-01

    Amine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of Alexa Fluor fluorescent dyes with principal absorption maxima at about 555 nm, 633 nm, 647 nm, 660 nm, 680 nm, 700 nm, and 750 nm were conjugated to antibodies and other selected proteins. These conjugates were compared with spectrally similar protein conjugates of the Cy3, Cy5, Cy5.5, Cy7, DY-630, DY-635, DY-680, and Atto 565 dyes. As N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester dyes, the Alexa Fluor 555 dye was similar to the Cy3 dye, and the Alexa Fluor 647 dye was similar to the Cy5 dye with respect to absorption maxima, emission maxima, Stokes shifts, and extinction coefficients. However, both Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more resistant to photobleaching than were their Cy dye counterparts. Absorption spectra of protein conjugates prepared from these dyes showed prominent blue-shifted shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Cy dyes but only minor shoulder peaks for conjugates of the Alexa Fluor dyes. The anomalous peaks, previously observed for protein conjugates of the Cy5 dye, are presumably due to the formation of dye aggregates. Absorption of light by the dye aggregates does not result in fluorescence, thereby diminishing the fluorescence of the conjugates. The Alexa Fluor 555 and the Alexa Fluor 647 dyes in protein conjugates exhibited significantly less of this self-quenching, and therefore the protein conjugates of Alexa Fluor dyes were significantly more fluorescent than those of the Cy dyes, especially at high degrees of labeling. The results from our flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrate that protein-conjugated, long-wavelength Alexa Fluor dyes have advantages compared to the Cy dyes and other long-wavelength dyes in typical fluorescence-based cell labeling applications.

  20. GC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis of biodegradation of new disazo dye by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, H Ardag; Demircali, A; Aydemir, C; Pazarlioglu, N; Karci, F

    2011-01-01

    In this study; sub-tropical white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor was investigated for its ability to degrade 4-(3'-methyl-4'-(4"-nitrophenyl)azo- 1'H-pyrazol-5'-ylazo)-3-methyl- H-pyrazol-5-on in the mediums containing glucose and different concentrations of degrade dye in batch systems. This dye was synthetized at Pamukkale Universtiy of Organic Chemistry research laboratory. Samples were collected on 10 days, and was detected by Shimadzu UV-1600A spectrophotometry. Decolorization study showed that this disazo dye was removed by more than 70% in 10 days. Laccase enzyme activity was detected in samples and then last sample was analyzed by GC-MS. Metabolites weren't showed in GC-MS result. It was concluded that T. versicolor could achieve the biodegradation of this new disazo dye.

  1. LIQUID DYES'CHARACTERISTICS IN DYEING WASTE PAPER PULP AND THEIR APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Wang; gang Chen; Aimin Tang; Hongwei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some liquid dyes were used to dye the waste paper pulp (OCC pulp and waste cement sack paper pulp), and their dyeing characteristics were analyzed, The liquid dyes include liquid basic yellow, liquid basic blue, liquid basic red, liquid basic orange, liquid basic brown and liquid direct black. We found that, each dye had its own dyeing characteristic while dyeing the waste paper pulp.Generally different types of liquid dyes were combined to dye the waste paper pulp, which the adding process must be noticed. We also observed that a black pigment could be applied together with said liquid dyes to dye or adjust the color of the bottom sheet for the fireproof board. We could also achieve the same dyeing result through different combinations of different dyes.

  2. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  3. Application of titanate nanotubes for dyes adsorptive removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Kung; Liu, Shin-Shou; Juang, Lain-Chuen; Wang, Cheng-Cai; Lyu, Meng-Du; Hung, Shui-Hung

    2007-09-30

    The potential of adsorptive removal of basic dyes with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) and acid dyes with surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) chloride)-modified TNTs were investigated. TNTs were prepared via a hydrothermal method and subsequently washed with HCl aqueous solutions of different concentrations. The prepared TNTs were then mediated by the HDTMA ions through the cation exchange process. Effects of acid washing and HDTMA-modified process on the revolution of microstructure and surface chemistry characteristics of TNTs were characterized with XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and FTIR. The adsorption capacities of two basic dyes (two acid dyes) on TNTs (their HDTMA-modified version) at initial dye concentration of 2000 mg/L were measured. It was experimentally concluded that if the amount of Na(+) in the TNTs was not very low, the TNTs and their HDTMA-modified version might be a good adsorbent for the removal of basic and acid dyes from aqueous solution through the cation and anion exchange mechanism, respectively. The adsorption capacity for basic and acid dyes could reach 380 and 400 mg/g, respectively.

  4. A panchromatic anthracene-fused porphyrin sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ball, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of ruthenium-free sensitizers which absorb light over a broad range of the solar spectrum is important for improving the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here we study three chemically tailored porphyrin-based dyes. We show that by fusing the porphyrin core to an anthracene unit, we can extend the conjugation length and lower the optical gap, shifting the absorption spectrum into the near-infrared (NIR). All three dyes were tested in dye-sensitized solar cells, using both titanium dioxide and tin dioxide as the electron-transport material. Solar cells incorporating the anthracene-fused porphyrin dye exhibit photocurrent collection at wavelengths up to about 1100 nm, which is the longest reported for a porphyrin-based system. Despite extending the photon absorption bandwidth, device efficiency is found to be low, which is a common property of cells based on porphyrin dyes with NIR absorption. We show that in the present case the efficiency is reduced by inefficient electron injection into the oxide, as opposed to dye regeneration, and highlight some important design considerations for panchromatic sensitizers. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Titania Nanostructures for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Malekshahi Byranvand; A Nemati Kharat; M H Bazargan

    2012-01-01

    Titania is one kind of important materials, which has been extensively investigated because of its unique electronic and optical properties. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the titania nanostructures electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size, shape, crystallinity, surface morphology, and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters which should be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. Titania can be found in different shape of nanostructures including mesoporous, nanotube, nanowire, and nanorod structures. The present article reviews the structural, synthesis, electronic, and optical properties of TiO2 nanostructures for dye sensitized solar cells.

  6. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  7. Effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle on dyes biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, Laura; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Alves, M.M.; Gavrilescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the biodecolourisation of two dyes, a xanthene dye, Erythrosine B (Ery B) and an azo dye, Reactive Red 51 (RR120), was investigated colourdecolourisationunder batch anaerobic conditions by using non - acclimated anaerobic granular sludge. The effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle (FN) (as adsorbent or mediator) on dyes removal was experienced.

  8. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  9. Survery on Actual Conditions of Food Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤,ひろみ

    1981-01-01

    Many food dyes are widely used as food additives in Japan, and many investigations have been pointed the problems of safety of these food dyes used in Japanese food. There are two types of commercial food dyes, one is synthetic dyes and the other is natural dyes.Recently Japanese food is not stained so colourfully, but it is stained faintly in colour near to natural food by using of mixed synthetic dyes. On their hand, many consumers have a tendency to prefer natural food dyes because they ha...

  10. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2002-01-01

    for separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  11. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  12. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  13. Triplet losses in dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczynski, A.; Kossakowski, A.; Marszalek, T. (Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland). Instytut Fizyki)

    1977-01-01

    The expression for losses due to triplet states in dye laser considered as a six-level system is given. It is shown that triplet losses depend on pumping parameters and photon number. Depending on molecular and cavity parameters two differe types of behavior of dye lasers are expected. Physical conditions are discussed in which triplet losses as well as photon number undergo a jump at the threshold.

  14. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Dyes as Photoinitiators or Photosensitizers of Polymerization Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A short but up-to-date review on the role of dyes in the photoinitiation processes of polymerization reactions is presented. Radical and cationic reactions are largely encountered in the radiation curing and the imaging areas for use in traditional coating applications as well as in high tech sectors such as nanofabrication, computer-to-plate processing, laser direct imaging, manufacture of optical elements, etc. Recent promising developments concerned with the introduction of the silyl radical chemistry that enhances the polymerization efficiency are also discussed.

  16. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  17. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  18. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  19. Systems chemistry approach in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würthner, Frank; Meerholz, Klaus

    2010-08-16

    The common approach in organic materials science is dominated by the perception that the properties of the bulk materials are virtually determined by the properties of the molecular building blocks. In this Concept Article, we advocate for taking into account supramolecular organization principles for all kinds of organic solid-state materials, irrespective of them being crystalline, liquid crystalline, or amorphous, and discuss a showcase example, that is, the utilization of merocyanine dyes as p-type organic semiconductors in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Despite their extraordinarily large dipole moments, which are considered to be detrimental for efficient charge carrier transport, BHJ organic photovoltaic materials of these dyes with fullerenes have reached remarkable power conversion efficiencies of meanwhile nearly 5%. These at the first glance contradictory properties are, however, well-understandable on the systems chemistry level.

  20. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  1. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  2. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Sancun; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Yunfang; Lin, Jianming [Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362021 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The I{sub SC} from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the V{sub OC} from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and P{sub max} from 58{mu}W to 327{mu}W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts. In the extracts of natural fruit, leaves and flower chosen, the black rice extract performed the best photosensitized effect, which was due to the better interaction between the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin molecule on black rice extract and the surface of TiO{sub 2} porous film. The blue-shift of absorption wavelength of the black rice extract in ethanol solution on TiO{sub 2} film and the blue-shift phenomenon from absorption spectrum to photoaction spectrum of DSC sensitized with black rice extract are discussed in the paper. Because of the simple preparation technique, widely available and low cheap cost natural dye as an alternative sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell is promising. (author)

  3. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution...... and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns...

  4. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.

  5. Diffusion dynamics in microfluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  6. Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, R; Gaffer, H E

    2013-08-14

    Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric using a new antibacterial reactive dye having a modified chemical structure to the commercial reactive dye CI Reactive Red 198 were studied. This modification was carried out by replacing metanilic acid in the commercial dye with 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfadimidine). Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were achieved at 60 g/l sodium sulphate and 20 g/l sodium carbonate for both dyes. The modified dye exhibited higher substantivity, exhaustion and fixation efficiency compared to the commercial dye. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The cotton dyed with the modified dye shows higher antibacterial efficacy compared to the dyed cotton fabric using the commercial dye, especially on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. All the reactive dyeings also exhibited high fastness properties.

  7. Flow chemistry meets advanced functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rebecca M; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Turner, Richard M; Ley, Steven V

    2014-09-22

    Flow chemistry and continuous processing techniques are beginning to have a profound impact on the production of functional materials ranging from quantum dots, nanoparticles and metal organic frameworks to polymers and dyes. These techniques provide robust procedures which not only enable accurate control of the product material's properties but they are also ideally suited to conducting experiments on scale. The modular nature of flow and continuous processing equipment rapidly facilitates reaction optimisation and variation in function of the products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Natural Dyes as Photosensitizers for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem S. El-Ghamri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were assembled using Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles as a photoelectrode and natural dyes extracted from eight natural plants as photosensitizers. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were studied using XRD, SEM and TEM characterizations. Photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and overall conversion efficiency η for the fabricated cells were determined under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. It was found that the DSSC fabricated with the extracted safflower dye as a sensitizer showed the best performance. Also, its performance increased with increasing the sintering temperature of the semiconductor electrode with highest performance at 400 °C. Moreover, it was found that a semiconductor electrode of 7.5 μm thickness yielded the highest response.

  9. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M. A.; Casanova-González, E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400 nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500 nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  10. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M A; Casanova-González, E; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J L

    2017-02-09

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  11. Research on the growth of dye film in vacuum in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytsenko, K.; Doroshenko, T.; Kolomzarov, Yu.; Prokopets, V.; Fedoriak, O.; Zelinski, R.; Lytvyn, O.; Prescher, D.; Grimm, B.; Ksianzou, V.; Schrader, S.; Tolmachev, O.; Slominskii, Yu.; Kurdiukov, V.; Smirnova, G.

    2008-04-01

    Organic film deposition in vacuum is fast developing scientific and industrial domain. We developed installation for deposition of organic films equipped with optical spectrometer for measurements in situ. We are developing new dyes aimed for application in waveguide sensor, nonlinear optics and studying film organisation during deposition. Fluorinated azo-dyes and azomethine dyes were synthesized at University of Applied Sciences Wildau and at the Institute of Organic Chemistry, Kyiv. Compounds were evaporated at a pressure of 10- 3 Pa using resistive heated crucible. Glass and glass covered with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film are used as substrates. The films were studied with Polytec and StellarNet spectrometers and an atomic force microscope. Optical spectra of the dye films revealed, that some compounds were decomposed during evaporation. Several kinds of dyes were evaporated and deposited without decomposition. Some deposited films formed H-aggregates and other types of aggregates. AFM images of dye films showed that their morphology depends on the chemical structure of the compounds and on the nature of the substrate on which the film was grown.

  12. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  13. Laser dye toxicity, hazards, and recommended controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosovsky, J.A.

    1983-05-06

    Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated have been categorized according to their central chemical structures. These include the xanthenes (rhodamines and fluoresceins), polymethines (cyanines and carbocyanines), coumarins, and stilbenes. A few other miscellaneous dyes that do not fall into one of these categories have also been investigated. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -5/ molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

  14. Computational Chemistry Approach to Interpret the Crystal Violet Adsorption on Golbasi Lignite Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Prisbrey, Keith A.; Yucel, Aysegul

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, adsorption mechanism of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from the aqueous solution on the activated carbon prepared from Golbasi lignite was explained and interpreted by a computational chemistry approach and experimental studies. Molecular dynamic simulations and Ab initio frontier orbital analysis indicated relatively high energy and electron transfer processes during adsorption, and molecular dynamics simulations showed CV dye molecules moving around on the activated carbon surface after adsorption, facilitating penetration into cracks and pores. The experimental results supported to molecular dynamic simulation and showed that the monolayer coverage occurred on the activated carbon surface and each CV dye ion had equal sorption activation energy.

  15. Kent and Riegel's Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. 11th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, James A. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This handbook provides extensive information on plastics, rubber, adhesives, textile fibers, pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemicals, soaps and detergents, as well as various other major classes of industrial chemistry. There is detailed coverage of coal utilization technology, dyes and dye intermediates, chlor-alkali and heavy chemicals, paints and pigments, chemical explosives, propellants, petroleum and petrochemicals, natural gas, industrial gases, synthetic nitrogen products, fats and oils, sulfur and sulfuric acid, phosphorous and phosphates, wood products, and sweeteners. The chapter on coal is entitled: coal technology for power, liquid fuels and chemicals. 100 ills.

