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Sample records for dyadic consciousness constructive

  1. Relation between dependency and two aspects of self-consciousness : Focusing on dyadic relationships in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focused on dyadic relationships in adolescence and examined the dependent appearance for significant other and the relation with two aspects of the self-consciousness. Two aspects of the self-consciousness are public self-consciousness and private self-consciousness. As a result of factor analysis,it was indicated that adolescents have mature and immature dependencies on significant others and dependent anxiety was observed regardless of the object of dependence. Furthermore...

  2. Consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeman, A

    2001-01-01

    Consciousness is topical, for reasons including its renewed respectability among psychologists, rapid progress in the neuroscience of perception, memory and action, advances in artificial intelligence...

  3. Constructing and Consolidating of Algebraic Knowledge within Dyadic Processes: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabach, Michal; Hershkowitz, Rina; Schwarz, Baruch

    2006-01-01

    Studies of knowledge constructing often focus on the analysis of a single episode, without considering enough the history of the learners, or the future learners' trajectories with regard to the concepts learned. This paper presents an example of knowledge constructing within the context of peer learning. We show how the design of the task and the…

  4. Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Terrence J Sejnowski

    2015-01-01

    No one did more to draw neuroscientists’ attention to the problem of consciousness in the twentieth century than Francis Crick, who may be better known as the co-discoverer (with James Watson) of the structure of DNA. Crick focused his research on visual awareness and based his analysis on the progress made over the last fifty years in uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Because much of what happens in our brains occurs below the level of consciousness and many of o...

  5. Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Aumann

    2005-01-01

    Consciousness is the last great frontier of science. Here we discuss what it is, how it differs fundamentally from other scientific phenomena, what adaptive function it serves, and the difficulties in trying to explain how it works. The emphasis is on the adaptive function.

  6. Dyadic Empathy, Dyadic Coping, and Relationship Satisfaction: A Dyadic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Levesque

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate a theoretical model specifying the direct and indirect associations between dyadic empathy, dyadic coping, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of 187 heterosexual couples. Dyadic and structural aspects of mediation were tested using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that greater levels of an individual’s own propensity for dyadic empathy (i.e., one’s ability to experience empathic concern and perspective-taking significantly predicted greater levels of an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies among both male and female participants. Moreover, increased levels of an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies significantly predicted a similar greater degree of an individual’s own relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, results also provide support for the possible mediating role that an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies may hold in explaining the links between an individual’s own empathic concern and an individual’s own relationship satisfaction among male participants. With regard to the dyadic components of the study’s model, findings indicated that perspective-taking among males significantly improve their female partners’ propensity to employ positive dyadic coping strategies. Moreover, empathic concern among female participants was found to improve their male partners’ dyadic coping strategies. Findings suggest the potential utility of examining dyadic coping as a means to expand clinical and empirical insights regarding the links between dyadic empathy and relationship satisfaction.

  7. Construction and Validation of the Self-Conscious Emotions at Work Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Groenvynck

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports on the construction and validation of a new assessment instrument for self-conscious emotions in the work context, namely the Self-Conscious Emotions at Work Scale (SCEWS. In eight typical self-conscious work scenarios respondents have to indicate their emotional reaction in terms of 20 appraisals, subjective experiences, and action tendencies that are relevant and representative for the domain of self-conscious emotions. In total 512 students and 467 working adults completed the SCEWS and reported the frequency of positive emotions, anger, anxiety and sadness. In both samples a three-factorial structure emerged with a guilt, a shame/humiliation, and an anger in self-conscious situations factor. These three self-conscious emotion factors correlated differentially and in a predicted way with the frequency of emotions. Guilt-proneness was predicted to be psychologically constructive and correlated to the frequency of positive emotions. The proneness to shame/humiliation was expected to relate to internalising psychopathological tendencies, and positively correlated to a frequency of anxiety and sadness. Proneness to anger in self-conscious situations was expected to relate to externalising psychopathological tendencies and correlated with the frequency of anger in general. The present study demonstrates that self-conscious emotions can be validly measured in the work context. The new instrument allows for the systematic study of the role of self-conscious emotions in work and organisational behaviour.

  8. Energy-consciousness in building construction. Report on projecting, construction and performance of a low energy house; Einfach energiebewusster bauen. Erfahrungsbericht ueber Planung, Bau und Betriebsverhalten eines Niedrigenergiehauses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeer, J.

    1997-08-01

    The article shows how energy-conscious projecting and construction can result in very low energy consumption, with conventional construction methods and low additional expenditure. (orig/AKf) [Deutsch] Im Artikel soll gezeigt werden, wie mittels energiebewusster Planung und Detailausfuehrung - mit bauueblichen Methoden und geringen Mehrkosten - sehr niedrige Verbrauchswerte erzielt werden koennen. (orig./AKF)

  9. Localizationism, Antilocalizationism, and the Emergence of the Unitary Construct of Consciousness in Luigi Luciani (1840-1919).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgese, Giorgia; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; De Pascalis, Vilfredo

    2017-07-17

    This article aims to present the construct of unitary consciousness as it emerged in the work of the Italian physiologist Luigi Luciani (1840-1919). We highlight how Luciani's work, conducted during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, integrated experimental research with the clinical observation of patients, enabling him to develop elaborate theoretical conceptions. From our historical analysis of Luciani's main works, an innovative model of unitary consciousness emerges with respect to his contemporary context. We also propose Luciani's model as a contribution to the modern debate on consciousness. An analysis of his work, not considered up to now, leads us to reevaluate the assumption of an ancient opposition between localization and antilocalization in the history of cerebral localization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Blind subjects construct conscious mental images of visual scenes encoded in musical form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronly-Dillon, J; Persaud, K C; Blore, R

    2000-11-01

    Blind (previously sighted) subjects are able to analyse, describe and graphically represent a number of high-contrast visual images translated into musical form de novo. We presented musical transforms of a random assortment of photographic images of objects and urban scenes to such subjects, a few of which depicted architectural and other landmarks that may be useful in navigating a route to a particular destination. Our blind subjects were able to use the sound representation to construct a conscious mental image that was revealed by their ability to depict a visual target by drawing it. We noted the similarity between the way the visual system integrates information from successive fixations to form a representation that is stable across eye movements and the way a succession of image frames (encoded in sound) which depict different portions of the image are integrated to form a seamless mental image. Finally, we discuss the profound resemblance between the way a professional musician carries out a structural analysis of a musical composition in order to relate its structure to the perception of musical form and the strategies used by our blind subjects in isolating structural features that collectively reveal the identity of visual form.

  11. Systems of dyadic cubes in a doubling metric space

    CERN Document Server

    Hytönen, Tuomas

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent results in Euclidean Harmonic Analysis have exploited several adjacent systems of dyadic cubes, instead of just one fixed system. In this paper, we extend such constructions to general spaces of homogeneous type, making these tools available for Analysis on metric spaces. The results include a new (non-random) construction of boundedly many adjacent dyadic systems with useful covering properties, and a streamlined version of the random construction recently devised by H. Martikainen and the first author. We illustrate the usefulness of these constructions with applications to weighted inequalities and the BMO space; further applications will appear in forthcoming work.

  12. Occupational Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  13. Algorithms for optimal dyadic decision trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Porter, Reid [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm for constructing optimal dyadic decision trees was recently introduced, analyzed, and shown to be very effective for low dimensional data sets. This paper enhances and extends this algorithm by: introducing an adaptive grid search for the regularization parameter that guarantees optimal solutions for all relevant trees sizes, revising the core tree-building algorithm so that its run time is substantially smaller for most regularization parameter values on the grid, and incorporating new data structures and data pre-processing steps that provide significant run time enhancement in practice.

  14. 名刊建设需有精品意识%Well-known Journal Construction Need the Quality Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马光

    2011-01-01

    名刊建设,必须突出精品意识。要把刊物办成精品,不要办成凡品,更不要办成次品。所谓精品,就是在学术观点和研究结论上,有创新,有突破;能言之有物,不人云亦云;能推进学科繁荣,促进科研深入;能发人所未发,启迪读者;能高瞻远瞩,引领学术潮流;能推动实践,促进社会发展。在编校质量上,文字内容近于零差错,编排美观,印刷精良,装帧有个性。选题策划、组稿约稿、编校质量这三个环节是否体现精品意识,直接关系到名刊建设的成败。%Well-known journal construction should highlight the quality consciousness. Journal should be a competitive product, rather than a common one, or even a defective one. The so-called competitive product means innovation and breakthrough based on academic viewpoints and research findings; it could contain something substantially; it could boost the discipline' prosperity and promote researches in depth; it could enlighten the reader, lead academic trends, and promote social developments. In terms of the editorial quality, there should be no errors in words, with a beautiful layout, excellent printing and personalized binding. Whether these three respects in planning topics, soliciting contributions and editing quality can reflect the quality consciousness are directly concerned with the success or failure of the well-known journal construction.

  15. The Construction of Family Development and Positive Consciousness of Social Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苑静

    2017-01-01

    Family is one of the components to society,and the excellent construction of family can generate the positive social responsibility.The construction of family has two sides,one is the home education,and another one is the family tradition.The promotion of home education depends on transformation of the family pedagogical ideas and parental quality.The construction of family tradition can not only need China's historical culture, also has to be defined as a new concept with the development of the value of Socialism.

  16. Dyadic Patterns in Multiple Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoic, Antonio Rivero

    Seven dyadic configuration classes for the analysis of multiple networks are introduced in this paper. Each configuration is a relational bundle pattern resulting from the mixture of the direction and the types of tie between a pair of actors. Then a bundle census is performed to an empirical...

  17. Dialogue on the threshold and diatribe: construction mechanisms of the individual's self-consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Gedra Ruiz Alvarez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the dialogue on the threshold whose origins are in the Socratic dialogue and the diatribe (a dialogued internal gender, both understood as privileged mechanisms in the construction of the main character of Dostoevski´s novel Uma criatura dócil [The Meek One]. Its aim is to discuss the materiality of the text – mainly the dialogue on the threshold when the main character is in its existential crisis – and the mechanism of the diatribe which provokethe philosophical dialogue experience that the individual assumes while constituting his voice.

  18. Dyadic Bivariate Fourier Multipliers for Multi-Wavelets in L2(R2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyan Li∗; Xiaodi Xu

    2015-01-01

    The single 2 dilation orthogonal wavelet multipliers in one dimensional case and single A-dilation (where A is any expansive matrix with integer entries and|detA|=2) wavelet multipliers in high dimensional case were completely characterized by the Wutam Consortium (1998) and Z. Y. Li, et al. (2010). But there exist no more results on orthogonal multivariate wavelet matrix multipliers corresponding integer expansive dilation matrix with the absolute value of determinant not 2 in L2(R2). In this paper, we choose as the dilation matrix and consider the 2I2-dilation orthogonal multivariate wavelet Y={y1,y2,y3}, (which is called a dyadic bivariate wavelet) multipliers. We call the 3×3 matrix-valued function A(s)=[ fi,j(s)]3×3, where fi,j are measurable functions, a dyadic bivariate matrix Fourier wavelet multiplier if the inverse Fourier transform of A(s)(cy1(s),cy2(s),cy3(s))⊤ = ( b g1(s), b g2(s), b g3(s))⊤ is a dyadic bivariate wavelet whenever (y1,y2,y3) is any dyadic bivariate wavelet. We give some conditions for dyadic matrix bivariate wavelet multipliers. The results extended that of Z. Y. Li and X. L. Shi (2011). As an application, we construct some useful dyadic bivariate wavelets by using dyadic Fourier matrix wavelet multipliers and use them to image denoising.

  19. Dyadic data analysis with amen

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Dyadic data on pairs of objects, such as relational or social network data, often exhibit strong statistical dependencies. Certain types of second-order dependencies, such as degree heterogeneity and reciprocity, can be well-represented with additive random effects models. Higher-order dependencies, such as transitivity and stochastic equivalence, can often be represented with multiplicative effects. The "amen" package for the R statistical computing environment provides estimation and infere...

  20. Structural Bounds on the Dyadic Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cinelli, Matteo; Iovanella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the dyadic effect introduced in complex networks when nodes are distinguished by a binary characteristic. Under these circumstances two independent parameters, namely dyadicity and heterophilicity, are able to measure how much the assigned characteristic affects the network topology. All possible configurations can be represented in a phase diagram lying in a two-dimensional space that represents the feasible region of the dyadic effect, which is bound by two upper bounds on dyadicity and heterophilicity. Using some network's structural arguments, we are able to improve such upper bounds and introduce two new lower bounds, providing a reduction of the feasible region of the dyadic effect as well as constraining dyadicity and heterophilicity within a specific range. Some computational experiences show the bounds' effectiveness and their usefulness with regards to different classes of networks.

  1. Mammogram Enhancement Using Lifting Dyadic Wavelet Transform and Normalized Tsallis Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique for mammogram enhancement using fast dyadic wavelet transform (FDyWT) based on lifted spline dyadic wavelets and normalized Tsallis entropy. First, a mammogram image is decom-posed into a multiscale hierarchy of low-subband and high-subband images using FDyWT. Then noise is suppressed using normalized Tsallis entropy of the local variance of the modulus of oriented high-subband images. After that, the wavelet coefficients of high-subbands are modified using a non-linear operator and finally the low-subband image at the first scale is modified with power law transformation to suppress background. Though FDyWT is shift-invariant and has better poten-tial for detecting singularities like edges, its performance depends on the choice of dyadic wavelets. On the other hand, the number of vanishing moments is an important characteristic of dyadic wavelets for singularity analysis because it provides an upper bound measurement for singularity characterization. Using lifting dyadic schemes, we construct lifted spline dyadic wavelets of different degrees with increased number of vanishing moments. We also examine the effect of these wavelets on mammogram enhancement. The method is tested on mammogram images, taken from MIAS (Mammographic Image Analysis Society) database, having various background tissue types and containing different abnormalities. The comparison with the state-of-the-art contrast enhancement methods reveals that the proposed method performs better and the difference is statistically significant.

  2. [Criminalistic and penal problems with "dyadic deaths"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszczak, Paweł; Kunz, Jerzy; Bolechała, Filip

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a supplement to the article "Medico legal problems of dyadic death" elaborated by the same authors. Recalling the cases presented there. It is also an attempt to present the basic criminalistic, penal and definitional problems of dyadic death called also postagressional suicide. Criminalistic problems of dyadic death were presented in view of widely known "rule of seven golden questions"--what?, where?, when?, how?, why?, what method? and who? Criminalistic analysis of cases makes some differences in conclusions but it seemed interesting to match both--criminalistc and forensic points of views to the presented material.

  3. Are There Levels of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Hohwy, Jakob; Owen, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    The notion of a level of consciousness is a key construct in the science of consciousness. Not only is the term employed to describe the global states of consciousness that are associated with post-comatose disorders, epileptic absence seizures, anaesthesia, and sleep, it plays an increasingly influential role in theoretical and methodological contexts. However, it is far from clear what precisely a level of consciousness is supposed to be. This paper argues that the levels-based framework for conceptualizing global states of consciousness is untenable and develops in its place a multidimensional account of global states. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction on academic journal editors ' modern consciousness under the global trade%全球化趋势下学术期刊编辑现代意识的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁刚

    2012-01-01

    现代意识是指研究者站在他所处时代的前沿,用科学的精神审视既往成果,指导当前研究的自觉意识。学术期刊编辑的现代意识主要包括:学术引领意识、创新意识、现代信息意识、现代审美意识、市场经营意识。目前,随着科学技术的不断发展,经济、科技、文化日益走向全球化,这为学术期刊编辑现代意识的构建既带来机遇,又带来严峻的挑战。全球化使得学术期刊不仅要面对国内同业日趋激烈的竞争,同时也要面临国外学术期刊的挑战,这就迫使学术期刊编辑必须抓住机遇,建构现代意识。%Modern consciousness means the self-consciousness that editors use scientific spirits to survey the achievements and instruct the current study by standing on the front of ages. Academic journal editors'modern consciousness involves : science guidance consciousness, innovative consciousness, modem information consciousness, modern aesthet- ic consciousness and marketing consciousness. Nowadays, with the development of science technology, economy, sci- ence and culture have been global generally, which provide editors'consciousness construction both opportunities and serious challenges. Globalization makes academic journals face the challenges with coteries in China, but also face the challenges from foreign countries, which oblige editors to catch opportunities to construct modern consciousness.

  5. Satisfação com a vida e satisfação diádica: correlações entre construtos de bem-estar Life satisfaction and dyadic satisfaction: correlations between constructs of well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A literatura científica aponta que pessoas casadas tenderiam a ser mais felizes do que as não casadas. Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar as relações existentes entre satisfação com a vida e satisfação diádica em pessoas casadas. Participaram 106 pessoas casadas, de ambos os sexos, com média de idade de 42±11 anos. Foram utilizados instrumentos para caracterização sociodemográfica e classificação socioeconômica, Escala de Bem-Estar Subjetivo e Escala de Ajustamento Diádico. Pela análise de correlações e de regressão múltipla stepwise, verificou-se que a satisfação com a vida (variável do construto BES e a satisfação diádica (variável de conjugalidade são positiva e significativamente correlacionadas (r=0,20; p=0,04, o que revela que pessoas que se dizem satisfeitas com a vida, em diferentes domínios também o fazem em relação à experiência conjugal.Scientific literature points out that married people tend to be happier than non-married people. The objective of this present study was to investigate the relationship between life satisfaction and dyadic satisfaction among married people. 106 married people (53 couples, with an average age of 42 (sd=11, participated in the study. The following instruments were used: demographic identification and social classification; Subjective Well-being Scale; and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that satisfaction with life and dyadic satisfaction are positive and significantly correlated (r=0.20; p=0.04. Based on this finding, the researchers have concluded that people who are generally satisfied with life are also satisfied in the conjugal relationship.

  6. Logistics Management Mode of Construction of Conserving-Conscious Universities%节约型高校建设的后勤管理模式探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莉芬; 何瑜

    2014-01-01

    Construction of a conservation-conscious university,is not only their own development needs,but also their social responsibility. Currently in universities,water,electricity,food,paper,books,laboratory equipment and other waste often occurr. Based on the analysis of current waste of university resources,this paper proposes the sugges-tions of rational use of resources and construction of a conservation-conscious university.%建设节约型校园,不仅是学校自身发展的需要,更是高校和学生的社会责任。当前在我们的校园中,水、电、粮食、纸张、图书、实验器材等的浪费现象时有发生。本文通过分析目前高校的各种资源浪费现象,提出合理利用资源,建设节约型高校的建议。

  7. The construction of harmonious campus based on collective consciousness%集体意识视角下的和谐校园建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠生

    2014-01-01

    The construction of harmonious campus is a essentially part obj ective requirement of construction of harmonious society ,and be considered of actively current demand of persisting direction of socialist education. For consolidating social value identification of undergraduate,based on organization operation,this paper analyzed effect of collective consciousness against harmonious campus establishment..%构建和谐校园是构建和谐社会的重要组成部分,也是坚持社会主义办学方向的现实需求。从组织运行的角度分析集体意识对构建和谐校园的功能,旨在强化大学生的社会价值认同。

  8. MODELING CONSCIOUSNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present tentative answers to three questions: firstly, what is to be assumed about the structure of the brain in attacking the problem of modeling consciousness; secondly, what is it about consciousness that is attempting to be modeled; and finally, what is taken on board the modeling enterprise, if anything, from the vast works by philosophers about the nature of mind.

  9. Control consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandik, Pete

    2010-10-01

    Control consciousness is the awareness or experience of seeming to be in control of one's actions. One view, which I will be arguing against in the present paper, is that control consciousness is a form of sensory consciousness. In such a view, control consciousness is exhausted by sensory elements such as tactile and proprioceptive information. An opposing view, which I will be arguing for, is that sensory elements cannot be the whole story and must be supplemented by direct contributions of nonsensory, motor elements. More specifically, I will be arguing for the view that the neural basis of control consciousness is constituted by states of recurrent activation in relatively intermediate levels of the motor hierarchy. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  11. Relations between parents' interactive style in dyadic and triadic play and toddlers' symbolic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Feldman, R; Namdari-Weinbaum, I; Spitzer, S; Tyano, S

    2005-10-01

    Play has a major role in the evaluation and treatment of young children referred to mental health clinicians. The present study examined parental correlates of preschoolers' symbolic play during dyadic and triadic play interactions. Boys' play contained more aggressive themes, and girls' contained more nurturing themes. Mothers displayed more caring themes during play with both sons and daughters, and fathers displayed more repair and construction themes. Mothers' and fathers' facilitative- creative interaction style in dyadic play predicted the level of the child's symbolic play. Co-parenting style marked by cooperation and autonomy predicted symbolic play during a triadic family session. Child intelligence predicted symbolic play beyond the parent's style during triadic but not dyadic interactions. The findings have implications for early intervention directed at increasing symbolic play in young children.

  12. 论文化自觉与中国教育学之建构%On Cultural Consciousness and the Construction of Chinese Pedagogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振军

    2011-01-01

    Divorced from the cultural soil of China is one of the root causes of many problems on the current Chinese pedagogy.In the perspective of cultural consciousness,this paper re-examines the history and current situation of Chinese pedagogy and finds the legitimate theoretical basis for independence of Chinese pedagogy.On the basis of finding,the paper points out that the cultural foundation of Chinese pedagogy is the Chinese culture and the construction of Chinese pedagogy relies on the Chinese pedagogy scholars' cultural consciousness.%与中国文化土壤相脱离是中国当代教育学产生诸多问题的根本原因之一。以文化自觉的视角重新审视中国当代教育学的历史与现状,为中国教育学的独立找到了合法性的理论依据。并在此基础上指出,中国教育学的文化基础在中国文化,中国教育学的建构依赖于中国教育学人的文化自觉。

  13. 团队意识对大学生班级学风建设的影响%Influence of Team Consciousness on College Students’ Class Construction of Learning Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝茂锋

    2016-01-01

    团队意识的培养对大学生班级学风建设起到积极的促进作用,成为高校学风建设的助推器,为构建和谐校园提供了保证。90后大学生团队意识薄弱体现在两个方面:班级凝聚力不强和同学间交流不够。加强大学生团队意识的培养可从加强团队活动开展、加强班级民主管理、加强传统美德教育等四个方面来开展,以促进班级学风建设。%The cultivation of team consciousness has a positive effect on college students' class construction of learning style, which has become a booster of the university study style construction, and gives a security for constructing harmonious campus. This paper tells the current situation of college students' team consciousness and the influence of team consciousness on the construction of college students' learning style, and puts forward how to strengthen the training of team consciousness to promote the construction of the class construction of learning style.

  14. A generic model of dyadic social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Maroussia; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a model of dyadic social interactions and establish its correspondence with relational models theory (RMT), a theory of human social relationships. RMT posits four elementary models of relationships governing human interactions, singly or in combination: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. To these are added the limiting cases of asocial and null interactions, whereby people do not coordinate with reference to any shared principle. Our model is rooted in the observation that each individual in a dyadic interaction can do either the same thing as the other individual, a different thing or nothing at all. To represent these three possibilities, we consider two individuals that can each act in one out of three ways toward the other: perform a social action X or Y, or alternatively do nothing. We demonstrate that the relationships generated by this model aggregate into six exhaustive and disjoint categories. We propose that four of these categories match the four relational models, while the remaining two correspond to the asocial and null interactions defined in RMT. We generalize our results to the presence of N social actions. We infer that the four relational models form an exhaustive set of all possible dyadic relationships based on social coordination. Hence, we contribute to RMT by offering an answer to the question of why there could exist just four relational models. In addition, we discuss how to use our representation to analyze data sets of dyadic social interactions, and how social actions may be valued and matched by the agents.

  15. Victims and their defenders : A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social sta

  16. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  17. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  18. Creative Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader, genius, artist and inventor; as social creativity that converts raw human experience into civilization; as cultural creativity that transforms human relationships into sources of rich emotional capacity; and as value-based educational creativity that can awaken and nurture young minds to develop and discover their own inherent capacity for knowledge in freedom. Through such moments do society and humanity evolve. Education is society’s most advanced institution for conscious social evolution. Values are the essence of society’s knowledge for highest accomplishment. Education that imparts values is an evolutionary social organization that can hasten the emergence of that creative consciousness.

  19. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  20. Demodernizing Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Peter L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Youth culture and counterculture in contemporary Western societies are complex phenomena that may be viewed from a variety of social science perspectives. The authors analyze these cultures as embodiments of demodernizing consciousness with which they hold they have considerable firsthand experience. (RJ)

  1. A generic model of dyadic social relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroussia Favre

    Full Text Available We introduce a model of dyadic social interactions and establish its correspondence with relational models theory (RMT, a theory of human social relationships. RMT posits four elementary models of relationships governing human interactions, singly or in combination: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. To these are added the limiting cases of asocial and null interactions, whereby people do not coordinate with reference to any shared principle. Our model is rooted in the observation that each individual in a dyadic interaction can do either the same thing as the other individual, a different thing or nothing at all. To represent these three possibilities, we consider two individuals that can each act in one out of three ways toward the other: perform a social action X or Y, or alternatively do nothing. We demonstrate that the relationships generated by this model aggregate into six exhaustive and disjoint categories. We propose that four of these categories match the four relational models, while the remaining two correspond to the asocial and null interactions defined in RMT. We generalize our results to the presence of N social actions. We infer that the four relational models form an exhaustive set of all possible dyadic relationships based on social coordination. Hence, we contribute to RMT by offering an answer to the question of why there could exist just four relational models. In addition, we discuss how to use our representation to analyze data sets of dyadic social interactions, and how social actions may be valued and matched by the agents.

  2. Introducing dyadic interviews as a method for collecting qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L; Ataie, Jutta; Carder, Paula; Hoffman, Kim

    2013-09-01

    In dyadic interviews, two participants interact in response to open-ended research questions. There are few precedents for using dyadic interviews as a technique for qualitative research. We introduce this method largely in comparison to focus groups, because both represent forms of interactive interviewing. We do not, however, view dyadic interviews as miniature focus groups, and treat them as generating their own opportunities and issues. To illustrate the nature of dyadic interviewing, we present summaries of three studies using this method. In the first study, we used dyadic interviews and photovoice techniques to examine experiences of people with early-stage dementia. In the second study, we explored the experiences of staff who provided services to elderly housing residents. In the third study, we examined barriers and facilitators to substance abuse treatment among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawaii. We conclude with a discussion of directions for future research using dyadic interviews.

  3. Dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Jackson, Jeffrey B; Hilpert, Peter; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to empirically determine the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction. Dyadic coping is a systemic conceptualization of the processes partners use to cope with stressors, such as stress communication, individual strategies to assist the other partner cope with stress, and partners' strategies to cope together. A total of 72 independent samples from 57 reports with a combined sum of 17,856 participants were included. The aggregated standardized zero-order correlation (r) for total dyadic coping with relationship satisfaction was .45 (p=.000). Total dyadic coping strongly predicted relationship satisfaction regardless of gender, age, relationship length, education level, and nationality. Perceptions of overall dyadic coping by partner and by both partners together were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than perceptions of overall dyadic coping by self. Aggregated positive forms of dyadic coping were a stronger predictor of relationship satisfaction than aggregated negative forms of dyadic coping. Comparisons among dyadic coping dimensions indicated that collaborative common coping, supportive coping, and hostile/ambivalent coping were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than stress communication, delegated coping, protective buffering coping, and overprotection coping. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided.

  4. Creative Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader, genius, artist and inventor; as social creativity that converts raw human experience into civilization; as cultural creativity that tra...

  5. Agential Self-consciousness : beyond conscious agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although we perform many of our actions without much consciousness of these, occasionally we are explicitly conscious that we are doing something for a reason. Such consciousness I call ‘agential self-consciousness’. Since ages we have understood such agential self-consciousness in terms of the

  6. Agential Self-consciousness : beyond conscious agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although we perform many of our actions without much consciousness of these, occasionally we are explicitly conscious that we are doing something for a reason. Such consciousness I call ‘agential self-consciousness’. Since ages we have understood such agential self-consciousness in terms of the self

  7. 从班集体建设谈大学生公民意识的培养%Training of University Students' Civic Consciousness from Perspective of University Class Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海芳

    2012-01-01

    大学生是我国公民的重要组成部分,其公民意识的培养直接关系到国家的未来和前途。从三个方面阐述了班集体建设培养大学生公民意识的必要性和意义:以班集体活动为契机调动大学生的主体意识,是培养大学生公民意识的有效载体;以班集体的文化建设为依托推进校园文化建设,是培养大学生公民意识的有效途径;以班集体建设凝聚大学精神的灵魂,是大学生公民意识教育的重要精神支柱。%University students are an important part of our citizens, and the training of their civic is directly related to the countryg future. This paper chose the perspective of university class construction to elaborate the necessity of training of university students' civic consciousness from the following three aspects:The class collective activities as opportunities to mobilize university students' subject are the effective carriers of civic consciousness training;Relying on class culture construction to pro- mote the campus culture construction is an effective way of civic consciousness training;To condense the soul of university spirit by class construction is an important spiritual support of civic consciousness training.

  8. Benim Adım Kırmızı’da “Mutlakın Deneyimi, Büyük Bilinç, Kurulmuş Bilinç ve Sanat Bilinci Experience Of The Absolute, Great Consciousness, Constructed Consciousness, And Art Consciousness In My Name Is Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İmran GÜR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available “My Name is Red” is the most important novel of Orhan Pamuk inwhich he has used the humorous of his own art consciousness inpostmodernism and postmodern narration. In the novel, the age isconsidered as an age of “constructed consciousness” founded by fourpostmodern thinkers and the question of “on what the constructedconsciousness is founded” is examined within the entourage of the fourthinkers of postmodernism and the own notions of postmodernnarration. The novel emphasizes that the postmodern challenges on“experiencing the absolute” but that the truth is that the experiencedabsolute is “the absolute founded by the postmodern itself”. The novelintroduces the reason of the constructed consciousness of the age withits own absolute experience. “My Name is Red”, in which thepostmodern consciousness is discussed through its own thinkers andnotions, considers fiction, which is the big discussion of the age we areliving in, with a new art consciousness together with its parts in thesurrounding s of the relationship between “constructed consciousness”fiction and absolute. The novel describes art, which is an experience ofthe absolute, in the status of witness consciousness during the processof experiencing the absolute. The novel also describes the subject in thestatus of “pure” experience in the consciousness of absolute andhimself. It is emphasized in the novel that Postmodern is the mixture ofEast and West’s type of solving the dilemma of historical god andhuman. Two principle notions that are mixture and purity are placed atthe focus of the solution of the dilemma of god human that isconsidered as the mail question of history. Whilst purity corresponds tothe status in which the word-based universe divinizes human, mixtureexpresses the status in which god is humanized. Both purity andmixture are the experience of god of the word-based universe. However,outside the purity and mixture, the own experience of the novel

  9. 高职院校文化自觉机制构建路径探索%On Exploring the Constructing Ways of Mechanism of Cultural Self-Consciousness in Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新

    2014-01-01

    As an important factor of cultural development in vocational colleges, cultural self-consciousness is the objective requirement for vocational education when pursuing connotative development. In order to promote the sustainable development of vocational education, colleges should combine the process of cultural development and cultural education, and based on practicing cultural self-consciousness by teachers and students, advance the construction of the mechanism of cultural self-consciousness at vocational college, enrich the cultural connotation, and form the cultural self-consciousness and cultural self-confidence with unique vocational educational features.%文化自觉是高职教育追求内涵式发展的客观要求,是高职院校文化建设的重要因素。高职院校应自觉把文化建设过程和文化育人过程有机结合,在师生文化自觉实践活动的基础上,推进高职院校文化自觉机制建设,丰富高职文化内涵,形成高职教育自有特色的文化自觉和文化自信,以促进高职教育的可持续发展。

  10. Integral spinor norms in dyadic local fields Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we give an alternative computation of integral spinor norms over dyadic local fields by using the Jordan decomposition of W-type.In particular,we emphasize the striking similarity between the theory over dyadic local fields and that over the local fields of characteristic 2.