  16. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, U. E., E-mail: moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Emetere, M. E., E-mail: uno-essang@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria); Fadipe, L. A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria); Oluranti, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.oluranti@covenantuniversity.edu.ng [Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Covenant University, Ota (Nigeria)

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO{sub 2} conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm{sup 2} active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10{sup −2}, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10{sup −2}, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  17. An enhanced mangiferaindica for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, U. E.; Emetere, M. E.; Fadipe, L. A.; Oluranti, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (T1O2) is preferred to Zinc oxide as mesoporous oxide layer because it raised the efficiency of DSSCs from 1% to 7%. The chemistry of the process however seem rigorous to allow the light induced electron injection from the adsorbed dye into the nanocrystallites i.e. which renders the TiO2 conductive. The DSSC fabricated consist of 2.25 cm2 active area of titanium dioxide coated on FTO glass (fluorine tin oxide) immersed in ethanol solution of natural dye extracted as an anode (electrode) and counter electrode. These two electrodes were coupled together and the space between them was filled with the Iodolyte AN-50 as solid electrolyte or redox mediator. The photo electrochemical parameters of the dye extracted (Mango fruit Peel) from the results obtained are short circuit current (Isc)= 1.22×10-2, current density (Jsc)=4.07×10-2, open circuit voltage (voc) =0.53V, fill factor (FF) of 0.16 and the overall conversion efficiency (Eff) =0.345%.

  18. Dye Sysentized Solar Cell (Dyssc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dileep,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Dye sensitized solar cell (DYSSC, which is called as future generation solar cell. It is a new class of green photovoltaic cell based on photosynthesis principle in nature. DYSSCs are fabricated using two different natural dyes as sensitizers, which extracted from the materials existing in nature and our life, such as flowers, leaves, fruits, traditional Chinese medicines, and beverages. The use of sensitizers having a broad absorption band in conjunction with oxide films of nanocrystalline morphology permits to harvest a large fraction of sunlight. There are good prospects to produce these cells at lower cost and much better efficiency than conventional semiconductor devices by introducing various chemical and natural dyes. DYSSC are implemented with simple and new technique to overcome the energy crisis and excess cost of semiconductor solar cells.

  19. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  20. and dyes metabolized to benzidine were

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAB

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... intermediate in the production of various dyes, color salts and naphthols. In the past ... liver, kidney, nervous system, and various other organs of human's body ..... dye reduction: status review with emphasis on direct UV.

  1. Textile dyeing by dyestuffs of natural origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the biggest industrial consumers of water especially dye houses which utilize synthetic dyes and other chemicals. Natural dyes are generally environmental friendly and have many advantages over synthetic dyes with respect to production and application. In recent years, there has been an interest in the application of these dyes due to their bio-degradability and higher compatibility with the environment. A review of previous work in the field of applying dyestuffs of natural source as possible textile dyes is given. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes by 'natural products' in textile dyeing may be feasible and may represent not only a strategy to reduce risks and pollutants, but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses which can develop from the inclusion of ecology in trade policy.

  2. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  3. Dye solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid is an alternative solvent for the water of the traditional dyeing. The solubility of dyestuff affects greatly the dyeing process. A theoretical model for predicting the dye solubility is proposed and verified experimentally. The paper concludes that the pressure has a greater impact on the dyestuff solubility than temperature, and an optimal dyeing condition is suggested for the highest distribution coefficient of dyestuff.

  4. Water in supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lai-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of water serving as entrainer on the dyeing of wool fabrics in supercritical carbon dioxide. Compared with previous supercritical dyeing methods, addition of water makes the dyeing process more effective under low temperature and low pressure. During dyeing process, dyestuff can be uniformly distributed on fabrics’s surface due to water interaction, as a result coloration is enhanced while color difference is decreased.

  5. Fong’s: Saving Water in Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong’s Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong’s National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong’s Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  6. One-bath Dyeing of Polyester/Wool Blend with Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡翔; 宋心远

    2001-01-01

    The role of auxiliary LAB as vehicle in dyeing polyester/wool blends with disperse dyes is described. Dye exhaustion and bonding on polyester/wool samples are studied under different experimental conditions - the LAB amount, the temperature and pH value- to achieve optimum conditions. The results are compared with those obtained with and without conventional dyeing auxiliary products. Although dye exhaustion is higher in the presence of commercial carriers, the dye bonded increases markedly in the presence of auxiliary LAB in both fibers. The role played by auxiliary LAB in polyester/wool blend dyeing can provide a new method for this process.

  7. Effect of dye structure and redox mediators on anaerobic azo and anthraquinone dye reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Carantino Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological decolourisation of dyes with different molecular structures. The kinetic constant values (k1 achieved with azo dye Reactive Red 120 were 7.6 and 10.1 times higher in the presence of RM (redox mediators AQDS and riboflavin, respectively, than the assays lacking RM. The kinetic constant achieved with the azo dye Congo Red was 42 times higher than that obtained with the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 4. The effect of RM on dye reduction was more evident for azo dyes resistant to reductive processes, and ineffective for anthraquinone dyes because of the structural stability of the latter.

  8. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  9. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women and indigo dye (fabric whitener are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+, fair (+, and poor (- and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  10. From Matter to Life:Chemistry?Chemistry!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Animate as well as inanimate matter,living organisms as well as materials,are formed of molecules and of the organized entities resulting from the interaction of molecules with each other.Chemistry provides the bridge between the molecules of inanimate matter and the highly complex molecular architectures and systems which make up living organisms. Synthetic chemistry has developed a very powerful set of methods for constructing ever more complex molecules.Supramolecular chemistry seeks to con...

  11. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  12. Synthesis and dyeing performance of a novel polycarboxylic acid azo dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Xu; Bing Tao Tang; Shu Fen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A novel reactive polycarboxylic acid dye was synthesized by the reaction of polymaleic anhydride (PMA) with 3-methyl-l-(4-sulfonylphenyl)-4-(4-aminophenylazo)-2-pyrazoline-5-one. The structure of the novel dye was characterized by FTIR, UV-vis and 13C NMR spectra. The dyeing properties of dye on cotton were tested, and the novel dye possessed high fixation and good fastness.

  13. Descoloration of industrial dyes and simulated textile effluents dyes by turnip peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Maria Cristina; Angelita D Corrêa; Torres, Juliana A.; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de

    2012-01-01

    The removal of important textile dyes by turnip peroxidase (TNP) was evaluated. The textile effluents besides the residual dyes contain also chemical auxiliaries such as salts, dispersing and wetting agents. The effect of these was evaluated in the removal of the dyes reactive blue 21 and reactive blue 19 by TNP in synthetic effluents. A decrease of the efficency decolorization was observed. The action of the enzyme on colour removal of dye mixture was equivalent to the dyes alone. The chemic...

  14. Preparation of Al-doped ZnO nanocrystalline aggregates with enhanced performance for dye adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Que, WenXiu; Yuan, Yuan; Zhong, Peng; Liao, YuLong

    2012-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanocrystalline aggregates (NCAs) were prepared by a low cost colloid chemistry method and effects of the Al-doped concentration on the morphological and structural properties of the AZO NCAs were studied. The dye adsorption ability of the AZO NCAs with various Al-doped concentrations was also investigated. Results indicate that the doping of the Al ions not only does not change the wurtzite structure of the ZnO crystal but also can reduce the crystallite grain size and the particle size distribution of the NCAs, which gives them a higher specific surface area and dye adsorption ability than that of the ZnO NCAs. The as-prepared AZO NCAs would be a promising material to be applied in the dye sensitized solar cells and water treatment.

  15. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Shahin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PET fabric was noticed to increase as a result of alkali treatment which may be attributed to the alteration in the hydrophobicity of polyester fibre. The most effective parameters that may affect the dye uptake of the natural dye on alkali-treated PET fabric and the final dyeing properties including dye bath pH, dyeing temperature and time were studied in details. The behaviour of the selected and used natural dye was found to be similar to that of disperse dyes. Addition of salicylic acid to the dye bath accelerated the rate of dyeing and subsequently higher colour strength was attained. Non- ionic dispersing agent was also used to ensure better dyeing uniformity and higher dispersion stability of dye liquor.

  16. Preparation of a Novel Chitosan Based Biopolymer Dye and Application in Wood Dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye possessing antibacterial properties was synthesized by reaction of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and Acid Red GR. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, degree of substitution (DS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, water solubility test, antibacterial property test, and dyeing performance, including dye uptake, color difference, and fastness. Results showed that the synthesized dye was combined by –NH3+ of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and the sulfonic group of Acid Red GR. According to the comprehensive analysis of XRD and water solubility, the introduction of the carboxymethyl group and acid dye molecule changed the structure of the chitosan from compact to loose, which improved the synthesized dye’s water solubility. However, the thermal stability of the synthesized dye was decreased. The antibacterial property of the poplar wood dyed with the synthesized dye was enhanced and its antibacterial rate, specifically against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, also increased to a rate of more than 99%. However, the dye uptake of the synthesized dye was lower than that of the original dye. Despite this, though, the dyeing effect of the synthesized dye demonstrated better water-fastness, and light-fastness than the original dye. Therefore, the novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye can be a promising product for wood dyeing.

  17. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Annals of Epidemiology 2014; 24(2),151–159. [PubMed ... in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. Cancer Science 2009; 100(6):1088-1091. [PubMed Abstract] Related ...

  18. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  19. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment s...

  20. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  1. Cationic triangulenes and helicenes: synthesis, chemical stability, optical properties and extended applications of these unusual dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Johann; Gouin, Jérôme; Lacour, Jérôme

    2014-04-21

    Cationic triangulenes and helicenes are highly stable carbocations with planar and helical conformations respectively. These moieties are effective dyes with original absorption and emission properties. Over the last decade, they have received greater attention and are considered as valuable tools for the development of innovative applications. In this review, the synthesis of these unique compounds is presented together with their core chemical and physical properties. Representative applications spanning from surface sciences to biology and chemistry are presented.

  2. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  3. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  5. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  7. Chemistry for Potters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  8. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  9. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Talaviya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  10. Dyeing of Polyester Woven Fabric with Disperse Dye Using Conventional and Microwave Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric is generally dyed using high temperature dyeing technique and carrier. Both techniques require high energy consumption while few carriers are toxic in nature. In this study, 100% polyester woven fabric was dyed by microwave and conventional dyeing technique with disperse dye; Foron Blue RD GLN by an exhaust method for short dyeing cycle (15 and 30 min. The fabric samples were dyed using conventional high temperature dyeing technique using recommended recipe. Moreover, samples were also dyed using microwave technique with recommended recipe and by the addition of salt and urea, pre-treatment with caustic and organic solvent for improving the dye uptake value and fastness properties. The dyeing assessment; (K/S?max value by Datacolor spectrophotometer, dye uniformity by optical microscope and washing fastness by grey scale were measured. It has been observed that over conventional dyeing method, microwave irradiation dyed sample gives almost 70% high (K/S?max value and uniform dye penetration and good to very good washing fastness property. In addition, microwave dyeing gives excellent dyeing behavior at short dyeing cycle; 15 min; hence saves energy and sustainable dyeing process

  11. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  12. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older adolescents and adults. Read more IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Eliminating Wild-Type DNA in Liquid Biopsies Researchers ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    OpenAIRE

    HINOJOSA Belén; MONTAVA Ignacio; BOU-BELDA Eva; Díaz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generate...

  14. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  15. Chemistry and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  16. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  17. Physical chemistry of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers surface chemistry and selected aspects f colloid chemistry. The text covers such areas as structure and thermodynamics of liquid interfaces; electrical aspects of surface chemistry; microscopy and spectroscopy of solid interfaces; nucleation; contact angle; adsorption from solution; friction and adhesion; lubrication; and chemisorption and catalysis.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO DYEING METHODS USING REACTIVE DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HINOJOSA Belén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environment preservation is a common worry not only for people but for companies as well. Industry is more and more concern about the necessity of developing new and more respectful processes. Dye is one of the most important processes in the textile industry but it is also considered as no too safe regarding environment issues. This process uses large amounts of water and generates big volumes of wastewater. Following this issue, new regulations and laws emerge to control the waste generated. This leads to the companies and increased costs in terms of wastewater treatments and high water consumption. In this research we compare two systems on garment finishing application, the conventional bath process and the new Ecofinish system that is able to save water and product. To compare these processes, we carried out a reactive dyeing using both systems in order to determine the quality differences in the final product. For this purpose, the samples have been tested to washing and rubbing fastness, according to UNE EN ISO 105 C10 and UNE- EN ISO 105 X12 standards, respectively. This study confirms that this system achieves water savings and reduces the wastewater produced, getting a good dyeing. This process can be considered as an alternative to the conventional one.

  19. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  20. Effect of aqueous and dye treatments on the wool fibre surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brack, N.; Lamb, R. [The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry, Surface Science and Technology; Pham, D.; Phillips, T.; Turner, P. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Belmont, VIC (Australia). Wool Technology

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Aqueous treatments are used in many stages of wool processing, such as scouring, shrink-resist treatments, finishing and dyeing. There is incomplete understanding of the full effects of aqueous treatments on the fibre surface. A thorough understanding of such effects is critical for further optimisation of present technology and development of future processing technologies. This paper investigates changes to the fibre surface as a result of exposure to water in terms of the current model of the fibre surface and relates such changes to the effectiveness of further processing stages. The surface chemistry of solvent cleaned, unprocessed fibres which have been exposed to water at elevated temperatures (50-100 deg C) is investigated by a combination of techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This study is extended to investigate the area of dyeing. During the dyeing process, fibres are exposed to elevated temperatures (> 70 deg C) for typically 1 hour. The initial adsorption of dye molecules and subsequent diffusion process and the effect the chemical nature of the fibre surface has on these processes is discussed. Chemical changes to the fibre surface is monitored by XPS, while the physical location of the dye is determined by fluorescence microscopy. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

  1. [Benzidine dyes and risk of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O

    1989-12-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benzidine and that the azo linkage of benzidine dyes is reduced by Escherichia coli and soil bacteria. These experimental findings were reported previously. In this report, we outline an approach to these studies. Many of the dyes used to color paper, textiles, lipstick, bait used by fishermen, as well as hair dyes, and dyes used in research, for pharmaceutical products, and by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents, have been shown to be potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. We review the literature on these dyes.

  2. Zeolite-dye micro lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

  3. A Guided Inquiry Liquid/Liquid Extractions Laboratory for Introductory Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raydo, Margaret L.; Church, Megan S.; Taylor, Zane W.; Taylor, Christopher E.; Danowitz, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A guided inquiry laboratory experiment for teaching liquid/liquid extractions to first semester undergraduate organic chemistry students is described. This laboratory is particularly useful for introductory students as the analytes that are separated are highly colored dye molecules. This allows students to track into which phase each analyte…

  4. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing behavior of heterocyclic acid dyes and mordent acid dyes on wool and silk fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hitendra M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic acid and mordent acid dyes were synthesized by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2- butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoylbenzofuran. The resulting heterocyclic acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR spectral studies and UV- visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the heterocyclic acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

  5. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  6. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method.