  11. Dyadic Interviews as a Tool for Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L.; Eliot, Susan; Lowe, Robert A.; Gorman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Although evaluation researchers frequently make use of focus groups and individual interviews as sources of qualitative data, there has been far less attention to dyadic interviews that create a conversation between two research participants. This article describes dyadic interviews as a format that shares many of the advantages of focus groups,…

  12. Extending Prior Posts in Dyadic Online Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudini, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether chat users are able to extend prior, apparently completed posts in the dyadic online text chat context. Dyadic text chat has a unique turn-taking system, and most chat softwares do not permit users to monitor one another's written messages-in-progress. This is likely to impact on their use of online extensions as an…

  13. Fractional modified dyadic integral and derivative on R+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, BI

    2005-01-01

    For functions in the Lebesgue space L(R+), a modified strong dyadic integral J(alpha) and a modified strong dyadic derivative D-(alpha) of fractional order alpha > 0 are introduced. For a given function f is an element of L(R+), criteria for the existence of these integrals and derivatives are obtai

  14. Fractional modified dyadic integral and derivative on R+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, BI

    2005-01-01

    For functions in the Lebesgue space L(R+), a modified strong dyadic integral J(alpha) and a modified strong dyadic derivative D-(alpha) of fractional order alpha > 0 are introduced. For a given function f is an element of L(R+), criteria for the existence of these integrals and derivatives are obtai

  15. Dyadic research in marriage and family therapy: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenborn, Andrea K; Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Keiley, Margaret K

    2013-01-01

    With training that emphasizes relationship systems, marriage and family therapists are uniquely attuned to interpersonal dynamics, interdependence, and the influence of relationships on individuals' perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. While recent statistical advances have contributed to a proliferation of resources designed to introduce researchers to dyadic data analysis, guidelines related to the methodological aspects of dyadic research design have received less attention. Given the potential advantages of dyadic designs for examining couple and family relational and therapeutic processes, the purpose of this article is to introduce marriage and family therapy researchers to dyadic research methodology. Using examples from our own research, we discuss methodological considerations and lessons learned related to sampling, measurement, data collection, and ethics. Recommendations for future dyadic research are provided.

  16. Dyadic Coping in an Eastern European Context: Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Romanian Version of Dyadic Coping Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Petruta P.; Hilpert, Peter; Turliuc, Maria N.; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with data from 510 married couples. The results confirm the theoretical factorial structure of the Dyadic Coping Inventory for both partners, indicating convergent validity, discriminate validity, and measurement invariance (across genders…

  17. 转型时期人民当家作主主体自觉性缺失与构建探讨%The Absence and Construction of the Subjective Consciousness of People Being in Power in the Transition Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董树; 张雪晴

    2014-01-01

    党的十八大强调夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利,必须坚持人民主体地位。笔者分析了我国转型时期主体自觉性缺失对人民当家作主的制约,提出了通过健全各项民主制度扩大人民当家作主的群众基础、加强法制宣传教育以增强人民依法维权自觉性、建设社会主义核心价值体系提供精神动力和思想保证等措施来构建人民当家作主的主体自觉性。%The Third Plenary Session of the Eighteen Party's Congress has stressed that if we want to seize the new victory of China's characteristic socialism, we must maintain the people's principal position. The author analyzes the constraints of the lack of China's body consciousness of people being in power in the transition, proposing that the subjective consciousness can be constructed by improving the democratic system, enlarging the masses base of people being in power, strengthening the legal publicity and education to enhance the people's law consciousness, constructing the socialist core value system to provide spiritual impetus and ideological guarantee and other measures.

  18. Dimensionality of the Chinese Dyadic Adjustment Scale Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Cheung, C. K.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the responses of 1,501 Chinese married adults to the Chinese version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (C-DAS), confirmatory factor analyses showed that four factors were abstracted from the C-DAS (Dyadic Consensus, Dyadic Cohesion, Dyadic Satisfaction and Affectional Expression) and these four primary factors were subsumed under a…

  19. Correlates of self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R G; Scheier, M F; Carver, C S; Ickes, W

    1978-06-01

    Examined the relationship between the three subscales of the Self-Consciousness Scale and a variety of other personality dimensions, including measures of reflectivity, self-regulation, and social desirability. Data from six geographically diverse samples (total N = 1395) were presented. In general, both the construct validity and discriminant validity of the subscales were supported. First, private self-consciousness significantly correlated with the Guilford-Zimmerman Thoughtfulness Scale and the Paivio Imagery Scale. Second, all of the self-consciousness subscales were shown to be relatively independent of the social desirability response set. Third, less than 6% of the variance in each self-consciousness subscale was shared with scores on the Self-Monitoring Scale. Finally, the minimal relationships between the self-consciousness subscales and measures of emotionality and test anxiety reported by Carver and Glass (1976) were in general replicated. The low magnitude of the correlations obtained was interpreted as supporting the distinctive contribution of the Self-Consciousness Scale to personality assessment.

  20. Dyadic Bivariate Wavelet Multipliers in L2(R2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Yan LI; Xian Liang SHI

    2011-01-01

    The single 2 dilation wavelet multipliers in one-dimensional case and single A-dilation (where A is any expansive matrix with integer entries and |detA|=2)wavelet multipliers in twodimensional case were completely characterized by Wutam Consortium(1998)and Li Z.,et al.(2010).But there exist no results on multivariate wavelet multipliers corresponding to integer expansive dilation.matrix with the absolute value of determinant not 2 in L2(R2).In this paper,we choose 2I2=(0202)as the dilation matrix and consider the 2I2-dilation multivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3}(which is called a dyadic bivariate wavelet)multipliers.Here we call a measurable function family f={f1,f2,f3}a dyadic bivariate wavelet multiplier if Ψ1={F-1(f1ψ1),F-1(f2ψ2),F-1(f3ψ3)} is a dyadic bivariate wavelet for any dyadic bivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3},where(f)and,F-1 denote the Fourier transform and the inverse transform of function f respectively.We study dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers,and give some conditions for dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers.We also give concrete forms of linear phases of dyadic MRA bivariate wavelets.

  1. Dyadic Walsh analysis from 1924 onwards Walsh-Gibbs-Butzer dyadic differentiation in science

    CERN Document Server

    Stankovic, Radomir S; Schipp, Ferenc; Wade, William R; Su, Weiyi; Endow, Yasushi; Fridli, Sandor; Golubov, Boris I; Pichler, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Dyadic (Walsh) analysis emerged as a new research area in applied mathematics and engineering in early seventies within attempts to provide answers to demands from practice related to application of spectral analysis of different classes of signals, including audio, video, sonar, and radar signals. In the meantime, it evolved in a mature mathematical discipline with fundamental results and important features providing basis for various applications. The book will provide fundamentals of the area through reprinting carefully selected earlier publications followed by  overview of recent results concerning particular subjects in the area written by experts, most of them being founders of the field, and some of their followers. In this way, this first volume of the two volume book offers a rather complete coverage of the development of dyadic Walsh analysis, and provides a deep insight into its mathematical foundations necessary for consideration of generalizations and applications that are the subject of the se...

  2. Dyadic coping within couples dealing with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2015-01-01

    coping as a couple were associated with change in relationship quality and depressive symptoms over time. METHOD: Women with breast cancer and their male partners (N = 538 couples) participated in a longitudinal study (Time 1, ≤ 4 months after surgery; Time 2, 5 months later). Dyadic coping was assessed......OBJECTIVE: The way couples deal with stressors is likely to influence their adjustment after breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the systemic-transactional model, this study examined whether the supportive, delegated and negative dyadic coping provided by patients and partners and their common dyadic...

  3. Dynamical Models of Dyadic Interactions with Delay

    CERN Document Server

    Bielczyk, Natalia; Płatkowski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    When interpersonal interactions between individuals are described by the (discrete or continuous) dynamical systems, the interactions are usually assumed to be instantaneous: the rates of change of the actual states of the actors at given instant of time are assumed to depend on their states at the same time. In reality the natural time delay should be included in the corresponding models. We investigate a general class of linear models of dyadic interactions with a constant discrete time delay. We prove that in such models the changes of stability of the stationary points from instability to stability or vice versa occur for various intervals of the parameters which determine the intensity of interactions. The conditions guaranteeing arbitrary number (zero, one ore more) of switches are formulated and the relevant theorems are proved. A systematic analysis of all generic cases is carried out. It is obvious that the dynamics of interactions depend both on the strength of reactions of partners on their own sta...

  4. An Essay on Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Wise B.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the role of consciousness within the discipline of psychology (including psychology research and textbooks). Presents information on the nature of consciousness, problems with consciousness, the mind/ matter controversy, and the state of the art of consciousness within psychology today. Concludes that there is a shift in psychology toward…

  5. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-03

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.

  6. Use of dyadic role-playing to increase student participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Glenda; Baldwin, Joan H

    2002-01-01

    Dyadic role-playing is a way to combine role-playing and dyad work in class to increase student participation. The instructor can use warm-up exercises to help students reduce their stress, and to recognize the value of role-playing in their journeys toward becoming professional nurses. The advantages, limitations, and practical considerations regarding dyadic role-playing are also highlighted.

  7. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN’S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children’s externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles we...

  8. DYADIC PARENTING AND CHILDREN’S EXTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children’s externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Three distinct groups emerged: Supportive Parents, Mixed-Support Parents and Unsupportive Parents. Results indicate that dyadic parenting styles we...

  9. Dyadic Coping in Couple Therapy Process: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margola, Davide; Donato, Silvia; Accordini, Monica; Emery, Robert E; Snyder, Douglas K

    2017-07-10

    This study aimed at moving beyond previous research on couple therapy efficacy by examining moment-by-moment proximal couple and therapist interactions as well as final treatment outcomes and their reciprocal association. Seven hundred four episodes of dyadic coping within 56 early therapy sessions, taken from 28 married couples in treatment, were intensively analyzed and processed using a mixed-methods software (T-LAB). Results showed that negative dyadic coping was self-perpetuating, and therapists tended to passively observe the negative couple interaction; on the contrary, positive dyadic coping appeared to require a therapist's intervention to be maintained, and successful interventions mainly included information gathering as well as interpreting. Couples who dropped out of treatment were not actively engaged from the outset of therapy, and they used more negative dyadic coping, whereas couples who successfully completed treatment showed more positive dyadic coping very early in therapy. Results highlight the role of therapist action and control as critical to establishing rapport and credibility in couple therapy and suggest that dyadic coping patterns early in therapy may contribute to variable treatment response. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  10. Paranoia and self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigstein, A; Vanable, P A

    1992-01-01

    A new instrument designed to assess paranoid thought in college students, together with reliability and validity data, was presented in Study 1. A single general factor accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in the full scale. Public self-consciousness was consistently and significantly correlated with the present measure of paranoia. In Study 2, both pretested paranoia and public self-consciousness were related to feelings of being watched (a classical manifestation of paranoia), although public self-consciousness had an effect only when there was a 2-way mirror present. In Study 3, self-attention, experimentally induced using a story construction task, again resulted in a heightened sense of being observed. Discussion focuses on paranoid cognition as characteristic of everyday thought and the implications of self-attention for social perception processes.

  11. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  12. A dyadic study of multicultural counseling competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R; Odera, Lilian; Fons-Scheyd, Alia; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Ebersole, Ryan C; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2016-01-01

    Using the Kenny, Kashy, and Cook (2006) one-with-many method, we investigated client and counselor reports of counselors' level of multicultural counseling competence (MCC) across 4 therapy sessions at a university counseling center. Specifically, we analyzed the association between counselor MCC and client psychological well-being among 133 clients of color receiving psychotherapy from 24 counselors. We found that both client and counselor perspectives suggested that some counselors possessed generally higher MCC than others. Counselors' self-assessments of MCC, however, did not relate with their clients' assessments of counselor MCC-replicating findings from past studies of MCC. On average, counselors whose clients generally perceived them as more multiculturally competent did not report improved psychological well-being at the fourth session. Likewise, counselors who generally reported more MCC did not have clients who improved more in psychological well-being than would be expected over 4 sessions. Notably, at the dyad-level, clients who rated their counselor more highly on MCC than their counselors' other clients tended to report greater improvement in well-being. Suggestions for future MCC research involving dyadic analytic designs are described. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  14. Neural correlates of consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consciousness depends on the formation of complex arrangements which ... as well as the involvement of memory in consciousness. 40 Hz synchronized .... the cortex, thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala.1 Spiking activity in cholinergic ...

  15. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  16. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  17. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science...

  18. Nonneurocognitive Extended Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Kevin; Chemero, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    One of the attributes necessary for Watson to be considered human is that it must be conscious. From Rachlin's (2012) point of view, that of teleological behaviorism, consciousness refers to the organization of behavioral complexity in which overt behavior is distributed widely over time. Consciousness is something that humans do, or achieve, in…

  19. Nonneurocognitive Extended Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Kevin; Chemero, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    One of the attributes necessary for Watson to be considered human is that it must be conscious. From Rachlin's (2012) point of view, that of teleological behaviorism, consciousness refers to the organization of behavioral complexity in which overt behavior is distributed widely over time. Consciousness is something that humans do, or achieve, in…

  20. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is...

  1. An ecological examination of rapport using a dyadic puzzle task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahe, Jon E; Sherman, Ryne A

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that situational context impacts the rapport experience (e.g., F. J. Bernieri, J. S. Gillis, J. M. Davis, & J. E. Grahe, 1996; N. M. Puccinelli, L. Tickle-Degnen, & R. Rosenthal, 2003). The authors designed the present study to further document the behavioral and experiential predictors of dyadic rapport and to evaluate dyadic rapport experiences when contributions were required from both interactants. Participants (N = 60) were paired into dyads and instructed to complete children's puzzles. However, the dyadic members were restricted in how they could accomplish this task: Only one interactant was allowed to work on the puzzle and had to do so blindfolded, while the second interactant gave instructions. Results suggested that less attribution of responsibility to the worker and the instructor's experience of enjoyment and frustration were indicative of higher rapport. Other characteristics of dyads reporting higher dyadic rapport included difficulty completing the task and more communicative behavior. The results provide important information for the understanding of the dyadic experience of rapport.

  2. SPLITTING OF THE SPECTRAL DOMAIN ELECTRICAL DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION IN CHIRAL MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhi-an; QIN Rui; CHEN Yan; SHENG De-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new method of formulating dyadic Green's functions in lossless , reciprocal and unbounded chiral medium was presented. Based on Helmholtz theorem and the nondivergence and irrotational splitting of dyadic Dirac delta-function was this method, the electrical vector dyadic Green's function equation was first decomposed into the nondivergence electrical vector dyadic Green's function equation and irrotational electrical vector dyadic Green's function equation, and then Fourier's transformation was used to derive the expressions of the non-divergence and irrotational component of the spectral domain electrical dyadic Green's function in chiral media. It can avoid having to use the wavefield decomposition method and dyadic Green's function eigenfunction expansion technique that this method is used to derive the dyadic Green's functions in chiral media.

  3. Pseudo-dyadic "interaction" on Amazon's Mechanical Turk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Amy; Chartier, Christopher R

    2013-03-01

    Psychological researchers have begun to utilize Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) marketplace as a participant pool. Although past work has established that MTurk is well suited to examining individual behavior, pseudo-dyadic interactions, in which participants falsely believe they are interacting with a partner, are a key element of social and cognitive psychology. The ability to conduct such interdependent research on MTurk would increase the utility of this online population for a broad range of psychologists. The present research therefore attempts to qualitatively replicate well-established pseudo-dyadic tasks on MTurk in order to establish the utility of this platform as a tool for researchers. We find that participants do behave as if a partner is real, even when doing so incurs a financial cost, and that they are sensitive to subtle information about the partner in a minimal-groups paradigm, supporting the use of MTurk for pseudo-dyadic research.

  4. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness.

  5. Consciousness and the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Michele

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that, even though there is no doubt that to understand consciousness we have to understand the brain, the idea that a complete understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of human consciousness might derive from neuroscience alone is more disputable. Major progress in our understanding of the phenomenon of consciousness can certainly derive from neuroscience, but, as far as human consciousness is concerned, the thesis that since consciousness starts as a biological reality the proper locus of its analysis and explanation lies in neuroscience encounters serious difficulties. In particular, any theory of human consciousness that entails an explanation of the genesis and the nature of the subject of experience would require reference to social and cultural phenomena as well as to biological phenomena: the science of human consciousness, then, cannot avoid being intrinsically pluralistic in character.

  6. 论张弦影视剧作中女性主体意识的构建与发展%The Construction and Development of Female Subject Consciousness of Zhang Xian ’s Film and TV Plays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞云

    2014-01-01

    Scanning Chinese contemporary literary, a number of female writers with female subject consciousness concern for the existence and development of female subject consciousness in their works, while the male writers more or less dominate male chauvinism in their works.When the male chauvinism has become a kind of collective unconsciousness, Zhang Xian created many female images for the public with love and respect. So based on the life history of Zhang Xian as the ordinate axis, the images in different stage as the horizontal axis, on the basis of fully understanding the connotation and meaning of the image, analyzing the construction and development of the consciousness of female subject consciousness of Zhang Xian, it is advantageous to understand his ideological and artistic world.%扫描中国现当代文坛,一批具有一定女性主体意识的女作家在其作品中关注着女性主体意识的存在与发展,而男性作家则在其作品中或多或少张扬着男权意识。在男权意识已成为男性作家一种集体无意识写作时,剧作家张弦则以一颗饱含怜爱敬重之心为大众塑造了众多女性形象。在本文中,笔者以张弦的人生历程为纵轴,以不同阶段塑造的人物形象为横轴,在全面了解女性形象内涵与意味的基础上,条分缕析出张弦对女性主体意识的构建与弘扬,进而深入了解张弦的思想艺术世界。

  7. Children at risk of allergic development: the parents' dyadic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleide, A O; Galtung, V K; Unger, S; Watten, R G

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a study of parents' dyadic interaction in high-/low-risk families (n = 161) with children at risk of asthmatic/allergic development. The high-risk couples tend to consist of a mother who denies negative affects and a dissatisfied father. The high-risk mothers tend to overrate the agreement especially on affective expression. There were no significant differences in dyadic interaction in low-risk couples. The results are discussed according to family communication patterns, repressed conflicts and possible immunological consequences of chronic emotional stress, learned coping and emotional expression styles.

  8. 浅谈校园体育文化建设对学生体育意识的培养%On Cultivation of Students'Sports Consciousness through the Construction of Campus Sports Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱凯

    2015-01-01

    校园体育文化建设是学校体育工作的重要组成部分。校园体育文化能够引起学生对于体育锻炼的重视,树立终身体育意识打下基础。本文主要对当下校园体育文化建设的方式,及其作用做简要阐述。以便促进校园体育文化建设,为增进学生身心健康,打造全面素质人才奠定基础。%The construction of campus sports culture is an important part of school physical education.Campus sports culture can call students’ attention to physical exercise and lay the foundation for lifelong sports consciousness.This paper gives a brief explanation on how to construct campus sports culture and its effect.The paper is intended to promote the construction of campus sports culture,to develop students’physical and mental health and to lay foundation for cultivating all -around talents.

  9. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.

  10. The Science of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We not only act in the world but we consciously perceive it. The interactions of myriad of neuronal and sub-neuronal processes that are responsible for visual behaviors also give rise to the daily movie screened for our benefit in the privacy of our own skull. I will discuss the empirical progress that has been achieved over the past several decades in characterizing the behavioral and the neuronal correlates of consciousness in human and non-human animals and in dissociating selective visual attention from visual consciousness. I will introduce Tononi’s integrated Information Theory (IIT) that explains in a principled manner which physical systems are capable of conscious, subjective experience. The theory explains many empirical facts about consciousness and its pathologies in humans. It can also be extrapolated to more difficult cases, such as fetuses, mice, or bees. The theory predicts that many, seemingly complex, systems are not conscious, in particular digital computers running software, even if thes...

  11. Neural correlates of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrao, B L; Viljoen, M

    2009-11-01

    A basic understanding of consciousness and its neural correlates is of major importance for all clinicians, especially those involved with patients with altered states of consciousness. In this paper it is shown that consciousness is dependent on the brainstem and thalamus for arousal; that basic cognition is supported by recurrent electrical activity between the cortex and the thalamus at gamma band frequencies; aand that some kind of working memory must, at least fleetingly, be present for awareness to occur. The problem of cognitive binding and the role of attention are briefly addressed and it shown that consciousness depends on a multitude of subconscious processes. Although these processes do not represent consciousness, consciousness cannot exist without them.

  12. Consciousness: a neurological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Shah, Sachin; Eddy, Clare M; Williams, Adrian; Rickards, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  13. Consciousness: A Neurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  14. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  15. The sense of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, A S

    2001-08-21

    I propose that consciousness might be understood as the property of a system that functions as a sense in the biological meaning of that term. The theory assumes that, as a complex system, the sense of consciousness is not a fixed structure but implies structure with variations and that it evolved, as many new functions do, through the integration of simpler systems. The recognized exteroceptive and enteroceptive senses provide information about the organism's environment and about the organism itself that are important to adaptation. The sense of consciousness provides information about the brain and thus about the organism and its environment. It senses other senses and processes in the brain, selecting and relating components into a form that "makes sense"-where making sense is defined as being useful to the organism in its adaptation to the environment. The theory argues that this highly adaptive organizing function evolved with the growing complexity of the brain and that it might have helped resolve discrepancies created at earlier stages. Neural energies in the brain that are the input to the sense of consciousness, along with the processing subsystem of which they are a part, constitute the base of consciousness. Consciousness itself is an emergent effect of an organizing process achieved through the sense of consciousness. The sense of consciousness thus serves an organizing function although it is not the only means of organization in the brain. Its uniqueness lies in the character of the organization it creates with consciousness as a property of that organization. The paper relates the theory to several general conceptions-interactionism, epiphenomenalism and identity theory-and illustrates a number of testable hypotheses. Viewing consciousness as a property of a sense provides a degree of conceptual integration. Much of what we know about the evolution and role of the conventionally recognized senses should help us understand the evolution and role of

  16. Comments on dyadic Green's functions and induced currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The article formulates the wave equation in regions with induced currents in the case of scattering by a perfect conductor. By using this formulation the ordinary solution using the dyadic Green's function for the problem is discussed. The region of validity of this solution is pointed out...

  17. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janita F.J.; Boonstra, Albert; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s

  18. The connection between dysfunctional relationship beliefs and dyadic adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Severina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the connection between dyadic adjustment and dysfunctional relationship beliefsthat are discussed in the contemporary cognitive-behavioural perspective. Given the nature of personal relationships, the study included intrapersonal and interpersonal approach. The intrapersonal approach suggests that one's perception of dyadic adjustment is determined by one's own personality characteristics, while the interpersonal approach suggests that one's partner's characteristics have influence, too. Accordingly, it was assumed that people perceive their marriages as less adjusted if they themselves and their partner have more pronounced dysfunctional beliefs. The sample consisted of 100 married couples from Serbia aged 20-64 years (M=41.8. The participants completed the Relationship Beliefs Questionnaire and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Significant intrapersonal effects of relationship beliefs on theperceived dyadic adjustment were found for both genders. Expected intrapersonal effects were found only in the female sample. Additionally, unexpected positive effects of certain groups of relationship beliefs(e.g. romantic idealism were found.

  19. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  20. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  1. Toward an Affective Theory of Liking in Dyadic Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Kenneth W.; And Others

    The determinants of interpersonal attraction were examined in 10 dyadic situations involving an actor's behavior toward a perceiver. For each situation, the intentionality of the actor's behavior was varied at three levels (intentional, nonintentional, no information), and the affective implications of the behavior for the actor were also varied…

  2. Analyzing Mixed-Dyadic Data Using Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peugh, James L.; DiLillo, David; Panuzio, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-dyadic data, collected from distinguishable (nonexchangeable) or indistinguishable (exchangeable) dyads, require statistical analysis techniques that model the variation within dyads and between dyads appropriately. The purpose of this article is to provide a tutorial for performing structural equation modeling analyses of cross-sectional…

  3. HIV and dyadic intervention: an interdependence and communal coping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Montgomery; C. Watts; R. Pool

    2012-01-01

    Background The most common form of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is heterosexual sex between two partners. While most HIV prevention interventions are aimed at the individual, there is mounting evidence of the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of dyadic interventions. However, the me

  4. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Janita F.J.; Boonstra, Albert; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s usef

  5. The Relationship between Bullying Roles and Children's Everyday Dyadic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the behaviour and communication of seven- to eight-year-old children during a dyadic computer task. The children participating were identified by peers as: (1) initiators of bullying ("bullies"); (2) defenders of those victimised ("defenders"); and (3) those who generally do not take on a consistent role in relation to…

  6. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training.

  7. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Marcel Askenasy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain?The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent.We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention e.g. by cognitive training.

  8. Dyadic parent-child interaction during early childhood: contributions of parental and child personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C Emily

    2012-10-01

    Individual differences in personality play a major role for functioning in a multitude of important life domains, including one's interpersonal relationships. The present study examined the effects of parental personality and child temperament traits on dyadic parent-child interaction during early childhood. Participants were a community sample of 145 mothers, 145 fathers, and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Child traits were assessed using standardized laboratory paradigms, parents reported on their own traits, and parent-child interaction was assessed observationally. Parental positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint subtraits were related to parental responsiveness; the number and type of parental bids and the quality of parental responsiveness were also a function of child positive emotionality and effortful control subtraits and, for mothers, child negative emotionality subtraits. Child traits were related to their own interaction behaviors; children higher on positive emotionality subtraits made more social bids, and children higher on effortful control subtraits made more influence attempts and fewer negative bids; child positive emotionality and effortful control subtraits were associated with higher quality child responsiveness. Findings speak to coherence in personality constructs across the life span, with comparable traits measured in adults and early childhood-aged children demonstrating remarkably consistent effects on dyadic interaction behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 大学生创业意识微观建构与行为转化研究%Microscopic Construction and Consciousness of College Students'Entrepreneurial Behavior Translational Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑娟; 王艳

    2016-01-01

    通过梳理相关文献资料,结合个案研究,指出大学生创业群体现状:大学生创业教育尚且处在普及阶段,缺乏个性化指导;大学生创业评价模式单一且价值标准良莠不齐。通过对大学生创新创业项目个案研究分析,创业意识的微观建构点与创业意识行为转化的着力点具有同一性,表现为:个人成长经历与气质类型成熟发展;创业者时间观积极乐观心理建设的促进作用;社会支持系统的试错与宽容空间扩大。%The current situation of College Students'entrepreneurial group is studied by the literature material, the case study method.Entrepreneurship education of college students is still in the stage of popularization and lack of personalized guidance.College Students'entrepreneurial evaluation mode is single and the value standard is not uniform.The micro construction point of entrepreneurial consciousness is the same as the focal point of the transfor-mation of entrepreneurial consciousness and behavior.

  10. Collective Consciousness and Idealist Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Randrup, Dr. Axel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Descriptions of publications on collective consciousness, collective conscious experience, and idealist philosophy by Axel Randrup. The recognition of collective consciousness overcomes the problem of solipsism, which has been seen as an argument against idealist philosophy.

  11. The evolution of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-08-16

    It is argued that the principles of classical physics are inimical to the development of an adequate science of consciousness. The problem is that insofar as the classical principles are valid consciousness can have no effect on the behavior, and hence on the survival prospects, of the organisms in which it inheres. Thus within the classical framework it is not possible to explain in natural terms the development of consciousness to the high-level form found in human beings. In quantum theory, on the other hand, consciousness can be dynamically efficacious: quantum theory does allow consciousness to influence behavior, and thence to evolve in accordance with the principles of natural selection. However, this evolutionary requirement places important constraints upon the details of the formulation of the quantum dynamical principles.

  12. Neural Darwinism and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the 'dynamic core'). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized properties of consciousness, both physiological (for example, consciousness is associated with widespread, relatively fast, low amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical system), and phenomenal (for example, consciousness involves the existence of a private flow of events available only to the experiencing subject). While no theory accounts fully for all of these properties at present, we find that ND and its recent extensions fare well.

  13. Consciousness and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, A

    1994-06-01

    The origins and resistance to change of neurotic procedures are considered with particular reference to the nature and role of consciousness. It is argued that the traditional opposition between conscious and unconscious systems provides an unsatisfactory model. The crucial role of language in the formation of human self-consciousness is emphasized. The restricted procedural repertoire of neurotic subjects, and their deficient self-consciousness, can be attributed to a number of factors. It is argued that the main use of consciousness in therapy should be to heighten the patient's awareness of his or her damaging or restricting procedural repertoire through the process of reformulation, which allows recognition, and in due course revision to be achieved.

  14. Inner Consciousness Tindakan Nabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Helmi Umam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is written to examine deeds and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him within inner consciousness analysis of Husserl’s phenomenology. The article is formulated to explore the significance of phenomenology of religious study, Prophet’s deeds as well as his inner consciousness, and inner consciousness analysis of Prophet’s deeds. This article is written using phenomenological method, i.e. a comprehensive interpretation about the source of information or object’s phenomenon as long as it can be traced. Inner consciousness of Prophet’s actions sees that his deeds in deciding important religious pronouncements were results of long-term memory based on divine and social argumentations, which have came into Prophet’s consciousness as a human.

  15. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  16. Information Literacy Research: Dimensions of the Emerging Collective Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the information literacy research territory represented by the emerging collective consciousness of its researchers. Proposes five dimensions of the collective consciousness and uses them to: reveal the character of the information literacy research territory which is in early stages of construction; show how different research approaches…

  17. Public and Private Self-Consciousness: Assessment and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigstein, Allen; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A scale was constructed to assess individual differences in self-consciousness. Norms and test-retest reliability are presented. Factor analysis of the scale revealed that self-consciousness has three components: public, private, and social anxiety. The relationships among these three factors are examined. (Author)

  18. Representing Chronic Disorders of Consciousness:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This article explores problems of voicelessness in Isabel Allende’s Paula (1995) through a focus on the story of Paula’s illness and subsequent death from porphyria in 1992. I argue that the language, categories and stories through which disorders of consciousness are constructed are central to ethical decision-making and shifting cultural understandings of these conditions. In Paula, Allende uses an experimental, hybrid narrative form that draws on illness narrative, magical realist novel, national history, letters, and memoir to challenge traditional depictions of “coma” and to create a new public space through which these issues of voicelessness can be addressed. PMID:25055709

  19. [Recovery of consciousness: process-oriented approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarova, S B

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally psychological neurorehabilitation of neurosurgical patients is provided subject to availability of clear consciousness and minimal potential to communicate verbally. Cognitive and emotional disorders, problems in social adaptation, neurotic syndromes are normally targets in such cases. We work with patients having survived severe brain damage being in different states of consciousness: vegetative state, minimal state of consciousness, mutism, confusion, posttraumatic Korsaroff syndrom. Psychologist considers recovery of consciousness as the target besides traditional tasks. Construction of communication with patient is central part of such job, where the patient remains unable to contact verbally, yet it is impossible to consider potential aphasia. This is a non-verbal "dialogue" with patient created by psychologist with gradual development and involving other people and objects of environment. Inline with modern neuroscientific achievements demonstrating ability to recognize by patients with severe brain injury (A. Owen, S. Laureys, M. Monti, M. Coleman, A. Soddu, M. Boly and others) we base upon psychological science, on psychotherapeutic approaches containing instruments inevitable to work with patients in altered states of consciousness and creation of non-verbal communication with patient (Jung, Reich, Alexander, Lowen, Keleman, Arnold and Amy Mindell, S. Tomandl, D. Boadella, A. Längle, P. Levin etc). This article will include 15 years of experience to apply Process-oriented approach by A. Mindell to recovery of consciousness of neurosurgical patients based on work with "minimal signals" (micro moves, breath, mimic reactions etc.), principle of feedback, psychosomatic resonance, empathy.

  20. Consciousness in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consciousness during dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicogna, P C; Bosinelli, M

    2001-03-01

    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some particular experiences of self-reflectiveness) with the major exception of lucid dreaming. Consciousness as strategic control may also be present in dreams. The functioning of consciousness is then analyzed, following a cognitive model of dream production. In such a model, the dream is supposed to be the product of the interaction of three components: (a) the bottom-up activation of mnemonic elements coming from LTM systems, (b) interpretative and elaborative top-down processes, and (c) monitoring of phenomenal experience. A feedback circulation is activated among the components, where the top-down interpretative organization and the conscious monitoring of the oneiric scene elicitates other mnemonic contents, according to the requirements of the dream plot. This dream productive activity is submitted to unconscious and conscious processes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D

    1985-02-01

    Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships.

  3. From cholesterol to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S

    2017-08-19

    The nature of consciousness has been debated for centuries. It can be understood as part and parcel of the natural progression of life from unicellular to multicellular, calcium fluxes mediating communication within and between cells. Consciousness is the vertical integration of calcium fluxes, mediated by the Target of Rapamycin gene integrated with the cytoskeleton. The premise of this paper is that there is a fundamental physiologic integration of the organism with the environment that constitutes consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual and dyadic coping in chronic pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burri A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Burri,1–3 Michèle Blank Gebre,4 Guy Bodenmann1 1Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Health and Rehabilitation Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, 3Waitemata Pain Service, Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, North Shore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Private Practice, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. Keywords: individual coping, dyadic coping, social support, chronic pain

  5. On massless dyadic forms and no minimal coupling theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kassiteridis, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    We use spinor helicity formalism in order to derive the dyadic forms for massless fields of various spins. We also give an iterated form of this approach in case higher spin theories are under study. This reduces calculations at hard and soft scattering problems in gauge theories drastically. We also state and prove a theorem of gauge symmetry violation in the presence of minimal coupling with light in higher spin theories ($j>1/2$).

  6. An enactive and dynamical systems theory account of dyadic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eKyselo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many social relationships are a locus of struggle and suffering, either at the individual or interactional level. In this paper we explore why this is the case and suggest a modeling approach for dyadic interactions and the well-being of the participants. To this end we bring together an enactive approach to self with dynamical systems theory. Our basic assumption is that the quality of any social interaction or relationship fundamentally depends on the nature and constitution of the individuals engaged in these interactions. From an enactive perspective the self is conceived as an embodied and socially enacted autonomous system striving to maintain an identity. This striving is involves a basic two-fold goal: the ability to exist as an individual in its own right, while also being open to and affected by others. In terms of dynamical systems theory one can thus consider the individual self as a self-other organized system represented by a phase space spanned by the dimensions of distinction and participation, and in which attractors can be defined. Based on two everyday examples of dyadic relationship we propose a simple model of relationship dynamics in which struggle or well-being in the dyad is analyzed in terms of movements of dyadic states that are in tension or in harmony with individually developed attractors. Our model predicts that relationships can be sustained when the dyad develops a new joint attractor towards which dyadic states tend to move, and well-being when this attractor is in balance with the individuals’ attractors. We outline how this can inspire research on psychotherapy. The psychotherapy process itself provides a setting in which participants can become aware how they fare with regards to the two-fold norm of distinction and participation and develop, through active engagement between client (or couple and therapist, strategies to co-negotiate their self-organization.

  7. On the Huygens principle for bianisotropic mediums with symmetric permittivity and permeability dyadics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryad, Muhammad; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-02-01

    Mathematical statements of the Huygens principle relate the electric and magnetic field phasors at an arbitrary location in a source-free region enclosed by a surface to the tangential components of the electric and magnetic field phasors over that surface, via the dyadic Green functions applicable to the linear homogeneous medium occupying that region. We have mathematically formulated the Huygens principle for the electric and magnetic field phasors when the permittivity and permeability dyadics of the medium are symmetric, the symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics of the medium are negative of each other, and both magnetoelectric dyadics also contain anti-symmetric terms. We have also formulated the Huygens principle for the electric (resp. magnetic) field phasor in a medium whose permittivity (resp. permeability) is scalar, the permeability (resp. permittivity) is symmetric, the symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics reduce to dissimilar scalars, and anti-symmetric parts of the two magnetoelectric dyadics are identical.

  8. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  9. Individual and dyadic coping in chronic pain patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Blank Gebre, Michèle; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. PMID:28331356

  10. Homicide-Complex Suicide: A Rare Subtype of Dyadic Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akçan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Homicide-suicide, a subtype of dyadic death, is described as murderer’s suicide following committing a homicide. Here, we present a case of homicide-suicide which is relatively rare because of involving complex suicide as suicide method of perpetrator. A 30 year-old male and 38 year-old female were found dead in an apartment. Post­mortem investigation of man revealed that wrist cutting and hanging were used as suicide methods compatibly with complex suicide. Postmortem investigation of wom­an showed extensive traumatic lesions compatible with manual strangulation on neck structures and the mode of death was homicide. In the light of all findings case was concluded to be a dyadic death involving homicide-com­plex. The presented case is rare in terms of combination of rare methods of dyadic death, and committed complex suicide by perpetrator. While determining mode of death, detailed case history and witness statements should be taken into account along with forensic autopsy findings.

  11. Higher-density dyadic wavelet transform and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Tang, Baoping; Wang, Jiaxu

    2010-04-01

    This paper proposes a higher-density dyadic wavelet transform with two generators, whose corresponding wavelet filters are band-pass and high-pass. The wavelet coefficients at each scale in this case have the same length as the signal. This leads to a new redundant dyadic wavelet transform, which is strictly shift invariant and further increases the sampling in the time dimension. We describe the definition of higher-density dyadic wavelet transform, and discuss the condition of perfect reconstruction of the signal from its wavelet coefficients. The fast implementation algorithm for the proposed transform is given as well. Compared with the higher-density discrete wavelet transform, the proposed transform is shift invariant. Applications into signal denoising indicate that the proposed wavelet transform has better denoising performance than other commonly used wavelet transforms. In the end, various typical wavelet transforms are applied to analyze the vibration signals of two faulty roller bearings, the results show that the proposed wavelet transform can more effectively extract the fault characteristics of the roller bearings than the other wavelet transforms.

  12. Dyadic planning of health-behavior change after prostatectomy: a randomized-controlled planning intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Gralla, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Knoll, Nina

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of dyadic planning for health-behavior change. Dyadic planning refers to planning health-behavior change together with a partner. We assumed that dyadic planning would affect the implementation of regular pelvic-floor exercise (PFE), with other indicators of social exchange and self-regulation strategies serving as mediators. In a randomized-controlled trial at a German University Medical Center, 112 prostatectomy-patients with partners were randomly assigned to a dyadic PFE-planning condition or one of three active control conditions. Questionnaire data were assessed at multiple time points within six months post-surgery, measuring self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise as primary outcomes and social exchange (support, control) and a self-regulation strategy (action control) as mediating mechanisms. There were no specific intervention effects with regard to dyadic PFE-planning or pelvic-floor exercise, as two active control groups also showed increases in either of these variables. However, results suggested that patients instructed to plan dyadically still benefited from self-reported dyadic PFE-planning regarding pelvic-floor exercise. Cross-sectionally, received negative control from partners was negatively related with PFE only in control groups and individual action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and PFE for participants instructed to plan PFE dyadically. Longitudinally, action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise for all groups. Findings provide support for further investigation of dyadic planning in health-behavior change with short-term mediating effects of behavior-specific social exchange and long-term mediating effects of better self-regulation.

  13. Logical Evaluation of Consciousness: For Incorporating Consciousness into Machine Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Machine Consciousness is the study of consciousness in a biological, philosophical, mathematical and physical perspective and designing a model that can fit into a programmable system architecture. Prime objective of the study is to make the system architecture behave consciously like a biological model does. Present work has developed a feasible definition of consciousness, that characterizes consciousness with four parameters i.e., parasitic, symbiotic, self referral and reproduction. Prese...

  14. Are We Explaining Consciousness Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Maintains that theorists are converging on a version of the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness, but that there are residual confusions to be dissolved. Asserts that global accessibility is not the "cause" of consciousness, it "is" consciousness. Argues that like fame, consciousness is not a momentary condition or…

  15. 关于文化自觉与建设社会主义文化强国的若干思考%Thinking of Cultural Self-Consciousness and the Construction of Strong Socialist Powerful Culture Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月泉

    2012-01-01

    A great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation relys on the construction of strong socialist culture country,which focuses on the promotion of soft power of culture and cultural self-improvement.The precondition of cultural self-improvement is cultural self-confidence,and the essence is cultural self-consciousness which mainly includes socialist advanced culture development,full understanding of the soul of Chinese culture and peopleoriented concept to promote the quality of nation.%实现中华民族伟大历史复兴离不开建设社会主义文化强国,其核心是提升文化软实力,走自强之路。文化自强的前提是文化自信,根本是文化自觉。文化自觉的主要表现是发展社会主义先进文化,把握住中国文化的魂,坚持以人为本,着力于提高民族素质。

  16. Evolution of consciousness.

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles, J C

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of the origin of consciousness is built upon the unique properties of the mammalian neocortex. The apical dendrites of the pyramidal cells bundle together as they ascend to lamina I to form neural receptor units of approximately 100 apical dendrites plus branches receiving hundreds of thousands of excitatory synapses, the collective assemblage being called a dendron. It is proposed that the whole world of consciousness, the mental world, is microgranular, with mental units call...

  17. Conversing Life: An Autoethnographic Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelson, Christopher N.; Burton, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography is a constructed account of a co-exploration into the nature and effects of a longitudinal dyadic conversation process from a relational constructionist perspective. The conversations, between me as participant autoethnographer and a co-participant, aimed at maximising personal learning for both. Through co-created contexts of…

  18. 新农村文化建设中农民的文化自觉研究——以豫东周口地区为例%Study on Peasants' Cultural Consciousness in the Construction of the New Countryside Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红泉

    2012-01-01

    在阐述文化自觉内涵的基础上,论述了农民的文化自觉对于新农村文化建设的意义,并提出了培养和养成农民文化自觉的对策,指出只有转变指导思想、明确农民的主体地位,发挥农村知识群体的桥梁作用,营造宽松的社会环境,培养具有高度文化自觉的农民群体,才能促进农村社会现代化的最终实现.%Based on the elaboration of cultural consciousness connotation, the significance of peasants' cultural consciousness to the construction of new countryside culture was expounded, and the countermeasures for fostering the peasants' cultural consciousness were put forward, it pointed out that only changing the guiding ideology, clearing peasants' main body position, playing rural intellectual group' s bridge role, constructing loose social environment and fostering peasants with high cultural consciousness, can promoted the realization of rural social modernization.

  19. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  20. The Unconscious, Self-consciousness, and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marraffa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I argue that (1 introspective self-consciousness is an activity of narrative re-appropriation of the products of the cognitive unconscious; and (2 this activity has an essentially self-defensive character, being ruled by the primary and universal need to construct and protect a subjective identity whose solidity is the ground of the intrapsychic and interpersonal balances of human organism. Finally, in this framework firmly based on psychological sciences, I reconsider John Locke’s link between responsibility and self-consciousness.

  1. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  2. Correlates of extra-dyadic sex in Czech heterosexual couples: does sexual behavior of parents matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Jan; Husarova, Barbara; Rezacova, Veronika; Klapilova, Katerina

    2011-12-01

    Despite frequent sanctions and potentially serious consequences, extra-dyadic involvements are a relatively common phenomenon. Previously, potential links among extra-dyadic involvements and personal or interpersonal characteristics were extensively explored. However, the developmental aspects of extra-dyadic relationships have been rather overlooked to date. Here, we focus on the association between self-reported extra-dyadic tendencies and behavior, and previous experience with extra-dyadic sex in prior romantic relationships and in the primary family. We asked both members of 86 long-term cohabiting couples to complete several inventories assessing various aspects of the relationship satisfaction, sociosexuality and extra-dyadic intentions and behavior. As in previous studies, we found a lower level of overall Dyadic Adjustment and in the subscales Affectional Expression and Dyadic Consensus, in particular, among women but not men who reported extra-pair sex. Neither experience with own nor partners' infidelity in previous relationships was linked to reported extra-pair sex in the current relationship. However, men who reported their fathers but not mothers being unfaithful were also significantly more often unfaithful and showed a higher level of extra-dyadic intentions. There was no association between parental infidelity and extra-pair sex or extra-dyadic intentions in women. Our results suggest that experience of infidelity within the primary family has an impact on subsequent behavior. However, this is the case only in men. Women's extra-dyadic activities seem to be affected instead by the quality of the current relationship. Future research is needed to test the influence of ontogenetic and hereditary factors on the development of infidelity tendencies.

  3. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  4. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  5. Consciousness CLEARS the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A full understanding of consciousness requires that we identify the brain processes from which conscious experiences emerge. What are these processes, and what is their utility in supporting successful adaptive behaviors? Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) predicted a functional link between processes of Consciousness, Learning, Expectation, Attention, Resonance and Synchrony (CLEARS), including the prediction that "all conscious states are resonant states". This connection clarifies how brain dynamics enable a behaving individual to autonomously adapt in real time to a rapidly changing world. The present article reviews theoretical considerations that predicted these functional links, how they work, and some of the rapidly growing body of behavioral and brain data that have provided support for these predictions. The article also summarizes ART models that predict functional roles for identified cells in laminar thalamocortical circuits, including the six layered neocortical circuits and their interactions with specific primary and higher-order specific thalamic nuclei and nonspecific nuclei. These predictions include explanations of how slow perceptual learning can occur without conscious awareness, and why oscillation frequencies in the lower layers of neocortex are sometimes slower beta oscillations, rather than the higher-frequency gamma oscillations that occur more frequently in superficial cortical layers. ART traces these properties to the existence of intracortical feedback loops, and to reset mechanisms whereby thalamocortical mismatches use circuits such as the one from specific thalamic nuclei to nonspecific thalamic nuclei and then to layer 4 of neocortical areas via layers 1-to-5-to-6-to-4.

  6. The Conscious Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the evolutionary development of human consciousness and its increasingly complex and sophisticated organization as human personality from the instinctive behavior of the animal and the subconscious conformity characteristic of early forms of human civilization through progressive stages of transition from physical to social to mental levels of awareness and from the undifferentiated social consciousness of the member of the tribe to the emergence of independent thinking, creativity and uniqueness, which characterize the Conscious Individual. The individual and the collective evolve in tandem. The collective imparts its acquired capacities to its members. The emerging individual acts as a catalyst to spur further development of the collective. Each stage of the journey is the same in essence and structure at progressively higher levels of consciousness and organization. The higher the level achieved by the collective in terms of quality and complexity, the greater the knowledge and organization demanded of the individual. The article ends by cataloging crucial points at which modern society is mired in outmoded conceptions, superstitious beliefs, pre-modern values and archaic institutions that obstruct humanity’s further evolution from problems and limitations to ever-expanding opportunities. The conscious individual is the key to that process.

  7. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  8. Cajal and consciousness. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuán, P C

    2001-04-01

    One hundred years after Santiago Ramón Cajal established the bases of modern neuroscience in his masterpiece Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y de los vertebrados, the question is stated again: What is the status of consciousness today? The responses in this book, by contemporary leading figures of neuroscience, evolution, molecular biology, computer science, and quantum physics, collectively compose a fascinating conceptual landscape. Both the evolutionary emergence of consciousness and its development towards the highest level may be analyzed by a wealth of new theories and hypotheses, including Cajal's prescient ones. Some noticeable gaps remain, however. Celebrating the centennial of Textura is a timely occasion to reassess how close--and how far--our system of the sciences is to explaining consciousness.

  9. Curvilinear associations between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment in treatment-seeking couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daspe, Marie-Ève; Sabourin, Stéphane; Péloquin, Katherine; Lussier, Yvan; Wright, John

    2013-04-01

    Among personality traits, neuroticism has been shown to be the most significant predictor of dyadic adjustment. Despite some propositions arguing that low, as well as high levels of personality traits are maladaptive tendencies, only the negative linear relationship between neuroticism and couple satisfaction has been addressed in past research. The aim of this study was to examine the nonlinear association between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment for both partners of a clinically distressed sample of couples. The sample included 472 couples seeking couple therapy who completed the NEO-FFI (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992, NEO PI-R professional manual, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources) and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (G. B. Spanier, 1976, Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, pp. 15-28). Results showed, for actor and partner effects, a significant nonlinear, inverted U-shaped relationship between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment. In particular, both very low levels and high levels of neuroticism were associated with lower dyadic adjustment for both the individual and his or her partner. This finding is in contrast with the traditional negative linear association between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment observed in previous research. Openness and agreeableness also positively predicted self and partner dyadic adjustment. Findings bear important clinical implications for therapists assessing and working with distressed couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  11. Dyadic Coping Within Couples Dealing With Breast Cancer : A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottmann, Nina; Hansen, Dorte Gilsa; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Nicolaisen, Anne; Flyger, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: The way couples deal with stressors is likely to influence their adjustment after breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the systemic-transactional model, this study examined whether the supportive, delegated and negative dyadic coping provided by patients and partners and their common dyadic

  12. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  13. Adult attachment insecurity and dyadic adjustment: The mediating role of self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2015-12-01

    Although it is well established that adult attachment is associated with relationship quality, the mechanisms involved in this association are still poorly understood. Individual variables that are shaped in early attachment experiences, such as self-criticism, may be particularly important. The present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of self-criticism and self-reassurance on the association between attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and dyadic adjustment. About 230 individuals from a community sample completed an online battery of self-report measures of adult attachment, dyadic adjustment, and forms of self-criticism and self-reassuring. A parallel mediation model was tested. Data showed that attachment anxiety and avoidance were associated with poorer dyadic adjustment through high levels of self-criticism in the form of an inadequate self. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting feelings of self-inadequacy in couple therapy to promote better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning. The innovative contribution of this work is the identification of a new mechanism underlying the association between adult attachment and dyadic functioning. Self-criticism in the form of an inadequate self mediates the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. Although correlated with attachment dimensions and dyadic adjustment, the hated self and the reassured self do not act as mediators of the relationship between attachment and dyadic adjustment. It seems important to evaluate and address feelings of inadequacy in the context of couple therapy. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. [Consciousness and emotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Solange

    2007-12-01

    This article focuses on the processes that lead to awareness of our own emotions, which deserve particular attention in contemporary models of emotional consciousness. The subjective component of emotion, or emotional experience, was for a long time the most neglected aspect in the study of emotions although it already constituted the initial point of discussion in the famous William James still asked question : What is an emotion? More than a century later, contemporary theories debate about this heritage. We examine the successive historic contributions to the question of the determinants of our own emotional experience: from James-Lange bodily changes to cognitive appraisal theories, also relating the major role that the fundamental emotions theory attributed to facial expressions. Twenty years after the debate about primacy of cognition or emotion, both physiological-somatic and cognitive components are integrated in contemporary approaches to emotions. However, their respective degree of implication varies according to the different levels of emotional consciousness which are modelized. It is on the last level that present models focus, level that leads to consciousness of our emotional experience, benefiting from the contributions of cognitive neurosciences. Models differ according to the role devoted to neuronal substrates in determining emotional experience, but they converge on the specification of a last level of consciousness, which is the only one that allows the subject to be conscious of emotion as it is experienced (feeling) and that what he is experiencing is an emotion. Then, different models of emotional consciousness account for different varieties of emotion experience and also for various cases of emotions, that is occurrence of emotion with a lack of awareness.

  15. Objects of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  16. The role of personality in dyadic interaction: A psychophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Mikko; Henttonen, Pentti; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-11-01

    Psychophysiological activity was recorded during development discussions of 44 manager-subordinate pairs to examine the effects of the Big Five personality traits Extraversion and Conscientiousness, and personality similarity during dyadic social interaction. Facial electromyography and frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry were collected continuously during the 30-min discussions. Different actor and partner effects and Actor×Partner interactions were observed. Matching levels of Extraversion led to higher periocular muscle activity, indicating positive valence emotional expressions. The results are discussed considering similarity attraction theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding dyadic promoter-stakeholder relations in complex projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janita Vos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a Bilateral Double Motive framework of stakeholder cooperation in complex projects. The framework analyses and explains dyadic promoter-stakeholder relationships at a micro level by acknowledging both transactional and relational motives. We demonstrate the framework’s usefulness by illustrating its explanatory power in two instances of cooperation and two of non-cooperation within two health information technology projects. The study contributes to project management theory through its combined focus on transactional and relational motives. Further, the study contributes to practice by providing a tool for planning and evaluating cooperation in health Information Technology projects and similar complex multi-stakeholder environments.

  18. Spatial Statistics for Dyadic Data: Analyzing the Relationship Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan D; Okhotnikov, Ilya A

    2017-01-01

    Spatial statistics has a rich tradition in earth, economic, and epidemiological sciences and has potential to affect the study of couples as well. When applied to couple data, spatial statistics can model within- and between-couple differences with results that are readily accessible for researchers and clinicians. This article offers a primer in using spatial statistics as a methodological tool for analyzing dyadic data. The article will introduce spatial approaches, review data structure required for spatial analysis, available software, and examples of data output.

  19. A sequential growth dynamics for a directed acyclic dyadic graph

    CERN Document Server

    Krugly, Alexey L

    2011-01-01

    A model of discrete spacetime on a microscopic level is considered. It is a directed acyclic dyadic graph. This is the particular case of a causal set. The goal of this model is to describe particles as some repetitive symmetrical self-organized structures of the graph without any reference to continuous spacetime. The dynamics of the model is considered. This dynamics is stochastic sequential additions of new vertexes. Growth of the graph is a Markovian process. This dynamics is a consequence of a causality principle.

  20. Logical Evaluation of Consciousness: For Incorporating Consciousness into Machine Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Padhy, C N

    2010-01-01

    Machine Consciousness is the study of consciousness in a biological, philosophical, mathematical and physical perspective and designing a model that can fit into a programmable system architecture. Prime objective of the study is to make the system architecture behave consciously like a biological model does. Present work has developed a feasible definition of consciousness, that characterizes consciousness with four parameters i.e., parasitic, symbiotic, self referral and reproduction. Present work has also developed a biologically inspired consciousness architecture that has following layers: quantum layer, cellular layer, organ layer and behavioral layer and traced the characteristics of consciousness at each layer. Finally, the work has estimated physical and algorithmic architecture to devise a system that can behave consciously.

  1. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...

  2. The birth of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo

    2009-10-01

    Newborn infants fulfil some criteria of being conscious i.e. being aware of the body, the self and the world. They are able to differentiate between self and nonself touch, express emotions and show signs of shared feelings. They process sensory impressions including pain at a cortical level. They remember rhythmic sounds and vowels which they have been exposed to during fetal life. The spontaneous resting activity discovered in the cortex of newborn infants may correspond to what William James called "the stream of consciousness".

  3. Consciousness in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Chamcham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far we can identify at least three concepts within modern cosmology that bring into debate the question of consciousness in the universe: 1 Fine Tuning; 2 The Anthropic Principle and 3 The Multiverse. This does not exclude the question of the role of observer (i.e. consciousness in cosmology as developed within Quantum Physics: we observe the universe through quanta and any breakthrough in understanding the origin and nature of the universe will come only through a quantum theory of gravity […

  4. Chronic disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuyou; Ni, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-08-01

    Over the last 20 years, studies have provided greater insight into disorders of consciousness (DOC), also known as altered state of consciousness. Increased brain residual functions have been identified in patients with DOC due to the successful application of novel next-generation imaging technologies. Many unconscious patients have now been confirmed to retain considerable cognitive functions. It is hoped that greater insight regarding the psychological state of patients may be achieved through the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain-computer interfaces. However, issues surrounding the research and treatment of DOC remain problematic. These include differing opinions on the definition of consciousness, difficulties in diagnosis, assessment, prognosis and/or treatment, and newly emerging ethical, legal and social issues. To overcome these, appropriate care must be offered to patients with DOC by clinicians and families, as DOC patients may now be considered to live in more than just a vegetative state. The present article reviews the controversy surrounding the definition of consciousness and the reliability of novel technologies, prognostic prediction, communication with DOC patients and treatment methods. The ethical and social issues surrounding the treatment of DOC and future perspectives are also considered.

  5. Cybernetics and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabka, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a review of hypotheses of consciousness which arose from application of the theory of information and regulation and the cybernetic theory of mathematical machines in medicine. The author presents these hypotheses on the examples of his own works.

  6. Consciousness and biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, B I

    1997-08-21

    It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind-brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C.D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion.

  7. Consciousness and the Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Josef; Damasio, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a theoretical framework and set of hypotheses aimed at accounting for consciousness in neurobiological terms. Discusses the functional neuroanatomy of nuclei in the brainstem reticular formation. Notes that the views presented are compatible with the idea that the reticular formation modulates the electrophysiological activity of the…

  8. The mystery of consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    1997-01-01

    It has long been one of the most fundamental problems of philosophy, and it is now, John Searle writes, "the most important problem in the biological sciences": What is consciousness? Is my inner awareness of myself something separate from my body? In what began as a series of essays in The New York Review of Books, John Searle evaluates the positions on consciousness of such well-known scientists and philosophers as Francis Crick, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, Daniel Dennett, David Chalmers, and Israel Rosenfield. He challenges claims that the mind works like a computer, and that brain functions can be reproduced by computer programs. With a sharp eye for confusion and contradiction, he points out which avenues of current research are most likely to come up with a biological examination of how conscious states are caused by the brain. Only when we understand how the brain works will we solve the mystery of consciousness, and only then will we begin to understand issues ranging from artificial intelligence...

  9. 制度化、生态化与大众化反腐模式的自觉建构%Conscious Construction of Institutionalized, Ecological and Popu-larized Anti-corruption Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田旭明

    2014-01-01

    On the road of anti-corruption with Chinese characteristics, to effectively prevent and punish corruption in the Party, curb corruption thoroughly and build clean politics, our party must consciously construct and firmly establish institutionalized, ecological and popularized corruption modes. The first mode emphasizes confining the power into the cage of system and re-strains power through the system. The second one emphasizes pursuing comprehensive benefits on the basis of the principle of intensiveness and systematization so as to achieve the benign interaction of internal and external ecology. The third mode em-phasizes letting anti-corruption subjects, the masses, become“value-level subjects”and display their subjectivity, initiative and self-consciousness. In this way, we can create “public participation, public responsibility and public supervision”atmosphere when fighting against corruption. These three modes are not in an either-or relationship, but in a mutual cooperation and col-laboration relationship. These three modes should be integrated in the whole process of anti-corruption, which is our party’s fundamental anti-corruption principle.%在中国特色反腐倡廉道路上,有效预防和惩治党内腐败,实现腐败的标本兼治,建设廉洁政治,我们党就必须自觉建构和牢固确立制度化、生态化与大众化反腐模式。制度化反腐模式强调把权力关进制度的笼子里,通过制度来约束权力。生态化反腐模式强调反腐倡廉须在集约化和系统化的原则下追求综合效益,达到内生态与外生态的良性互动。大众化反腐模式强调让反腐倡廉的主体---人民大众真正归位,成为“价值层面的主体”,并发挥他们的主体性、能动性和自觉性,形成“大众参与、大众负责、大众监督”的反腐倡廉氛围。这三种模式不是非此即彼的关系,而是相互配合协作的关系。将三者有效地融合并统

  10. Self-Consciousness and Reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of dispositional self-consciousness on reactance. Men who were high in private self-consciousness displayed greater reactance responses to a coercive communication attempt. Women high in private self-consciousness exhibited greater reactance responses to a self-imposed threat to their freedom of choice. (Author)

  11. The minimally conscious state: defining the borders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacino, J T

    2005-01-01

    There is no agreement as to where the limits of consciousness lie, or even if these putative borders exist. Problems inherent to the study of consciousness continue to confound efforts to establish a universally accepted theory of consciousness. Consequently, clinical definitions of consciousness and unconsciousness are unavoidably arbitrary. Recently, a condition of severely altered consciousness has been described, which characterizes the borderzone between the vegetative state and so-called "normal" consciousness. This condition, referred to as the minimally conscious state (MCS), is distinguished from the vegetative state by the presence of minimal but clearly discernible behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness. This chapter reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, prognostic relevance, neurobehavioral assessment procedures and treatment implications associated with MCS.

  12. [Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals

  13. Defining the states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A

    2001-03-01

    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  14. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  15. DESIGN OF DYADIC-INTEGER-COEFFICIENTS BASED BI-ORTHOGONAL WAVELET FILTERS FOR IMAGE SUPER-RESOLUTION USING SUB-PIXEL IMAGE REGISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Chopade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents image super-resolution scheme based on sub-pixel image registration by the design of a specific class of dyadic-integer-coefficient based wavelet filters derived from the construction of a half-band polynomial. First, the integer-coefficient based half-band polynomial is designed by the splitting approach. Next, this designed half-band polynomial is factorized and assigned specific number of vanishing moments and roots to obtain the dyadic-integer coefficients low-pass analysis and synthesis filters. The possibility of these dyadic-integer coefficients based wavelet filters is explored in the field of image super-resolution using sub-pixel image registration. The two-resolution frames are registered at a specific shift from one another to restore the resolution lost by CCD array of camera. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT obtained from the designed coefficients is applied on these two low-resolution images to obtain the high resolution image. The developed approach is validated by comparing the quality metrics with existing filter banks.

  16. The rise of machine consciousness: studying consciousness with computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggia, James A

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to create computational models of consciousness have accelerated over the last two decades, creating a field that has become known as artificial consciousness. There have been two main motivations for this controversial work: to develop a better scientific understanding of the nature of human/animal consciousness and to produce machines that genuinely exhibit conscious awareness. This review begins by briefly explaining some of the concepts and terminology used by investigators working on machine consciousness, and summarizes key neurobiological correlates of human consciousness that are particularly relevant to past computational studies. Models of consciousness developed over the last twenty years are then surveyed. These models are largely found to fall into five categories based on the fundamental issue that their developers have selected as being most central to consciousness: a global workspace, information integration, an internal self-model, higher-level representations, or attention mechanisms. For each of these five categories, an overview of past work is given, a representative example is presented in some detail to illustrate the approach, and comments are provided on the contributions and limitations of the methodology. Three conclusions are offered about the state of the field based on this review: (1) computational modeling has become an effective and accepted methodology for the scientific study of consciousness, (2) existing computational models have successfully captured a number of neurobiological, cognitive, and behavioral correlates of conscious information processing as machine simulations, and (3) no existing approach to artificial consciousness has presented a compelling demonstration of phenomenal machine consciousness, or even clear evidence that artificial phenomenal consciousness will eventually be possible. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of continuing work in this area, considering the ethical issues it raises

  17. The Impaired Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docu Any Axelerad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ”persistent vegetative state” (PVS has the main attention for us in identifying the examples of consciousness that suffer structural injury. PVS is a state that the patient has the ability to open eyes spontaneously, but without responses to threat, verbalization or other pain defend. Several factors that lead to such state, among which the use of drugs is mostly researched, prolong impaired consciousness as a clinical and personal judgment of this condition. The patients with comatose from a destructive structural injury never regain the conscious state due to widespread structural damage. Any clinical review on this is based on bodily changes observation with impact on the clinical diagnosis of prolonged comatose states as largely descriptive. Eye movements need the most attention because its response to approaching objects distinguishes between a PVS (inconsistent or absent, akinetic mutism (no stacking but spontaneous focusing on moving targets, and MCS (always present. Distinguish between this three conditions needs an interdisciplinary intervention (neurologist or rehabilitation physicians.

  18. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mirroring Facial Expressions and Emotions in Dyadic Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of mirroring facial expressions and the emotions which they convey in dyadic naturally occurring first encounters. Mirroring facial expressions are a common phenomenon in face-to-face interactions, and they are due to the mirror neuron system which has been...... and overlapping facial expressions are very frequent. In this study, we want to determine whether the overlapping facial expressions are mirrored or are otherwise correlated in the encounters, and to what extent mirroring facial expressions convey the same emotion. The results of our study show that the majority...... of smiles and laughs, and one fifth of the occurrences of raised eyebrows are mirrored in the data. Moreover some facial traits in co-occurring expressions co-occur more often than it would be expected by chance. Finally, amusement, and to a lesser extent friendliness, are often emotions shared by both...

  20. Social network extraction and analysis based on multimodal dyadic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people's lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times' Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links' weights are a measure of the "influence" a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  1. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Raducanu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  2. PERIODIC DYADIC GREEN'S FUNCTION FOR FIELD ANALYSIS IN EMC CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Feiyan; Ding Jianjin; Sha Fei

    2006-01-01

    Herein a novel Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) is presented to calculate the field in ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) chamber. Due to the difficulty of simulating the whole chamber environment, the analysis combines the DGF formulation and the FEM method, with the latter deals with the reflection from absorbers. With DGF formulation for infinite periodic array structures, this paper investigates electromagnetic field in chamber with truncated arrays. The reflection from the absorber serves as the virtual source contributing to the total field. Hence the whole chamber field calculation can be separated from the work of absorber model set-up. Practically the field homogeneity test and Normal Site Attenuation (NSA) test are carried out to evaluate the chamber performance. Based on the method in this paper, the simulation results agree well with the test, and predict successfully the victim frequency points of the chamber.