  7. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  8. Development of new near-infrared and leuco-dye optical systems for forensic and crime fighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonay, Gabor; Strekowski, Lucjan; Salon, Jozef; Medou-Ovono, Martial; Krutak, James J.; Leggitt, Jeffrey; Seubert, Heather; Craig, Rhonda

    2004-12-01

    New chemistry for leuco fluorescin and leuco rhodamine for latent bloodstain and fingerprint detection has been developed in our laboratories. The use of these leuco dyes results in excellent contrast for several hours. The FBI's Evidence Response Team and DNA I unit collaborated with Georgia State University to validate the new fluorescin chemistry for use in the field. In addition, several new NIR dyes have been developed in our laboratories that can be used to detect different chemical residues, e.g., pepper spray, latent fingerprint, latent blood, metal ions, or other trace evidence during crime scene investigations. Proof of principle experiments showed that NIR dyes reacting with such residues can be activated with appropriately filtered semiconductor lasers and LEDs to emit NIR fluorescence that can be observed using optimally filtered night vision intensifiers or pocket scopes, digital cameras, CCD and CMOS cameras, or other NIR detection systems. The main advantage of NIR detection is that the color of the background has very little influence on detection and that there are very few materials that would interfere by exhibiting NIR fluorescence. The use of pocket scopes permits sensitive and convenient detection. Once the residues are located, digital images of the fluorescence can be recorded and samples obtained for further analyses. NIR dyes do not interfere with subsequent follow-up or confirmation methods such as DNA or LC/MS analysis. Near-infrared absorbing dyes will be summarized along with detection mechanisms.

  9. Dye Photodestruction in a Solid-State Dye Laser with a Polymeric Gain Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Sergei

    1998-09-01

    The process of dye photodestruction in a solid-state dye laser is studied, and implemented is a polymeric gain medium doped with a strongly concentrated dye. The behavior of the conversion efficiency in the polymeric gain medium pumped with different laser-pulse repetition rates and the process of dye photobleaching are analyzed. The contribution of the heating of the host material into the dye molecules deactivation is discussed. The negative effect of high dye concentration on the dye stability under a high pump repetition rate is reported and analyzed for the first time to my knowledge. A comparison of the present results with recently published data demonstrates the major role of photodestruction, rather than direct thermodestruction, in the dye stability of the solid-state gain medium. The role of additives with low molecular weights in the polymeric matrix, for increasing the stability of the gain material, is discussed.

  10. Laser dye stability. Pt. 4. Photodegradation relationships for bicyclic dyes in alcohol solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, A.N. (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (USA). Research Dept.)

    1978-05-01

    Changes in the absorption of a dye laser solution are examined after excitation with a xenon flashlamp. It is found that the rate of bleaching as a function of the total input energy of coumarin or quinolone dyes in ethanol increases in direct proportion to the dye concentration. This relationship suggests that the dye reacts with a photoproduct of the solvent rather than being directly decomposed by the xenon flash. We have measured the conversion of the dye to form products, P, absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Results correspond to the dye reacting with a precursor of P to form either insoluble products or ones not absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Thus larger total amounts of bleached dye do not proportionately increase P, and hence do not proportionately inhibit lasing. Furthermore, we find that P increases with the total input energy fairly independent of the rate of bleaching for a given bicyclic dye in an alcohol solution.

  11. Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2009-06-21

    Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  12. Environmentally Friendly Techniques for Wool Dyeing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antighin Simona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of dyeing process on the quality of surface waters contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds, resulted after the wool dyeing process. In order to mark out this aspects an environment friendly method was proposed which involves dyeing wool fiber with new complex combinations derived from a new acid dyes which were complexed, using copper, iron, nickel and zinc salts at 2:1 combination ratio. In order to point out the environmental point of view of wastewaters an experimental protocol was tested by dyeing wool fiber at different pH. Evaluation of complexed combinations impact on the environment involve the following indicators: consumption degree of dyeing solution from the process bath, treatment degree related to the organic content expressed by COD indicator and treatment degree related to the heavy metal concentration respectively.

  13. Biological wastewater treatment of azo dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA))

    1988-09-01

    EPA Water Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, undertook a study to determine the fate of specific water soluble azo dye compounds in the activated sludge process (ASP). The study was approached by dosing the feed to the pilot ASP systems with various water soluble azo dyes and by monitoring each dye compound through the system, analyzing both liquid and sludge samples. The fate of the parent dye compound was assessed via mass balance calculations. These data could determine if the compound was removed by adsorption, apparent biodegradation, or not removed at all. The paper presents results for 18 dye compounds tested from June 1985 through August 1987. The study was conducted at EPAs Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the ASP.

  14. Adsorptive Properties of Dyes to Cellulosic Sheet and Discoloration of Dye Solution by UV-ray Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yu; Iida Ikuho; Minato Kazuya; Kurosu Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorptive properties and selectivity of dyes and water molecules to cellulosic sheet, dependence of adsorptive properties of dyes on the concentration of dye solution, and discoloration of the dye solution due to the UV-ray irradiation were determined for 18 kinds of commercial dyes. The results are as follows: 1) the adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulose sheet differed greatly, but did not depend on the dye types such as acidic, basic and so on; 2) adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulosic sheet depended on the concentration of dye solution and were classified into 4 types: concentration-independent, increasing or decreasing with dye concentration, and having a maximum. This classification was irrelevant to the dye types; 3) the irradiation of UV-ray did not cause significant discoloration of dye solution itself, which suggested that wood components as well as dye molecules influence the discoloration of wood.

  15. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  16. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  17. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  18. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Mahmood; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zilli Huma Nazli; Tariq Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of...

  19. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Shahin; Ahmed, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET) fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PE...

  20. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  1. Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

    2009-02-17

    Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them.

  2. Tunable Optofluidic Third Order DFB Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present a low-threshold polymer-based nanofluidic dye laser. By employing a third order DFB laser resonator, we demonstrate a threshold fluence of ~7 muJ/mm2 and a tunability of 45 nm using a single laser dye......We present a low-threshold polymer-based nanofluidic dye laser. By employing a third order DFB laser resonator, we demonstrate a threshold fluence of ~7 muJ/mm2 and a tunability of 45 nm using a single laser dye...

  3. Solubilization of Hydrophobic Dyes in Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Tehrani-Bagha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of surfactants for solubilization of hydrophobic organic dyes (mainly solvent and disperse dyes has been reviewed. The effect of parameters such as the chemical structures of the surfactant and the dye, addition of salt and of polyelectrolytes, pH, and temperature on dye solubilization has been discussed. Surfactant self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution and below the concentration where this occurs—the critical micelle concentration (CMC—there is no solubilization. Above the CMC, the amount of solubilized dye increases linearly with the increase in surfactant concentration. It is demonstrated that different surfactants work best for different dyes. In general, nonionic surfactants have higher solubilization power than anionic and cationic surfactants. It is likely that the reason for the good performance of nonionic surfactants is that they allow dyes to be accommodated not only in the inner, hydrocarbon part of the micelle but also in the headgroup shell. It is demonstrated that the location of a dye in a surfactant micelle can be assessed from the absorption spectrum of the dye-containing micellar solution.

  4. Release Control of Dye from Agar Ball

    OpenAIRE

    板屋, 智之; 山村, 俊貴; 唐澤, 有太朗

    2013-01-01

    Agar is a special product of Nagano prefecture. To utilize agar gel as adsorbing or releasing material of dyes or drugs, spherical agar gel “agar ball” was prepared by dropping aqueous agar solution into salad oil. And releasing behavior of a dye (rhodamine B) from agar ball was studied. The dye is released easily from agar ball, but the release can be controlled by hybiridazation of agar and galatin. In addition, it was found that agar ball could extract the dye from oil phase containing the...

  5. The microbial degradation of azo dyes: minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengalroyen, M D; Dabbs, E R

    2013-03-01

    The removal of dyes in wastewater treatment plants still involves physical or chemical processes. Yet numerous studies currently exist on degradation based on the use of microbes-which is a well-studied field. However progress in the use of biological methods to deal with this environmentally noxious waste is currently lacking. This review focuses on the largest dye class, that is azo dyes and their biodegradation. We summarize the bacteria identified thus far which have been implicated in dye decolorization and discuss the enzymes involved and mechanisms by which these colorants are broken down.

  6. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  7. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (η) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DYEING EFFICIENCY AND RETENTION CAPACITY OF HERBAL HAIR DYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingle R.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, attempts were made to make a powder herbal hair dye that gives dark brown to black colour to hair, resembling natural hair colour with better dyeing effect and greater retention capacity on comparison with marketed herbal hair dye formulation. Most of the marketed herbal hair dye formulations contain para-phenylenediamine at 20-25% concentrations which is the main ingredient of commercial synthetic dyes. It is known to trigger allergic skin reactions in many people. Ayurvedic powder hair dye devoid of any synthetic agent was prepared in present research work and evaluated for dyeing efficiency. Different combinations of powdered leaves, fruits of plants like Madayantika, Bhringraj, Amla and Nilini were evaluated as hair dyes. The polyherbal hair dye compositions containing large proportion of Nili, Mehendi and 5% Bhringraj and Amla, blended with 5% loha bhasma were prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters like particle size, colour, pH, angle of repose and bulk density. Ayurvedic polyherbal powder hair dye of present investigation is semi-permanent in nature and exhibit better dyeing efficiency than marketed herbal hair dye.

  9. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  10. Synthesis of nano-particles by soft chemistry: structural, morphological and dimensional control. Studies of the electrochemical properties (towards dyes solar cells); Synthese de nanoparticules par chimie douce: controle structural, morphologique et dimensionnel. Etudes des proprietes electrochimiques (vers les cellules solaires a colorants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassaignon, S.; Koelsch, M.; Jolivet, J.P. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, CNRS UMR 7574, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work are described the electrochemical behaviour of different TiO{sub 2} films (anatase, brookite and rutile) in aqueous solution and the influence of the parameters as the crystal structure and the morphology on the electrochemical answer. To complete this study, the capacity of the double layer has been measured by impedance spectroscopy. Voltage measurements of TiO{sub 2} sensitized by a dye will allow to discuss the reversibility of the system and the rearrangement mechanisms. At last, the influence of the nature of the TiO{sub 2} particles (anatase, rutile and brookite) on the photovoltage has been studied in order to estimate their interest for photovoltaic devices. (O.M.)

  11. Dye lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    Studies on dye laser theory, design, components, optical systems, and frequency range are presented in approximately 96 citations. Abstracts on lasing dyes, pumping, tuning, excitation, molecular structure, and modulation are included. Studies on dye laser use in spectroscopy are covered.

  12. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  13. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  14. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  15. Group theory and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, David M

    1993-01-01

    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  16. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  17. Elements of environmental chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hites, R. A; Raff, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    .... Extensively revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition includes new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and brominated flame retardants...

  18. Preparation and Dyeing Performance of a Novel Crosslinking Polymeric Dye Containing Flavone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lijun; TANG Bingtao; ZHANG Shufen

    2011-01-01

    A yellow crosslinking polymeric dye was prepared by grafting the flavone moiety containing azo chromophore onto polyvinylamine backbone.The λ max of this polymeric dye in water is 382 nm.The polymeric dye is fixed to silk and cotton with a crosslinking agent,2-chloro-4,6-di(aminobenzene-4'-β-sulphatoethylsulphone)-1,3,5-s-triazine,which acts as a bridge between the fiber and dye molecules.The fixation of this polymeric dye reaches 99% and the dyed samples exhibit excellent rubbing and washing fastness.

  19. Synthesis of monoazo disperse dyes based on 2-aminoheterocycles and their dyeing performance on nylon fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITHAL SOMA PATEL

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel monoazo disperse dyes based on various 2-aminoheterocycles were prepared using N-methyl-N-(2-hydroxyethylaniline as the coupling component. All the dyes were applied as disperse dyes on nylon fabric. These dyes have been found to give a wide range of colour shades with very good depth, brightness and levelness on nylon fabric. The visible absorption spectra, elemental analysis and Rf values were investigated. The percentage dye bath exhaustion on fabric was found to be very good. The dyed fabric showed very good to excellent fastness to light, washing, rubbing and perspiration. The sublimation fastness was found to be excellent.

  20. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  1. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  2. Low Temperature Dyeing of Cashmere Fibers and Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Shu-ying; ZHU Ping; CHEN Guo-hua; LI Ru-qin

    2005-01-01

    A special designed multi-functional dyeing auxiliary, SFR503, is adopted in mordant dyeing process for cashmere fibers, sliver and fabric. The results of decreasing dyeing temperature, shortening the dyeing period, reducing the fiber damage and improved quality of the cashmere have been obtained. The percentage of dyeing exhaustion and color fastness of final products were further improved in this regards. A suggested technique, bath ratio, dyeing process curve and dye recipe were raised in the paper. SFR-503s swelling, wetting, leveling, brightening effect for cashmere during dyeing process were discussed.

  3. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    The PhD-thesis ''Light Harvesting via Energy Transfer in the Dye Solar Cell'' (University of Freiburg, July 2007) describes the conceptual design, synthesis and testing of energy donor acceptor sensitizers for the dye solar cell (DSC). Under monochromatic illumination solar cells sensitized with the novel donor acceptor systems revealed a higher power conversion efficiency than cells containing exclusively the acceptor component. The following approach led to this conclusion: (i) the choice of suitable chromophores as energy donor and acceptor moieties according to the Foerster-theory, (ii) the synthesis of different donor acceptor systems, (iii) the development of a methodology allowing the quantification of energy transfer within dye solar cells, and (iv) the evaluation of characteristics of DSCs that were sensitized with the different donor acceptor systems. The acceptor chromophores used in this work were derived from [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridin, acac = acetylacetonato). This complex offered the opportunity to introduce substituents at the acac-ligand's terminal CH3 groups without significantly affecting its excellent photoelectrochemical properties. Alkylated 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides (termed Fluorols in the following) were used as energy donor chromophores. This class of compounds fulfils the requirements for efficient energy transfer to [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl. Covalently linking donor and acceptor chromophores to one another was achieved by two different concepts. A dyad comprising one donor and one acceptor chromophore was synthesized by subsequent hydrosilylation steps of an olefin-bearing donor and an acceptor precursor to the dihydrosilane HSiMe2-CH2CH2-SiMe2H. A series of polymers comprising multiple donor and acceptor units was made by the addition of alkyne-bearing chromophores to hyperbranched polyglycerol azide (''Click-chemistry''). In this series the donor acceptor

  4. Light harvesting via energy transfer in the dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegers, Conrad

    2007-11-09

    The PhD-thesis ''Light Harvesting via Energy Transfer in the Dye Solar Cell'' (University of Freiburg, July 2007) describes the conceptual design, synthesis and testing of energy donor acceptor sensitizers for the dye solar cell (DSC). Under monochromatic illumination solar cells sensitized with the novel donor acceptor systems revealed a higher power conversion efficiency than cells containing exclusively the acceptor component. The following approach led to this conclusion: (i) the choice of suitable chromophores as energy donor and acceptor moieties according to the Foerster-theory, (ii) the synthesis of different donor acceptor systems, (iii) the development of a methodology allowing the quantification of energy transfer within dye solar cells, and (iv) the evaluation of characteristics of DSCs that were sensitized with the different donor acceptor systems. The acceptor chromophores used in this work were derived from [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridin, acac = acetylacetonato). This complex offered the opportunity to introduce substituents at the acac-ligand's terminal CH3 groups without significantly affecting its excellent photoelectrochemical properties. Alkylated 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides (termed Fluorols in the following) were used as energy donor chromophores. This class of compounds fulfils the requirements for efficient energy transfer to [Ru(dcbpy)2acac]Cl. Covalently linking donor and acceptor chromophores to one another was achieved by two different concepts. A dyad comprising one donor and one acceptor chromophore was synthesized by subsequent hydrosilylation steps of an olefin-bearing donor and an acceptor precursor to the dihydrosilane HSiMe2-CH2CH2-SiMe2H. A series of polymers comprising multiple donor and acceptor units was made by the addition of alkyne-bearing chromophores to hyperbranched polyglycerol azide (''Click-chemistry''). In this series the donor acceptor

  5. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  6. The Influence of Cationization on the Dyeing Performance of Cotton Fabrics with Direct Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Shahin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cationic modification of cotton fabrics, using cationic agent (Chromatech 9414 on direct dyeing characteristics was studied in this work. Cationization of cotton fabric at different conditions (pH, cationic agent concentration, temperature and time was investigated and the optimum conditions were determined . Nitrogen content of cotton samples pretreated with cationic agent was indicated. The results showed that increasing cationic agent concentration lead to higher nitrogen content on cotton fabric . The cationized cotton fabrics were dyed with two direct dyes (C.I. Direct Yellow 142 - C.I. Direct red 224 and the results were compared to untreated cotton fabrics. The parameters which may affect the dyeing process such as dye concn., addition of salt, time and temperature of dyeing were studied. The dyeing results illustrate that cationization improves the fabric dyeability compared to the uncationized cotton and the magnitude of increase in colour depth depends on the nitrogen content of the cationized cotton fabric .The results also refer to possibility of dyeing cationized cotton fabric with direct dyes without addition of electrolytes to give colour strength higher than that achieved on uncationized cotton using conventional dyeing method .Another important advantage of cationic treatment is in the saving of dye concn., energy ,dyeing time , rinse water and subsequently saving of waste water treatment , and finally minimizes the environmental pollution . The changes in surface morphology of fibres after cationization were identified by various methods such as wettability and scanning with the electron microscope. Different fastness properties were evaluated.

  7. Steric and Solvent Effect in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Utilizing Phenothiazine-Based Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Kafafy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phenothiazine-based dyes have been prepared and utilized as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The effects of dye-adsorption solvent on the performances of dye-sensitized solar cells based on phenothiazine dyes were investigated in this study. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.78% was obtained using ethanol (EtOH and 2.53% for tetrahydrofuran (THF, respectively, as dye-adsorption solvents. Cell performance using EtOH as a dye-adsorption solvent showed relatively higher performance than that using THF. Electrochemical and photochemical tests of phenothiazine dyes in solution and adsorbed on the TiO2 surface showed less dye loading and coverage on the TiO2 surface during adsorption in the case of THF, which decreased the solar cell performance of the DSSC using THF as adsorption solvent compared with using EtOH as adsorption solvent. Meanwhile, the steric effect of phenothiazine-based (PT1–3 dyes was also investigated. Dye with longer and branched aliphatic chain in the order of PT1, PT2, and PT3 showed an increased resistance of the recombination reaction and electron lifetime, thereby increasing Voc and enhancing the overall cell performance because of the sterically hindered conformation of the phenothiazines.

  8. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  9. Hairdressers' skin exposure to hair dyes during different hair dyeing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Lidén, Carola; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2017-08-09

    The high risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers, caused by skin exposure to irritants and sensitizers, such as hair dye substances, is of great concern. The aim of the present study was to assess how the various tasks involved in hair dyeing contribute to hairdressers' exposure to hair dye, in order to enable the formulation of well-founded recommendations on working routines that will reduce exposure and prevent occupational disease. Skin exposure to hair dye was measured for 20 hairdressers applying highlights and all-over hair colour with the hand rinsing technique. Resorcinol was used as a proxy for hair dye exposure. Applying hair dye and cutting the newly dyed hair were the tasks that contributed most to exposure in treatments for highlights. After cutting all-over-coloured hair, all hairdressers had measurable amounts of hair dyes on both hands. Hairdressers are exposed to hair dye ingredients during all steps of the hair dyeing procedure. Cutting newly dyed hair contributes significantly to exposure. As initial steps for the prevention of occupational disease resulting from hair dye exposure, we suggest cutting hair before dyeing it, and wearing gloves during all other work tasks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Study on Application of Natural Plant Dye Gardenia on Cotton Coloration and the Dyeing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lan; SHAO Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the structure and properties of gardenia, the gardenia was extracted in neutral bath. The mordant dyeing of cotton, including pre-mordant, one-bath and post-mordant were studied, and the dyeing properties such as dye K/S value and color fastness were investigated.According to the structure and property of mordants including alum, copper sulfate, iron sulfate and rare earth,the interaction mechanisms among gardenia, mordant and cotton fibers were analyzed and the processing factors affecting the mordant dyeing were discussed. As a result,gardenia showed favorable dyeing performance on cotton.The soaping color fastness and crocking fastness were improved by 0.5 - 1 grade after fixation process with the selected dye-fixing agent and optimized process conditions.The dyeing process and fixation process were optimized.

  12. Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

    2011-07-01

    Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

  13. Dyeing of UV irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics with multifunctional reactive and disperse dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dyeing behaviour of UV irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics using multifunctional reactive and disperse dyes has been investigated. The plain, woven, mercerized, bleached, cotton and polyester fabrics were exposed to UV radiation (180 w, 254 nm for 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Dyeing was performed using irradiated fabric with a dye solution of un-irradiated reactive and disperse/azo dyes. The dyeing parameters such as, temperature, time, pH and salt concentration have been optimized. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton and polyester fabrics in CIE Lab systems using spectra flash SF600. Finally ISO standard methods were employed to observe the effect of UV radiation on fastness properties. It was found that UV radiation has a potential to improve the colour strength values of cotton and polyester fabrics by using reactive and disperse dyes.

  14. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  15. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  16. Hair Dye Poisoning in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Chandran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality.

  17. Supramolecular assemblies based on glycoconjugated dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes can be tailored with properties that make them attractive for use in biomedical applications. For example, when assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes are displaying carbohydrates on their periphery in a polyvalent manner, these assemblies can be used to

  18. Use of slag for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishna, K.R.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-09-01

    Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the present study investigates dye removal characteristics of slag from colored waters. Aqueous solutions prepared from commercial grade acid, basic, and disperse dyes were used in this study, and batch pH, kinetic, and isotherm studies were undertaken on a laboratory scale. The data were evaluated for applicability to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherm models, and the removal capacity of slag was compared with that of granular activated carbon. Results indicated approximately 94% removal of the disperse dye by slag, compared with a removal of approximately 49% achieved by activated carbon. Removal of acid dyes (dyes containing anionic groups) was reasonably good (approximately 47 and 74%), though not as good as obtained using activated carbon (approximately 100%). Column studies were conducted with a disperse dye (nonionic, slightly soluble in water), and analysis of data showed a sorption capacity of 1.3 mg of disperse dye per gram of slag. However, effluent dye concentrations were found to be higher than the permissible levels for discharge to receiving waters.

  19. Degradation of anthraquinone dyes by ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The decolorization of three kinds of anthraquinone dyes by ozone was investigated and the residues in the degradation solution were analyzed. The results indicate that the decolorizing effects are obvious with the decolorization efficiency of dyes all above 96% in 40 min. The pH value and TOC concentration decline while the conductivity increases with the lapse of reaction time.The complicated dye molecules are decomposed to simple compounds with -SO3H, -Cl in the dye molecules transformed into SO4 2-, Cl-, and nitrogen partially degrades into NO3- according to the bases of different groups. The organic acids are found in the degradation solutions and dyes with larger relative molecular mass are decomposed into substances with larger relative molecular mass.

  20. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S. Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  1. Molecular engineering of simple phenothiazine-based dyes to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration in highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yong; Chang, Shuai; He, Jian; Zhang, Caishun; Zhao, Jianzhang; Chen, Tao; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Zhu, Xunjin

    2014-05-19

    A series of simple phenothiazine-based dyes, namely, TP, EP, TTP, ETP, and EEP have been developed, in which the thiophene (T), ethylenedioxythiophene (E), their dimers, and mixtures are present to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Devices sensitized by the dyes TP and TTP display high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.07 (Jsc = 15.2 mA cm(-2), Voc =0.783 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.679) and 7.87 % (Jsc = 16.1 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.717 V, FF = 0.681), respectively; these were measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight in conjunction with the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. By replacing the T group with the E unit, EP-based DSSCs had a slightly lower PCE of 7.98 % with a higher short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 16.7 mA cm(-2). The dye ETP, with a mixture of E and T, had an even lower PCE of 5.62 %. Specifically, the cell based on the dye EEP, with a dimer of E, had inferior Jsc and Voc values and corresponded to the lowest PCE of 2.24 %. The results indicate that the photovoltaic performance can be finely modulated through structural engineering of the dyes. The selection of T analogues as donors can not only modulate light absorption and energy levels, but also have an impact on dye aggregation and interfacial charge recombination of electrons at the interface of titania, electrolytes, and/or oxidized dye molecules; this was demonstrated through DFT calculations, electrochemical impedance analysis, and transient photovoltage studies.

  2. Mathematics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics and chemistry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Some chemistry teachers have experienced difficulties in their teaching with the introduction of modern mathematics in the schools. Some suggestions for reinforcing the concepts and language of modern mathematics are put forth. (Author/MA)

  3. Movies in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  4. Physical Chemistry of Molecular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Established in 2009, the group consists of six researchers and more than 70 research assistants and graduate students from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructures and Nanotechnologies at the CAS Institute of Chemistry.Its research focuses on the physical chemistry involved in molecular assembly, molecular nanostructures, functional nanomaterials and conceptual nano-devices.

  5. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  6. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  7. Bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Creus, Marc; Gademann, Karl; Giese, Bernd; Ward, Thomas R; Woggon, Wolf D; Chougnet, Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The interdisciplinary projects in bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry of the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel led to the preparation of new systems that mimic biologically important processes and to the discovery of compounds from natural sources which are very promising with respect to medical applications. The advances in these areas are reported here.

  8. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  9. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  10. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  11. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  12. Covalently deposited dyes: a new chromogen paradigm that facilitates analysis of multiple biomarkers in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, William A; Lefever, Mark R; Ochs, Robert L; Pedata, Anne; Behman, Lauren J; Ashworth-Sharpe, Julia; Johnson, Donald D; May, Eric J; Grille, James G; Roberts, Esteban A; Kosmeder, Jerry W; Morrison, Larry E

    2017-01-01

    Multiplexed analysis of multiple biomarkers in a tissue sample requires use of reporter dyes with specific spectral properties that enable discrimination of signals. Conventional chromogens with broad absorbance spectra, widely used in immunohistochemistry (IHC), offer limited utility for multiplexed detection. Many dyes with narrow absorbance spectra, eg rhodamines, fluoresceins, and cyanines, potentially useful for multiplexed detection are well-characterized; however, generation of a chromogenic reagent useful for IHC analysis has not been demonstrated. Studies reported herein demonstrate utility of tyramine-chemistry for synthesis of a wide variety of new chromogenic dye conjugates useful for multiplexed in situ analysis using conventional light microscopes. The dyes, useful individually or in blends to generate new colors, provide signal sensitivity and dynamic range similar to conventional DAB chromogen, while enabling analysis of co-localized biomarkers. It is anticipated that this new paradigm will enable generation of a wide variety of new chromogens, useful for both research and clinical biomarker analysis that will benefit clinicians and patients.

  13. Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Harima, Yutaka

    2012-12-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on oxide semiconductor electrodes, such as TiO(2), ZnO, or NiO, which have emerged as a new generation of sustainable photovoltaic devices, have attracted much attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers because of enormous scientific interest in not only their construction and operational principles, but also in their high incident-solar-light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low cost of production. To develop high-performance DSSCs, it is important to create efficient organic dye sensitizers, which should be optimized for the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dyes themselves, with molecular structures that provide good light-harvesting features, good electron communication between the dye and semiconductor electrode and between the dye and electrolyte, and to control the molecular orientation and arrangement of the dyes on a semiconductor surface. The aim of this Review is not to make a list of a number of organic dye sensitizers developed so far, but to provide a new direction in the epoch-making molecular design of organic dyes for high photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of DSSCs, based on the accumulated knowledge of their photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of the organic dye sensitizers developed so far.

  14. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on…

  15. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  17. Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Adesina Adegoke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is a visible pollutant and the presence of even minute amounts of coloring substance makes it undesirable due to its appearance. The removal of color from dye-bearing effluents is a major problem due to the difficulty in treating such wastewaters by conventional treatment methods. The most commonly used methods for color removal are biological oxidation and chemical precipitation. However, these processes are effective and economic only in the case where the solute concentrations are relatively high. Most industries use dyes and pigments to color their products. The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to its adverse effect on various forms of life. The discharge of dyes in the environment is a matter of concern for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. It is evident from a literature survey of about 283 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for dye removal and the optimal equilibrium time of various dyes with different charcoal adsorbents from agricultural residues is between 4 and 5 h. Maximum adsorptions of acidic dyes were obtained from the solutions with pH 8–10. The challenges and future prospects are discussed to provide a better framework for a safer and cleaner environment.

  18. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    M) for 10:hsp sp="0.25" min Fenton treatment at pH 3, resulting in reduced chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies; only acetate was detected as a stable dye oxidation end product. During anaerobic digestion, 100, 29% and no inhibition in methane production was observed...... for the untreated blue, red and orange dyes, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blue reactive dye on methane production was ∼21% after Fenton treatment. Neither untreated nor treated dyes exhibited an inhibitory effect on denitrification. Aerobic glucose degradation was inhibited by 23-29% by untreated dyes......The effect of untreated and Fenton-treated acid dyes (C.I. Acid Red 183 and C.I. Acid Orange 51) and a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 4) on aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic processes was investigated. The optimum Fe2+:H2O2 molar ratio was selected as 1:5 (4:hsp sp="0.25" mM:20:hsp sp="0.25"m...

  19. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye.

  20. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns......Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution....... The unique feature of the presented method is a high frame rate of up to 20 Hz, which is proven to enable the monitoring of fast flow of a sucrose solution jet into pure water. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  1. Nano-TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraton, Marie-Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaics are amongst the most popular renewable energy sources and low-cost solar cell technologies are making progress to the market. Research on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) usually based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has been extensively pursued, and the number of papers and patents published in this area has grown exponentially over the last ten years. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the TiO2 nanocrystalline electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size and shape, crystallinity, surface morphology and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters to be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. This article will review the most recent research activities on nanostructured TiO2 for improvement of the DSSC performance.

  2. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-03-09

    Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns. The unique feature of the presented method is a high frame rate of up to 20 Hz, which is proven to enable the monitoring of fast flow of a sucrose solution jet into pure water.