  3. The Fine Structure of Dyadically Badly Approximable Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We consider badly approximable numbers in the case of dyadic diophantine approximation. For the unit circle $\\mathbb{S}$ and the smallest distance to an integer $\\|\\cdot\\|$ we give elementary proofs that the set $F(c) = \\{x \\in \\mathbb{S}: \\|2^nx\\| \\geq c, n\\geq 0\\}$ is a fractal set whose Hausdorff dimension depends continuously on $c$, is constant on intervals which form a set of Lebesgue measure 1 and is self-similar. Hence it has a fractal graph. Moreover, the dimension of $F(c)$ is zero if and only if $c\\geq 1-2\\tau$, where $\\tau$ is the Thue-Morse constant. We completely characterise the intervals where the dimension remains unchanged. As a consequence we can completely describe the graph of $ c\\mapsto \\dim_H \\{x\\in[0,1]: \\|x-\\frac{m}{2^n}\\|< \\frac{c}{2^n} \\textnormal{finitely often}\\}$.

  4. 建设文化强国需要有高度的文化自觉%The Construction of Cultural Powerful Country Requires High Cultural Self-Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杨文

    2012-01-01

    In seventeen sessions of six CCP plenary conferences, CCP put forward to promote development and prosperity of socialist culture, and builds cultural powerful country. The height of the cultural consciousness for the implementation of this target has particularly important sense. The author of this paper thinks that cultural consciousness is to stimulate the inner motive force of the development of culture, cultural consciousness is the premise of integration of cultural subject resource ties, cultural consciousness is the national cultural direction finding scale.%党的十七届六中全会提出推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣,建设社会主义文化强国的目标,高度的文化自觉对于这一目标的实现具有特别重要的意义。而文化自觉是激发文化发展内在动力的前提,文化自觉是整合文化主体资源的纽带,文化自觉是找准国家文化方向的标尺。

  5. [Self-consciousness, consciousness of the other and dementias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Roger

    2007-06-01

    Studies of self-consciousness in dementia concern essentially anosognosia or the loss of insight. However, Self-consciousness is multifaceted: it includes awareness of the body, perceptions, one's own history, identity, and one's own projects. Self-consciousness is linked to consciousness of others i.e. to social cognition supported by identification of others, but also by comprehension of facial expression of emotions, comprehension and expression of emotional prosody, pragmatic abilities, ability to infer other's people's mental states, thoughts, and feelings (theory of mind and empathy), knowledge of social norms and rules, social reasoning. The subtypes of dementias (and namely Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia) affect heterogeneously the different aspects of the self-and other-consciousness. Further studies are needed for a better knowledge of the complex relationship between Self-consciousness, social cognition, decision making and neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral disturbances occurring in demented patients.

  6. The Neurogenetic Correlates of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, John K.

    2013-09-01

    The neurogenetic correlates of consciousness (NgCC) is a new field of consciousness studies that focuses on genes that have an effect on or are involved in the continuum of neuron-based consciousness. A framework of consciousness based on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has already been established by Francis Crick and Christof Kock. In this work I propose that there are NgCC underlying the NCC which are both active during the conscious experience. So how are genes involved? There are two significant connections between DNA and neurons that are involved in the conscious experience. First, any brain system can be adversely affected by underlying genetic abnormalities which can be expressed in an individual at birth, in adulthood, or later in life. Second, the DNA molecule does not lay dormant while the neuron runs on autopilot. DNA is active in translating and transcribing RNA and protein products that are utilized during neuron functioning. Without these products being continuously produced by the DNA during a conscious experience the neurons would cease to function correctly and be rendered unable to provide a continuum of human consciousness. Consequently, in addition to NCC, NgCC must be factored in when appreciating a conscious event. In this work I will discuss and explain some NgCC citing several examples.

  7. Are we explaining consciousness yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, D

    2001-04-01

    Theorists are converging from quite different quarters on a version of the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness, but there are residual confusions to be dissolved. In particular, theorists must resist the temptation to see global accessibility as the cause of consciousness (as if consciousness were some other, further condition); rather, it is consciousness. A useful metaphor for keeping this elusive idea in focus is that consciousness is rather like fame in the brain. It is not a privileged medium of representation, or an added property some states have; it is the very mutual accessibility that gives some informational states the powers that come with a subject's consciousness of that information. Like fame, consciousness is not a momentary condition, or a purely dispositional state, but rather a matter of actual influence over time. Theorists who take on the task of accounting for the aftermath that is critical for consciousness often appear to be leaving out the Subject of consciousness, when in fact they are providing an analysis of the Subject, a necessary component in any serious theory of consciousness.

  8. The biological function of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one's ongoing experience—influences one's behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1) contrary to one's intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2) consciousness does have a biological function; and (3) consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM) for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc.) are incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness. PMID:25140159

  9. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  10. The myth of harmless wrongs in moral cognition: Automatic dyadic completion from sin to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Schein, Chelsea; Ward, Adrian F

    2014-08-01

    When something is wrong, someone is harmed. This hypothesis derives from the theory of dyadic morality, which suggests a moral cognitive template of wrongdoing agent and suffering patient (i.e., victim). This dyadic template means that victimless wrongs (e.g., masturbation) are psychologically incomplete, compelling the mind to perceive victims even when they are objectively absent. Five studies reveal that dyadic completion occurs automatically and implicitly: Ostensibly harmless wrongs are perceived to have victims (Study 1), activate concepts of harm (Studies 2 and 3), and increase perceptions of suffering (Studies 4 and 5). These results suggest that perceiving harm in immorality is intuitive and does not require effortful rationalization. This interpretation argues against both standard interpretations of moral dumbfounding and domain-specific theories of morality that assume the psychological existence of harmless wrongs. Dyadic completion also suggests that moral dilemmas in which wrongness (deontology) and harm (utilitarianism) conflict are unrepresentative of typical moral cognition.

  11. SPSS programs for the measurement of nonindependence in standard dyadic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, Valentim R; Kenny, David A

    2009-02-01

    Dyadic research is becoming more common in the social and behavioral sciences. The most common dyadic design is one in which two persons are measured on the same set of variables. Very often, the first analysis of dyadic data is to determine the extent to which the responses of the two persons are correlated-that is, whether there is nonindependence in the data. We describe two user-friendly SPSS programs for measuring nonindependence of dyadic data. Both programs can be used for distinguishable and indistinguishable dyad members. Inter1.sps is appropriate for interval measures. Inter2.sps applies to categorical variables. The SPSS syntax and data files related to this article may be downloaded as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  12. Valuing skill differences : Perceived skill complementary and dyadic helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.; van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.; Sanders, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  13. Valuing Skill Differences: Perceived Skill Complementarity and Dyadic Helping Behavior in Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Aad; Vegt, van der Gerben S.; Vliert, van de Evert; Sanders, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  14. Valuing skill differences : Perceived skill complementary and dyadic helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.; van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.; Sanders, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  15. The quality of dyadic relationships, leisure activities and health among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R

    2009-12-01

    We examined the combined influence of dyadic relationships and leisure activities on health. We used self-administered survey to collect data at senior centers from French and English older women (N = 257) in Montreal, Quebec. Multiple regression analyses (OLS) were used to examine the main effects of dyadic quality and leisure activities on physical and mental health. Despite controlling for specific dyadic groups, meals, and bingo, we find that the quality of dyadic relationships has a strong influence on mental health measured by spirit, happiness, and an interesting life. Leisure activities are also a significant predictor and appear to improve physical health measured by self-reported health and the number of chronic conditions. Implications for gerontology practitioners in the United States, Canada, and other Western cultures, along with research strategies, are discussed.

  16. The Dyadic Trust Scale: Toward Understanding Interpersonal Trust in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Huston, Ted L.

    1980-01-01

    Dyadic trust proved to be associated with love and with intimacy of self-disclosure, especially for longer married partners. It varied by level of commitment. Partners reciprocated trust more than either love or depth of self-disclosure. (Author)

  17. Predictors of dyadic planning: Perspectives of prostate cancer survivors and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jan; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Hohl, Diana Hilda; Scholz, Urte; Burkert, Silke; Schrader, Mark; Knoll, Nina

    2017-02-01

    Extending individual planning of health behaviour change to the level of the dyad, dyadic planning refers to a target person and a planning partner jointly planning the target person's health behaviour change. To date, predictors of dyadic planning have not been systematically investigated. Integrating cognitive predictors of individual planning with four established predictor domains of social support provision, we propose a framework of predictors of dyadic planning. Including target persons' and partners' perspectives, we examine these predictor domains in the context of prostate cancer patients' rehabilitative pelvic floor exercise (PFE) following radical prostatectomy. Longitudinal data from 175 patients and their partners were analysed in a study with four post-surgery assessments across 6 months. PFE-related dyadic planning was assessed from both partners together with indicators from four predictor domains: context, target person, partner, and relationship factors. Individual planning and social support served as covariates. Findings from two-level models nesting repeated assessments in individuals showed that context (patients' incontinence), target person (i.e., positive affect and self-efficacy), and relationship factors (i.e., relationship satisfaction) were uniquely associated with dyadic planning, whereas partner factors (i.e., positive and negative affects) were not. Factors predicting patients' and partners' accounts of dyadic planning differed. Resembling prior findings on antecedents of support provision in this context, partner factors did not prevail as unique predictors of dyadic planning, whereas indicators from all other predictor domains did. To establish predictive direction, future work should use lagged predictions with shorter intermeasurement intervals. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Dyadic planning has been shown to be linked to health behaviour change. However, its role in behaviour regulation

  18. Posttraumatic symptoms, marital intimacy, dyadic adjustment, and sexual satisfaction among ex-prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Anat, Ben-David; Solomon, Zahava; Heruti, Rafi

    2010-08-01

    The aversive impact of combat and combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on marital intimacy and sexual satisfaction has been examined in several studies. Nevertheless, the toll of war captivity on marital intimacy in relation to dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction remains unknown. In particular, the mediating role of marital intimacy in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dyadic adjustment and between PTSD symptoms and sexual satisfaction has not yet been systematically explored thus far. Aims.  This study aimed to examine the interrelationships of PTSD symptoms, dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy among ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs). A sample of Israeli veterans ex-POWs (ex-POWs: N = 105) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War and a matched comparison group of veterans who participated in the same war but were not held captive (control: N = 94) were compared in the study variables. The PTSD inventory, dyadic adjustment scale, index of sexual satisfaction, and capacity for intimacy questionnaire. Results.  Findings revealed that ex-POWs reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and lower levels of dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction than comparable controls. There were also differences between the groups in the pattern of relations between PTSD symptoms, dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy. Finally, for ex-POWs, marital intimacy partially mediated the relationships between PTSD symptoms and dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction outcome measures. PTSD symptoms are implicated in marital problems of ex-POWs. A significant relationship was found between the traumatized ex-POW's capacity for intimacy and both their sexual satisfaction and dyadic adjustment. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND LEGAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    BOSHNO SVETLANA

    2016-01-01

    This chapter of the course manual in jurisprudence discloses the notion of legal consciousness. Comprehending law, legislation, principal state and legal institutes manifests itself in law enforcement. One shouldn't absolutize the role of legislation as it is, since it is only after texts of normative acts go through the prism of legal consciousness of the actor's personality, they convert into some behaviour patterns. Legal consciousness has a definite structure, it is divided into levels. L...

  20. Strategies for measuring machine consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the level of consciousness of a creature remains a major scientific challenge, nevertheless a number of new accounts that attempt to address this problem have been proposed recently. In this paper we analyze the principles of these new measures of consciousness along with other classical approaches focusing on their applicability to Machine Consciousness (MC). Furthermore, we propose a set of requirements of what we think a suitable measure for MC should be, discus...

  1. Study of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a powerful organ that controls most of the body. Researchers around the world have long tried to uncover how the brain operates, how memories are formed and stored. Our understanding of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease has been rapidly improving, yet much remains to be done. In this work, we attempt to study changes in intracranial pressure (ICP for a 12-hour period and discuss whether the resulting estimates could be used as a measure of consciousness.

  2. Consciousness -- A Verifiable Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, N.

    2014-07-01

    Consciousness may or may not be completely within the realm of science. We have argued elsewhere that there is a high probability that it is not within the purview of science, just like humanities and arts are outside science. Even social sciences do not come under science when human interactions are involved. Here, we suggest a possible experiment to decide whether it is part of science. We suggest that a scientific signal may be available to investigate the prediction in the form of an electromagnetic brainwave background radiation.

  3. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. These carbonaceous preforms have been fabricated by pyrolysis of solid wood bodies at 1000 C. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches.

  4. Memory and consciousness in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchay, C; Moulin, C J A

    2009-06-01

    Human memory can be split into familiarity and recollection processes which contribute to different aspects of memory function. These separate processes result in different experiential states. In this review, we examine how this dominant theoretical framework can explain the subjective experience of people with Alzheimer's disease, the profile of their memory impairments and their inability to reflect on their performance metacognitively. We conclude with a brief overview of the brain regions supporting conscious experience of memory, and propose that the memory and awareness deficits seen in Alzheimer's disease could be conceived of as a deficit in autonoetic consciousness. A future priority for research is to take these robust constructs into research programmes examining rehabilitation and pharmacological intervention.

  5. Speaking of home truth: (re)productions of dyadic-containment in non-monogamous relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Malson, Helen

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a critical exploration of the discursive and socio-historical practice of 'dyadic-containment' as a principle index for how we know, experience, and authenticate romantic relationships. Making intelligible an 'authentic' relationship as something which is fixed, enclosed and exclusive, the pervasive principle of dyadic-containment has considerable implications for what it means to live out 'authentic' but ostensibly liberated relationships. Using post-structuralist discourse analysis to explore ways in which people can account for their consensual non-monogamous relationships (same and cross-sex, dyadic and non-dyadic), we critique the liberal-humanist framework from which such relationships can be played out. In that dyadic-containment as an aspect of an ontology of interiorized and contained 'realness' can be viewed as serving to characterize and authorize monogamous relationships (as we illustrate), practices of consensual non-monogamy that reproduce dyadic-containment as an organizing and authenticating principle are problematized. Limits to understandings and practices of some 'alternative' romantic relationships are therefore expounded and consideration is given to how relational difference might be otherwise premised.

  6. Dyadic Empathy Predicts Sexual and Relationship Well-Being in Couples Transitioning to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Mooney, Kayla; Muise, Amy

    2017-08-18

    Becoming a new parent is typically a time of great joy, yet it is also marked by significant declines in sexual and relationship functioning. Dyadic empathy, a combination of perspective taking and empathic concern for one's romantic partner, may facilitate sexual and relationship quality for new parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between dyadic empathy and sexual satisfaction, relationship adjustment, and sexual desire in a sample of first-time parents. Couples (N = 255) with an infant aged three to 12 months completed an online survey assessing dyadic empathy, sexual satisfaction, relationship adjustment, and sexual desire. Data were analyzed using multilevel analyses guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. When new mothers and fathers reported greater dyadic empathy, both they and their partners reported higher sexual satisfaction and relationship adjustment. New mothers who reported higher dyadic empathy also had higher sexual desire, although when they had more empathic partners new mothers reported lower sexual desire. Results remained significant after controlling for potential challenges unique to the postpartum period (e.g., fatigue, breastfeeding), as well as relationship duration. Targeting dyadic empathy in interventions aimed at helping couples transition to parenthood may promote the maintenance of sexual and relationship well-being.

  7. Exercise Training for Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Caregivers: A Review of Dyadic Exercise Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamotte, Guillaume; Shah, Raj C; Lazarov, Orly; Corcos, Daniel M

    2016-11-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the prevalence will increase dramatically in the next decades. Although exercise has shown benefits for people with dementia due to AD as well as their caregivers, the impact of a dyadic exercise intervention including both groups as study participants remains to be determined. The authors review the current clinical evidence for dyadic exercise interventions, which are exercise regimens applied to both the person with dementia and the caregiver. A total of 4 controlled trials were reviewed. This review shows that dyadic exercise interventions are feasible and may produce a positive effect on functional independence and caregiver burden. However, there was insufficient evidence to support a benefit of dyadic exercise intervention on cognitive performance and on behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms in participants with dementia due to AD. A dyadic exercise intervention improves functional independence and caregiver burden. However, there is a need for well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials to confirm these benefits and to investigate several important points such as the effects of a dyadic exercise intervention on cognitive and noncognitive outcomes of AD, the optimal intensity of exercise training, and the cost effectiveness of such a program.

  8. The couple that smokes together: Dyadic marijuana use and relationship functioning during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Schlauch, Robert C; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    Self-reported marijuana use has been associated with poor relationship functioning and decreased stability over time. The present study examined the behavioral interactions of couples with concordant and discordant patterns of marijuana use during conflict, using individual self-reports and observation by independent coders. Heavy drinking community couples (N = 149) participated in a conflict resolution paradigm. Interactions were recorded and coded by naïve coders. Approximately 30% of the sample reported past year marijuana use. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of dyadic marijuana use on maladaptive relationship functioning. A Robust Actor × Partner Marijuana Use interaction was detected for a range of behavioral outcomes, assessed by both self-report and direct observation, including relationship satisfaction, anger experience, patterns of demand and withdrawal during conflict, constructive behaviors, and overall relationship quality. Specifically, couples in which both partners used or abstained from marijuana displayed more adaptive relationship functioning across indicators relative to couples in which only 1 partner identified as a marijuana user. This pattern was particularly strong for couples in which the female partner used marijuana and the male partner did not. Couples with discordant, rather than concordant, marijuana use displayed distinct conflict resolution behaviors that were consistent with the long-term negative relationship outcomes that have been observed in previous studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...... it potentially impossible to compare and contrast experimental findings, and difficult to show that consciousness research is a discipline going in a particular direction or has a particular focus. This book provides an overview of methods and approaches for studying consciousness. It aims to make progress...... giving concrete tools for how to investigate consciousness in combination with theoretical discussions of possibilities and limitations of each method...

  10. Basic consciousness of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The newborn shows several signs of consciousness, such as being awake and aware of him/herself and mother. The infant processes olfactory and painful inputs in the cortex, where consciousness is believed to be localized. Furthermore, the newborn expresses primary emotions such as joy, disgust, and surprise and remember rhymes and vowels to which he or she has been exposed during fetal life. Thus, the newborn infant fulfills the criteria of displaying a basic level of consciousness, being aware of its body and him/her-self and somewhat about the external world. Preterm infants may be conscious to a limited degree from about 25 weeks, when the thalamocortical connections are established.

  11. Hallmarks of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ann B

    2012-01-01

    Consciousness, ranging from the primary, or perceptual, level to high levels that include a sense of self, can be identified in various organisms by a set of hallmarks that include behavioral, neural and phenomenal and/or informational. Behavioral hallmarks include those that indicate high cognitive abilities, such behavioral flexibility, verbal abilities, episodic memories, theory of mind, object constancy, transitive inference and multistability, all of which have been demonstrated in birds as well as in primates. Neural hallmarks include the thalamocortical model for mammals and similar circuitry in some nonmammalian taxa. Informational hallmarks include sensorimotor awareness, as provided by somatosensory and/or lateral line systems, which may form the basis for the sense of self and distinguishing self from nonself, as well as other sensory information, such as the richness and quantity of color and form information obtained by the visual system. The comparative method reveals a correlation of these different types of hallmarks with each other in their degree of development, which thus may be indicative of the level of consciousness present in a particular species.

  12. What is consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solms, M

    1997-01-01

    In the past few years scientists and scholars in a variety of disciplines have been making concerted efforts to answer an ancient question, namely, How exactly do the physical processes in the brain cause consciousness? What is distinctive about the way in which modern scientists and scholars are approaching this question is that they are treating it as a scientific problem rather than a metaphysical one. This transition reflects the air of expectation in contemporary cognitive science to the effect that an empirical solution is imminent to a philosophical problem that previously was considered insoluble. Nevertheless, a recent authoritative review of the publications of such leading contemporary workers in the field as Francis Crick, Daniel Dennett, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, and Israel Rosenfield has concluded that they have all failed to provide a satisfactory answer to the question (Searle 1995a). The present paper makes a psychoanalytic contribution to this interdisciplinary effort and provides an alternative answer to the question, based on Freud's conceptualization of the problem of consciousness. The paper takes a concrete example from Searle's review, reanalyses it within Freud's metapsychological frame of reference, and shows how this frame provides a radical solution to the problem. This implication of Freud's work has not hitherto been recognized and so has not received the attention it deserves.

  13. Preserved consciousness in vegetative and minimal conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian K; Frokjaer, Vibe G;

    2016-01-01

    were insufficient for statistical evaluation. In conclusion, active paradigms may underestimate the degree of consciousness as compared to passive paradigms. While MCS patients show signs of preserved consciousness more frequently in both paradigms, roughly 15% of patients with a clinical diagnosis......Active, passive and resting state paradigms using functional MRI (fMRI) or EEG may reveal consciousness in the vegetative (VS) and the minimal conscious state (MCS). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of preserved consciousness in VS and MCS as revealed by fMRI and EEG......, including command following (active paradigms), cortical functional connectivity elicited by external stimuli (passive paradigms) and default mode networks (resting state). Studies were selected from multiple indexing databases until February 2015 and evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic...

  14. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Adam Jonkisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside, hierarchically referential (semantically ordered, bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system and useful in action (pragmatically functional, is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems, but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes. For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered and private, whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself.

  15. Consciousness: individuated information in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself.

  16. Oscillatory Correlates of Visual Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gallotto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conscious experiences are linked to activity in our brain: the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC. Empirical research on these NCCs covers a wide range of brain activity signals, measures, and methodologies. In this paper, we focus on spontaneous brain oscillations; rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal (population activity which can be characterized by a range of parameters, such as frequency, amplitude (power, and phase. We provide an overview of oscillatory measures that appear to correlate with conscious perception. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques allow us to study the causal role of oscillatory activity in conscious perception (i.e., ‘entrainment’. This review of oscillatory correlates of consciousness suggests that, for example, activity in the alpha-band (7–13 Hz may index, or even causally support, conscious perception. But such results also showcase an increasingly acknowledged difficulty in NCC research; the challenge of separating neural activity necessary for conscious experience to arise (prerequisites from neural activity underlying the conscious experience itself (substrates or its results (consequences.

  17. Oscillatory Correlates of Visual Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotto, Stefano; Sack, Alexander T; Schuhmann, Teresa; de Graaf, Tom A

    2017-01-01

    Conscious experiences are linked to activity in our brain: the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). Empirical research on these NCCs covers a wide range of brain activity signals, measures, and methodologies. In this paper, we focus on spontaneous brain oscillations; rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal (population) activity which can be characterized by a range of parameters, such as frequency, amplitude (power), and phase. We provide an overview of oscillatory measures that appear to correlate with conscious perception. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques allow us to study the causal role of oscillatory activity in conscious perception (i.e., 'entrainment'). This review of oscillatory correlates of consciousness suggests that, for example, activity in the alpha-band (7-13 Hz) may index, or even causally support, conscious perception. But such results also showcase an increasingly acknowledged difficulty in NCC research; the challenge of separating neural activity necessary for conscious experience to arise (prerequisites) from neural activity underlying the conscious experience itself (substrates) or its results (consequences).

  18. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  19. ELT and Consciousness-Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim Saif

    2012-01-01

    The paper highlights the concept of consciousness-raising. It relates it to different aspects of ELT such as explicit teaching, language awareness, language acquisition and practice. How these terms are related to the concept of consciousness-raising within the English Language teaching. Its main aim is to help learners to notice for themselves…

  20. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszynski, Jack A

    2006-01-01

    Consciousness remains one of the major unsolved problems in science. How do the feelings and sensations making up conscious experience arise from the concerted actions of nerve cells and their associated synaptic and molecular processes? Can such feelings be explained by modern science, or is there an entirely different kind of explanation needed? And how can this seemingly intractable problem be approached experimentally? How do the operations of the conscious mind emerge out of the specific interactions involving billions of neurons? This book seeks answers to these questions on the underlying assumption that consciousness can be understood using the intellectual potential of modern physics and other sciences. There are a number of theories of consciousness, some based on classical physics while others require the use of quantum concepts. The latter ones have drawn criticism from the parts of the scientific establishment while simultaneously claiming that classical approaches are doomed to failure. The cont...

  1. Impact of Emotion on Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Jønsson, Morten

    2011-01-01

    showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs......) directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously) seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs...... after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms) in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies...

  2. [The "bright spot of consciousness"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P V

    1990-01-01

    I.P. Pavlov considered consciousness as an area of optimum excitability moving over the human cerebral cortex depending on the character of performed mental activity. Contemporary methods of computer analysis of electrical activity and brain thermal production have allowed to turn this metaphor into experimentally observed reality. It is shown that preservation of connections of cortical gnostic zones with verbal structures of the left hemisphere is the obligatory condition for consciousness functioning. These data reinforce the determination of consciousness as operation with knowledge, which by means of words, mathematic symbols and art images can be transmitted to other people. Communicative origin of consciousness creates possibility of mental dialogue with oneself, i.e. leads to the appearance of self-consciousness of the personality.

  3. Conscience and consciousness: a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoulkas, G; Muresanu, D F

    2014-03-15

    While consciousness has been examined extensively in its different aspects, like in philosophy, psychiatry, neurophysiology, neuroplasticity, etc., conscience though it is an equal important aspect of the human existence, which remains an unknown to a great degree as an almost transcendental aspect of the human mind. It has not been examined as thoroughly as consciousness and largely remains a "terra incognita" for its neurophysiology, brain topography, etc. Conscience and consciousness are part of a system of information that governs our experience and decision making process. The intent of this paper is to define these terms, to discuss about consciousness from both neurological and quantum physics point of view, the relationship between the dynamics of consciousness and neuroplasticity and to highlight the relationship between conscience, stress and health.

  4. Posttraumatic Growth and Dyadic Adjustment among War Veterans and their Wives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Lahav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth includes two main competing claims: one which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects authentic positive changes and the other which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects illusory defenses. While the former might suggest that posttraumatic growth enhances intimacy and close relationships, the latter might imply that posttraumatic growth hinders interpersonal relations. The present study aimed to test these claims by investigating the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment over time at both the individual and dyadic levels, and the potential role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Former prisoners of war and comparable war veterans and their wives (n = 229 were assessed twice, 30–31 (T1 and 35–38 (T2 years after the 1973 Yom Kippur War in Israel, with regard to posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms and dyadic adjustment. Results indicated that posttraumatic growth was associated with both elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms and low dyadic adjustment among both husbands and wives. Posttraumatic stress symptoms at T1 and T2 mediated the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment. Wives' posttraumatic growth at T1 predicted posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment of the husbands at T2. The higher the wives' posttraumatic growth, the higher the posttraumatic growth and the lower the dyadic adjustment of the husbands in the subsequent measure. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth reflects defensive beliefs which undermine marital relationships and that posttraumatic growth might be transmitted between spouses and implicated in the deterioration of the marital relationship over time.

  5. Sexuality in Older Couples: Individual and Dyadic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Linda J; Iveniuk, James; Laumann, Edward O; McClintock, Martha K

    2017-02-01

    Sexuality is a key component of health and functioning that changes with age. Although most sexual activity takes place with a partner, the majority of research on sexuality has focused on individuals. In this paper, we focused on the sexual dyad. We proposed and tested a conceptual model of the predictors of partnered sexual activity in older adulthood. This model began with the personality of each of the partners, which affects individuals' views of sex and characteristics of the partnership, which in turn affected sexual expression in the couple. We measured a key feature of personality, Positivity, which reflected the individual's tendency to present his or herself positively in social situations. This trait, we posited, increased frequency of sex through increased desire for sex, and the subjective importance of sex to each member of the couple. In this model, Positivity also impacted characteristics of the relationship that promoted dyadic sexual behavior. These processes differed for men and women in the model. We tested this model with data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, which conducted personal interviews with both partners in 940 American dyads (average male age 72; average female age 69). We found that couples in which the husbands' (but not wives') were high in Positivity show higher levels of sexual activity, and that this association was partially mediated by dimensions of relationship quality, but more so by individual factors such as thinking about sex and believing sex is important.

  6. Visualization of Complex Networks Based on Dyadic Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Hirota

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A visualization method is proposed for understanding the structure of complex networks based on an extended Curvelet transform named Dyadic Curvelet Transform (DClet. The proposed visualization method comes to answer specific questions about structures of complex networks by mapping data into orthogonal localized events with a directional component via the Cartesian sampling sets of detail coefficients. It behaves in the same matter as human visual system, seeing in terms of segments and distinguishing them by scale and orientation. Compressing the network is another fact. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by two different networks with structural properties of small world networks with N = 16 vertices, and a globally coupled network with size N = 1024 and 523 776 edges. As the most large scale real networks are not fully connected, it is tested on the telecommunication network of Iran as a real extremely complex network with 92 intercity switching vertices, 706 350 E1 traffic channels and 315 525 transmission channels. It is shown that the proposed method performs as a simulation tool for successfully design of network and establishing the necessary group sizes. It can clue the network designer in on all structural properties that network has.

  7. Shape minimization of the dissipated energy in dyadic trees

    CERN Document Server

    De La Sablonière, Xavier Dubois; Privat, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role of boundary conditions on the optimal shape of a dyadic tree in which flows a Newtonian fluid. Our optimization problem consists in finding the shape of the tree that minimizes the viscous energy dissipated by the fluid with a constrained volume, under the assumption that the total flow of the fluid is conserved throughout the structure. These hypotheses model situations where a fluid is transported from a source towards a 3D domain into which the transport network also spans. Such situations could be encountered in organs like for instance the lungs and the vascular networks. Two fluid regimes are studied: (i) low flow regime (Poiseuille) in trees with an arbitrary number of generations using a matricial approach and (ii) non linear flow regime (Navier-Stokes, moderate regime with a Reynolds number $100$) in trees of two generations using shape derivatives in an augmented Lagrangian algorithm coupled with a 2D/3D finite elements code to solve Navier-Stokes equations. It relie...

  8. Body satisfaction and couple's daily sexual experience: a dyadic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyang, Ruixue; Cooper, M Lynne

    2013-08-01

    Although it is widely believed that body satisfaction positively affects sexual experience, research on this topic has been limited by an almost exclusive focus on women and on individuals and by an overreliance on cross-sectional self-report data. To address these shortcomings, the current study used 1,598 daily sex reports completed by 144 couples over an average of 3 weeks to investigate the impact of satisfaction with one's own and one's partner's body on sexual experience. Results indicated that an individual's satisfaction with his or her own body was not as important to the overall quality of sexual experience as one's satisfaction with the partner's body or as the partner's satisfaction with the individual's body. Moreover, although effects were generally similar for men and women, women's sexual outcomes were more strongly shaped by partner satisfaction with her body than the reverse. Results highlight the need to adopt a dyadic perspective in efforts to understand the effects of body satisfaction on sexual experience.

  9. Dyadic death due to family custom in marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Mustafa Arslan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In dyadic death, a there is a lack of studies addressingthe effectiveness of the family pressure through thesedeaths. In this study, the effectiveness of the customs onthe marriages is discussed with a related case of dyadicdeath.A 27 years old male and a 19 years old female were founddead in a car out of a city center away from hometown. Inthe external examination, there was an entrance woundon the right temporal region and an exit wound on theleft temporal region of the man, and the contrary for thewoman. Both of the exit wounds were contact wound.Both of the deceased were originally from the east partof Turkey and stated to be single; and the woman wasreported to the security units as missing two days beforethe incident. As the motivation of the suicide, a note nearto the man was explaining that the deceased couple lovedeach other for one year yet the family of the women hadnot let them to get married.Being an obstacle for the marriage even for adults and acause of suicide because of family pressure is indicativeof strict application of the family customs, in Turkey. Theauthors propose that issue of whether the 84. Article ofthe Turkish Penal Code should be or not applied as a deterrentfactor reducing pressure of family customs.