  3. Block copolymer directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of TiO2 plays an important role in the operation of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. By using polyisoprene-block- ethyleneoxide (PI-b-PEO) copolymers as structure directing agents for a sol-gel based synthesis of mesoporous TiO2, we demonstrate a strategy for the detailed control of the semiconductor morphology on the 10 nm length scale. The careful adjustment of polymer molecular weight and titania precursor content is used to systematically vary the material structure and its influence upon solar cell performance is investigated. Furthermore, the use of a partially sp 2 hybridized structure directing polymer enables the crystallization of porous TiO2 networks at high temperatures without pore collapse, improving its performance in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  5. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  6. Dyeing Performance of Soybean Fiber Treated with Low Temperature Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ming; SHEN Yong; DING Ying; ZHANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    The soybean fiber was treated with low temperature plasma and the dyeing performance of the treated soybean fiber was also researched. The results show that the speed of dyeing and the percentages of balance dyeing have a sharp increase after being treated. So the dyeing temperature and the dosage of acid can be reduced without damaging the bulk fiber structure.

  7. Bleaching and diffusion dynamics in optofluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    The authors have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in optofluidic dye lasers where the liquid laser dye in a microfluidic channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. They find that for microfluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules...... pumping devices. ©2007 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Supramolecular hair dyes: a new application of cocrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delori, Amit; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the first report of hair dyes of various colors formed by cocrystallization. Unlike the most popular oxidative hair dye (OHD) products, these dyes are NH3 free and do not require H2O2 as a color developer. The importance of these new hair dyes products is further enhanced...

  9. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  10. Production of Textile Reddish Brown Dyes by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. Mabrouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal strains were tested for their ability to produce brown and reddish brown textile dyes using H-acid (1-naphthol-8-amino-3, 6-disulfonic acid as a dye precursor in the fermentation medium. All tested fungal strains exhibited high ability to produce dyes varying in both dye color (brown to reddish brown and fastness properties to washing, perspiration and UV light. The produced dyes were subjected to further analysis for quantitative determination of dye components for investigation of their inter-relations as well as their role in dye color and stability.

  11. Decolourisation of Red 5 MB dye by microbes isolated from textile dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, P; Hiranmaiyadav, R; Premalatha, M S

    2010-07-01

    One of the major environmental problems is the presence of dye materials in textile wastewater, which need to be removed before releasing into the environment. Some dyes are toxic and carcinogenic in nature. The discharge of the textile effluent into rivers and lakes leads to higher BOD causing threat to aquatic life. Development of efficient dye degradation requires suitable strain and its use under favorable condition to realize the degradation potential. In this study, three microorganisms were isolated from the Red 5 MB dye containing textile wastewater. They were identified and tested for the dye decolourisation provided with different sugars as carbon source. The percentage of dye decolorized by Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus were found to be about 40%, 75% and 53.8% respectively.

  12. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(π-spacer)-acceptor(D-π-A) organic dyes,containing different groups(triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized.Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes.It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-π-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes.Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance:a short-circuit photocurrent density(Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage(Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor(FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency(η) of 6.72%.

  13. Molecular design of organic dyes based on vinylene hexylthiophene bridge for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DaXi; ZHAO Bin; SHEN Ping; HUANG Hui; LIU LiMing; TAN SongTing

    2009-01-01

    Three donor-(TT-spacer)-acceptor (D-tt-A) organic dyes,containing different groups (triphenylamine,di(p-tolyl)phenylamine,and 9-octylcarbazole moieties) as electron donors,were designed and synthesized. Nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using these dyes. It was found that the variation of electron donors in the D-tt-A dyes played an important role in modifying and tuning photophysical properties of organic dyes. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar condition,the DSSC based on the dye D2 showed the best photovoltaic performance: a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 13.93 mA/cm2,an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.71 V,and a fill factor (FF) of 0.679,corresponding to solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency (77) of 6.72%.

  14. Dye ingredients and energy conversion efficiency at natural dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbay Karakuş, Mücella; Koca, İrfan; Er, Orhan; Çetin, Hidayet

    2017-04-01

    In this work, natural dyes extracted from the same genus but different species flowers were used as sensitizer in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). To clearly show dye ingredients effect on electrical characteristics, the same genus flowers were selected. The dye ingredients were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The dyes were modified by a procedure that includes refluxing in acetone. All results indicate a relationship between gallic acid quantity in dyes and solar cell efficiency. To gain further insight, the solar cell parameters were obtained by using the single-diode and double-diode models and they were compared to each other. It was observed that the applied process causes a decrease in series resistance. How the modification process and gallic acid affect energy conversion efficiency were argued in detail in the frame of results that were obtained from solar cell models.

  15. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  16. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  17. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  18. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  19. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  20. Natural Dye Extracted from Vitex negundo as a Potential Alternative to Synthetic Dyes for Dyeing of Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Swamy, Venkataramanappa; Gowda, Kurikempanadoddi Ninge; Sudhakar, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Since the last decade, the application of natural dyes on textile material has been gaining popularity all over the world, possibly because of the increasing awareness of issues concerning the environment, ecology and pollution control. The present paper investigates extraction of natural dye from leaves of the plant Vitex negundo, which is an abundant, cheap, and readily available agricultural by-product. Water extracts from V. negundo was used to dye silk fabrics. Optimum extraction conditions included pH 9, duration 120 min, and temperature 90 °C. Optimum dyeing conditions included dyeing pH 5 and duration of 60 min. Potash alum, tannic and tartaric acid were used as mordants, all of which are benign to human health and the environment. Color strength and color coordinates in terms of L*, a*, b*, C, and h were examined. A range of shades were obtained when fabrics were dyed with different mordants and mordanting techniques. The extracted dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were found to be lower than the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The dyed silk fabrics showed acceptable fastness properties and were also found to possess antibacterial activity. It can be concluded that the abundantly available agricultural by-product V. negundo has great potential to be effectively utilized as a natural dye for silk.

  1. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH MONASCUS PURPUREUS DYE

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Basant*, Shahnaz Jahan

    2016-01-01

    Textile industry is one of the most significant contributor to world economy and a major consumer of dyes. The nature provides rich and diverse source of dyes all the while being environmentally safe,   Nowadays, with the increasing awareness about health, wellness as well as environment among the general populace, there has been a renewed interest in natural sources of pigments for dyes. This is because naturally produced colors are not toxic nor carcinogenic to humans and are more e...

  2. The Removal of Composite Reactive Dye from Dyeing Unit Effluent Using Sewage Sludge Derived Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY, Sajjala SREEDHAR

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from dried municipal sewage sludge and batch mode adsorption experiments were conducted to study its potential to remove composite reactive dye from dyeing unit effluent. Adsorption parameters for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined and the effects of effluent pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. The toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP) was used to assess the acceptability of sewage ...

  3. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over tw

  4. Effect of Solvent, Dye-Loading Time, and Dye Choice on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd M. Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase titania films with a thickness of up to 20 μm and deposited over a fluorine-doped tin-oxide substrate are impregnated with ruthenium dyes N-719 and N-749 using Dip and supercritical-fluid methods for the purpose of fabricating dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The dyes are dissolved in different solvent mixtures, including supercritical carbon dioxide, as well as combinations of more traditional solvents including mixtures of acetonitrile, and t-butanol. Analytical studies included thin-film analyzing and scanning electron microscopy to measure titania film thickness and porosity, UV-Vis spectroscopy to quantify dye concentration, and current-voltage device characterizations to assess energy conversion efficiency, as well as open-circuit voltage decay measurements and quantum efficiency to examine electron collection efficiency. A significant result is that using the dye N-749 in a solvent that includes supercritical carbon dioxide leads to energy conversion efficiencies that are higher for devices with a thick 20 μm semiconductor film than for the case of devices with thinner films, including the 10 μm film thickness that is traditionally considered an upper threshold. The supercritical-fluid method for the N-719 dye also enabled shorter impregnation duration than more conventional classical Dip Methods.

  5. Simulation of Na channel inactivation by thiazine dyes

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Some dyes of the methylene blue family serve as artificial inactivators of the sodium channels when present inside squid axons at a concentration of approximately 0.1 mM. The dyes restore a semblance of inactivation after normal inactivation has been destroyed by pronase. In fibers that inactivate normally, the dyes hasten the decay of sodium current. Many dye-blocked channels conduct transiently on exit of the dye molecule after repolarization to the holding potential. In contrast, normally ...

  6. USE OF A NATURAL DYE FROM SERRATIA MARCESCENS SUBSPECIES MARCESCENS IN DYEING OF TEXTILE FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Adivarekar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Serratia marcescens subspecies marcescens capable of producing a novel rose red pigment with a mass of 112 Da has been isolated from Mahim Mangroove soil. Studies regarding the growth conditions of bacteria, partial characterization of the produced pigment and use of this rose red pigment to dye natural fabrics has been studied and described. Dyeing of wool, cotton and silk fabrics with this rose red microbial pigment as natural dye indicated that the colour strength values and the dye uptake were high with satisfactory fastness properties of the dyed fabric.

  7. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  8. Synthesis of Plant Phenol-derived Polymeric Dyes for Direct or Mordant-based Hair Dyeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Min; Jeon, Jong-Rok

    2016-12-01

    Effective hair dyeing through in situ incubation of keratin hair with the products of fungal laccase-catalyzed polymerization of plant phenols has been previously demonstrated. However, the dyeing process takes a long time to complete compared to commercial hair-dyeing products. To overcome this bottleneck, pre-synthesized polymeric products of the oxidative reaction of Trametes versicolor laccase on catechin and catechol, either with or without mordant agents (e.g., FeSO4), were here employed to achieve permanent keratin hair dyeing in various colors and shades. The laccase action in acidic sodium acetate buffer led to a deep black coloration after coupling reactions between the plant phenols. The colored dye products were then desalted and concentrated with ultrafiltration. The dyes, with or without mordant agents, caused a significant increase in ΔE values (i.e., color difference value) in gray human hair within 2.5 hours. In addition, different keratin colors and shades were induced depending upon the mordanting and pH changes. The dyed hair also exhibited a strong resistance to detergent treatments, indicating that our methods can give rise to permanent hair dyeing. Overall, our work has provided novel insight into developing eco-friendly hair-dyeing methods as alternatives to commercial toxic diamine-based dyes.

  9. Dyeing of Organic Cotton Fabric using Conventional and Ultrasonic Exhaust Dyeing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Syed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research dyeing behavior of organic cotton woven fabric using ultrasonic technique and conventional dyeing method has been compared. The fabric samples were dyed with reactive dyes Drimarene Red Cl-5B and Drimarene Blue Cl-BR (0.5% owf using exhaust dyeing method. The samples were ultrasonically dyed at varied temperature (60, 50 and 40oC for 60, 50, 40 and 30 minutes and for conventional method at varied temperature but at recommended time, 60 minutes. For optimizing the dyeing behavior, the samples were causticized by pad-batch method and then dyed with ultrasonic technique at varied temperature and time. It has been observed organic cotton fabric dyed using ultrasonic exhaust method at 60oC for 50 minutes gives highest (K/S?max value, excellent fastness property, deeper dye diffusion and less surface deterioration compared to the conventional dyeing method. Moreover, causticized and dyed sample with ultrasonic technique at 60oC for 30 minutes gives colour strength value almost equal to the conventional recommended dyeing method. Hence, dyeing of organic material using ultrasonic exhaust method saves energy and time

  10. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Rani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85% followed by Nigrosin (77.47%, Malachite green (72.77% and dye mixture (33.08% under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15% followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%, Malachite green (83.25% and mixture (78.4%. The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.

  11. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  12. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  14. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  15. Beauty in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Atkins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  16. Chemistry at large

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy. K.M. Sanders

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  17. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  18. Uncertainty in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Fredric M

    2010-09-01

    It might come as a disappointment to some chemists, but just as there are uncertainties in physics and mathematics, there are some chemistry questions we may never know the answer to either, suggests Fredric M. Menger.

  19. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  20. Chemistry for Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  1. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  2. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  3. Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hoke, Eric T.

    2010-02-11

    Förster resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons and transfer the excitation to sensitizing dye molecules by Förster resonant energy transfer. We use an analytic theory to calculate the excitation transfer efficiency from the relay dye to the sensitizing dye accounting for dynamic quenching and relay dye diffusion. We present calculations for pores of cylindrical and spherical geometry and examine the effects of the Förster radius, the pore size, sensitizing dye surface concentration, collisional quenching rate, and relay dye lifetime. We find that the excitation transfer efficiency can easily exceed 90% for appropriately chosen dyes and propose two different strategies for selecting dyes to achieve record power conversion efficiencies. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  4. Preparation and Application of Microencapsulated Disperse Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 陈水林

    2001-01-01

    Microcapsules containing disperse dyes were prepared by means of in-situ polymerization. Polyester fabrics were multiple-transfer printed and color-mix printed using those microencapsulated dyes under different process conditions. By color measurement instrument, it can be seen that the times of multiple-transfer printing are up to ten while under appropriate conditions, especially when the transfer printing time is 50 seconds and the transfer printing temperature is 180°C. On the other hand, the K/S value of each transfer printing can keep almost constant. Meanwhile, the visual effect of color- mix printing with microencapsulated disperse dyes is special in the varicolored exhibiting if compared with conventional disperse dyes.

  5. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  6. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  7. Mode coupling in organic dye lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, A.

    1973-10-25

    Saturable dye triggering is discussed together with relaxation time and pulse duration. The influence of stimulated emission is detailed. Experimental results of mode coupling with cyanines and xanthines, flash excited and not, are reported.

  8. On-chip tunable optofluidic dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zengyan; Shen, Zhenhua; Liu, Haigang; Yue, Huan; Zou, Yun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a chip-scale tunable optofluidic dye laser with Au-coated fibers as microcavity. The chip is fabricated by soft lithography. When the active region is pumped, a relatively low threshold of 6.7 μJ/mm2 is realized with multimode emission due to good confinement of the cavity mirrors, long active region, as well as total reflectivity. It is easy to tune the lasing emission wavelength by changing the solvent of laser dye. In addition, the various intensity ratios of multicolor lasing can be achieved by controlling flow rates of two fluid streams carried with different dye molecules. Furthermore, the convenience in fabrication and directional lasing emission outcoupled by the fiber make the tunable optofluidic dye laser a promising underlying coherent light source in the integrated optofluidic systems.

  9. N-Annulated perylene substituted zinc–porphyrins with different linking modes and electron acceptors for dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2016-05-03

    Three new N-annulated perylene (NP) substituted porphyrin dyes WW-7-WW-9 with different linking modes and accepting groups were synthesized and applied in Co(ii)/(iii) based dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The bay-linked porphyrins WW-7 and WW-8 exhibited moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE = 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively), while the peri-linked porphyrin dye WW-9 showed a PCE up to 9.2% which is slightly lower than that of our reference dye WW-6. Detailed physical measurements (optical and electrochemical), DFT calculations, and photovoltaic characterizations were performed to understand how the structural changes affect their light-harvesting ability, molecular orbital profile, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance. It turned out that the lower efficiencies of the cells based on WW-7 and WW-8 could be ascribed to the weak π-conjugation between the bay-substituted NP and phenylethynyl substituted porphyrin unit. The introduction of a benzothiadiazole acceptor at the anchoring group has induced a significant red shift of the IPCE action spectra of WW-8 and WW-9, by about 90 nm and 50 nm as compared to that of WW-7 and WW-6, respectively. However, less efficient electron injection was observed. Our studies gave some insight into the important role of electronic interactions between different components when one designs a dye for high-efficiency DSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  10. Impact of surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  11. Impact of surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  12. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  13. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  14. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  15. Forensic Chemistry Training

    OpenAIRE

    GERÇEK, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analy...

  16. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  17. Dye laser chain for laser isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doizi, Denis; Jaraudias, Jean; Pochon, E.; Salvetat, G.

    1993-05-01

    Uranium enrichment by laser isotope separation uses a three step operation which requires four visible wavelengths to boost an individual U235 isotope from a low lying atomic energy level to an autoionizing state. The visible wavelengths are delivered by dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers (CVL). In this particular talk, a single dye chain consisting of a master oscillator and amplifier stages will be described and some of its performance given.

  18. Phytoremediation in education: textile dye teaching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Jwan H; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-07-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water, has a wide range of applications and advantages, and can be extended to scientific education. Phytoremediation of textile dyes can be used as a scientific experiment or demonstration in teaching laboratories of middle school, high school and college students. In the experiments that we developed, students were involved in a hands-on activity where they were able to learn about phytoremediation concepts. Experiments were set up with 20-40 mg L(-1) dye solutions of different colors. Students can be involved in the set up process and may be involved in the experimental design. In its simplest forms, they use two-week-old sunflower seedlings and place them into a test tube of known volume of dye solution. Color change and/or dye disappearance can be monitored by visual comparison or with a spectrophotometer. Intensity and extent of the lab work depends on student's educational level, and time constraints. Among the many dyes tested, Evan's Blue proved to be the most readily decolorized azo dye. Results could be observed within 1-2 hours. From our experience, dye phytoremediation experiments are suitable and easy to understand by both college and middle school students. These experiments help visual learners, as students compare the color of the dye solution before and after the plant application. In general, simple phytoremediation experiments of this kind can be introduced in many classes including biology, biochemistry and ecological engineering. This paper presents success stories of teaching phytoremediation to middle school and college students.

  19. Kinetics of Dyes Adsorbed by Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; CHEN Dong-hui; GAO Liang

    2002-01-01

    A study on adsorption of Acidic Blue RAWL and Cationic Blue X-GRRL dyes by chitosan have been conducted.The adsorption kinetic parameters including adsorption rate K and effective diffusing coefficient D'i under the optimal pH ranges have been determined. Analysis through the enthalpy calculation reveals a substantial thermodynamic difference between the adsorption processes of the two dyes, which helps to understand the adsorption mechanism by chitosan.

  20. Absorption spectroscopy measurements in optically dense explosive fireballs using a modeless broadband dye laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumac, Nick

    2009-09-01

    A modeless broadband dye laser is applied to probe inside optically dense fireballs generated by high explosives using single-shot, high resolution absorption spectroscopy. Despite attenuation of the main beam by 98%, high signal-to-noise ratio absorption spectra of Al, Ti, and AlO are readily obtained at resolutions of 0.007 nm, and luminosity from the fireball is strongly rejected. Detection limits for atomic species are less than 200 ppb. The method offers good time resolution of chemistry within the fireball, and scaling laws suggest that this technique should be valid in explosives tests at least up to the gram scale.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of synthetic dye under sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are widely used in the textile industry. Dye pollutants from the textile industry are an important source of environmental contamination. The majority of these dyes are toxic, mostly non-biodegradable and also resistant to decomposition by physico-chemical methods. Among new oxidation methods or "advanced oxidation processes", heterogeneous photocatalysis appears as an emerging destructive technology leading to the total mineralization of many organic pollutants. CI Basic Yellow 28 (BY28, commonly used as a textile dye, could be photocatalytically degraded using TiU2 as catalyst under sunlight. The effect of some parameters such as the initial catalyst concentration, initial dye concentration, initial NaCl and Na2CO3 concentrations, pH, H2O2 and type of catalyst on the degradation rate of BY28 was examined in details. The presence of NaCl and Na2CO3 led to inhibition of the photodegradation process. The highest photodegradation rate was observed at high pH, while the rate was the lowest at low pH. Increase of the initial H2O2 concentration increased the initial BY28 photodegradation efficiency. ZnO was a better catalyst than TiO2 at low dye concentrations.

  2. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Dellamatrice

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black, and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.

  3. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamatrice, Priscila Maria; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Chitosan derivatives as biosorbents for basic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Nikolaos K; Kyzas, George Z; Vassiliou, Alexandros A; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2007-07-03

    The scope of this study was to prepare and evaluate chitosan derivatives as biosorbents for basic dyes. This was achieved by grafting poly (acrylic acid) and poly (acrylamide) through persulfate induced free radical initiated polymerization processes and covalent cross-linking of the prepared materials. Remacryl Red TGL was used as the cationic dye. Equilibrium sorption experiments were carried out at different pH and initial dye concentration values. The experimental equilibrium data for each adsorbent-dye system were successfully fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and pH-dependent Langmuir-Freundlich sorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process such as DeltaG degrees, DeltaH degrees, and DeltaS degrees were calculated. The negative values of free energy reflected the spontaneous nature of adsorption. The typical dependence of dye uptake on temperature and the kinetics of adsorption indicated the process to be chemisorption. The grafting modifications greatly enhanced the adsorption performance of the biosorbents, especially in the case of powdered cross-linked chitosan grafted with acrylic acid, which exhibited a maximum adsorption capacity equal to 1.068 mmol/g. Kinetic studies also revealed a significant improvement of sorption rates by the modifications. Diffusion coefficients of the dye molecule were determined to be of the order 10(-13) - 10(-12) m2/s. Furthermore, desorption experiments affirmed the regenerative capability of the loaded material.

  5. Optical properties of natural dyes on the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    This study reported several natural dyes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This study aims was to determine the effect of optical absorption properties of natural dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The sandwich structure of DSSC consist of TiO2 as working electrode, carbon layer as counter electrode, natural dyes as photosensitizer, and electrolyte as electron transfer media. The natural dyes used in this experiment were extracted from dragon fruit anthocyanin, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and red cabbage anthocyanin. The absorbance of dyes solutions and the adsorption of the dye on the surface of TiO2 were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the quantum efficiency versus wavelength was characterized using incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) measurement system, and the efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. UV-Vis characteristic curves showed that wavelength absorption of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 - 580 nm, anthocyanin of mangosteen peels was 400 - 480 nm, and anthocyanin of dragon fruit was 400 - 650 nm. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorption on the surface of TiO2 which was resulted in the highest absorbance of red cabbage anthocyanin. IPCE characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted quantum efficiency of 0.058%; 0.047%; and 0.043%, respectively at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. I-V characteristic curves with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage, mangosteen peels anthocyanin, and dragon fruit anthocyanin resulted efficiency of 0.054%; 0.042%; and 0.024%, respectively.

  6. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: Implications for a commercial azo dye mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchi, Francine Inforcato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil); Ormond, Alexandra B.; Freeman, Harold S. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry, and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Zocolo, Guilherme Juliao; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Umbuzeiro, Gisela, E-mail: giselau@ft.unicamp.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP, 13484-332 (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous solutions of Disperse Red 1 were treated with chlorine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorination products of Disperse Red 1 were identified using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daphnia and Salmonella/microsome were employed for eco/genotoxicity testing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chlorinated dye was more mutagenic

  7. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  8. Nucleophilic addition of reactive dyes on amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S E

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% of of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  9. Sorption of dyes from aqueous solutions onto fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janos, Pavel; Buchtová, Hana; Rýznarová, Milena

    2003-12-01

    Brown coal fly ashes were tested as potentially low-cost sorbents for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters. It was shown that both basic (cationic) as well as acid (anionic) dyes can be sorbed onto the fly ash. The adsorption can be described by the multi-site Langmuir isotherm. The sorption capacities were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-3)mmol/g and did not differ significantly for basic and acid dyes. The dye sorption decreased in the presence of organic solvents (methanol, acetone). The presence of oppositely charged surfactants exhibited a pronounced effect on the dye sorption-low concentrations of the surfactant enhanced sorption, whereas high concentrations solubilized the dyes and kept them in solution. Inorganic salts exhibited only a minor effect on the dye sorption. The sorption of basic dyes increased at high pH values, whereas the opposite was true for acid dyes.

  10. DYEING COTTON WITH EISENIA BICYCLIS AS NATURAL DYE USING DIFFERENT BIOMORDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Mª Ángeles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes are known for their use in coloring of food substrate, leather as well as natural protein fibers like wool, silk and cotton as major areas of application since pre-historic times. Nowadays, there has been revival of the growing interest on the application of natural dyes on natural fibers due to worldwide environmental consciousness. Some researchers focus their studies on the improvement of these dyes using mordants. Most works use metallic mordants like aluminum or iron are used, but some of them are hazardous. In this work we used a biomordant to solve environmental problems caused by metallic mordants. The effects of chitosan weight molecular in mordanting on the dyeing characteristics and the UV protection property were examined in this study. Chitosan mordanted Eisenia Bicyclis dyed cotton showed better dyeing characteristic and higher UV protection property compared with undyed cotton fabric. To analyze the differences of the dyeing, reflection spectrophotometer was used, evaluating the results of CIELAB color difference values and the strength color (in terms of K/S value. We conclude that the type of chitosan used affect the dyeing efficiency and the UV protection, showing different behavior between dye sample using chitosan with low or medium molecular weight.

  11. Enzymatic decolorization of spent textile dyeing baths composed by mixtures of synthetic dyes and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Gullotto, Antonella; Tilli, Silvia; Sannia, Giovanni; Basosi, Riccardo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2012-10-01

    The effects of different components of real dyeing bath formulations, such as the equalizing and fixing additives-acids, salts, and surfactants-on the decolorization catalyzed by Funalia trogii enzymatic extracts, were investigated to understand their influence on the recalcitrance to biodegradation of this type of wastewater. The decolorization of selected dyes and dye mixtures after tissue dyeing was performed in the presence/absence of auxiliary compounds. All spent dyeing baths were enzymatically decolorized to different extents, by the addition of extracts containing laccase only or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Whereas surfactant auxiliaries, in some instances, inhibit the decolorization of spent dyeing baths, in several occurrences the acid/salt additives favor the enzymatic process. In general, the complete spent dyeing formulations are better degraded than those containing the dyes only. The comparison of extracellular extracts obtained from spent straws from the commercial growth of Pleurotus sp. mushrooms with those from F. trogii reveals similar decolorization extents thus allowing to further reduce the costs of bioremediation.

  12. Isolation and screening of azo dye decolorizing bacterial isolates from dye-contaminated textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahmood

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are released into wastewater streams without any pretreatment and pollute water and soilenvironments. To prevent contamination of our vulnerable resources, removal of these dye pollutants is of greatimportance. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected from dye-contaminated sites of Faisalabad. About200 bacterial isolates were isolated through enrichment and then tested for their potential to remove RemazolBlack-B azo dye in liquid medium. Five bacterial isolates capable of degrading Remazol Black-B azo dye efficientlywere screened through experimentation on modified mineral salt medium. Isolate SS1 (collected from wastewater ofSupreme Textile Industry was able to completely remove the Remazol Black-B dye from the liquid medium in 18 h.Further, the isolate showed the best performance at the dye concentration of 100 mg L-1 medium (pH 7 and attemperature 35oC. Similarly, yeast extract proved to be the best carbon source for decolorization purpose. Theresults imply that the isolate SS1 could be used for the removal of the reactive dyes from textile effluents.

  13. Synthesis and dyeing properties of new disazo disperse dyes for polyester and nylon fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarulata B. Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diazotized aryl amines were coupled with two stenhouse salt namely, N-(5-phenylamino-penta-4-ol-2,4-diene-1-ylideneanilines hydrochloride [S1 (RH or S2 (ROH] to furnish two series of disazo disperse dyes (S1D1–10 and S2D1–10. The structure of all the dyes was established by estimating number of azo groups, elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR, UV/Visible. The structure–property relationship was discussed by using electronic absorption spectra of the dyes. These dyes were applied to polyester and nylon fabrics as disperse dyes by using temperature exhaust dyeing method. The relevant dyeing characteristics, such as dyeability on fabrics, wash-fastness and light-fastness were evaluated. Fabrics dyed with these dyes furnished generally deep and bright intense hues ranging from light yellow to orange to reddish brown. The color fastness of the dyed fabric was assessed by determining wash-fastness and light-fastness properties.

  14. Molecular design and photovoltaic performance of organic dyes containing phenothiazine for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyo Jeong; Nam, Jung Eun; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Jae Hong; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel organic photosensitizers based on fluorine-substituted phenothiazine with thiophene bridge units in the chromophore for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Furthermore, organic dyes with different acceptors exhibited higher molar extinction coefficients, and better light absorption at longer wavelengths. The photovoltaic properties of organic dyes composed of different acceptors in their chromophores were measured to identify their effects on the DSSC performance. The organic dye, PFSCN2 containing multi-cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor, showed a power conversion efficiency of 4.67% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm2). The retarded recombination kinetics from TiO2 electrode to electrolyte enhanced the electron life time of the organic dye, PFSCN2 in the photoanode of the DSSC. This was confirmed with impedance analysis.

  15. Ethoxy-substituted Oligo-phenylenevinylene-Bridged Organic Dyes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单益凡; 汤杰; 赖华; 谭宏伟; 刘晓峰; 杨帆; 房强

    2012-01-01

    Organic dyes with ethoxy-substituted oligo-phenylenevinylene as chromophores were synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the detailed relationships between the dye structures, photophysical properties, electrochemical properties, and performances of DSSCs were described. The dye S3O showed broad IPCE spectra in the spectral range of 350--750 nm, and the dye S1P showed solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (1/) of up to 4.23% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2) in comparison with the reference Ru-complex (N719 dye) with an r/value of 5.90% under similar experimental conditions.

  16. Chemistry beyond positivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Werner W

    2003-05-01

    Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education.

  17. Experimental and Computational Studies on the Design of Dyes for Water-splitting Dye-sensitized Photoelectrochemical Tandem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Hernandez, Dalvin D.

    Solar energy is a promising alternative for addressing the world's current and future energy requirements in a sustainable way. Because solar irradiation is intermittent, it is necessary to store this energy in the form of a fuel so it can be used when required. The light-driven splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen (a useful chemical fuel) is a fascinating theoretical and experimental challenge that is worth pursuing because the advance of the knowledge that it implies and the availability of water and sunlight. Inspired by natural photosynthesis and building on previous work from our laboratory, this dissertation focuses on the development of water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical tandem cells (WSDSPETCs). The design, synthesis, and characterization of high-potential porphyrins and metal-free phthalocyanines with phosphonic anchoring groups are reported. Photocurrents measured for WSDSPETCs made with some of these dyes co-adsorbed with molecular or colloidal catalysts on TiO2 electrodes are reported as well. To guide in the design of new molecules we have used computational quantum chemistry extensively. Linear correlations between calculated frontier molecular orbital energies and redox potentials were built and tested at multiple levels of theory (from semi-empirical methods to density functional theory). Strong correlations (with r2 values > 0.99) with very good predictive abilities (rmsd reaction center of Photosystem II. It was found that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules, hydrogen bonded to specific sites within the molecular triad, was essential to explain the observed thermal relaxation. These results are relevant for both advancing the knowledge about natural photosynthesis and for the future design of new molecules for WSDSPETCs.