  10. Declarative Consciousness for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Leslie G.

    2013-12-01

    Existing information technology tools are harnessed and integrated to provide digital specification of human consciousness of individual persons. An incremental compilation technology is proposed as a transformation of LifeLog derived persona specifications into a Canonical representation of the neocortex architecture of the human brain. The primary purpose is to gain an understanding of the semantical allocation of the neocortex capacity. Novel neocortex content allocation simulators with browsers are proposed to experiment with various approaches of relieving the brain from overload conditions. An IT model of the neocortex is maintained, which is then updated each time new stimuli are received from the LifeLog data stream; new information is gained from brain signal measurements; and new functional dependencies are discovered between live persona consumed/produced signals

  11. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  12. [Brain and consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Molina, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The philosophical and biological concepts of consciousness are briefly reviewed, from Aristoteles to Descartes to the modern neurobiologist of the last 15 years. The CRICK's corticothalamic integration view, the Edelman's primary and higher order consciousness concept as well as the Edelman and Tononi's dynamic core concept were discussed. Then the corticothalamic resonance theory by Llinás was reported. Central to Llinás's theory is the existence of electrical intrinsic properties of neurones in the central nervous system that allows them to oscillate at different frequencies and if the membrane properties are suitable also to resonate at specific frequencies. From this oscillation and the neuronal connectivity result the corticothalamic dynamic loops specific and non specific. The dynamic corticothalamic loop of the specific thalamic nuclei connect directly as well as through the inhibitory interneurones in layer 4, with the pyramids in layer 5 and 6. The pyramids's rhythmic discharge excite the thalamic specific neurones and indirectly through the reticular neurones a rebound burst is also generated in the specific relay neurones. The oscillatory properties of cortical inhibitory interneurones initiates the action of the recurrent circuit whose function is to inform the cerebral cortex of the content of the sensory pathways. On the other side, the thalamocortical resonant loops of the non especific nuclei, particularly the intralaminar, connect with theapical dendrites of layer 1 pyramids whose discharge go to the thalamic relay neurones directly and through the reticular nucleus. The clinical and MEG data are consistent with the suggestion that the intralaminar nucleus works as providing the binding signal to the sensory specif le information conveyed by the specific pathways. In this way the non specific corticothalamic loop would act as the conjunction mechanism along the dendritic apical shaft with the specific sensory information. The specific loop will

  13. Consciousness in dolphins? A review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Heidi E

    2013-06-01

    For millennia, dolphins have intrigued humans. Scientific study has confirmed that bottlenose dolphins are large-brained, highly social mammals with an extended developmental period, flexible cognitive capacities, and powerful acoustic abilities including a sophisticated echolocation system. These findings have led some to ask if dolphins experience aspects of consciousness. Recent investigations targeting self-recognition/self-awareness and metacognition, constructs tied to consciousness on some accounts, have analyzed the dolphin's ability to recognize itself in a mirror or on a video as well as to monitor its own knowledge in a perceptual categorization task. The current article reviews this work with dolphins and grapples with some of the challenges in designing, conducting, and interpreting these studies as well as with general issues related to studying consciousness in animals. The existing evidence does not provide a convincing case for consciousness in dolphins. For productive scientific work on consciousness in dolphins (and other animals including humans), we need clearer characterizations of consciousness, better methods for studying it, and appropriate paradigms for interpreting outcomes. A current focus on metamemory in animals offers promise for future discovery in this area.

  14. Body Image in Dyadic and Solitary Sexual Desire: The Role of Encoding Style and Distracting Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Alessandra; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the link between body image and desire to engage in sexual activity (dyadic and solitary desire) in adult women living in a long-term couple relationship. Moreover, it considered two psychological factors that may underlie such a link: the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity and encoding style (i.e., the tendency to rely on preexisting internal schemata versus external information at encoding). A total of 53 women (29 to 47 years old) in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), body image, body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, and encoding style. Results showed that poor body image was associated with low dyadic and solitary sexual desire. Body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity mediated the link between body image and solitary (but not dyadic) sexual desire. Finally, the mediation of body-related distracting thoughts between body image and solitary sexual desire was moderated by encoding style. A negative body image promoted the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, especially in internal encoders. Our study highlights the importance of body image, distracting thoughts, and encoding style in women's solitary sexuality and suggests possible factors that may reduce the impact of those body-related factors in dyadic sexual desire.

  15. The Role of Dyadic Confidence on Engagement in Heart Failure Care Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Karen S; Gelow, Jill M; Hiatt, Shirin O; Mudd, James O; Auld, Jonathan; Chien, Christopher V; Lee, Christopher S

    2017-04-26

    Increasingly, older adults and their families are expected to manage complex conditions with little support. In the case of heart failure (HF), symptom monitoring and management are critical in preventing acute exacerbations and poor clinical outcomes. The current study examined the role of dyadic confidence on engagement in HF care behaviors by patients and their spouses. A cross-sectional design was used to examine 60 couples living with HF. Three dyadic confidence variables were created to represent average level of confidence, gap in confidence, and direction of gap within each couple. A series of multilevel models were used to examine dyadic engagement in HF maintenance, management, and consulting behaviors and the role of dyadic confidence. Patients were significantly more engaged in HF maintenance behaviors than spouses; couples were more collaborative in their engagement in HF management and consulting behaviors. Average level of confidence in the dyad was significantly associated with patient engagement in all three HF behaviors. Spouse engagement was associated with more congruence in confidence and having higher levels of confidence than their partners with HF. Women were significantly more engaged in HF behaviors than men, regardless of role. The study employed a dyadic approach to HF care and a novel approach to confidence. Findings confirm the social nature of confidence and its important role in HF. Clinicians have opportunities to optimize patient outcomes by fostering greater collaboration within couples.

  16. Ideological and Political Theory Course Teaching in graduate students "problem consciousness" construction%思想政治理论课教学中研究生"问题意识"的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解西伟

    2015-01-01

    "Problem consciousness" is in essence the graduate study, work or the main initiative, but in the ideological and political theory courses shows lack of. The reason is various, mainly including the influence of traditional ethical relationship between teachers and students, the exam oriented education to study the old performance evaluation system and so on. Only in teaching, change the teaching idea and teaching method, the old form a new evaluation system, set up a graduate student to improve the ethical relationship between teachers and students to the old "problem consciousness".%"问题意识"本质上体现为研究生学习、工作的主体性或主动性,但在思想政治理论课教学中却呈现为缺失状态.原因是多方面的,主要的包括应试教育的影响、师生之间传统的伦理关系和对研究生成绩能力的旧的评价体系等等.只有在教学中改变旧的教学理念和教学方法、形成新的评价体系、改善师生之间的旧的伦理关系才能真正建构起研究生的"问题意识".

  17. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  18. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called "easy problems" of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as "subjective experience," and of there being "hard problems," and "explanatory gaps" to be addressed in order to understand consciousness.

  19. The consciousness state space (CSS – a unifying model for consciousness and self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eBerkovich-Ohana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Every experience, those we are aware of and those we are not, is embedded in a subjective timeline, is tinged with emotion, and inevitably evokes a certain sense of self. Here, we present a phenomenological model for consciousness and selfhood which relates time, awareness, and emotion within one framework. The consciousness state space (CSS model is a theoretical one. It relies on a broad range of literature, hence has high explanatory and integrative strength, and helps in visualizing the relationship between different aspects of experience.Briefly, it is suggested that all phenomenological states fall into two categories of consciousness, core and extended (CC and EC, respectively. CC supports minimal selfhood that is short of temporal extension, its scope being the here and now. EC supports narrative selfhood, which involves personal identity and continuity across time, as well as memory, imagination and conceptual thought. The CSS is a phenomenological space, created by three dimensions: time, awareness and emotion. Each of the three dimensions is shown to have a dual phenomenological composition, falling within CC and EC. The neural spaces supporting each of these dimensions, as well as CC and EC, are laid out based on the neuroscientific literature.The CSS dynamics includes two simultaneous trajectories, one in CC and one in EC, typically antagonistic in normal experiences. However, this characteristic behavior is altered in states in which a person experiences an altered sense of self. Two examples are laid out, flow and meditation. The CSS model creates a broad theoretical framework with explanatory and unificatory power. It constructs a detailed map of the consciousness and selfhood phenomenology, which offers constraints for the science of consciousness. We conclude by outlaying several testable predictions raised by the CSS model.

  20. The consciousness state space (CSS)-a unifying model for consciousness and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Every experience, those we are aware of and those we are not, is embedded in a subjective timeline, is tinged with emotion, and inevitably evokes a certain sense of self. Here, we present a phenomenological model for consciousness and selfhood which relates time, awareness, and emotion within one framework. The consciousness state space (CSS) model is a theoretical one. It relies on a broad range of literature, hence has high explanatory and integrative strength, and helps in visualizing the relationship between different aspects of experience. Briefly, it is suggested that all phenomenological states fall into two categories of consciousness, core and extended (CC and EC, respectively). CC supports minimal selfhood that is short of temporal extension, its scope being the here and now. EC supports narrative selfhood, which involves personal identity and continuity across time, as well as memory, imagination and conceptual thought. The CSS is a phenomenological space, created by three dimensions: time, awareness and emotion. Each of the three dimensions is shown to have a dual phenomenological composition, falling within CC and EC. The neural spaces supporting each of these dimensions, as well as CC and EC, are laid out based on the neuroscientific literature. The CSS dynamics include two simultaneous trajectories, one in CC and one in EC, typically antagonistic in normal experiences. However, this characteristic behavior is altered in states in which a person experiences an altered sense of self. Two examples are laid out, flow and meditation. The CSS model creates a broad theoretical framework with explanatory and unificatory power. It constructs a detailed map of the consciousness and selfhood phenomenology, which offers constraints for the science of consciousness. We conclude by outlining several testable predictions raised by the CSS model.

  1. Dyadic social interaction as an alternative reward to cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eZernig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals suffering from substance use disorders often show severely impaired social interaction, preferring drugs of abuse to the contact with others. Their impaired social interaction is doubly harmful for them as (1 therapy itself is based and dependent on social interaction and as (2 social interaction is not available to them as an "alternative", i.e., non-drug reward, decreasing their motivation to stop drug use. We therefore developed an animal experimental model to investigate the neurobiology of dyadic social interaction- vs cocaine reward. We took care to avoid (a engaging sexual attraction-related aspects of such a social interaction and (b hierarchical difference as confounding stimuli. The cocaine- or social interaction stimulus was offered - in a mutually exclusive setting - within the confines of a conditioned place preference (CPP apparatus. In our paradigm, only four 15-min episodes of social interaction proved sufficient to (i switch the rats' preference from cocaine-associated contextual stimuli to social interaction CPP and (ii inhibit the subsequent reacquisition/reexpression of cocaine CPP. The behavioral effect was paralleled by a reversal of brain activation (i.e., EGR1 expression in the nucleus accumbens, the central and basolateral amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area. Of relevance for the psychotherapy of addictive disorders, the most rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus 'social interaction' was touch. To test our hypothesis that motivation is encoded in neuron ensembles dedicated to specific reward scenarios, we are currently (1 mapping the neural circuits involved in cocaine- vs social interaction reward and (2 adapting our paradigm for C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this species.

  2. Dyadic Green’s functions of thin films: Applications within plasmonic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jesper; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2011-01-01

    Optimization and design of silicon solar cells by exploiting light scattering frommetal nanoparticles to increase the efficiency is addressed in the small particle limit from a fundamental point of view via the dyadic Green’s function formulation. Based on the dyadic Green’s function (Green’s...... tensor) of a three-layer geometry, light scattering from electric point dipoles (representing small metal scatterers) located within a thin layer sandwiched between a substrate and a superstrate is analyzed. Starting from the full dyadic Green’s function we derive analytical near- and far......-field approximations. The far-field approximations enable efficient, exact, and separate evaluation of light scattering into waves that propagate in the substrate or the superstrate. Based on the near-field approximation we present a semianalytical expression for the total near-field absorption in the substrate...

  3. Ambivalence over emotional expressiveness in intimate relationships: a shift from an individual characteristic to dyadic attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Adital; Lavee, Yoav

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates how ambivalence over emotional expressiveness (AEE) relates to various aspects of intimate relationships, including perception of the relationship, marital satisfaction, and dyadic closeness. Whereas most commonly AEE has been treated as an individual attribute, we suggest looking at a combined measure of the AEE of both spouses as a dyadic attribute. We examine the contribution of each spouse's level of AEE as well as joint couple AEE to explain variations in the marital relationship. Data were collected from both spouses of 226 Israeli couples. Findings indicated that the AEE of individuals was more predictive of lower relationship quality than neuroticism and that dyadic AEE explains relationship quality more than the AEE of individual partners. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  4. Analyzing Dyadic Data With Multilevel Modeling Versus Structural Equation Modeling: A Tale of Two Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Kenny, David A

    2017-02-06

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) are the dominant methods for the analysis of dyadic data. Both methods are extensively reviewed for the widely used actor-partner interdependence model and the dyadic growth curve model, as well as other less frequently adopted models, including the common fate model and the mutual influence model. For each method, we discuss the analysis of distinguishable and indistinguishable members, the treatment of missing data, the standardization of effects, and tests of mediation. Even though there has been some blending of the 2 methods, each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, thus both should be in the toolbox of dyadic researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Vectors a Fortran 90 module for 3-dimensional vector and dyadic arithmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    A major advance contained in the new Fortran 90 language standard is the ability to define new data types and the operators associated with them. Writing computer code to implement computations with real and complex three-dimensional vectors and dyadics is greatly simplified if the equations can be implemented directly, without the need to code the vector arithmetic explicitly. The Fortran 90 module described here defines new data types for real and complex 3-dimensional vectors and dyadics, along with the common operations needed to work with these objects. Routines to allow convenient initialization and output of the new types are also included. In keeping with the philosophy of data abstraction, the details of the implementation of the data types are maintained private, and the functions and operators are made generic to simplify the combining of real, complex, single- and double-precision vectors and dyadics.

  6. AN APPLIED RESEARCH ON APPROACH OF DYADIC WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR REMOTE SENSING IMAGE EDGE DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Wei; Xing Guangzhong; Hou Lantian; Qin Qiming; Wang Wenjun

    2006-01-01

    In the edge detection of Remote Sensing (RS) image, the useful detail losing and the spurious edge often appear. To solve the problem, the authors uses the dyadic wavelet to detect the edge of surface features by combining the edge detecting with the multi-resolution analyzing of the wavelet transform. Via the dyadic wavelet decomposing, the RS image of a certain appropriate scale is obtained, and the edge data of the plane and the upright directions are respectively figured out, then the gradient vector module of the surface features is worked out. By tracing them, the authors get the edge data of the object, therefore build the RS image which obtains the checked edge. This method can depress the effect of noise and examine exactly the edge data of the object by rule and line. With an experiment of an RS image which obtains an airport, the authors certificate the feasibility of the application of dyadic wavelet in the object edge detection.

  7. Quantum-Holographic Informational Consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Di Biase

    2009-01-01

      The author propose a quantum-informational holographic model of brain-consciousness-universe interactions based in the holonomic neural networks of Karl Pribram, in the holographic quantum theory...

  8. Conscious brain, metacognition and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Pec, Ondrej; Mishara, Aaron L; Touskova, Tereza; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings indicate that the binding and synchronization of distributed neural activities are crucial for cognitive processes and consciousness. In addition, there is increasing evidence that disrupted feature binding is related to experiences of disintegration of consciousness in schizophrenia. These data suggest that the disrupted binding and disintegration of consciousness could be typically related to schizophrenia in terms of Bleuler's concept of "splitting". In this context, deficits in metacognitive capacity in schizophrenia may be conceptualized as a spectrum from more discrete to more synthetic activities, related to specific levels of neural binding and neurocognitive deficits. This review summarizes the recent research on metacognition and its relationship to deficits of conscious awareness that may be found in schizophrenia patients. Deficits in synthetic metacognition are likely linked to the integration of information during specific processes of neural binding. Those in turn may be related to a range of mental activities including reasoning style, learning potential and insight.

  9. Social Consciousness, Education and Transformative Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Periklis

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines two aspects of social consciousness: consciousness in the sense of knowledge of the objective reality and consciousness in the sense of awareness of oneself as a subject in his/her social ties with other persons-subjects. In the light of such an approach to consciousness in this essay we discuss the importance of education and…

  10. Consciousness, Psychology, and Education: A Speculative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980

    This monograph explores implications of the psychology of consciousness for education. The psychology of consciousness encompasses the relationships among behavior, experience, and states of consciousness. It is interpreted to include different states of consciousness, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences, dreams, psychic healing, and other…

  11. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies).

  12. Individual and dyadic planning predicting pelvic floor exercise among prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jan; Burkert, Silke; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Schrader, Mark; Knoll, Nina

    2015-08-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 60(3) of Rehabilitation Psychology (see record 2015-40319-001). Aleksandra Luszczynska's institutional affiliation was incorrectly set as Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities. It should have been University of Social Sciences and Humanities. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Radical prostatectomy, a standard treatment for localized prostate cancer, is often followed by a recommendation to initiate and maintain pelvic floor exercise (PFE), to control postsurgery urinary incontinence. Previous studies showed that planning facilitated the uptake and maintenance of a new behavior. Whereas individual planning addresses the setting of plans by 1 person, dyadic planning refers to creating plans together with a partner on when, where, and how the individual target person will perform a behavior. Individual and dyadic planning of PFE, their development over time, and their associations with PFE were investigated. In a correlational study, 175 prostate-cancer patients provided data at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months following the onset of incontinence. Individual planning of PFE by patients and dyadic planning of PFE between patients and their partners, PFE, and incontinence were assessed by patients' self-reports. Two-level models with repeated assessments nested in individuals revealed stable levels of individual planning of PFE over time in patients with higher incontinence severity, whereas patients with receding incontinence showed decreases. Independent of incontinence severity, a curvilinear increase followed by a decrease of dyadic planning of PFE across time emerged. Sequential associations of both planning strategies with PFE were found. Whereas individual planning was steadily associated with PFE, associations between dyadic planning and PFE were nonsignificant in the beginning, but increased over time. Findings point to the importance of individual planning for the adoption and

  13. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices.

  14. Development and psychometric properties of the scale for self-consciousness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Kostas; Veligekas, Panayiotis; Gari, Aikaterini; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia

    2012-08-01

    This scale development employed Duval and Wicklund's (1972), Carver's (1979), and Zaborowski's (1987) theories on self-consciousness. The aim of the study was to create a new method to assess the self-consciousness construct, in an effort to operationally express self-consciousness, while circumventing existing metric and other impediments. Initially, 38 pilot interviews were conducted with undergraduate psychology students, and two studies followed, one on 494 participants and one on 248 participants. Exploratory factor analysis models, equivalence testing, followed by a third confirmatory factor analysis study on a separate sample of 216 participants, resulted in a final 24-item scale. A four-factor structure of two public and two private self-consciousness dimensions emerged. The Scale for Self-Consciousness Assessment (SSCA) can be of use in various areas of psychological research, possibly in concurrent use with other constructs of interest, due to its theoretical and research importance and its adequate psychometric properties.

  15. Dyadic coping, quality of life, and psychological distress among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and their partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Meier1, Guy Bodenmann2, Hanspeter Mörgeli1, Josef Jenewein11Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute of Psychology, University of Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: Successfully coping with a chronic disease depends significantly on social support, particularly that of a significant other. Thus, it depends on the ways of dealing with stress within a couple (dyadic coping. In this study, the relationship between dyadic coping and well-being was investigated among couples in which one partner suffers from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: A total of 43 couples participated. They were mailed questionnaires on anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF, and dyadic coping (Dyadic Coping Inventory.Results: Low scores of positive and high scores of negative dyadic coping were associated with poorer quality of life and higher psychological distress among couples. Delegated coping (assistance with daily tasks was higher among partners. When estimated by patients, high delegated partner coping (frequent provision of support by partners and low delegated personal coping (low provision of support by patients were associated with poorer quality of life for both patient and partner. COPD patients suffering from depression were supported more often and attributed deficits in dyadic coping primarily to themselves, whereas partners with higher scores of depression provided higher estimates of both their own negative coping and the negative coping of their partner.Conclusion: The higher the patient perceived the imbalance in delegated dyadic coping, the lower the couple's quality of life. More negative and less positive dyadic coping were associated with lower quality of life and higher psychological distress. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve dyadic coping may lead to better

  16. The presence of consciousness in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines three respects in which the study of epileptic absence seizures promises to inform our understanding of consciousness. Firstly, it has the potential to bear on debates concerning the behavioural and cognitive functions associated with consciousness. Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or 'levels') of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding of the unity of consciousness.

  17. Mind-brain and consciousness in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, W W

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how the brain produces conscious mentation is vital to the prospective integration of psychoanalytic and neuroscientific study of the mind-brain relation. This essay explores some of the current opinions, based on recent neuroscientific research, regarding origins of consciousness in the brain. Areas explored include levels of consciousness, waking versus dream consciousness, and issues of consciousness and self-organization in split-brain studies. Some tentative suggestions are made regarding clinical implications of this perspective.

  18. Self-consciousness, self-agency, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Tilo T J; Leube, Dirk T

    2003-12-01

    Empirical approaches on topics such as consciousness, self-awareness, or introspective perspective, need a conceptual framework so that the emerging, still unconnected findings can be integrated and put into perspective. We introduce a model of self-consciousness derived from phenomenology, philosophy, the cognitive, and neurosciences. We will then give an overview of research data on one particular aspect of our model, self-agency, trying to link findings from cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Finally, we will expand on pathological aspects of self-agency, and in particular on psychosis in schizophrenia. We show, that a deficient self-monitoring system underlies, in part, hallucinations and formal thought (language) disorder in schizophrenia. We argue, that self-consciousness is a valid construct and can be studied with the instruments of cognitive and neuroscience.

  19. Proposal for an Approach to Artificial Consciousness Based on Self-Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Menant, Mr Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Current research on artificial consciousness is focused on phenomenal consciousness and on functional consciousness. We propose to shift the focus to self-consciousness in order to open new areas of investigation. We use an existing scenario where self-consciousness is considered as the result of an evolution of representations. Application of the scenario to the possible build up of a conscious robot also introduces questions relative to emotions in robots. Areas of investigation...

  20. Edmund Husserl's theory of image consciousness, aesthetic consciousness, and art

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The central theme of my dissertation is Husserl’s phenomenological analysis of how we experience images. The aim of my dissertation is twofold: 1) to offer a contribution to the understanding of Husserl’s theory of image consciousness, aesthetic consciousness and art, and 2) to find out whether Husserl’s theory of the experience of images is applicable to modern and contemporary art, particularly to strongly site-specific art, unaided ready-mades, and contemporary films and theatre plays in w...

  1. Marriage Expectations among African American Couples in Early Adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…

  2. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...

  3. Effects of time pressure and communication environment on team processes and outcomes in dyadic planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R van der; Lijkwan, J.T.E..; Dreu, C.K.W. de

    2009-01-01

    An experiment compared dyadic performance in a radio communication and a more sophisticated communication environment to face-to-face (FtF) meetings. Thirty-six dyads, working under low or high time-pressure conditions, needed to combine information and to produce a written plan. Teams working in

  4. The Processes that Promote Learning in Adult Mentoring and Coaching Dyadic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of 10 adults participating in one-to-one mentoring and/or coaching. Participants were selected for interviewing through a purposive sampling process from leading international mentoring and coaching organizations. Selection criteria included (a) being an adult, (b) participating in a dyadic learning, and (c) regarding that…

  5. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize

  6. Effects of time pressure and communication environment on team processes and outcomes in dyadic planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, R.; Lijkwan, J.T.E.; Rasker, P.C.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment compared dyadic performance in a radio communication and a more sophisticated communication environment to face-to-face (FtF) meetings. Thirty-six dyads, working under low or high time-pressure conditions, needed to combine information and to produce a written plan. Teams working in th

  7. Attachment, Stress, Dyadic Coping, and Marital Satisfaction of Counseling Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenfhausen, Kerrie K.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 191 married students from 23 Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs-accredited programs participated in a survey designed to examine factors that affect the marital satisfaction of counseling graduate students. Results indicated that attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and dyadic coping accounted…

  8. Practices for Social Interaction in the Language-Learning Classroom: Disengagements from Dyadic Task Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellermann, John; Cole, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Using conversation analysis and situated learning theory, in this paper we analyze the peer dyadic interactions of one adult learner of English in class periods 16 months apart. The analyses in the paper present microgenetic and longitudinal perspectives on the learner's increasing participation in his classroom communities of practice. The focus…

  9. The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Competence between Adolescents' Empathy and Friendship Quality: A Dyadic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Ruhl, Holly; Buhrmester, Duane

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of empathy on friendship quality in the context of dyadic same-sex friendships, and how such an effect might be mediated by interpersonal competence. A special version of the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine this hypothesis in 146 same-sex friend dyads in 10th grade. Results…

  10. Dyadic interventions for community-dwelling people with dementia and their family caregivers: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Prick; A.M. Pot; Dr. P.D.D.M. Roelofs; Dr. J. de Lange; M.A. van 't Leven; Dr. J.H. Groenewoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this review, we study the effects of dyadic psychosocial interventions focused on communitydwelling people with dementia and their family caregivers, and the relationship of the effects with intervention components of programs. Methods: A search from January 2005 to January 2012 led t

  11. A theory and dynamic model of dyadic interaction : Concerns, appraisals, and contagiousness in a developmental context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    A theory of the dynamics of dyadic interaction is presented, based on the concepts of "concern" (i.e., intentions, goals, and interests), "appraisal" and "contagiousness". Differences between children who participate in a specific interaction are linked to differences in social competence and social

  12. Some but not all dyadic measures in shared decision making research have satisfactory psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legare, F.; Turcotte, S.; Robitaille, H.; Stewart, M.; Frosch, D.; Grimshaw, J.; Labrecque, M.; Ouimet, M.; Rousseau, M.; Stacey, D.; Weijden, T. van der; Elwyn, G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of dyadic measures for shared decision making (SDM) research. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study in 17 primary care clinics with physician-patient dyads. We used seven subscales to measure six elements of SDM

  13. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize

  14. Elicitation and Reformulation and Their Relationship with Learner Repair in Dyadic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates the usefulness of two major types of interactional feedback (elicitation and reformulation) in dyadic interaction. The focus is on the different ways in which each feedback type is provided and their relationship with learner repair. The participants were 42 adult intermediate English as a second language learners and…

  15. Infants, Mothers, and Dyadic Contributions to Stability and Prediction of Social Stress Response at 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L.; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social…

  16. The far-reaching effects of power: at the individual, dyadic, and group levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galinsky, A.D.; Chou, E.Y.; Halevy, N.; Van Kleef, G.A.; Neale, M.A.; Mannix, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This chapter provides a framework that captures the fundamental impacts of power at the individual, dyadic, small group, and organizational levels. Within each level, we trace the psychological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of having or lacking power. Approach - We integrate theo

  17. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were

  18. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  19. Dyadic interventions for community-dwelling people with dementia and their family caregivers: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leven, M.A. van 't; Prick, A.E.; Groenewoud, J.H.; Roelofs, P.D.D.M.; Lange, J. de; Pot, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this review, we study the effects of dyadic psychosocial interventions focused on communitydwelling people with dementia and their family caregivers, and the relationship of the effects with intervention components of programs. Methods: A search from January 2005 to January 2012 led t

  20. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  1. Diabetes Distress and Depressive Symptoms: A Dyadic Investigation of Older Patients and Their Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Melissa M.; Lucas, Todd; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S.; Gonzalez, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this dyadic study, we examined diabetes distress experienced by male and female patients and their spouses (N = 185 couples), and its association with depressive symptoms using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Diabetes-related distress reported by both patients and spouses was associated with each partner's own depressive symptoms…

  2. Examining Relations among Mothers', Fathers', and Children's Language Use in a Dyadic and Triadic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gary E.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated mothers' and fathers' language use in dyadic and triadic contexts. Specific attention was paid to factors associated with the quantity and quality of mother and father language use in triadic settings. Sixty-three predominantly middle-class, two-parent families with toddlers (age 16 to 37 months) participated. Mother-child…

  3. Dyadic Power Profiles: Power-Contingent Strategies for Value Creation in Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olekalns, Mara; Smith, Philip Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Using a simulated employment negotiation, we tested the conditional relationships among dyadic power profiles (symmetric high, symmetric low, and asymmetric), the choice and sequencing of strategies, and value creation. We showed that negotiators in symmetric high, symmetric low, and asymmetric power dyads took distinctly different paths to value…

  4. Making children laugh: parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Jean-FrançOis; Yurkowski, Kim; Schmiedel, Sabrina; Martin, Jodi; Moss, Ellen; Pallanca, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether dyadic synchrony of father-child and mother-child interactions in a playful context were associated with attachment organization in preschool children. One hundred seven children (48 boys, Mage = 46.67 months, SD = 8.57) and their mothers and fathers (counterbalanced order of lab visits) participated in a playful interaction without toys (Laughing Task procedure). Playful interactions were coded based on the degree to which the dyads demonstrated a variety of behavior representing dyadic synchrony and task management. Children's attachment behavior toward fathers and mothers was observed in a modified separation-reunion procedure adapted for the preschool period. Results demonstrate that mothers and fathers are similar in their effort to arouse and engage their child in a playful context, but mothers achieved a greater synchrony with their child. Disorganized attachment to either mother or father is linked with a lack of synchrony in dyadic interaction. Findings are in contrast with prevailing theory, suggesting that despite gender-related differences in parental playful behaviors, dyadic synchrony is equally important in both mother- and father-child relationships for the development of organized social and affectional bonds.

  5. Together in Pain: Attachment-Related Dyadic Processes and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Doron, Guy; Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2010-01-01

    We used actor-partner interdependence modeling to explore associations among attachment-related dyadic processes, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war veterans, and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in their wives. A sample of 157 Israeli couples (85 former prisoners of war and their wives and a comparison group of 72 veterans not held…

  6. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (Mage=11.0years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planne

  7. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  8. Consciousness is still in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Yossi

    2010-06-01

    In a recent study (Hassin, Bargh, Engell, & McCulloch, 2009, Exp. 4) half of the participants were informed ofthe occasional occurrence of location regularities (patterns) in visual stimulus sets, while the other half was not. Evidence was presented to the effect that uninformed participants extracted the patterns from the displays better than the informed participants. The authors interpret their finding as demonstrating that working memory (WM) can operate non-consciously. However, inspection of the data suggests that rather than being more effective than the informed participants in extracting patterns, uninformed participants were more strongly affected by the "Broken Patterns" that served as misleading cues. Thus whereas the findings may support the possibility of non-conscious operation of low level WM functions, they nevertheless underscore the importance of conscious awareness as far as higher level functions are concerned. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How to Assess Ictal Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja Johanson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the complexity and methodological difficulties in defining the concept of consciousness, it is a central concept in epileptology, and should thus be tractable for scientific analysis. In the present article, a two-dimensional model consisting of concepts related to the level and the contents of consciousness will be presented. This model has been found to be well suited for the description of seizure-induced alterations of consciousness, and is supported both by findings from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies as well as from phenomenological studies. Further, we will review both traditional introspective methods as well as methods that have recently been developed or utilized in epilepsy research, summarize the main findings concerning first person experiences during epileptic seizures acquired with some of these methods, and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  10. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Edelman, David B.

    2012-09-01

    Natural phenomena are reducible to quantum events in principle, but quantum mechanics does not always provide the best level of analysis. The many-body problem, chaotic avalanches, materials properties, biological organisms, and weather systems are better addressed at higher levels. Animals are highly organized, goal-directed, adaptive, selectionist, information-preserving, functionally redundant, multicellular, quasi-autonomous, highly mobile, reproducing, dissipative systems that conserve many fundamental features over remarkably long periods of time at the species level. Animal brains consist of massive, layered networks of specialized signaling cells with 10,000 communication points per cell, and interacting up to 1000 Hz. Neurons begin to divide and differentiate very early in gestation, and continue to develop until middle age. Waking brains operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium under delicate homeostatic control, making them extremely sensitive to a range of physical and chemical stimuli, highly adaptive, and able to produce a remarkable range of goal-relevant actions. Consciousness is “a difference that makes a difference” at the level of massive neuronal interactions in the most parallel-interactive anatomical structure of the mammalian brain, the cortico-thalamic (C-T) system. Other brain structures are not established to result in direct conscious experiences, at least in humans. However, indirect extra-cortical influences on the C-T system are pervasive. Learning, brain plasticity and major life adaptations may require conscious cognition. While brains evolved over hundreds of millions of years, and individual brains grow over months, years and decades, conscious events appear to have a duty cycle of ∼100 ms, fading after a few seconds. They can of course be refreshed by inner rehearsal, re-visualization, or attending to recurrent stimulus sources. These very distinctive brain events are needed when animals seek out and cope with new

  11. Neural correlates of consciousness reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisser, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted among philosophers that neuroscientists are conducting a search for the neural correlates of consciousness, or NCC. Chalmers (2000) conceptualized this research program as the attempt to correlate the contents of conscious experience with the contents of representations in specific neural populations. A notable claim on behalf of this interpretation is that the neutral language of "correlates" frees us from philosophical disputes over the mind/body relation, allowing the science to move independently. But the experimental paradigms and explanatory canons of neuroscience are not neutral about the mechanical relation between consciousness and the brain. I argue that NCC research is best characterized as an attempt to locate a causally relevant neural mechanism and not as an effort to identify a discrete neural representation, the content of which correlates with some actual experience. It might be said that the first C in "NCC" should stand for "causes" rather than "correlates."