  18. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37 ± 4.48, 1.15 ± 0.13 and 565 ± 4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94 ± 0.05 to 166 ± 3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166 ± 3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field.

  19. Reactive dye extraction utilizing regenerated bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite bleaching earth is utilized for purifying used motor oil through a recovery process in order to improve the quality and stability of the final product. Indeed, spent bleaching earth is generated due to adsorbing oil impurities. Polluted spent bleaching earth contains 20-40% (w/w oil and is flammable. Its disposal without pre-treatment leads to loss of oil along with environmental impacts. Accordingly, similar studies have been conducted since 1979 until now. This research was a laboratory study on reactive dye adsorption. Cleaning bleaching clay, thermal remediation and acid washing activation methods were utilized. Response surface methodology was used to design the experiments and determine the optimal parameters in order to run the dye adsorption process. The main experimental parameters have been concluded as temperature (200-800 °C, acid solution concentration (0.1-3 M, dye solution concentration (1-35 ppm, and ratio of activated earth to dye solution (0.1-2 %, w/w. Results revealed that dye adsorption process along with oil removal at a temperature of 650 °C, acid solution concentration of 0.83 M, dye solution concentration of 11.75 ppm and ratio of activated earth to dye solution of 1.52 % (w/w results in an adsorption efficiency of 68.57%. This removal efficiency is a bit higher than activated virgin bleaching earth and much higher than virgin bleaching earth, which has adsorption capacities of 66.75% and 51.56%, respectively. Considering this recycling process, the purified material is quite acceptable technically, environmentally and economically.

  20. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  1. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  2. Preparation of P(St-BA-VBT)/dye Colored Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-mei; FANG Kuan-jun

    2015-01-01

    P (St-BA-VBT)/dye colored nanoparticles were prepared by staining P (Styrene-Butyl Acrylate-VinylBenzyl Trimethylammonium chloride) nanoparticles synthesized by soap free cationic emulsion polymerization with reactive dyes. The effects of reactive dyes dosage, dyeing temperature and time on amounts of dyes adsorbed on the nanoparticles were analysed. Results showed that when Reactive Red 195 dosage was 5.25%, the adsorption amounts of dyes on the nanoparticles reached a maximum value of 18.64 mg/g at 65℃for 90 min.

  3. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  4. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  5. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  6. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  7. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  8. ADSORPTION OF DYES ON ACTIVATED CARBON FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenShuixia; WuChangqing; 等

    1998-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of dyes on a variety of sisal based activated carbon fibers (SACF) has been studied in this paper. The results show that this kind of ACF has excellent adsorption capacities for some organic (dye) molecules.SACF can remove nearly all methylene blue,crystal violet,bromophenol blue and Eriochrome blue black R from water after static adsorption for 24h. at 30℃. The adsorption amounts can reach more than 400mg/g when adding 50 mg SACF into 50 ml dye solution.Under the same conditions,the adsorption amounts of xylenol orange fluorescein and Eriochrome black T wree lower.On the other hand,the adsorption amounts change along with the characteristics of adsorbents.The SACFs activated above 840℃,which have higher specific surface areas and wider pore radii,have higher adsorption amounts for the dyes.The researching results also show that the adsorption rates of dyes onto SACFs decrease by the order of methylene blue,Eriochrome blue black R and crystal violet.

  9. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  10. Dyes and Materials for Sensitised Electrochemical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnasr, M.; Brooks, K. G.; McEvoy, A. J.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Pechy, P.; Thampi, K. R.; Grätzel, M.

    2001-11-01

    The present concepts evolved in the context of research and development of artificial photosynthetic systems. Our biosphere depends totally on the action of a porphyrin dye, chlorophyll, for its continued existance, since all food resources find their origin in photosynthesis. Equally, for much of our energy resources we rely on the same process, present or past, as stored in fossil fuels. Naturally, therefore, when it comes to the molecular design of dyes for solar photochemical applications the reference to the porphyrins and similar organometallic complexes based on nitrogen ring structures as prototypes is obvious. However, although nature confines itself to magnesium and iron for its principal pigments, chlorophyll and haemoglobin respectively, the synthetic chemist can access the whole range of metallic elements. The use of ruthenium pyridyl complexes has almost thirty years of development history, and although other compounds have been assessed, such as zinc porphyrins and even prussian-blue analogues, the most suitable dyes today are still modifications of the ruthenium-based pyridyl complexes. The molecular engineering of dyes extends the visible spectrum response, enhances stability and promotes chemisorption to oxide semiconductor substrates while maintaining the energetics and kinetics for efficient charge transfer to function in sensitised electrochemical photovoltaic devices. There is also an overview of the present status of the technology, the materials incorporated in current devices, and their reliability in practical applications especially in situations of thermal stress. The conclusion will present the case for ongoing development of dye-sensitised systems in photovoltaic technology.

  11. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  12. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  13. The philosophy of chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Joachim

    2003-03-01

    Although chemistry is by far the largest scientific discipline according to any quantitative measure, it had, until recently, been virtually ignored by professional philosophers of science. They left both a vacuum and a one-sided picture of science tailored to physics. Since the early 1990s, the situation has changed drastically, such that philosophy of chemistry is now one of the most flourishing fields in the philosophy of science, like the philosophy of biology that emerged in the 1970s. This article narrates the development and provides a survey of the main topics and trends.

  14. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  15. Chemistry and lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma

    2011-01-01

    This is a unique book, combining chemistry and physics with technology and history in a way that is both enlightening and lively. No other book in the field of lithography has as much breadth. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the broad application of chemistry to lithography. --Chris Mack, Gentleman Scientist. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the chemical phenomena in lithography in a manner that is accessible to a wide readership. The book presents topics on the optical and charged particle physics practiced in lithography, with a broader view of how the marriage bet

  16. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  17. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  18. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  19. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  20. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  1. Chromed Leather Dyeing Peculiarities when Deliming with Peracetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis BELEŠKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of deliming with peracetic acid on leather dyeing kinetics. Hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 and hydrophilic C.I. Acid Red 423 dyes were used. Sorption of dye depends on hydrophobicity/hydrophility of dye and dyeing temperature. Equilibrium of process is reached faster using hydrophobic C.I. Acid Red 213 at 45 ºC. However, both control and experimental leather fibres adsorb more hydrophilic dye C.I. Acid Red 423 and this fact does not depend on temperature. The diffusion coefficient of dye C.I. Acid Red 423 calculated according to Weisz model is higher when dyeing conventional leather. The change of deliming method has influence on chromed leather dyeing but this influence is not significant. The adsorption ability of control leather fibres at 30 ºC and 45 ºC is higher using both dyes as compared to the dyeing the experimental one. The increase of dyeing temperature increases the adsorption ability independently on the sort of leather fibres. Such dependence of the adsorption ability on the temperature shows that hydrophobic action and van der Waals forces prevail between dye and fibres during dyeing process. The Gibbs energy changes show that adsorption of both dyes by leather fibres independently on their sort is a spontaneous process. The affinity of both dyes to conventional leather fibres is higher comparing with experimental one. The change of enthalpy is positive in all cases, and it means that the driving force of the dyeing is the change of entropy.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.2.4431

  2. Spectral Studies of UV and Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of AZO Dye and Textile Dye Effluents Using Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, R; Ranjitsingh, A J A; Mosae Selvakumar, P; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of the chemical dye AZO and dye effluents in different time duration has been investigated using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Dye industry effluents and AZO dye undergo degradation to form harmless intermediate and colourless products following irradiation by UV and solar light in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. The degree of degradation was tested under the experimental conditions such as P(H), temperature, and absorbance of the dye in UV and solar light was measured. The degradation was higher in the UV light source than in the solar light source. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the UV light source were found to expedite the dye degradation process.

  3. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD-dye

  4. Improved Reactive Dye-fixation in Pad-Steam Process of Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using Tetrasodium N, NBiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Awais Khatri; Mazhar Hussain Peerzada

    2012-01-01

    Pad steam process of dyeing cotton with reactive dyes is known to give lower levels of dye-fixation on the fiber because of excessive dye-hydrolysis. This research presents improved reactive dye-fixation in padsteam process of dyeing cotton found in an effort of using biodegradable organic salts to improve the effluent quality. The CI Reactive Blue 250, a bissulphatoethylsulphone dye and the Tetrasodium N, Nbiscarboxylatomethyl- L-Glutamate, a biodegradable organic salt, were used...

  5. Industrial Chemistry Option in MSc Studies in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Arnon

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and development of an industrial chemistry program in chemistry at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. Includes an outline of the recommended 2-year curriculum and list of courses in this industrial chemistry option leading to a master of science degree. (Author/JN)

  6. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Industrial Chemistry Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Solomon

    1985-01-01

    Presented is a bibliography of articles published in the "Journal of Chemical Education" (1968-1983) which focused on industrial chemistry. Items are listed under these headings: real world of industrial chemistry; industrial notes; subject matter articles; industrial chemistry experiments/demonstrations; academic-industrial interface;…

  7. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the beliefs of Turkish prospective chemistry teachers about teaching chemistry, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 prospective teachers. Analysis of the interviews revealed that most of the prospective teachers held intermediate (transition between constructivist and traditional) beliefs about chemistry teaching.…

  8. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  9. Mono azo dyes derived from 5-nitroanthranilic acid: Synthesis, absorption properties and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak Atay, Çiğdem; Gökalp, Merve; Kart, Sevgi Özdemir; Tilki, Tahir

    2017-08-01

    Four new azo dyes: 2-[(3,5-diamino-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)diazenyl]-5-nitrobenzoic acid (A), 2-[(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)diazenyl]-5-nitrobenzoic acid (B), 2-[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)diazenyl]-5-nitrobenzoic acid (C) and 2-[(5-amino-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)diazenyl]-5-nitrobenzoic acid (D) which have the same 4-nitrobenzene/azo/pyrazole skeleton and different substituted groups are synthesized in this work. The structures and spectroscopic properties of these new azo dyes are characterized by using spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-vis. Their solvatochromic properties in chloroform, acetic acid, methanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) are studied. Moreover, molecular structures and some spectroscopic properties of azo dyes are investigated by utilizing the quantum computational chemistry method based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) employing B3LYP hybrid functional level with 6-31G(d) basis set. It is seen that experimental and theoretical results are compatible with each other.

  10. Calixarenes: A Versatile Source for the Recovery of Reactive Blue-19 Dye from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work demonstrates the comparative extraction efficiency of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (1 and its derivatives (2-4 toward a series of some selected reactive dyes such as Reactive Black-5 (RB-5, Reactive Blue-19 (RB-19 and Reactive Red-45 (RR-45. The study elaborates effectiveness of different anchoring groups present on the periphery of calix[4]arene platform and highlights the importance of preorganization concerning the application of supramolecular chemistry in separation science and technology. It has been observed that compound 4 shows good extraction efficiency toward RB-19 among the selected reactive dyes. Enhanced extraction efficiency was observed with the addition of NaCl at pH 7. The proposed extraction mechanism through inclusion complexation was confirmed by log-log plot analysis, which shows 1:1 complexation between 4 and RB-19. The solvatochromic response of 4 in various solvents of different polarities showed good response in methanol. The log K of complex was found as 5.2. The complex formation between 4 and RB-19 has also been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The recovery of 4 and RB-19 dye was achieved at pH 8 that signifies the reusability of 4 again and again.

  11. Citric Acid Fuctionalized Magnetic Ferrite Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahto, Triveni Kumar; Roy, Anurag; Sahoo, Banalata; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this study different magnetic ferrite nanoparticles (MFe2O4, where M = Fe, Mn, Zn) were synthesized through an aqueous coprecipitation method and then functionalized with citric acid for the degradation of azo dye present in industrial waste water. Here we evaluated the role of citric acid for photocatalytic application. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the catalytic activity in degradation of methyl orange (MO) was evaluated. The rate of MO degradation in different magnetic systems was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of active parameters (pH, initial MO concentration and effect of sunlight) on degradation performance was investigated. For the first time, citric acid chemistry is successfully exploited to develop a photocatalyst that can successfully degrade the dyes. This citric acid functionalized magnetic ferrite nanoparticles are very much effective for photocalytic degradation of dye and also these can be recollected with the help of permanent magnet for successive uses.

  12. π-Spacer effect in dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Gou, Faliang; Zhao, Dongning; Shi, Jian; Gao, Hong; Zhu, Zhenping; Jing, Huanwang

    2016-08-01

    New dithiafulvenyl-π-phenothiazine dyes have been devised and prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells. Various π-spacers have been successfully introduced into the skeleton of dithiafulvenyl and phenothiazine unit to generate novel D-π-D-A dyes (DPP-1 ∼ 4). All dyes have been characterized with NMR, HRMS, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, and taken into cyclic voltammetry measurements. The devices of new dyes have been determined by photoelectrochemical experiments (IV, IPCE and EIS), in which, solar cell of DPP-4 with biphenyl ring π-spacer enhances obviously its photoelectric conversion efficiency to 7.66% reaching 94% of N719-based standard cell and displays good long-term stability with quasi-solid-state electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of new dyes provide further insight into the molecular geometries and the impacts of the torsion angles on their photovoltaic performance. Large dihedral angles in DPP dyes induce good charge separation for efficient unidirectional flow of electron from donor to acceptor.

  13. In-situ Decolorization of Residual Dye Effluent in Textile Jet Dyeing Machine by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmed Shaikh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new idea of decolourization was investigated in which residual dyeing effluent from textile dyeing process was treated using O3 in the same machine where it was generated. The novelty comes from the idea of doing dyeing and treatment simultaneously. At the completion of dyeing process, O3 gas was injected directly into the machine to remove colour and COD from the wastewater. To evaluate the effectiveness of new method, pilot-scale studies were performed, and decolourization of residual dyeing effluents containing C.I. Reactive Orange 7, C.I. Reactive Blue 19, and C.I. Reactive Black 5 was carried out in specially built textile jet dyeing machine. The results showed that almost 100% colour removal and 90% COD reduction were achieved when process conditions such as pH, dye concentration (mg/L, ozone production rate (g/hr, and temperature were optimized. The study concludes that new method has a great potential to eliminate the need of a separate end-of-the-pipe wastewater treatment system, thus offering an on-site and cost-effective solution.