  12. Reading embodied consciousness in "Emma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbus, Antonina

    2011-01-01

    The language of Emma (1815) reflects Jane Austen's developing view of embodied consciousness and her particular interest in this novel in the physical manifestations of emotions, such as blushes and nervous responses. The discursive exploration of the inner life in Emma is the product of a cultural context that features emerging brain science and Austen's own conceptualization of the psychophysical nature of emotions. This article analyzes the language of mind and emotion in Emma, to contend that Austen grapples with the implications of the idea of embodied consciousness in a narrative that contrasts mind reading with interpreting the body.

  13. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  14. Conscious perception of emotional stimuli: brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek G V; Greening, Steven G

    2012-08-01

    Emotional stimuli are thought to gain rapid and privileged access to processing resources in the brain. The structures involved in this enhanced access are thought to support subconscious, reflexive processes. Whether these pathways contribute to the phenomenological experience of emotional visual awareness (i.e., conscious perception) is unclear. In this review, it is argued that subcortical networks associated with the rapid detection of emotionally salient stimuli also play a key role in shaping awareness. This proposal is based on the idea that awareness of visual stimuli should be considered along a continuum, having intermediate levels, rather than as an all-or-none construct. It is also argued that awareness of emotional stimuli requires less input from frontoparietal structures that are often considered crucial for visual awareness. Evidence is also presented that implicates a region of the medial prefrontal cortex, involved in emotion regulation, in modulating amygdala output to determine awareness of emotional visual stimuli; when emotional stimuli are present, the conscious perception of alternative stimuli requires greater regulatory influences from cortical structures. Thus, emotional stimuli are privileged not only for neuronal representation and impact on subconscious processes, but also for awareness, allowing humans to deal flexibly rather than merely reflexively to biologically significant stimuli.

  15. "This Is a Bad Dog, You Know...": Constructing Shared Meanings During Sibling Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Petrakos, Hariclia; Rinaldi, Christina M.; LeFebvre, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    The construction of shared meanings in play, pretense enactment, internal state language, and sibling relationship quality were investigated in 40 kindergarteners with an older (M age = 7.10 years) or younger (M age = 3.6 years) sibling. Dyadic strategies to construct shared meanings (e.g., extensions, building on) were positively associated with…

  16. On The Construction of Lingnan Cultural Spirit and National Consciousness of Hong Kong People%论岭南文化精神与港人国民意识的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立军; 徐海波

    2015-01-01

    Lingnan Culture,one of Chinese local cultures,is the cultural foundation shared by Hong Kong, Guangdong and some other areas as well as the conceptual foundation of the identity sense of the people in these areas.The essence of Lingnan Culture lies in the spirit of patriotism and identity of being a Chinese, which come from the development of Lingnan Culture in the past hundreds of years.Hong Kong plays a very important role in the development and evolution of Lingnan Cultural spirit.On the condition that lots of Hong Kong people are confused about their national consciousness and identity,it is fairly significant to bring into full play the superiority of Lingnan Culture which acts as a cultural link between Hong Kong and the mainland.%岭南文化是中国地方文化形式中的一种,是香港、广东以及其他一些地区所共同拥有的文化基础,也是这些地区人们的身份意识的观念基础。岭南文化精神的精髓是在岭南文化千百年来的发展历史中所体现出来的爱国主义精神和中华民族的身份意识。香港在岭南文化精神的形成和演进过程中起到重要作用。在今天港人的国民意识和身份认同方面出现困惑的情况下,从重振岭南文化入手可推进港人的国民意识构建。

  17. Consciousness from the ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Seth

    2013-05-01

    The book Physics in Mind: a Quantum View of the Brain certainly aims high. Written by the eminent biophysicist Werner Loewenstein, its goal is nothing less than a theory that explains our sense of conscious existence, built from the bottom up.

  18. Trigeminovascular stimulation in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, RHA; Meijler, WJ; TerHorst, GJ

    1997-01-01

    INTRACISTERNAL infusion of capsaicin was used to induce intracranial trigeminovascular stimulation in conscious rats. Both behaviour and trigeminal nucleus caudalis c-fos expression were examined. Exploratory behaviour was dose-dependently reduced and different types of behaviours were induced with

  19. Self-Consciousness, Caring, Relationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    In the studies of emotion, shame is classified under several labels: a self-conscious emotion, an emotion of self-assessment, a social emotion, and a moral emotion. All of them are supposed to pick out a defining characteristic of shame. Though all of these labels will be under scrutiny at some...

  20. The Awakening of Feminist Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊江

    2013-01-01

    Virginia Woolf in her great novel To the Lighthouse shows her deep concern for women. In this book, she discusses women’s spiritual world and the process of the awakening of feminist consciousness, which is represented by Mrs. Ramsay and Lily Briscoe.

  1. Self-Consciousness, Caring, Relationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    In the studies of emotion, shame is classified under several labels: a self-conscious emotion, an emotion of self-assessment, a social emotion, and a moral emotion. All of them are supposed to pick out a defining characteristic of shame. Though all of these labels will be under scrutiny at some p...

  2. The Presence of Consciousness in Absence Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Bayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines three respects in which the study of epileptic absence seizures promises to inform our understanding of consciousness. Firstly, it has the potential to bear on debates concerning the behavioural and cognitive functions associated with consciousness. Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or ‘levels’) of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding of the unity o...

  3. Consciousness without a cortex, but what kind of consciousness is this? [editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Merker suggests that the thalamocortical system is not an essential system for consciousness, but, instead, that the midbrain reticular system is responsible for consciousness. Indeed, the latter is a crucial system for consciousness, when consciousness is regarded as the waking state. However, when

  4. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  5. Self-Consciousness and Aspects of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Jonathan M.; Briggs, Stephen R.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between public and private self-consciousness and social and personal aspects of identity. Public self-consciousness correlated more strongly with social than with personal aspects of identity, and private self-consciousness correlated more strongly with personal than with social aspects. Discusses implications for…

  6. From the Perspective of Artificial Intelligence: A New Approach to the Nature of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Manzotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is not only a philosophical but also a technological issue, since a conscious agent has evolutionary advantages. Thus, to replicate a biological level of intelligence in a machine, concepts of machine consciousness have to be considered. The widespread internalistic assumption that humans do not experience the world as it is, but through an internal ‘3D virtual reality model’, hinders this construction. To overcome this obstacle for machine consciousness a new theoretical approach to consciousness is sketched between internalism and externalism to address the gap between experience and physical world. The ‘internal interpreter concept’ is replaced by a ‘key-lock approach’. Here, consciousness is not an image of the external world but the world itself. A possible technological design for a conscious machine is drafted taking advantage of an architecture exploiting selfdevelopment of new goals, intrinsic motivation, and situated cognition. The proposed cognitive architecture does not pretend to be conclusive or experimentally satisfying but rather forms the theoretical the first step to a full architecture model on which the authors currently work on, which will enable conscious agents e.g. for robotics or software applications.

  7. Researches regarding a constructing problem of a PV system. Part 1. Conscious investigation by means of a questionnaire survey; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru kenchikuteki shomondai no kenkyu. 1. Anketo chosa ni yoru ishiki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Kuroki, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The installation and introduction of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVS) in buildings are growingly expected in the construction field from now, coupled with the marketing of a solar cell module as a product for a construction material in the form of an external wall or a roof material for example. For this purpose, it is necessary at first to summarize problems that may arise at the time of or after the installation of PVS as a product. This paper examines an opinion poll, degree of recognition, current problems, etc., of PVS as a result of a questionnaire survey given to engineers and architects engaged in the actual construction business. The degree of recognition and interest was very high. Consultation or request for PVS installation was much more than predicted in numbers. Roughly 50% of the respondents reacted positively for the future installation request of PVS and, combined with the respondents who answered to look into the installation tentatively, not less than 90% were of a forward-looking opinion. The 85% of the respondents was not aware of the monitor business system for residential PVS. Further, the survey clearly brought out the importance of cost problems. 1 ref., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Associations between Perceived HIV Stigma and Quality of Life at the Dyadic Lvel: The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjie Liu; Yongfang Xu; Xinjin Lin; Jian Shi; Shiyi Chen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the relationship between HIV-related stigma and quality life at the dyadic level. The objective of this study was to examine the actor and partner effects of stigma that was perceived by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and caregivers on quality of life at the dyadic level. METHOD: A survey was conducted among 148 dyads consisting of one PLWHA and one caregiver (296 participants) in Nanning, China. The interdependent relationship between a pair of...

  9. Becoming conscious of the American middle class (un)consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroos, Karmo

    2012-09-01

    It is argued in this article that social psychology would make the greatest contribution to research on class identity if it concentrated on the area closest to psychology-analysis of class consciousness. In order to show that the study of the psyche and mentality of the middle class is one of the least researched aspects of the American middle class, a brief overview of the different approaches to the study of the middle class in selected disciplines will be offered. It will be demonstrated that even if the identity of the U.S. middle class cannot be fully understood without its history and the social context in which it operates, it is the study of its (un)consciousness that social psychology should be focusing its research efforts on. The alternative would make social psychology indistinguishable from social history or sociology.

  10. The sexual self-consciousness scale: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Geijen, Wendy E H; Sykora, Heidi

    2008-12-01

    An investigation of the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale (SSCS) is reported that aims to measure individual variability with regard to the construct of self-consciousness as experienced in sexual situations. The construct relates to the attentional-capacity model of sexual arousal. Sexual self-consciousness may constitute a vulnerability factor for the development of sexual dysfunction. In the present study, men and women with sexual dysfunction and healthy control participants were investigated (N = 282). Principal component analysis and multitrait scaling analysis showed that a two-component, oblimin-rotated solution based on 12 items and explaining 53.7% of the total variance could be well interpreted. The Sexual Embarrassment subscale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), the Sexual Self-Focus subscale (alpha = .79), and the full scale (alpha = .85) were found to have satisfactory to good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for the Sexual Embarrassment subscale (r = .84), the Sexual Self-Focus subscale (r = .79), and total score (r = .83). An effect of sex was found on the Sexual Embarrassment subscale, with female participants scoring higher than male participants. Compared with sexually functional participants, sexually dysfunctional participants scored higher on the Sexual Embarrassment and Sexual Self-Focus subscales. Convergent and divergent construct validity was investigated by comparing the associations of SSCS subscales with general self-consciousness and psychological distress scales. The pattern of correlations was interpreted as providing support for the instrument's construct validity. In conclusion, the SSCS was found to have satisfactory reliability and validity characteristics, and is expected to contribute to the field of sex research and clinical sexology.

  11. Measuring consciousness in severely damaged brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosseries, Olivia; Di, Haibo; Laureys, Steven; Boly, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the behavioral assessment and clinical management of disorders of consciousness (DOC). In addition, functional neuroimaging paradigms are now available to help assess consciousness levels in this challenging patient population. The success of these neuroimaging approaches as diagnostic markers is, however, intrinsically linked to understanding the relationships between consciousness and the brain. In this context, a combined theoretical approach to neuroimaging studies is needed. The promise of such theoretically based markers is illustrated by recent findings that used a perturbational approach to assess the levels of consciousness. Further research on the contents of consciousness in DOC is also needed.

  12. An information integration theory of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations

  13. Dyadic Green’s functions of thin films: Applications within plasmonic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jesper; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm;

    2011-01-01

    Optimization and design of silicon solar cells by exploiting light scattering frommetal nanoparticles to increase the efficiency is addressed in the small particle limit from a fundamental point of view via the dyadic Green’s function formulation. Based on the dyadic Green’s function (Green....... The theoretical approach is used to analyze realistic configurations for plasmon-assisted silicon solar cells. We show that by embedding metal nanoscatterers in a thin film with a high refractive index (rutile TiO2 with n ≈ 2.5) on top of the silicon, the fraction of scattered light that couples into the solar...... cell can become larger than 96%, and an optical path length enhancement of more than 100 can be achieved....

  14. Haptic and visual information speed up the neural processing of auditory speech in live dyadic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treille, Avril; Cordeboeuf, Camille; Vilain, Coriandre; Sato, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Speech can be perceived not only by the ear and by the eye but also by the hand, with speech gestures felt from manual tactile contact with the speaker׳s face. In the present electro-encephalographic study, early cross-modal interactions were investigated by comparing auditory evoked potentials during auditory, audio-visual and audio-haptic speech perception in dyadic interactions between a listener and a speaker. In line with previous studies, early auditory evoked responses were attenuated and speeded up during audio-visual compared to auditory speech perception. Crucially, shortened latencies of early auditory evoked potentials were also observed during audio-haptic speech perception. Altogether, these results suggest early bimodal interactions during live face-to-face and hand-to-face speech perception in dyadic interactions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...... patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce...... to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial...

  16. Green's Dyadic, Spectral Function, Local Density of States, and Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, W C; Dai, Q I

    2015-01-01

    The spectral functions are studied in conjunction with the dyadic Green's functions for various media. The dyadic Green's functions are found using the eigenfunction expansion method for homogeneous, inhomogeneous, periodic, lossless, lossy, and anisotropic media, guided by the Bloch- Floquet theorem. For the lossless media cases, the spectral functions can be directly related to the photon local density of states, and hence, to the electromagnetic energy density. For the lossy case, the spectral function can be related to the ?eld correlation function. Because of these properties, one can derive properties for ?eld correlations and the Langevin-source correlations without resorting to the uctuation dissipation theorem. The results are corroborated by the uctuation dissipation theorem. An expression for the local density of states for lossy, inhomogeneous, and dispersive media has also been suggested.

  17. The Moral Insignificance of Self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I examine the claim that self-consciousness is highly morally significant, such that the fact that an entity is self-conscious generates strong moral reasons against harming or killing that entity. This claim is apparently very intuitive, but I argue it is false. I consider two ways to defend this claim: one indirect, the other direct. The best-known arguments relevant to self-consciousness's significance take the indirect route. I examine them and argue that (a) in various ways they depend on unwarranted assumptions about self-consciousness's functional significance, and (b) once these assumptions are undermined, motivation for these arguments dissipates. I then consider the direct route to self-consciousness's significance, which depends on claims that self-consciousness has intrinsic value or final value. I argue what intrinsic or final value self-consciousness possesses is not enough to generate strong moral reasons against harming or killing.

  18. Consistency between recognition and behavior creates consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Inaba

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available What is consciousness? Is it possible to create consciousness mechanically? Various studies have been performed in the fields of psychology and cerebral science to answer these questions. As of yet, however, no researchers have proposed a model capable of explaining the mind-body problem described by Descartes or replicating a consciousness as advanced as that of human beings. Ancient people believed that the consciousness resided in a Homunculus, a human in miniature who lived in the brain. It is no mystery that the ancients came up with such an idea; for consciousness has always been veiled in mystery, beyond the reach of our explorative powers. We can assert, however, that consciousness does not "live" in us, but "exists" in us. Insofar as the processes occurring inside the human brain are a product of the physical activity of the neurons that reside there, we believe that it should be possible to define consciousness systematically.

  19. Dyadic Aspects of Sexual Well-Being in Men with Laser-Treated Penile Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Skeppner, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A high level of within-couple agreement concerning sexuality and life satisfaction points to the necessity of including an adequate sexological case history, counseling, and treatment for this group of patients and their partners. Skeppner E and Fugl-Meyer K. Dyadic aspects of sexual well-being in men with laser-treated penile carcinoma. Sex Med 2015;3:67–75.

  20. Hörmander multipliers on two-dimensional dyadic Hardy spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Fridli, S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we are interested in conditions on the coefficients of a two-dimensional Walsh multiplier operator that imply the operator is bounded on certain of the Hardy type spaces Hp, 0Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 109 (1956) 701-703; S.G. Mihlin, Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations, Pergamon Press, 1965]. In this paper we extend these results to the two-dimensional dyadic Hardy spaces.

  1. A dyadic perspective on retailer-supplier relationships through the lens of social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Son, B.G.; Kocabasoglu-Hillmer, C.; Roden, S.

    2016-01-01

    Social capital theory has received increasing attention as a lens through which to examine supply chain relationships and the value creation process. Despite the growing application of social capital and its three dimensions, namely cognitive, structural and relational capital, to inter-organizational research, few studies in reality have taken a dyadic perspective. Using a paired sample of retailer-supplier relationships from Korean fast-moving consumer goods sector, we explore the configura...

  2. Time-Series Analysis of Embodied Interaction: Movement Variability and Complexity Matching As Dyadic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Fonseca, Leonardo; Dotov, Dobromir; Fossion, Ruben; Froese, Tom

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that a fuller understanding of social cognition depends on more systematic studies of real-time social interaction. Such studies require methods that can deal with the complex dynamics taking place at multiple interdependent temporal and spatial scales, spanning sub-personal, personal, and dyadic levels of analysis. We demonstrate the value of adopting an extended multi-scale approach by re-analyzing movement time-series generated in a study of embodied dyadic interaction in a minimal virtual reality environment (a perceptual crossing experiment). Reduced movement variability revealed an interdependence between social awareness and social coordination that cannot be accounted for by either subjective or objective factors alone: it picks out interactions in which subjective and objective conditions are convergent (i.e., elevated coordination is perceived as clearly social, and impaired coordination is perceived as socially ambiguous). This finding is consistent with the claim that interpersonal interaction can be partially constitutive of direct social perception. Clustering statistics (Allan Factor) of salient events revealed fractal scaling. Complexity matching defined as the similarity between these scaling laws was significantly more pronounced in pairs of participants as compared to surrogate dyads. This further highlights the multi-scale and distributed character of social interaction and extends previous complexity matching results from dyadic conversation to non-verbal social interaction dynamics. Trials with successful joint interaction were also associated with an increase in local coordination. Consequently, a local coordination pattern emerges on the background of complex dyadic interactions in the PCE task and makes joint successful performance possible. PMID:28018274

  3. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: The mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo eCalvo; Francesca eBianco

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem.Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0 to 6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close R...

  4. Time series analysis of embodied interaction: Movement variability and complexity matching as dyadic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Zapata-Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consensus that a fuller understanding of social cognition depends on more systematic studies of real-time social interaction. Such studies require methods that can deal with the complex dynamics taking place at multiple interdependent temporal and spatial scales, spanning sub-personal, personal, and dyadic levels of analysis. We demonstrate the value of adopting an extended multi-scale approach by re-analyzing movement time series generated in a study of embodied dyadic interaction in a minimal virtual reality environment (a perceptual crossing experiment. Reduced movement variability revealed an interdependence between social awareness and social coordination that cannot be accounted for by either subjective or objective factors alone: it picks out interactions in which subjective and objective conditions are convergent (i.e. elevated coordination is perceived as clearly social, and impaired coordination is perceived as socially ambiguous. This finding is consistent with the claim that interpersonal interaction can be partially constitutive of direct social perception. Clustering statistics (Allan Factor of salient events revealed fractal scaling. Complexity matching defined as the similarity between these scaling laws was significantly more pronounced in pairs of participants as compared to surrogate dyads. This further highlights the multi-scale and distributed character of social interaction and extends previous complexity matching results from dyadic conversation to nonverbal social interaction dynamics. Trials with successful joint interaction were also associated with an increase in local coordination. Consequently, a local coordination pattern emerges on the background of complex dyadic interactions in the PCE task and makes joint successful performance possible.

  5. Integrated approach to cost consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Cost consciousness was given a very necessary boost by the collapse of oil prices in 1986 and downward movements in prices have served to re-inforce the need for vigilance: oil companies were becoming complacent. The climate necessary for cost consciousness to flourish as part of the oil company culture is established by higher management attitude and can be reinforced by organizational structure. British Petroleum's current production/exploration organisational structure is reported on in the first section of this paper and this is followed by a discussion of pertinent cost-oriented observations to emerge from this grouping related both to the component phases of the exploitation of a field, and to the cost of engineering/managing same.

  6. Evidence for a communal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Recently described social network phenomena show that emotionally connected people come to share certain traits, including obesity, happiness, and loneliness. These do not appear to be mediated by face-to-face contact. Other examples of groups with a common connection that act in unison are mass hysteria, menstrual synchrony, and the ability of a group to guess the number of jelly beans in a jar. The animal kingdom abounds with examples of groups functioning as a single whole: fish school, birds flock, hoofed animals herd, ant and bee colonies work as a single organism. Try as they might, neuroscientists have been unable to find an anatomical seat of consciousness within the brain. C.G. Jung's realization of a collective unconscious began with an observation of a patient whose thoughts matched previous writings that the patient had never seen. The "emotional telepathy" of social network phenomena suggests a collective/communal consciousness as well.

  7. Interferences between breathing, experimental dyspnoea and bodily self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Etienne; Canzoneri, Elisa; Adler, Dan; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Bello-Ruiz, Javier; Herbelin, Bruno; Blanke, Olaf; Similowski, Thomas

    2017-08-30

    Dyspnoea, a subjective experience of breathing discomfort, is a most distressing symptom. It implicates complex cortical networks that partially overlap with those underlying bodily self-consciousness, the experience that the body is one's own within a given location (self-identification and self-location, respectively). Breathing as an interoceptive signal contributes to bodily self-consciousness: we predicted that inducing experimental dyspnoea would modify or disrupt this contribution. We also predicted that manipulating bodily self-consciousness with respiratory-visual stimulation would possibly attenuate dyspnoea. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were exposed to synchronous and asynchronous respiratory-visual illumination of an avatar during normal breathing and mechanically loaded breathing that elicited dyspnoea. During normal breathing, synchronous respiratory-visual stimulation induced illusory self-identification with the avatar and an illusory location of the subjects' breathing towards the avatar. This did not occur when respiratory-visual stimulation was performed during dyspnoea-inducing loaded breathing. In this condition, the affective impact of dyspnoea was attenuated by respiratory-visual stimulation, particularly when asynchronous. This study replicates and reinforces previous studies about the integration of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals in the construction of bodily self-consciousness. It confirms the existence of interferences between experimental dyspnoea and cognitive functions. It suggests that respiratory-visual stimulation should be tested as a non-pharmacological approach of dyspnoea treatment.

  8. Classical Coherence, Life and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Partha

    2014-07-01

    There have been many claims that quantum mechanics plays a key role in the origin and/or operation of biological organisms, beyond merely providing the basis for the shapes and sizes of biological molecules and their chemical affinities. These range from Schrödinger's suggestion that quantum fluctuations produce mutations, to Hameroff and Penrose's conjecture that quantum coherence in microtubules is linked to consciousness. I review some of these claims in this paper, and discuss the serious problem of decoherence.

  9. Conscious sedation: A dying practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Manickam, Palaniappan; Kanaan, Ziad; Zakaria, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Sedation practices vary according to countries with different health system regulations, the procedures done, and local circumstances. Interestingly, differences in the setting in which the practice of gastroenterology and endoscopy takes place (university-based vs academic practice) as well as other systematic practice differences influence the attitude of endoscopists concerning sedation practices. Conscious sedation using midazolam and opioids is the current standard method of sedation in ...

  10. Recursive algorithm and accurate computation of dyadic Green's functions for stratified uniaxial anisotropic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A recursive algorithm is adopted for the computation of dyadic Green's functions in three-dimensional stratified uniaxial anisotropic media with arbitrary number of layers. Three linear equation groups for computing the coefficients of the Sommerfeld integrals are obtained according to the continuity condition of electric and magnetic fields across the interface between different layers, which are in correspondence with the TM wave produced by a vertical unit electric dipole and the TE or TM wave produced by a horizontal unit electric dipole, respectively. All the linear equation groups can be solved via the recursive algorithm. The dyadic Green's functions with source point and field point being in any layer can be conveniently obtained by merely changing the position of the elements within the source term of the linear equation groups. The problem of singularities occurring in the Sommerfeld integrals is efficiently solved by deforming the integration path in the complex plane. The expression of the dyadic Green's functions provided by this paper is terse in form and is easy to be programmed, and it does not overflow. Theoretical analysis and numerical examples show the accuracy and effectivity of the algorithm.

  11. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents' self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0-6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child's age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem.

  12. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: The mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eCalvo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent-child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem.Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0 to 6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships – Revised (ECR-R questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC.Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem.

  13. A Dyadic Perspective on Speech Accommodation and Social Connection: Both Partners' Rejection Sensitivity Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Lauren; Downey, Geraldine; Krauss, Robert; Pardo, Jennifer; Lane, Sean; Bolger, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Findings from confederate paradigms predict that mimicry is an adaptive route to social connection for rejection-sensitive individuals (Lakin, Chartrand, & Arkin, 2008). However, dyadic perspectives predict that whether mimicry leads to perceived connection depends on the rejection sensitivity (RS) of both partners in an interaction. We investigated these predictions in 50 college women who completed a dyadic cooperative task in which members were matched or mismatched in being dispositionally high or low in RS. We used a psycholinguistics paradigm to assess, through independent listeners' judgments (N = 162), how much interacting individuals accommodate phonetic aspects of their speech toward each other. Results confirmed predictions from confederate paradigms in matched RS dyads. However, mismatched dyads showed an asymmetry in levels of accommodation and perceived connection: Those high in RS accommodated more than their low-RS partner but emerged feeling less connected. Mediational analyses indicated that low-RS individuals' nonaccommodation in mismatched dyads helped explain their high-RS partners' relatively low perceived connection to them. Establishing whether mimicry is an adaptive route to social connection requires analyzing mimicry as a dyadic process influenced by the needs of each dyad member. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Dyadic Interactive Approach to the Study of Leader Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    supervisors and workers in a bogus greeting card company performed experimental tasks involving construction of " origami " cranes. The following variables...prevalent notion of leadership, the public has accepted the belief that, when guided by an inspirational and dynamic leader, the members of a group will... Structure emerged as the major di- mensions of leadership behavior. Unfortunately, the situational character- istics could and did moderate the

  15. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perogamvros, Lampros

    2013-01-01

    A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel's invention (Casares, 1940), a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating, and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an “endogenous” Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states. PMID:23467765

  16. Freudian theory and consciousness: A conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id and the conscious (ego. Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthropological and sociological perspective, we need to look at how Freudian theory may contribute to a better understanding of consciousness. We also need to look at psychoanalytical psychotherapy and its contribution to a better understanding of body-mind dualism and consciousness as a whole. Ego psychology is considered in the present day context and it is synthesized with various psychological studies to give us a better understanding of consciousness.

  17. Freudian theory and consciousness: A conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id and the conscious (ego. Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthropological and sociological perspective, we need to look at how Freudian theory may contribute to a better understanding of consciousness. We also need to look at psychoanalytical psychotherapy and its contribution to a better understanding of body-mind dualism and consciousness as a whole. Ego psychology is considered in the present day context and it is synthesized with various psychological studies to give us a better understanding of consciousness.

  18. Freudian theory and consciousness: a conceptual analysis**.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id) and the conscious (ego). Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthropological and sociological perspective, we need to look at how Freudian theory may contribute to a better understanding of consciousness. We also need to look at psychoanalytical psychotherapy and its contribution to a better understanding of body-mind dualism and consciousness as a whole. Ego psychology is considered in the present day context and it is synthesized with various psychological studies to give us a better understanding of consciousness.

  19. Conscious Pulse II The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series that considers the rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. In this paper, we imagine that an endogenous quantum mechanical superposition is created by a classical stimulus, and that this leads to a `physiological pulse' of states that are in superposition with one another. This pulse is correlated with a `conscious pulse' of the kind discussed in a previous paper (Conscious Pulse I). We then add a rule (5) to the four rules previously given. This rule addresses the effect of `pain' consciousness on both of these pulses, and in doing so, it validates the "Parallel Principle" applied to pain. Key words: Brain states, cat paradox, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann.

  20. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  1. Freudian theory and consciousness: A conceptual analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash De Sousa

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id) and the conscious (ego). Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthro...

  2. Evolving Complexity, Cognition, and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljenström, H.

    2012-12-01

    All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing

  3. Vladimir Nabokov’ s Political Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红旗

    2006-01-01

    This study consists of three parts. PartⅠ, entitled " Nabokov’ s Women," concentrates on the analysis of Nabokov’ s major women identities of different types. My purpose is to demonstrate that in his creation of the women characters, Nabokov’ s political consciousness—mainly his vindication of individual freedom—is unmistakably, although indirectly, exemplified. Due to the different types of women discussed in this study, and also due to the different aspect of his political consciousness that is emphasized in different women identities, this part is subdivided into three chapters. Chapter One, entitled "Women in the Triangle: Martha and Margot," focuses on the two women characters in Nabokov’ s early novels. King, Queen, Knave and Laughter in the Dark, aiming to provide an in-depth analysis of the two, and to show that Nabokov has be stowed his special purpose on the creation of Martha and Margot, that is, his condemnation on those who reduce the free and active individual into objects, and such condemnation echoing with Nabokov’ s later direct vindication of individual freedom. Chapter Two, entitled "The Eternal Feminine:Lolita and Ada," analyzes the two title characters in Lolita and Ada, or Ardor:A Family Chronicle, illustrating that Lolita is the victim in that her free consciousness is purposefully neglected by the other, man in that case;while Ada enjoys her life totally because she can conduct her free consciousness in her own life. Chapter Three, entitled " Other Types and Women in His Mind’ s Eye," deals with Elisabeth, another woman character in Laughter in the Dark, who is a good traditional wife, and Liza, ex-wife of Pnin in Pnin, who is what Nabokov terms as poshlost. In addition, this chapter also provides an examination of Nabokov’ s attitude toward women. Through this analysis, Nabokov’ s Russian Complex is to a degree illustrated.

  4. Fundamental Measurements in Economics and in the Theory of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Melnyk, S I

    2011-01-01

    A new constructivist approach to modeling in economics and theory of consciousness is proposed. The state of elementary object is defined as a set of its measurable consumer properties. A proprietor's refusal or consent for the offered transaction is considered as a result of elementary economic measurement. Elementary (indivisible) technology, in which the object's consumer values are variable, in this case can be formalized as a generalized economic measurement. The algebra of such measurements has been constructed. It has been shown that in the general case the quantum-mechanical formalism of the theory of selective measurements is required for description of such conditions. The economic analogs of the elementary slit experiments in physics have been created. The proposed approach can be also used for consciousness modeling.

  5. The development and validation of the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Richard Q; Ezeofor, Ijeoma; Smith, Lance C; Welch, Jamie C; Goodrich, Kristopher M

    2016-03-01

    The development of critical consciousness (CC) has been theorized to be an essential prerequisite for individual and collective action toward changing inequitable social conditions. However, empirically supported instruments intended to measure this important construct have only recently been introduced to the literature. The purpose of this project was to create a brief, psychometrically sound measure of CC. Two studies with over 600 observations provide initial reliability and validity data on the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure (CCCM). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the final 19-item CCCM assesses CC associated with racism, classism, and heterosexism and provides a general index of CC. Results support the internal consistency and factor structure of the measure. Expected relationships between the CCCM and existing measures of symbolic racism, classism, and homonegativity provide evidence for the validity of the instrument. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.

  6. Science of consciousness and the hard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-05-22

    Quantum theory is essentially a rationally coherent theory of the interaction of mind and matter, and it allows our conscious thoughts to play a causally efficacious and necessary role in brain dynamics. It therefore provides a natural basis, created by scientists, for the science of consciousness. As an illustration it is explained how the interaction of brain and consciousness can speed up brain processing, and thereby enhance the survival prospects of conscious organisms, as compared to similar organisms that lack consciousness. As a second illustration it is explained how, within the quantum framework, the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} directs the actions of a human being. It is concluded that contemporary science already has an adequate framework for incorporating causally efficacious experimential events into the physical universe in a manner that: (1) puts the neural correlates of consciousness into the theory in a well defined way, (2) explains in principle how the effects of consciousness, per se, can enhance the survival prospects of organisms that possess it, (3) allows this survival effect to feed into phylogenetic development, and (4) explains how the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} can direct human behaviour.

  7. Intrinsic Awareness, the Fundamental State of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Weili

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to simplify the complexity in the studies of consciousness, the author suggests to divide the conscious experiences into a fundamental state, the intrinsic awareness (IA), and functions of this fundamental state. IA does not depend on external environment, our sense organs, and our cognitions. This ground state of consciousness is timeless and irreducible to sub-constituents; therefore reductionism can apply neither to the analysis nor to the new theory of IA. The methodology for investigating IA is proposed and the relation between IA and the hard problem in consciousness proposed by Chalmers is discussed.

  8. Consciousness as a state of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegmark, Max

    2015-07-01

    I examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. I explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. This approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and provides interesting links to error-correcting codes and condensed matter criticality, as well as an interesting connections between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time. (For more technical details, see arXiv:1401.1219).