  14. Pad ultrasonic batch dyeing of causticized lyocell fabric with reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Aijaz Ahmed; Peerzada, Mazhar Hussain; Jhatial, Abdul Khalique; Bughio, Noor-Ul-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, cellulosic fabric dyed with reactive dyes requires significant amount of salt. However, the dyeing of a solvent spun regenerated cellulosic fiber is a critical process. This paper presents the dyeing results of lyocell fabrics dyed with conventional pad batch (CPB) and pad ultrasonic batch (PUB) processes. The dyeing of lyocell fabrics was carried out with two commercial dyes namely Drimarine Blue CL-BR and Ramazol Blue RGB. Dyeing parameters including concentration of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and dwell time were compared for the two processes. The outcomes show that PUB dyed samples offered reasonably higher color yield and dye fixation than CPB dyed samples. A remarkable reduction of 12h in batching time, 18ml/l in NaOH and 05g/l in Na2CO3 quantity was observed for PUB processed samples producing similar results compared to CPB process, making PUB a more economical, productive and an environment friendly process. Color fastness examination witnessed identical results for both PUB and CPB methods. No significant change in surface morphology of PUB processed samples was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  15. Improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells' performance through introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao; Pan, Hao; Ju, Xue-Hai; Ji, Ya-Jun; Qin, Ling; Zheng, He-Gen; Zhou, Xing-Fu

    2012-02-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are currently under intense academic and industrial investigation, owing to their great potential to serve as a low-cost alternative to existing photovoltaic technologies. This paper puts forward a method, which adopts heterocyclic substituted triarylamine units as electronic donor moieties, to design triarylamine dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Three novel triarylamine dyes named TTC101, TTC102 and TTC103, were synthesized economically through modification of the structure of a simple triarylamine dye (TC105) using three kinds of heterocyclic groups (4-pyridyl, 2-thienyl and 1-pyrazolyl). The crystal structure of TTC103 indicates that the heterocyclic groups would partly delocalize the positive charge after photooxidation. The overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 4.92% and 5.21% respectively under AM1.5G irradiation, reaching ∼82.3% and ∼77.7% of a N719-based reference cell under the same conditions. Besides, the energy conversion efficiencies (η) of TTC102 and TTC103 are 1.29 and 1.37 times the efficiency of TC105 respectively. All of the results above demonstrate that photovoltaic performance can be improved by introducing suitable heterocyclic groups to triarylamine dyes. A series of properties were investigated to explain the results, with a special emphasis on the geometric structures, energetics, and charge transfer processes at the dye/titania/electrolyte interface.

  16. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  17. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  18. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer.

  19. Polymer Chemistry in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses why polymer chemistry should be added to the general chemistry curriculum and what topics are appropriate (listing traditional with related polymer topics). Also discusses when and how these topics should be taught. (JN)

  20. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2014-07-15

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  1. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  2. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  3. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-22

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  4. Novel Tunable Dye Laser for Lidar Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tunable dye laser for Lidar detection will be fabricated based on the innovative dye-doped Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (HPDLC) technology. The...

  5. Antimicrobial effect of natural dyes on some pathogenic bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, natural dyes, textile. INTRODUCTION ... To prepare aqueous dye solutions of these plants, 10 g of each of the powders .... antibacterial treatments to repeated laundering, Text Chem Color.

  6. Spectral characteristics and nonlinear studies of crystal violet dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, V. Sindhu; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-03-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this paper, the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye crystal violet are studied. The spectral characteristics of crystal violet dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique, by exciting with He-Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye crystal violet show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  7. Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

  8. The Ideal Solvent for Paper Chromatography of Food Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markow, Peter G.

    1988-01-01

    Uses paper chromatography with food dyes to provide a simple and inexpensive basis for teaching chromatography. Provides experimental methodology and tabled results. Includes a solvent system comparison (Rf) for seven dyes and twenty-two solvents. (MVL)

  9. Decolourisation of chemically different dyes by enzymes from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Key words: Synthetic dye decolourisation, spent mushroom compost, Pleurotus sajor-caju, dye kinetics. ... photocatalysis or ozonation are effective but rather costly ... organic matter, balance pH, add beneficial micro-.

  10. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  11. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... immobilized marine and freshwater microalgal beads ... Discharge of textile wastewater containing toxic dyes can adversely affect aquatic organisms and human health. .... the bioavailability of pollutants like metals, dye.

  12. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica stems ash. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Abstract. Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk.

  13. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  14. Get Cooking with Chemistry!

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book presents science activities investigating the chemical changes and reactions with powders that are used in baking. Activities include: (1) Mystery Powders; (2) Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder; and (3) A Feast for Yeast and Cheese: Behold the Power of Chemistry. (YDS)

  15. Chemistry Is Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, D; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Encouraging scientific thinking through open-ended experiments, allowing students access to common chemical instrumentation, and introduction to laboratory techniques are goals of a high school science laboratory program. Course content (general, inorganic, and organic chemistry), limitations, and course evaluation are discussed. (Author/JN)

  16. Microscale Gas Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…

  17. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  18. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  19. Industrial chemistry; Chimie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, R. [Universite Claude Bernard, UFR, 69 - Lyon (France); Scharff, J.P. [Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)]|[Ecole Superieure de Chimie, Physique et Electronique CPE, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    This book takes stock of the main aspects of the industrial chemistry. It presents all the current chemical aspects concerning the preparation of the main inorganic, metallurgical, organic products and polymers. Are included all the problems related to raw materials, energy, reactions optimization, chemical risk, environment and cleansing, patent rights. It is devoted to students, technical men and engineers. (O.M.) 239 refs.

  20. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  1. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  2. Supramolecular analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V

    2007-02-02

    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  3. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  4. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  5. Chemistry and Popperism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

  6. Green chemistry metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  7. Computational chemistry at Janssen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-19

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  8. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  9. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  10. Online Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  11. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  12. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  13. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  14. Computational chemistry at Janssen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L.; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  16. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  17. Online organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

  18. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  19. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  20. systemic chemistry triangle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    This paper describes uses of the systemic chemistry triangle [SCT] in which we get the benefits of both ..... The teachers follows up the following scenario for teaching [Fig.12]:. 1. ... [SATL]: A 10- year's review, AJCE, 1(1) 29-47. 3. Fahmy ...

  1. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  2. Synthesis, characterization and application of new azo dyes derived from uracil for polyester fibre dyeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Mohamad-reza; Abbasnia, Masoumeh; Sheykhan, Mehdi; Ma'mani, Leila

    2010-08-01

    Some novel uracil derived azo compounds were synthesized by diazotization of substituted aromatic amines, amidine- and guanidine-like amines such as 2-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine, ortho-hydroxy aniline and ortho-hydroxy naphthyl amines and coupling reaction with 6-amino-1,3-dimethyluracil. Structures of the dyes were fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, CHN and IR). The dyes were applied to polyester, affording orange-yellow shades and the wash fastness of the dyeings was excellent.

  3. Erythema multiforme following application of hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankha Koley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction with varying degrees of blistering and ulceration. Common causes of EM are herpes simplex virus infection, mycoplasma infection, drug hypersensitivity, vaccination and drug-virus interaction. EM induced by contact dermatitis is rare. Paraphenylene diamine, a common ingredient in many hair dyes, is well known to produce allergic contact dermatitis. We report a 35-year-old lady presenting with EM following severe contact dermatitis to hair dye. So far as we know, this is the first report from India describing EM following contact dermatitis.

  4. Tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback (DFB) dye lasers. The lasers rely on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels constitutes a third order Bragg grating DFB laser resonator with a central phase-shift. The lasers...... are operated by filling the DFB laser resonator with a dye solution by capillary action and optical pumping with a frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser. The low reflection order of the DFB laser resonator yields low out-of-plane scattering losses as well as a large free spectral range (FSR), and low threshold...

  5. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment systems. Eighty-five percent of tie-dye entrepreneurs agreed that there must be wastewater treatment before release into the environment. From group discussions, it was found that the entrepreneurs realized the wastewater problem and wanted to carry out environment friendly tie-dyeing. Our study demonstrated that the average value of the colour density, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solids (TDS and pH of the wastewater characteristics were 170 SU (space units, 1584 mg/l, 2487 mg/l and 8, respectively. For the upflow anaerobic filter, 5 sets of experiments, with 24 hours retention time, were designed, with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % of cow’s feces ferment, respectively (sets 1st-5th. The result showed decreasing colour densities from 170 SU to 160 SU (dark colour, 60 SU (very light colour, 12 SU (no colour, 10 SU (no colour and 10 SU (no colour, respectively. We conclude that the upflow anaerobic filter, containing 2% cow’s feces ferment is an efficient way to reduce colour density of the wastewater. Mixing cow’s feces ferment with tie-dye wastewater increased COD and TDS in wastewater. Mean COD was increased by residual organic matter from 1584 mg/l (before treatment to (after-treatment, sets 2nd- 5th 1600 mg/l, 1680 mg/l, 1710 mg/l and 1750 mg/l, respectively. COD aftertreatment was higher than the industrial effluence standard (400 mg/l. Further treatment COD might include wetland procedures. TDS was increased by some residual organic matter

  6. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -state-dye-sensitized photovoltaics with an amphiphilic Ruthenium-dye. Appl. Physics Letters 86, 013504-1-013504-3 (2005) 2. A. Hagfeldt, M. Grätzel, Light-induced redox reactions in nanocrystalline systems. Chem. Rev. 95 (1995) 49-68 XRD (Pure anatase) SEM of anatase film Two... (Artificial photosynthesis) L LE ROUX, C ARENDSE, S HIETKAMP CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa Email: lleroux@csir.co.za ABSTRACT As our fuel sources become depleted, we will increasingly turn to alternative...

  7. Preparation of some new coumarin dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Series of coumarins containing heterocyclic substituent in 3-position were prepared.Sulfonyl chloride, a reactive group, was drawn into the heterocycle, and further condensed withamines to give series of new compounds that contain N-alkyl sulfamide. The spectral propertiesand dyeing character of these new dyes are discussed. A bathochromic shift (10 nm), enhancedfastness in light and sublimation (1-2 grade) and larger molar extinction coefficient (increase 104L ·mol-1 ·cm-1) are apparent with these new compounds. In the meantime, larger solubility appearswith these new compounds.

  8. Optofluidic third order distributed feedback dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This letter describes the design and operation of a polymer-based third order distributed feedback (DFB) microfluidic dye laser. The device relies on light confinement in a nanostructured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution...... which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order DFB grating, formed by the array of nanofluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straightforward to integrate on lab-on-a-chip microsystems where coherent, tunable light...

  9. Study on Dyeing Behavior of Modified Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lai-jiu; LI Hong; LIU Jian-yu

    2004-01-01

    The study of dyeability of the modified flax that uses dye-uptake to reflect its modifying effect is reported in this paper. The optimal technological condition is that the concentration of the modifying agent is 4g/l, and NaOH is 6g/l at liquor ratio of 1:30 for 60 min. at 85℃.Dyeability include uptake rate and color fastness. Dye-uptake of the modified flax is twice more than that of the unmodified. And their color fastness doesn't fall and some of them raise 0.5-1 level.

  10. Observations and modeling of a tidal inlet dye tracer plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, Falk; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Guza, R. T.; Winters, D.; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2016-10-01

    A 9 km long tracer plume was created by continuously releasing Rhodamine WT dye for 2.2 h during ebb tide within the southern edge of the main tidal channel at New River Inlet, NC on 7 May 2012, with highly obliquely incident waves and alongshore winds. Over 6 h from release, COAWST (coupled ROMS and SWAN, including wave, wind, and tidal forcing) modeled dye compares well with (aerial hyperspectral and in situ) observed dye concentration. Dye first was transported rapidly seaward along the main channel and partially advected across the ebb-tidal shoal until reaching the offshore edge of the shoal. Dye did not eject offshore in an ebb-tidal jet because the obliquely incident breaking waves retarded the inlet-mouth ebb-tidal flow and forced currents along the ebb shoal. The dye plume largely was confined to <4 m depth. Dye was then transported downcoast in the narrow (few 100 m wide) surfzone of the beach bordering the inlet at 0.3 m s-1 driven by wave breaking. Over 6 h, the dye plume is not significantly affected by buoyancy. Observed dye mass balances close indicating all released dye is accounted for. Modeled and observed dye behaviors are qualitatively similar. The model simulates well the evolution of the dye center of mass, lateral spreading, surface area, and maximum concentration, as well as regional ("inlet" and "ocean") dye mass balances. This indicates that the model represents well the dynamics of the ebb-tidal dye plume. Details of the dye transport pathways across the ebb shoal are modeled poorly perhaps owing to low-resolution and smoothed model bathymetry. Wave forcing effects have a large impact on the dye transport.

  11. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophi...

  12. Removal of textile dyes with biopolymers xanthan and alginic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Alvarez, J.; Jauregui-Rincon, J.; Mendoza-Diaz, G.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, G.; Frausto-Reyes, C.

    2009-07-01

    Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)

  13. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  14. Industrial Chemistry at Michigan Tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, D. K.; Ponter, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses factors leading to the development of a four-year industrial chemistry program at Michigan Technological University and provides details of its structure. Includes brief descriptions of courses required in industrial chemistry but not in the traditional chemistry program and list of optional courses. (JN)

  15. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  16. Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester Fluorescent Dye for Cell Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi WANG; Xiu-Mei DUAN; Li-Hua LIU; Yan-Qiu FANG; Yan TAN

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to study the properties of the carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) and the methodology of cell labeling using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. First, we analyzed the kinetics of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye intensity over time. Second, we determined the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling. Third, we tested the toxicity of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye on labeled cells. Finally, we determined the optimal staining time of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling.The results show that the optimal concentration of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling varies according to different cell types. CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is non-toxic to cells as the cell death rate caused by CFDASE labeling is below 5%. The optimal cell labeling time was determined to be 8 min of incubation with CFDA-SE fluorescent dye. We concluded that the advantages of using CFDA-SE fluorescent dye for cell labeling are as follows: (1) the binding of CFDA-SE fluorescent dye to cells is stable; (2) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is not toxic and does not modify the viability of labeled cells; and (3) CFDA-SE fluorescent dye is a suitable fluorochrome for cell labeling.

  17. Fluorescence of dyes adsorbed on highly organized nanostructured gold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, Stefano A.; Mourran, Ahmed; Spatz, Joachim P.; Veggel, van Frank C.J.M.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Möller, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that fluorescent dyes can be adsorbed selectively on gold nanoparticles which are immobilized on a glass substrate and that the fluorescence originating from the adsorbed dyes exhibits significantly less quenching when compared to dyes adsorbed on bulk gold. Self-assembled monolayers of

  18. Functional Dyes, and Some Hi-Tech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the recent developments in functional dyes, which are useful for hi-tech applications for those based on optoelectronics, such as dye sensitized solar cells, photochromic dyes and biomedical applications, such as photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer and fluorescent sensors is presented.

  19. Integrated sequential anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of azo dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Azo dyes constitute a major class of environmental pollutants accounting for 60 to 70% of all dyes and pigments used. These compounds are characterized by aromatic moieties linked together with azo groups (-N=N-). The release of azo dyes into the environment is a concern due to coloration of natural

  20. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and...