  9. Consciousness as a State of Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tegmark, Max

    2014-01-01

    I examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. I explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. This approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and provides interesting links to error-correcting codes and condensed matter criticality, as well as an interesting connections between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time. (For more technical details, see arXiv:1401.1219).

  10. Consciousness and Attention: On sufficiency and necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of ‘complete’ absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention.

  11. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

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    Steven M. Miller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities — indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities — such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science.

  12. Associations between perceived HIV stigma and quality of life at the dyadic level: the actor-partner interdependence model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the relationship between HIV-related stigma and quality life at the dyadic level. The objective of this study was to examine the actor and partner effects of stigma that was perceived by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs and caregivers on quality of life at the dyadic level. METHOD: A survey was conducted among 148 dyads consisting of one PLWHA and one caregiver (296 participants in Nanning, China. The interdependent relationship between a pair of dyadic members that influences the associations between stigma and quality of life was analyzed, using an innovative dyadic analysis technique: the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM. RESULTS: We found in this dyadic analysis that (1 PLWHAs compared to their caregivers exhibited a higher level of perceived HIV stigma and lower level of quality of life measured in four domains; (2 both PLWHAs' and caregivers' perceived HIV stigma influenced their own quality of life; (3 The quality of life was not substantially influenced by their partners' perceived stigma; and (4 Both actor and partner effects of stigma on quality of life were similar among PLWHAs and their caregivers. CONCLUSION: As HIV stigma and quality of life are complex phenomena rooted in cultures, intervention programs should be carefully planned based on social or cognitive theories and should be culturally adopted.

  13. The Associations of Dyadic Coping and Relationship Satisfaction Vary Between and Within Nations: A 35-Nation Study

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    PETER HILPERT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Theories about how couples help each other to cope with stress, such as the systemic transactional model of dyadic coping, suggest that the cultural context in which couples live influences how their coping behavior affects their relationship satisfaction. In contrast to the theoretical assumptions, a recent meta-analysis provides evidence that neither culture, nor gender, influences the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction, at least based on their samples of couples living in North America and West Europe. Thus, it is an open questions whether the theoretical assumptions of cultural influences are false or whether cultural influences on couple behavior just occur in cultures outside of the Western world. Method: In order to examine the cultural influence, using a sample of married individuals (N = 7,973 from 35 nations, we used multilevel modeling to test whether the positive association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies across nations and whether gender might moderate the association. Results: Results reveal that the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies between nations. In addition, results show that in some nations the association is higher for men and in other nations it is higher for women. Conclusions: Cultural and gender differences across the globe influence how couples’ coping behavior affects relationship outcomes. This crucial finding indicates that couple relationship education programs and interventions need to be culturally adapted, as skill trainings such as dyadic coping lead to differential effects on relationship satisfaction based on the culture in which couples live.

  14. The interplay of dyadic and individual planning of pelvic-floor exercise in prostate-cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Silke; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gralla, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    This study broadens the current understanding of the role of planning by focusing on the interplay between individual and dyadic planning (i.e. making plans about the target person's behaviour together with a partner). Self-report data from N=141 prostatectomy-patients and their partners were assessed at three times within 1 year post-surgery. Direct and indirect effects of dyadic and individual planning on patients' pelvic-floor exercise (PFE) were tested. Proposed mediators were social support, social control, and action control. Cross-sectionally, the dyadic planning-PFE relationship was mediated by patients' received support and partners' provided social control. Longitudinally, mediators of dyadic planning were partners' provided social control and support. Effects of individual planning on PFE were mediated by action control at baseline only. Also, at lower levels of individual planning, patients' dyadic planning was more strongly associated with receipt of social control. Results underscore the importance of social factors in the planning process and its mechanisms in health-behaviour change.

  15. The Associations of Dyadic Coping and Relationship Satisfaction Vary between and within Nations: A 35-Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K.; Sorokowski, Piotr; Atkins, David C.; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Alghraibeh, Ahmad M.; Aryeetey, Richmond; Bertoni, Anna; Bettache, Karim; Błażejewska, Marta; Bodenmann, Guy; Borders, Jessica; Bortolini, Tiago S.; Butovskaya, Marina; Castro, Felipe N.; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Cunha, Diana; David, Oana A.; DeLongis, Anita; Dileym, Fahd A.; Domínguez Espinosa, Alejandra D. C.; Donato, Silvia; Dronova, Daria; Dural, Seda; Fisher, Maryanne; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Gulbetekin, Evrim; Hamamcıoğlu Akkaya, Aslıhan; Hansen, Karolina; Hattori, Wallisen T.; Hromatko, Ivana; Iafrate, Raffaella; James, Bawo O.; Jiang, Feng; Kimamo, Charles O.; King, David B.; Koç, Fırat; Laar, Amos; Lopes, Fívia De Araújo; Martinez, Rocio; Mesko, Norbert; Molodovskaya, Natalya; Moradi, Khadijeh; Motahari, Zahrasadat; Natividade, Jean C.; Ntayi, Joseph; Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd S. B.; Onyishi, Ike E.; Özener, Barış; Paluszak, Anna; Portugal, Alda; Relvas, Ana P.; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salkičević, Svjetlana; Sarmány-Schuller, Ivan; Stamkou, Eftychia; Stoyanova, Stanislava; Šukolová, Denisa; Sutresna, Nina; Tadinac, Meri; Teras, Andero; Tinoco Ponciano, Edna L.; Tripathi, Ritu; Tripathi, Nachiketa; Tripathi, Mamta; Vilchinsky, Noa; Xu, Feng; Yamamoto, Maria E.; Yoo, Gyesook

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Theories about how couples help each other to cope with stress, such as the systemic transactional model of dyadic coping, suggest that the cultural context in which couples live influences how their coping behavior affects their relationship satisfaction. In contrast to the theoretical assumptions, a recent meta-analysis provides evidence that neither culture, nor gender, influences the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction, at least based on their samples of couples living in North America and West Europe. Thus, it is an open questions whether the theoretical assumptions of cultural influences are false or whether cultural influences on couple behavior just occur in cultures outside of the Western world. Method: In order to examine the cultural influence, using a sample of married individuals (N = 7973) from 35 nations, we used multilevel modeling to test whether the positive association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies across nations and whether gender might moderate the association. Results: Results reveal that the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies between nations. In addition, results show that in some nations the association is higher for men and in other nations it is higher for women. Conclusions: Cultural and gender differences across the globe influence how couples' coping behavior affects relationship outcomes. This crucial finding indicates that couple relationship education programs and interventions need to be culturally adapted, as skill trainings such as dyadic coping lead to differential effects on relationship satisfaction based on the culture in which couples live. PMID:27551269

  16. Self-objectification, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Few studies examine the mechanisms that link body image to sexual satisfaction in women. Using the tenets of objectification theory, this study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in an ethnically diverse sample of American female college students (N=368), while controlling for relationship status and body mass index. Results based on self-report measures of these constructs suggested that body shame and body self-consciousness during sexual activity were negatively correlated with sexual satisfaction. Additionally, path analysis indicated that body surveillance predicted increased body self-consciousness during sexual activity, partially mediated by body shame. Body self-consciousness, in turn, predicted decreased sexual satisfaction. Overall, study findings highlight the negative consequences of body image concerns for women's sexual satisfaction.

  17. The Social Construction of Authority among Peers and Its Implications for Collaborative Mathematics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study of how students construct relations of authority during dyadic mathematical work and how teachers' interactions with students during small group conferences affect subsequent student dynamics. Drawing on the influence framework (Engle, Langer-Osuna, & McKinney de Royston, 2014), I examined interactions when…

  18. The Double-Consciousness of Du Bois & the "Mestiza Consciousness" of Anzaldua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that W.E.B. Du Bois' concept of the "double-consciousness" and Gloria Anzaldua's concept of the "mestiza consciousness" are significant forms of oppositional culture and consciousness. Asserts that their two concepts are linked and nuanced ideas that describe interlocking systems of oppression spanning two centuries and arguably binding…

  19. The Double-Consciousness of Du Bois & the "Mestiza Consciousness" of Anzaldua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that W.E.B. Du Bois' concept of the "double-consciousness" and Gloria Anzaldua's concept of the "mestiza consciousness" are significant forms of oppositional culture and consciousness. Asserts that their two concepts are linked and nuanced ideas that describe interlocking systems of oppression spanning two centuries…

  20. Music in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Dieter Rollnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the use of music therapy in neurological early rehabilitation of patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness (DOC such as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS or minimally conscious state (MCS. There is evidence that patients suffering from UWS show emotional processing of auditory information, such as listening to speech. Thus, it seems reasonable to believe that music listening – as part of an enriched environment setting – may be of therapeutic value in these patients. There is, however, a considerable lack of evidence. The authors strongly encourage further studies to evaluate the efficacy of music listening in patients with DOC in neurological early rehabilitation. These studies should consider a precise clinical definition and homogeneity of the patient cohort with respect to the quality (coma vs. UWS vs. MCS, duration (rather weeks to months than days and cause (traumatic vs. non-traumatic of DOC, a standardised intervention protocol, valid clinical outcome parameters over a longer observation period (weeks to months, monitoring of neurophysiological and vegetative parameters and, if available, neuroimaging to confirm diagnosis and to demonstrate responses and functional changes in the patients` brains.

  1. Defining and measuring environmental consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Sánchez, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the main analytical approaches found in the literature, in this paper we establish a multidimensional and behaviour-oriented definition of environmental consciousness. We propose a method to operationalize this definition with the final aim of obtaining summary measures (or indexes of this phenomenon which can be applied to different social contexts and time periods. The data obtained from a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviour conducted in 2004 among Andalusians (Ecobarómetro de Andalucía 2004 is used as an empirical basis for the proposed operationalization. The resulting measures are then employed to identify social groups according to the diverse forms of their environmental consciousness and to explore their basic socio-demographic profiles

    A partir de las principales aproximaciones analíticas presentes en la literatura, en este trabajo establecemos una definición de conciencia ambiental multidimensional y orientada a la conducta; proponemos un método para su operacionalización con el objetivo de elaborar medidas sintéticas de este fenómeno en distintos contextos sociales. La operacionalización propuesta utiliza como base empírica los resultados del Ecobarómetro de Andalucía (EBA 2004. Los indicadores resultantes son utilizados seguidamente para identificar distintos grupos sociales según la naturaleza de su conciencia ambiental.

  2. On the character of consciousness

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    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  3. Embodied mind and phenomenal consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VENIERI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a central debate in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science concerns the role of the body in perception and cognition. For many contemporary philosophers, not only cognition but also perception is connected mainly with the brain, where the processing of input from the senses takes place; whereas for the proponents of ‘embodied cognition’ other aspects of the body beyond the brain, including the environment, play a constitutive role in cognitive processes. In terms of perception, a new theory has emerged which stresses percep‑ tion’s active character and claims that the embodied subject and the environment, with which it interacts, form a dynamic system. Supporters of ‘enactive perception’ such as Susan Hurley and Alva Noë maintain that the physical substrate or the supervenience basis of perceptual experience and phenomenal consciousness may include besides the brain and the nervous system other bodily and environmental features. Yet, it will be argued in this paper that the interaction between the subject and the environment forms a system of causal relations, so we can theoretically interfere in the causal chains and create hallucinations, which cannot be distinguished from veridical perception, or a virtual reality as in the film Matrix (1999. This kind of argument and its related thought experiments aim to stress the primacy of the brain in determining phenomenal states, and show that the body and certain interactions with the environment have a causal, but not a constitutive or essential role, in forming phenomenal consciousness.

  4. Interference Control Modulations Over Conscious Perception

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    Itsaso Colás

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attention and consciousness has been a controversial topic over the last decade. Although there seems to be an agreement on their distinction at the functional level, no consensus has been reached about attentional processes being or not necessary for conscious perception. Previous studies have explored the relation of alerting and orienting systems of attention and conscious perception, but the impact of the anterior executive attention system on conscious access remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral interaction between executive attention and conscious perception, testing control mechanisms both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission. We presented a classical Stroop task, manipulating the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials, and analyzed the effect of reactive and proactive control on the conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli. Reactive control elicited under high proportion congruent conditions influenced participants’ decision criterion, whereas proactive control elicited under low proportion congruent conditions was ineffective in modulating conscious perception. In addition, error commission affected both perceptual sensitivity to detect near-threshold information and response criterion. These results suggest that reactivation of task goals through reactive control strategies in conflict situations impacts decision stages of conscious processing, whereas interference control elicited by error commission impacts both perceptual sensitivity and decision stages of conscious processing. We discuss the implications of our results for the gateway hypothesis about attention and consciousness, as they showed that interference control (both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission can modulate the conscious access of near-threshold stimuli.

  5. Self-consciousness concept and assessment in self-report measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eDaSilveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how self-consciousness is defined and assessed using self-report questionnaires (Self-Consciousness Scale, Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Self-Absorption Scale, Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale. Authors of self-report measures suggest that self-consciousness can be distinguished by its private/public aspects, its adaptive/maladaptive applied characteristics, and present/past experiences. We examined these claims in a study using 602 young adults to whom the aforementioned scales were administered. Data were analysed as follows: (1 correlation analysis to find simple associations between the measures; (2 factorial analysis using Oblimin rotation of total scores provided from the scales; and (3 factorial analysis considering the 102 items of the scales all together. It aimed to clarify relational patterns found in the correlations between self-consciousness scales, and to identify possible latent constructs behind these scales. Results support the adaptive/maladaptive aspects of self-consciousness, as well as distinguish to some extent public aspects from private ones. However, some scales that claimed to be theoretically derived from the concept of Private Self-Consciousness correlated with some of its public self-aspects. Overall, our findings suggest that while self-reflection measures tend to tap into past experiences and judged concepts that were already processed by the participants' inner speech and thoughts, the Awareness measure derived from Mindfulness Scale seems to be related to a construct associated with present experiences in which one is aware of without any further judgment or logical/rational symbolization. This sub-scale seems to emphasize the role that present experiences have in self-consciousness, and it is argued that such a concept refers to what has been studied by phenomenology and psychology over more than one hundred years: the concept of pre-reflective self-conscious.

  6. Problem of consciousness in learning systems and environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Sergeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems that arise when a human is involved into a complexly training systems and the environment. A theoretical analysis of the infl uence of consciousness on the training mechanisms within the framework of post non-classical conceptions of human psyche functioning was conceived. We argue that consciousness is not intended to refl ect the objective reality and acquire knowledge, and solves the problem of the construction of the subjective world, which is the sum of compromises between the subject and the dynamic environments of his experience. In contrast, consciousness selects and harmonizes the information useful for human life.The role of consciousness in training is largely contradictory and confusing. It is also the source of the new information. The information is distorted in order to create a world view, which tends to objectively contradictive to the outside observer and consistent for refl ective being. We stressed the important role of human’s multimodal sensory experience in the process of interaction between conscious and unconscious forms of knowledge creation and processing. We consider the qualitative difference between physical reality and the model presented in the subjective world. We postulated the existence in the mind of a human dynamic virtual model. According to this model, the natural world is delimited by person and opposed to it being a source of events that make up the content of his life. The border which was built in the consciousness divides constructed reality into the inner and outer worlds. These worlds have different significance for the subject, defining the nature of its activities.We analyzed models the structure of reality and reality as a world’s refl ection offered by Karl Popper, K. K. Kolin, R. Redfield, G. Roth. The attention was paid to the neurobiological model of subjective reality by V. Sergin, which proposed a hypothesis of automatic identification postulating a

  7. The effects of a multicomponent dyadic intervention on the mood, behavior, and physical health of people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prick, A.J.C.; Lange, J. de; Scherder, E.; Twisk, J.; Pot, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of a multicomponent dyadic intervention on the mood, behavior, and physical health of people with dementia living in the community were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. This multicomponent dyadic intervention is a translated and adapted version of an intervention that

  8. The effects of a multicomponent dyadic intervention on the mood, behavior, and physical health of people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pot; J. Twisk; Dr. J. de Lange; A.J.C. Prick; E. Scherder

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of a multicomponent dyadic intervention on the mood, behavior, and physical health of people with dementia living in the community were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. This multicomponent dyadic intervention is a translated and adapted version of an intervention that

  9. A systematic review of dyadic studies examining relationship quality in couples facing colorectal cancer together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Karen; Acquati, Chiara; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Mark, Kristen; Wittmann, Daniela; Karam, Eli

    2016-12-10

    Despite the adverse effects that treatment for colorectal cancer can have on patients' quality of life and, in particular, their intimate relationships, very little research has been conducted on the psychosocial adjustment for both patients and their partners/spouses. The aim of this systematic review was to examine dyadic studies of adjustment in couples in which one partner has been diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Pub Med, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Social Sciences Abstracts (EBSCO), and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for studies reporting quality of life outcomes for colorectal cancer patients and their partners/spouses. Only studies that included dyads in the sample were eligible for inclusion. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate each study. A total of 277 studies were identified, of which 9 studies met the inclusion criteria (N = 388 couples). The methodological quality of the studies was high in that they used standardized instruments validated with their samples, conducted dyadic data analyses (when appropriate), and used longitudinal designs. A synthesis of the studies revealed that (1) relationship factors (eg, support, communication, dyadic coping, and relationship satisfaction) affect adjustment to cancer; (2) cancer-related distress impacts each partner's adjustment or the relationship; and (3) gender, role (patient/caregiver), and clinical characteristics (treatment, mental health) can mediate adjustment to cancer. The quality of the relationship can influence patients' and their partners' adjustment to colorectal cancer. Psychosocial interventions that address relationship issues may be beneficial to couples facing the challenges of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with sexual risk behavior in young Urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with HIV sexual risk behavior in 257 young urban women. Interviews were conducted using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking explained 18.3% of the variance in sexual risk behavior. Although sexual imposition was positively related to sexual risk, pressure to satisfy a male partner sexually was more common than physical coercion. Dyadic trust was negatively related, indicating that women engaged in sexual risk behavior with men they distrusted. Sensation seeking was positively related to sexual risk. Findings suggest the need for enhancing awareness of non-sexually imposing relationship alternatives and incorporating thrill and excitement in health promotion messages.

  11. Practicing attachment in the real world: improving maternal insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability at an outpatient community mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Kaplan, Betty Ann; Venza, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of an attachment-based intervention program practiced at an outpatient clinic. Changes in parental insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability were assessed in 32 mother-child dyads from pre- to post-intervention. At both data collection points, mothers were interviewed with the Insightfulness Assessment and the mother-child dyad was observed in play sessions coded with the Emotional Availability Scales. Findings revealed a strong association between maternal insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability, both before and after treatment. In terms of intervention efficacy, positive gains were observed in both insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability from pre- to post-intervention. Mothers who changed their classifications from non-insightful to insightful following the intervention showed the greatest gains in emotional availability. These findings have important implications for the type of interventions and service delivery model that could work in real world clinical settings.

  12. Music and Consciousness: A Continuing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Clarke, Eric

    2014-01-01

    If there is a topic on which the humanities might make a distinctive claim, it is that of consciousness--an essential aspect of human being. And within the humanities, music might make its own claims in relation to both consciousness and being human. To investigate this connection, David Clarke and Eric Clarke brought together a wide variety of…

  13. Equation for Consciousness in terms of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodukula, Siva Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Based on the concepts 'Double Relativity Effectí. 'Film theory of the Universe ','Heart of the God model of the universeí and'Space time equivalenceí, it is concluded that consciousness is defined in terms of physics as Çthe electromagnetic field containing electromagnetic waves of velocity greater than that of light velocity.? Also it is concluded that because of this high velocity the cell or any living organism will get the perception of events before their happenings. This phenomenon is one of the properties of feeling which is a constituent of consciousness. The degree or strength of consciousness can be measured and defined as the distance of point of generation of conscious wave from the center of space time fluid related to consciousness (d). It can be measured by the equation VCW3.d2= Constant. Where 'VCWí is the velocity of consciousness wave observed. The unit of measurement for degree or strength of consciousness is 'conscious meterí.

  14. Neural plasticity lessons from disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena eDemertzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication and intentional behavior are supported by the brain’s integrity at a structural and a functional level. When widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is brought about as a result of a severe brain injury, in many cases patients are not capable of conscious interactive behavior and are said to suffer from disorders of consciousness (e.g., coma, vegetative state /unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious states. This lesion paradigm has offered not only clinical insights, as how to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, but also put forward scientific opportunities to study the brain’s plastic abilities. We here review interventional and observational studies performed in severely brain-injured patients with regards to recovery of consciousness. The study of the recovered conscious brain (spontaneous and/or after surgical or pharmacologic interventions, suggests a link between some specific brain areas and the capacity of the brain to sustain conscious experience, challenging at the same time the notion of fixed temporal boundaries in rehabilitative processes. Altered functional connectivity, cerebral structural reorganization as well as behavioral amelioration after invasive treatments will be discussed as the main indices for plasticity in these challenging patients. The study of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness may, thus, provide further insights not only at a clinical level (i.e., medical management and rehabilitation but also from a scientific-theoretical perspective (i.e., the brain’s plastic abilities and the pursuit of the neural correlate of consciousness.

  15. An Exploration of Jane Eyre's Feminist Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伊璐

    2013-01-01

    In the novel Jane Eyre,Jane's feminist consciousness can be divided into three stages which involve her lasting struggle for fundamental equality,economic Independence and freedom of love. Throughout Jane's lifetime,the author expressed the awakening of feminist consciousness which encouraged those traditional females to pursue gender equality of love and expressed concern about the liberation of women and thoughts.

  16. [Analytical problems of altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M V

    1993-01-01

    Modified states of consciousness are created under the conditions of monotony with modulating influences in minute wave length diapason. These data point to an important role of the modulating system of the cerebral brain in consciousness the content of which is determined by informational processes.

  17. Music and Consciousness: A Continuing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Clarke, Eric

    2014-01-01

    If there is a topic on which the humanities might make a distinctive claim, it is that of consciousness--an essential aspect of human being. And within the humanities, music might make its own claims in relation to both consciousness and being human. To investigate this connection, David Clarke and Eric Clarke brought together a wide variety of…

  18. An integrative view on consciousness and introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The relation between first and higher order mental states is currently unknown. In particular, the relation between conscious experience and introspection is difficult as the same methods are used to investigate them. In order to make progress in the scientific understanding of consciousness...

  19. Neural plasticity lessons from disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Schnakers, Caroline; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Gosseries, Olivia; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Communication and intentional behavior are supported by the brain's integrity at a structural and a functional level. When widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is brought about as a result of a severe brain injury, in many cases patients are not capable of conscious interactive behavior and are said to suffer from disorders of consciousness (e.g., coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious states). This lesion paradigm has offered not only clinical insights, as how to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, but also put forward scientific opportunities to study the brain's plastic abilities. We here review interventional and observational studies performed in severely brain-injured patients with regards to recovery of consciousness. The study of the recovered conscious brain (spontaneous and/or after surgical or pharmacologic interventions), suggests a link between some specific brain areas and the capacity of the brain to sustain conscious experience, challenging at the same time the notion of fixed temporal boundaries in rehabilitative processes. Altered functional connectivity, cerebral structural reorganization as well as behavioral amelioration after invasive treatments will be discussed as the main indices for plasticity in these challenging patients. The study of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness may, thus, provide further insights not only at a clinical level (i.e., medical management and rehabilitation) but also from a scientific-theoretical perspective (i.e., the brain's plastic abilities and the pursuit of the neural correlate of consciousness).

  20. Acting: An Altered State of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiffele, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Uses notions from the field Psychology of Consciousness, including an explanation of how psychologists define and investigate Altered States of Consciousness (ASCs). Argues that actors routinely enter an ASC. Establishes acting as a way to enter an ASC and discusses why theater artists, educators, and advocates need to be aware of both the dangers…

  1. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  2. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes...

  3. The compatibility between sociological and cognitive neuroscientific ideas on consciousness: is a neurosociology of consciousness possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurko, Yulia S

    2013-03-01

    This article considers the possibility of integrating sociological and cognitive neuroscience ideas on consciousness and developing a new research area: neurosociology of consciousnesses. Research was conducted taking into account the limited knowledge on consciousness produced in these disciplines and the necessity of finding ways to study the social roles concerning the neural correlates of consciousness. Applying several ideas on consciousness from these disciplines (intersubjectivity, close connection with collective forms representations, deriving awareness from the brain's processes, and so on), I show that it is difficult to reconcile the differences in the treatment of consciousness through the simple combination of the different ideas. The integration should be pursued in light of the neuroscientific findings concerning consciousness in different social contexts (role behavior, social interactions, and so on). In integrating the concepts, I predicted the role of time delay in conscious awareness in decision making, synchronization of neural oscillations under conscious perception, and the activations of certain brain zones in correspondence to different conscious cognitive processes for understanding in face-to-face situations. The study reveals that the optimal path for neurosociological research on consciousness is in its primary development without a rigid binding to either sociology or neuroscience.

  4. An introduction to the biology of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, J

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes the main steps in a scientific study of consciousness. From a survey of the recent literature, it appears that: (1) there is a clear tendency to consider consciousness as a scientific object; (2) consistent subjective and objective descriptions of consciousness are possible; an intentional-modeling structure accounts for its main features; (3) from the evolutionary biology standpoint, conscious cognitive activities, as based on models of the self, the world and the alter-ego, have a functional value; (4) the material basis of consciousness can be clarified without recourse to new properties of the matter or to quantum physics. Current neurobiology, based on classical macrophysics, appears able to handle the problem. In this scope, the neurobiology of sleep-wakefulness and attention, and neuropsychology, have already achieved substantial advances.

  5. Volition and the Function of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hakwan C.

    What are the psychological functions that could only be performed consciously? People have intuitively assumed that many acts of volition are not influenced by unconscious information. These acts range from simple examples such as making a spontaneous motor movement, to higher cognitive control. How ever, the available evidence suggests that under suitable conditions, unconscious information can influence these behaviors and the underlying neural mechanisms. One possibility is that stimuli that are consciously perceived tend to yield strong signals in the brain, which makes us think that consciousness has the function of such strong signals. However, if we could create conditions where the stimuli could yield strong signals but not the conscious experience of perception, perhaps we would find that such stimuli are just as effective in influencing volitional be havior. Future studies that focus on clarifying this issue may tell us what the defining functions of consciousness are.

  6. Hypnosis phenomenology and the neurobiology of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Pierre; Price, Donald D

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in the philosophical and neurobiological studies of consciousness provide promising frameworks to investigate the neurobiology of hypnosis. A model of consciousness phenomenology is described to demonstrate that the experiential dimensions characterizing hypnosis (relaxation and mental ease, absorption, orientation and monitoring, and self-agency) reflect basic phenomenal properties of consciousness. Changes in relaxation-mental ease and absorption, produced by standard hypnotic procedures, are further associated with changes in brain activity within structures critically involved in the basic representation of the body-self and the regulation of states of consciousness. The combination of experiential and modern brain imaging methods offers a unique perspective on hypnotic phenomena and provides new observations consistent with the proposition that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

  7. Cognitive self-consciousness and meta-worry and their relations to symptoms of worry and obsessional thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Gwendolijn Olivia; Rassin, Eric; Muris, Peter

    2005-02-01

    The relation between cognitive self-consciousness and meta-worry, and their association with symptoms of worry and obsessional thoughts were examined. 53 undergraduate students completed the expanded version of the Cognitive Self-consciousness Scale, the Meta-worry subscale of the Anxious Thoughts Inventory, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and the Padua Inventory-Revised. Analysis showed that cognitive self-consciousness and meta-worry were moderately correlated (r =.57). Further, both constructs were positively associated with symptoms of worry and obsessional thoughts. When controlling for cognitive self-consciousness, metaworry remained significantly correlated to both types of symptoms. Yet, when controlling for meta-worry, correlations between cognitive self-consciousness and symptoms of worry and obsessional thoughts clearly attuned and were no longer significant. These findings suggest that meta-worry is more important for understanding excessive, intrusive thought patterns than the mere tendency to monitor one's thoughts.

  8. Ictal alterations of consciousness during ecstatic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Fabienne; Kurth, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ecstatic epileptic seizures report an altered consciousness, which they describe as a sense of heightened perception of themselves – they “feel very present” – and an increased vividness of sensory perceptions. Recently, the anterior insula has been proposed as the region where these seizures originate, based on the results of ictal nuclear imaging in three patients, the first induction of ecstatic auras by electrical stimulation, and the functional characteristics of the anterior insula in neuroimaging literature. Specifically, the anterior insula is thought to play a key role in integrating information from within the body, the external world, as well as the emotional states. In addition, the anterior insula is thought to convert this integrated information into successive global emotional moments, thus enabling both the construct of a sentient self as well as a mechanism for predictive coding. As part of the salience network, this region is also involved in switching from mind wandering toward attentional and executive processing. In this review, we will summarize previous patient reports and recap how insular functioning may be involved in the phenomenon of ecstatic seizures. Furthermore, we will relate these hypotheses to the results from research on meditation and effects of drug abuse.

  9. Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses dynamical aspects of brain functions and cognition. Experimental evidence in humans and other mammalians indicates that complex neurodynamics is crucial for the emergence of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Dynamical neural systems with encoding in limit cycle and non-convergent attractors have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The role of synchronization, desynchronization, and intermittent synchronization on cognition has been studied extensively by various authors, in particular by authors contributing to the present volume. This volume gives an overview of recent advances in this interdisciplinary field of cognitive and computer science related to dynamics of cognition, including experimental studies, dynamical modelling and interpretation of cognitive experiments, and theoretical approaches. The following topics are covered in this book: spatio-temporal dynamics of neural correlates of higher-level cognition; dynamical neural memories, including continuous and ...

  10. Taming power: Generative historical consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2016-04-01

    Power is a necessary dimension of all human enterprises. It can inspire and illuminate, but it can also corrupt, oppress, and destroy. Therefore, taming power has been a central moral and political question for most of human history. Writers, theorists, and researchers have suggested many methods and mechanisms for taming power: through affiliation and love, intellect and reason, responsibility, religion and values, democratic political structures, and separation of powers. Historical examples and social science research suggest that each has some success, but also that each is vulnerable to being hijacked by power itself. I therefore introduce generative historical consciousness (GHC) as a concept and measure that might help to secure the benefits of power while protecting against its outrages and excesses. I conclude by discussing the role that GHC may have played in the peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

  11. Conscious sedation: a dying practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Palaniappan; Kanaan, Ziad; Zakaria, Khalid

    2013-07-28

    Sedation practices vary according to countries with different health system regulations, the procedures done, and local circumstances. Interestingly, differences in the setting in which the practice of gastroenterology and endoscopy takes place (university-based vs academic practice) as well as other systematic practice differences influence the attitude of endoscopists concerning sedation practices. Conscious sedation using midazolam and opioids is the current standard method of sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. Interestingly, propofol is a commonly preferred sedation method by endoscopists due to higher satisfaction rates along with its short half-life and thus lower risk of hepatic encephalopathy. On the other hand, midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. The administration of sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist could become the standard practice and the urgent development of an updated international consensus regarding the use of sedative agents like propofol is needed.

  12. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  13. Consciousness and stereoscopic environmental imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Steve

    2014-02-01

    The question of human consciousness has intrigued philosophers and scientists for centuries: its nature, how we perceive our environment, how we think, our very awareness of thought and self. It has been suggested that stereoscopic vision is "a paradigm of how the mind works" 1 In depth perception, laws of perspective are known, reasoned, committed to memory from an early age; stereopsis, on the other hand, is a 3D experience governed by strict laws but actively joined within the brain―one sees it without explanation. How do we, in fact, process two different images into one 3D module within the mind and does an awareness of this process give us insight into the workings of our own consciousness? To translate this idea to imaging I employed ChromaDepth™ 3D glasses that rely on light being refracted in a different direction for each eye―colors of differing wavelengths appearing at varying distances from the viewer resulting in a 3D space. This involves neither calculation nor manufacture of two images or views. Environmental spatial imaging was developed―a 3D image was generated that literally surrounds the viewer. The image was printed and adhered to a semi-circular mount; the viewer then entered the interior to experience colored shapes suspended in a 3D space with an apparent loss of surface, or picture plane, upon which the image is rendered. By focusing our awareness through perception-based imaging we are able to gain a deeper understanding of how the brain works, how we see.

  14. Spaces of collaboration: The poetics of place and historical consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna R. McLean

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of engaging students in the negotiation of their place in historical landscapes is vitalized through the development of historical consciousness as a pedagogical tool for instruction in social studies. This study uses student reflection collected from a graduate course to examine how historical consciousness is understood and expressed through experiential interaction with historical sites and the role of people, places, and historical events in the creation of social history. The participants in the study reflected on how public memory is constructed and individualized within grand and personal narratives of their chosen area of commemoration. The study’s participants showed an eagerness to incorporate interactive technology to express their understanding of historical events, further highlighting technology’s role in democratizing information through digital historical narratives. The student-participants also internalized and articulated their experiences with history through artistic means, which permitted a free expression across multiple media. As prospective educators, the participants negotiated the role of historical consciousness in the development and extension of curricular practices, including the critical examination of official narratives in favour of a socialized history.

  15. Interpreting chronic disorders of consciousness: medical science and family experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew; Kitzinger, Celia; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2015-06-01

    Chronic disorders of consciousness (CDoC) pose significant problems of understanding for both medical professionals and the relatives and friends of the patient. This paper explores the tensions between the different interpretative resources that are drawn upon by lay people and professionals in their response to CDoC. A philosophical analysis of data from 51 interviews with people who have relatives who are (or have been) in a vegetative or minimally conscious state. The medical specialist and the lay person tend to draw on two different interpretative frameworks: a medical science framework, which tends to construct the patient in terms of measurable physical parameters, and an interpretative framework that encompasses the uniqueness of the patient and the relative's relationship to them as a social being. These differences potentially lead to ruptures in communication between medical professionals and relatives such that that an increased self-consciousness of the framing assumptions being made will facilitate communication and enrich understanding of CDoCs. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of a brief dyadic cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to prevent PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Brunet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is a dearth of effective interventions to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Method : We evaluated the efficacy of a brief dyadic two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention through a controlled trial involving trauma-exposed individuals recruited at the hospital's emergency room. Participants were randomly assigned to either the dyadic intervention group (n=37 or to a waiting list (assessment only group (n=37. Results : In an intent-to-treat analysis, a time-by-group interaction was found, whereby the treated participants had less PTSD symptoms at the post-treatment but not at the pre-treatment compared to controls. Controlling for the improvement observed in the control participants, the intervention yielded a net effect size of d=0.39. Conclusions : A brief, early, and effective intervention can be provided by nurses or social workers in hospital settings, at a fairly low cost to individuals presenting to the emergency room as the result of trauma exposure.

  17. Explaining interindividual differences in toddlers’ collaboration with unfamiliar peers: Individual, dyadic, and social factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils eSchuhmacher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During their third year of life, toddlers become increasingly skillful at coordinating their actions with peer partners and they form joint commitments in collaborative situations. However, little effort has been made to explain interindividual differences in collaboration among toddlers. Therefore, we examined the relative influence of distinct individual, dyadic, and social factors on toddlers’ collaborative activities (i.e., level of coordination and preference for joint activity in joint problem-solving situations with unfamiliar peer partners (n = 23 dyads aged M = 35.7 months. We analyzed the dyadic nonindependent data with mixed models. Results indicated that mothers’ expectations regarding their children’s social behaviors significantly predicted toddlers’ level of coordination. Furthermore, the models revealed that toddlers’ positive mutual experiences with the unfamiliar partner assessed during an initial free play period (Phase 1 and their level of coordination in an obligatory collaboration task (Phase 2 promoted toddlers’ preference for joint activity in a subsequent optional collaboration task (Phase 3. In contrast, children’s mastery motivation and shyness conflicted with their collaborative efforts. We discuss the role of parents’ socialization goals in toddlers’ development toward becoming active collaborators and discuss possible mechanisms underlying the differences in toddlers’ commitment to joint activities, namely social preferences and the trust in reliable cooperation partners.

  18. Classroom Interactions, Dyadic Teacher-Child Relationships, and Self-Regulation in Socially Disadvantaged Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Joana; Verschueren, Karine; Leal, Teresa; Guedes, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the quality of the classroom climate and dyadic teacher-child relationships as predictors of self-regulation in a sample of socially disadvantaged preschool children (N = 206; 52 % boys). Children's self-regulation was observed in preschool at the beginning and at the end of the school year. At the middle of the preschool year, classroom observations of interactions were conducted by trained observers and teachers rated the quality of dyadic teacher-child relationships. Results from multilevel analyses revealed that teacher-child closeness predicted improvements in observed self-regulation skills. Children showed larger gains in self-regulation when they experienced closer teacher-child relationships. Moreover, a moderating effect between classroom instructional quality and observed self-regulation was found such that children with low initial self-regulation skills benefit the most from classrooms with higher classroom quality. Findings have implications for understanding the role of classroom social processes on the development of self-regulation.

  19. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The relationship between dyadic adjustment with demographic and clinical variables in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Eren Bodur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of dyadic adjustment in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 51-62

  1. The body, its emotions, the self, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Graham W

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a means for better understanding the self and consciousness. Data indicate that the basic "emotional brain" continually computes potential survival risk against reward to rank consequent "emotion scores" for all sensory inputs. These scores compete to yield winner-takes-all outcomes that determine the choice of attention or action. This mechanism prevails regardless of whether the competing options gain their emotion scores through a rational or an intuitive pathway. There is no need to postulate any homunculus or inner self in control of such choice; indeed, our belief in a first-person self in overall control is wrong. The self is a passive construct arising from each individual's social development, where language acquisition vastly heightens communication and awareness not only outwardly, but also inwardly, as if to a controlling "inner I." However, when society comes to hold the maturing being accountable for his or her actions, the brain must respond, and it does so in the only way it can, by deeming that this passive, inner self-construct act as if it were the active self in charge. Consciousness emerges when the language-based output of the higher brain is referred for ownership to this artificial self-construct.

  2. [Looking at the self under the microscope of cognitive neurosciences: from self-consciousness to consciousness of others].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Céline; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2009-03-01

    Cognitive neurosciences are interested in the concept of self, resulting from two muddled aspects. This concept relates to both a set of personal complex and multidimensional mental representations about ourselves and the flow of self-consciousness which is associated. It grounds individual identity and is related to the subjectivity of the personal experiences, at the core of continuity over the time. The existence of others seems essential in the construction of self mental representations; that is why the concept of self is strongly related to the theory of mind (ToM). ToM corresponds to the capacity to infer representations or mental states to others. Even if self and ToM researches are often carried out in two distinct fields, it seems like these two concepts share common processes. Recent imaging studies comfort this idea. Activations in a common neuronal network (principally median prefrontal cortex and precuneus) were found during the realization of self or ToM tasks. Thus, our capacity to represent our thoughts and others' one coud have a similar cerebral origin. Self-consciousness and consciousness of others could then be considered as a bidirectional interaction at the very bases of both individual identity and the other's knowledge, which regulate behavior and social interactions.

  3. Understanding schizophrenia as a disorder of consciousness: biological correlates and translational implications from quantum theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-04-30

    From neurophenomenological perspectives, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as "a disorder with heterogeneous manifestations that can be integrally understood to involve fundamental perturbations in consciousness". While these theoretical constructs based on consciousness facilitate understanding the 'gestalt' of schizophrenia, systematic research to unravel translational implications of these models is warranted. To address this, one needs to begin with exploration of plausible biological underpinnings of "perturbed consciousness" in schizophrenia. In this context, an attractive proposition to understand the biology of consciousness is "the orchestrated object reduction (Orch-OR) theory" which invokes quantum processes in the microtubules of neurons. The Orch-OR model is particularly important for understanding schizophrenia especially due to the shared 'scaffold' of microtubules. The initial sections of this review focus on the compelling evidence to support the view that "schizophrenia is a disorder of consciousness" through critical summary of the studies that have demonstrated self-abnormalities, aberrant time perception as well as dysfunctional intentional binding in this disorder. Subsequently, these findings are linked with 'Orch-OR theory' through the research evidence for aberrant neural oscillations as well as microtubule abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. Further sections emphasize the applicability and translational implications of Orch-OR theory in the context of schizophrenia and elucidate the relevance of quantum biology to understand the origins of this puzzling disorder as "fundamental disturbances in consciousness".

  4. A mathematical model of embodied consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrauf, David; Bennequin, Daniel; Granic, Isabela; Landini, Gregory; Friston, Karl; Williford, Kenneth

    2017-09-07

    We introduce a mathematical model of embodied consciousness, the Projective Consciousness Model (PCM), which is based on the hypothesis that the spatial field of consciousness (FoC) is structured by a projective geometry and under the control of a process of active inference. The FoC in the PCM combines multisensory evidence with prior beliefs in memory and frames them by selecting points of view and perspectives according to preferences. The choice of projective frames governs how expectations are transformed by consciousness. Violations of expectation are encoded as free energy. Free energy minimization drives perspective taking, and controls the switch between perception, imagination and action. In the PCM, consciousness functions as an algorithm for the maximization of resilience, using projective perspective taking and imagination in order to escape local minima of free energy. The PCM can account for a variety of psychological phenomena: the characteristic spatial phenomenology of subjective experience, the distinctions and integral relationships between perception, imagination and action, the role of affective processes in intentionality, but also perceptual phenomena such as the dynamics of bistable figures and body swap illusions in virtual reality. It relates phenomenology to function, showing the computational advantages of consciousness. It suggests that changes of brain states from unconscious to conscious reflect the action of projective transformations and suggests specific neurophenomenological hypotheses about the brain, guidelines for designing artificial systems, and formal principles for psychology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing levels of consciousness with symbolic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A

    2015-02-13

    'Covert consciousness' is a state in which consciousness is present without the capacity for behavioural response, and it can occur in patients with intraoperative awareness or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. To detect and prevent this undesirable state, it is critical to develop a reliable neurobiological assessment of an individual's level of consciousness that is independent of behaviour. One such approach that shows potential is measuring surrogates of cortical communication in the brain using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is practicable in clinical application, but involves many fundamental signal processing problems, including signal-to-noise ratio and high dimensional complexity. Symbolic analysis of EEG can mitigate these problems, improving the measurement of brain connectivity and the ability to successfully assess levels of consciousness. In this article, we review the problem of covert consciousness, basic neurobiological principles of consciousness, current methods of measuring brain connectivity and the advantages of symbolic processing, with a focus on symbolic transfer entropy (STE). Finally, we discuss recent advances and clinical applications of STE and other symbolic analyses to assess levels of consciousness. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness: two dimensions of personality that influence laparoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neha; Poolton, Jamie M; Wilson, Mark R; Fan, Joe K M; Masters, Rich S W

    2014-01-01

    Identifying personality factors that account for individual differences in surgical training and performance has practical implications for surgical education. Movement-specific reinvestment is a potentially relevant personality factor that has a moderating effect on laparoscopic performance under time pressure. Movement-specific reinvestment has 2 dimensions, which represent an individual's propensity to consciously control movements (conscious motor processing) or to consciously monitor their 'style' of movement (movement self-consciousness). This study aimed at investigating the moderating effects of the 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment in the learning and updating (cross-handed technique) of laparoscopic skills. Medical students completed the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale, a psychometric assessment tool that evaluates the conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment. They were then trained to a criterion level of proficiency on a fundamental laparoscopic skills task and were tested on a novel cross-handed technique. Completion times were recorded for early-learning, late-learning, and cross-handed trials. Propensity for movement self-consciousness but not conscious motor processing was a significant predictor of task completion times both early (p = 0.036) and late (p = 0.002) in learning, but completion times during the cross-handed trials were predicted by the propensity for conscious motor processing (p = 0.04) rather than movement self-consciousness (p = 0.21). Higher propensity for movement self-consciousness is associated with slower performance times on novel and well-practiced laparoscopic tasks. For complex surgical techniques, however, conscious motor processing plays a more influential role in performance than movement self-consciousness. The findings imply that these 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment have a differential influence in the learning and updating

  7. A narrative method for consciousness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce's Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools.

  8. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis eDíaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some types of first person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological parliaments and texts, such as internal monologue statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monologue in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1 The relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2 Some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3 A preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monologue excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno is presented using some

  9. Quantum reality explains mystical powers of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mensky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mystical powers of consciousness, including the direct vision of truth and management a reality, are believed to exist. Various directions of spiritual knowledge, including world religions, deal with these phenomena. Many people are persuaded that mystical events cannot be explained by scientific methods, that they contradict to science. Suggested by the present author Quantum Concept of Consciousness, or Extended Everett Concept, proves that mystical powers have their origin from what is known in quantum mechanics as quantum reality, and therefore are inherent part of science. Therefore, the “mystical” aspect in the sphere of consciousness is a common part of science and spiritual knowledge.

  10. The cognitive approach to conscious machines

    CERN Document Server

    Haikonen, Pentti O

    2003-01-01

    Could a machine have an immaterial mind? The author argues that true conscious machines can be built, but rejects artificial intelligence and classical neural networks in favour of the emulation of the cognitive processes of the brain-the flow of inner speech, inner imagery and emotions. This results in a non-numeric meaning-processing machine with distributed information representation and system reactions. It is argued that this machine would be conscious; it would be aware of its own existence and its mental content and perceive this as immaterial. Novel views on consciousness and the mind-

  11. What about pain in disorders of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakers, C; Chatelle, C; Demertzi, A; Majerus, S; Laureys, S

    2012-09-01

    The management and treatment of acute pain is very difficult in non-communicative patients with disorders of consciousness (i.e., vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious state), creating an ethical dilemma for caregivers and an emotional burden among both relatives and caregivers. In this review, we summarize recent findings about the neural substrates of nociception and pain in VS/UWS patients as well as recent behavioral assessment methods of nociception specifically designed for patients in altered states of consciousness. We will finally discuss implications for pain treatment in these patients.

  12. HOW COULD CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCES AFFECT BRAINS?

    OpenAIRE

    Velmans, Professor Max

    2002-01-01

    In everyday life we take it for granted that we have conscious control of some of our actions and that the part of us that exercises control is the conscious mind. Psychosomatic medicine also assumes that the conscious mind can affect body states, and this is supported by evidence that the use of imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback and other ‘mental interventions’ can be therapeutic in a variety of medical conditions. However, there is no accepted theory of mind/body interaction and this has had...

  13. Can a machine be conscious? How?

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2003-01-01

    A "machine" is any causal physical system, hence we are machines, hence machines can be conscious. The question is: which kinds of machines can be conscious? Chances are that robots that can pass the Turing Test -- completely indistinguishable from us in their behavioral capacities -- can be conscious (i.e. feel), but we can never be sure (because of the "other-minds" problem). And we can never know HOW they have minds, because of the "mind/body" problem. We can only know how they pass the Tu...

  14. Song of Herself:An Analysis of Southern Women’s Consciousness in“The Jilting of Granny Weatherall”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xu

    2015-01-01

    “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall” is a short story by Katherine Anne Porter representing her views of southern women’s self-consciousness in the male-dominated world.On the one hand, Granny Weatherall stands for a typical southern woman who cherishes the conventional values in southern partriarchal society.On the other, the sense of selfhood obtained from suffering many mishaps in her lifetime, in return, however, strengthens the subjective consciousness constructed through the stream-of-consciousness narrative technique, thus drawing an intimate portrait of a strong, independent woman.

  15. Song of Herself: An Analysis of Southern Women’s Consciousness in“The Jilting of Granny Weatherall”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Xu

    2015-01-01

    "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall" is a short story by Katherine Anne Porter representing her views of southern women’s self-consciousness in the male-dominated world.On the one hand, Granny Weatherall stands for a typical southern woman who cherishes the conventional values in southern partriarchal society.On the other, the sense of selfhood obtained from suffering many mishaps in her lifetime, in return, however, strengthens the subjective consciousness constructed through the stream-of-consciousness narrative technique, thus drawing an intimate portrait of a strong, independent woman.

  16. Self-consciousness concept and assessment in self-report measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilveira, Amanda; DeSouza, Mariane L; Gomes, William B

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how self-consciousness is defined and assessed using self-report questionnaires (Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Self-Absorption Scale, Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale). Authors of self-report measures suggest that self-consciousness can be distinguished by its private/public aspects, its adaptive/maladaptive applied characteristics, and present/past experiences. We examined these claims in a study using 602 young adults to whom the aforementioned scales were administered. Data were analyzed as follows: (1) correlation analysis to find simple associations between the measures; (2) factorial analysis using Oblimin rotation of total scores provided from the scales; and (3) factorial analysis considering the 102 items of the scales all together. It aimed to clarify relational patterns found in the correlations between SCSs, and to identify possible latent constructs behind these scales. Results support the adaptive/maladaptive aspects of self-consciousness, as well as distinguish to some extent public aspects from private ones. However, some scales that claimed to be theoretically derived from the concept of Private Self-Consciousness correlated with some of its public self-aspects. Overall, our findings suggest that while self-reflection measures tend to tap into past experiences and judged concepts that were already processed by the participants' inner speech and thoughts, the Awareness measure derived from Mindfulness Scale seems to be related to a construct associated with present experiences in which one is aware of without any further judgment or logical/rational symbolization. This sub-scale seems to emphasize the role that present experiences have in self-consciousness, and it is argued that such a concept refers to what has been studied by phenomenology and psychology over more than 100 years: the concept of pre-reflective self-conscious.

  17. The effects of infertility on sexual functions and dyadic adjustment in couples that present for infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Gülcan; Hassa, Hikmet; Yalçın, Elif Güneş; Yenilmez, Cınar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of infertility on sexual functions and dyadic adjustment in infertile couples that seek infertility treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), and Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were administered to the infertility group (n = 220) and control group (n = 110). None of the study participants had an Axis I psychiatric disorder. There wasn't a significant difference in BDI score between the 2 groups. None of the study participants had clinical depression. Men in both groups reported more problems according to GRISS total scale and subscale scores (except the avoidance subscale) than the women. Women in both groups reported more problems according to GRISS avoidance subscale score than did the men. Men in the control group reported more problems on the GRISS frequency subscale, as compared men in the infertile group. Women in the control group reported more problems based on GRISS total score, and GRISS frequency, satisfaction, touch, and avoidance subscale scores, as compared to the women in the infertile group. The men in the infertile group were more satisfied with dyadic adjustment than the women in the infertile group. The men and women in the control group had higher DAS total score, and DAS consensus and emotional expression subscale scores. The differences in sexual functions between the infertile and control groups were not significant. Both women and men in the infertility group reported more dyadic adjustment problems than those in the control group.

  18. Examining Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy as a Treatment for Adopted and Foster Children: A Review of Research and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP) is a mental health intervention intended primarily for children with problematic attachment histories. It has received increased attention in the United Kingdom and the United States in the last few years. DDP has been publicized as a research-supported treatment, but a review of research shows that it does…

  19. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  20. Perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-parent and child-peer play interactions : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding and knowledge of the relation between children's two social worlds, that of parents and that of peers. This dissertation contains a number of articles reporting on the relation between perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-

  1. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  2. For better or for worse: a longitudinal study on dyadic coping and quality of life among couples with a partner suffering from COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Isabelle; Thöne, Maximiliane Florentine; Kühl, Kerstin; Keil, Daniel Christian; Schürmann, Wolfgang; Rief, Winfried; Stenzel, Nikola Maria

    2015-12-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, impairments of dyadic coping are associated with reduced quality of life. However, existing studies have a cross-sectional design. The present study explores changes in dyadic coping over time and its long-term effects on quality of life of both patients suffering from COPD and their partners. Dyadic coping, psychological distress, health-related quality of life, and exercise capacity were assessed in 63 patients suffering from COPD with their partners, at baseline and 3-year-follow-up. Correlation analyses and actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) were conducted. Patients' delegated dyadic coping (taking over tasks) and common dyadic coping (mutual coping efforts when both partners are stressed) rated by the spouses decreased. Correlation analyses showed that patients' quality of life at follow-up was positively influenced by partners' stress communication (signaling stress). Partners' quality of life at follow-up was negatively influenced by patients' negative dyadic coping (reacting superficially, ambivalently or hostilely) and positively influenced by partners' delegated dyadic coping rated by patients (taking over tasks). APIMs mostly supported these results. It seems important that both partners communicate about stress and provide appropriate instrumental and emotional support to maintain quality of life.

  3. The "conscious pilot"-dendritic synchrony moves through the brain to mediate consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive brain functions including sensory processing and control of behavior are understood as "neurocomputation" in axonal-dendritic synaptic networks of "integrate-and-fire" neurons. Cognitive neurocomputation with consciousness is accompanied by 30- to 90-Hz gamma synchrony electroencephalography (EEG), and non-conscious neurocomputation is not. Gamma synchrony EEG derives largely from neuronal groups linked by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions, forming transient syncytia ("dendritic webs") in input/integration layers oriented sideways to axonal-dendritic neurocomputational flow. As gap junctions open and close, a gamma-synchronized dendritic web can rapidly change topology and move through the brain as a spatiotemporal envelope performing collective integration and volitional choices correlating with consciousness. The "conscious pilot" is a metaphorical description for a mobile gamma-synchronized dendritic web as vehicle for a conscious agent/pilot which experiences and assumes control of otherwise non-conscious auto-pilot neurocomputation.

  4. Science of the conscious mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Samsonovich, Alexei V

    2008-12-01

    Human beings have direct access to their own mental states, but can only indirectly observe cosmic radiation and enzyme kinetics. Why then can we measure the temperature of far away galaxies and the activation constant of kinases to the third digit, yet we only gauge our happiness on a scale from 1 to 7? Here we propose a radical research paradigm shift to embrace the subjective conscious mind into the realm of objective empirical science. Key steps are the axiomatic acceptance of first-person experiences as scientific observables; the definition of a quantitative, reliable metric system based on natural language; and the careful distinction of subjective mental states (e.g., interpretation and intent) from physically measurable sensory and motor behaviors (input and output). Using this approach, we propose a series of reproducible experiments that may help define a still largely unexplored branch of science. We speculate that the development of this new discipline will be initially parallel to, and eventually converging with, neurobiology and physics.

  5. Consciousness as a State of Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tegmark, Max

    2014-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. We explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. If such principles can identify conscious entities, then they can help solve the quantum factorization problem: why do conscious observers like us perceive the particular Hilbert space factorization corresponding to classical space (rather than Fourier space, say), and more generally, why do we perceive the world around us as a dynamic hierarchy of objects that are strongly integrated and relatively independent? Tensor factorization of matrices is found to play a central role, and our technical results include a theorem about Hamiltonian separability (defined using Hilbert-Schmidt superoperators) being maximized in the energy eigenbasis. Our approach g...

  6. Industrial Application Of Environmentally Conscious Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    This book is an adaptation of the author’s PhD thesis, in which he explored environmentally conscious design in the electrical/electronics industry sector. In this new and rapidly evolving field, existing research has not yet sought to understand the causes of success and the problems experienced...... when companies have integrated environmental considerations into the design process.In the context of advanced practitioners of environmentally conscious design in the Western European and North American electrical/electronics industry sector, it is shown that:- the timing of environmental decisions...... in the design process is key to environmentally conscious design;- the environmental profile of a product is affected the most in the very early stages of the design process, particularly in the pre-specification stage, where tools for environmentally conscious design decision-making are lacking...

  7. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  8. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Singer, W.; Nikolic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant

  9. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  10. [Nursing education: integrating gender equity consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Shih, Hsin-Hsin; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Gender sensitivity influences the way a nurse handles the nursing process and can influence both patient care and public perception of the nursing profession. Nurses unaware of the influences of gender are unable to perform holistic nursing, the practice of which centers on patient-centered care. Education is essential to promote gender consciousness. Providing scenario-based education to apply gender consciousness can help nursing students integrate gender and nursing care concepts and improve nursing care quality. In addition to raising attention to this important issue, this article makes comprehensive suggestions on how to apply gender concepts in nursing education. These suggestions include requiring instructors to consider and assess their own gender consciousness in order to enhance positive gender consciousness; reviewing teaching materials to identify and remove content tainted by sexual discrimination, and emphasizing gender education in the nursing education curriculum.

  11. Dyadic contrast function and quadratic forward model for radio frequency tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Vittorio

    Radio Frequency Tomography is an underground imaging technology that aims to reconstruct extended, deeply buried objects such as tunnels or Underground Facilities (UGF). A network of sensors collects scattered electromagnetic field samples, which are processed to obtain 2D or 3D images of the complex dielectric permittivity profile of the volume under investigation. Unlike systems such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) which normally employ wide-band pulses, RF Tomography uses Continuous Wave (CW) signals to illuminate the scene. The information about the target is not retrieved by relying on bandwidth but by exploiting spatial, frequency and/or polarization diversity. Interestingly, RF Tomography can be readily adapted to obtain images of targets in free space. In this context, in the Andrew Electromagnetics Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Chicago, a measurement system aimed to validate experimentally the performance of RF Tomography has been designed and built. Experimental data have been used to validate its forward model, different inversion algorithms, its performance in terms of resolution and the ability of the system to distinguish between metallic and non-metallic targets. In the specific case of imaging of metallic targets, this thesis proposes to extend the capabilities of RF Tomography by introducing a dyadic permittivity contrast. Electromagnetic scattering from a thin, wire-like object placed in free space with its main axis at an angle with respect to the incident electric field is studied. It is possible to show that for this configuration a fundamental difference exists between a metallic and a dielectric object. This phenomenon can be modeled into Maxwell's equations by using a dyadic permittivity contrast, as it is commonly done when studying crystals. As a result a new formulation of the RF Tomography forward model is obtained, based on a dyadic contrast function. Reconstruction of this dyad allows

  12. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether different religious (mythological) worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. ...

  13. Tess's Female Consciousness in Tess of the D'Urbervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽英

    2016-01-01

    Tess of the D'Urbervilles is the representative work of Thomas Hardy, an outstanding realistic writer in the nineteenth century's literary world. In his work, Hardy has created a new image filled with female consciousness,Tess. This paper just focuses on the study of Tess's female consciousness, from the following aspects: consciousness of self-reliance, consciousness of protest.

  14. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain, conscious experience and the observing self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Ramsøy, Thomas; Laureys, Steven

    2003-01-01

    stimulus identification as such. What is the role of those regions? Parietal cortex support the 'first person perspective' on the visual world, unconsciously framing the visual object stream. Some prefrontal areas select and interpret conscious events for executive control. Such functions can be viewed...... as properties of the subject, rather than the object, of experience - the 'observing self' that appears to be needed to maintain the conscious state...

  16. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We ...

  17. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    The article explicates George Herbert Mead's theory of consciousness as presented in Mind, Self and Society. According to Mead, the term consciousness may refer to three different sets of phenomena: (1) the environment as implied by our goal-directed action; Mead names this consciousness aspect...... experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes......-inspired psychology makes the third consciousness aspect all-important. Within Mead's framework for a darwinistically inspired psycholgy, it becomes theoretically insignificant....

  18. The neurophysical basis of mind and consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichler, James

    2012-04-01

    A living body is just a complex pattern of energetic particle exchanges to physicists when compared to the biochemical processes studied by chemists and biologists. New research has centered more upon the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic characteristics of life. It is easy to model mind and consciousness as the electric and magnetic counterparts of living organisms. Mind is an extremely complex electric scalar field pattern and consciousness is the corresponding magnetic vector potential field pattern. As humans, we may have the most complex and advanced mind and consciousness known, but all living organisms display mind and consciousness at various lower levels than our human mind and consciousness. Mind and consciousness have mistakenly become associated with the brain and no other part of the body because of the dense concentration of neurons in the brain. A strict study of the magnetic vector potential field patterns associated with neural microtubules, neurons and neural nets demonstrates how thoughts and streams of thought originate in the brain and are stored magnetically. Microtubules, which act as magnetic induction coils, are the primary structural bio-unit used for building, storing and retrieving memories in the mind.

  19. What kind of consciousness is minimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Vogel, Dominik; Lang, Simone; Müller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between unitary and non-unitary views on minimal consciousness. First, unitary (all-or-none) and non-unitary (gradual or continuous) models of consciousness are defined as they have been developed in both philosophy and neurophysiology. Then, the implications of these ideas to the notion the minimally conscious state (MCS) are discussed. Review and analysis of theoretical conceptions and empirical data. Both kinds of models are compatible with the actual definitions of MCS. Although unitary views may seem to contradict the description of the MCS in 'Neurology' 2002, the apparent contradiction can easily be solved. Most recent data, particularly those obtained using fMRI and concerning learning, emotional responsiveness and pain and suffering, speak for non-unitary models. Most evidence speaks for non-unitary models of minimal consciousness. If these models are correct, patients with MCS may have, in addition to temporal fluctuations, a lower level of consciousness compared with fully conscious individuals. A still lower level could characterize patients diagnosed as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS). From this point of view, therefore, the difference between UWS and MCS is gradual rather than qualitative. However, due to methodological limitations of the available studies, the evidence for non-unitary models cannot be regarded as definite.

  20. The function of consciousness in multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Terry D; Ramsey, Ashley K

    2012-12-01

    The function of consciousness was explored in two contexts of audio-visual speech, cross-modal visual attention guidance and McGurk cross-modal integration. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 utilized a novel cueing paradigm in which two different flash suppressed lip-streams cooccured with speech sounds matching one of these streams. A visual target was then presented at either the audio-visually congruent or incongruent location. Target recognition differed for the congruent versus incongruent trials, and the nature of this difference depended on the probabilities of a target appearing at these respective locations. Thus, even though the lip-streams were never consciously perceived, they were nevertheless meaningfully integrated with the consciously perceived sounds, and participants learned to guide their attention according to statistical regularities between targets and these unconsciously perceived cross-modal cues. In Experiment 4, McGurk stimuli were presented in which the lip-streams were either flash suppressed (4a) or unsuppressed (4b), and the McGurk effect was found to vanish under conditions of flash suppression. Overall, these results suggest a simple yet fundamental principle regarding the function of consciousness in multisensory integration - cross-modal effects can occur in the absence of consciousness, but the influencing modality must be consciously perceived for its information to cross modalities.

  1. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eTagliazucchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  2. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Price

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002 there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007 and of fringe consciousness (Mangan, 1993 can clarify intuitive processing as an informative extit{conscious feeling} without conscious access to the antecedents of the feeling. We stress that these intuitive feelings can be used to guide behaviour in a controlled and contextually sensitive manner that would not be permitted by purely non-conscious influences on behaviour. An outline is provided for how to empirically recognise these intuitive feelings. This is illustrated with an example from research on implicit learning where intuitive feelings may play an important role in peoples' decisions and judgements. Finally we suggest that our approach to understanding intuitive feelings softens rather than reinforces the two-systems dichotomy.

  3. Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos Post, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.

  4. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzueto Hernandez, L.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-07-01

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve.

  5. Hey Mr. Sandman: dyadic effects of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep among married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenson, Tracey A; Marín-Chollom, Amanda M; Rundle, Andrew G; Wisnivesky, Juan; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-04-01

    This study examined associations among anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep duration in a sample of middle-aged couples using the actor-partner interaction model with dyadic data. Self-report measures were completed independently by both partners as part of the health histories obtained during their annual preventive medical examinations in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that husbands' anxiety and depressive symptoms had a stronger effect on their wives' anxiety and depression than the other way around, but this was not moderated by one's own sleep duration. For both wives and husbands, higher levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety predicted shorter sleep duration for their partner 1 year later, although the effect of husbands' mental health on their wives' was again stronger. The findings suggest that sleep problems might better be treated as a couple-level phenomenon than an individual one, particularly for women.

  6. Evolution through the stochastic dyadic Cantor Set: the uniqueness of mankind in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahecha, Diego S.

    2016-10-01

    The search for intelligent life or any type of life involves processes with nonlinear chaotic behaviours throughout the Universe. Through the sensitive dependence condition, chaotic dynamics are also difficult or impossible to duplicate, forecast and predict. Similar evolution patterns will result in completely different outcomes. Even, the intelligent life evolution pattern, based on carbon, DNA-RNA-protein, will differ from all possible sequences. In the present paper, the stochastic dyadic Cantor set models the many possible variations of such chaotic behaviours in the Universe, yielding to a tendency to zero, for any scenario of intelligent life evolution. The probability of the development of the exact microscopic and macroscopic scenario that is capable of supporting intelligent life or any other type of life in any planet is vanishingly small. Thus, the present analysis suggests that mankind, as an extremely statistically uncommon occurrence, is unique and alone in the Universe.

  7. Humans display a reduced set of consistent behavioral phenotypes in dyadic games

    CERN Document Server

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Vicens, Julian; Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus; Perello, Josep; Moreno, Yamir; Duch, Jordi; Sanchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Socially relevant situations that involve strategic interactions are widespread among animals and humans alike. To study these situations, theoretical and experimental works have adopted a game-theoretical perspective, which has allowed to obtain valuable insights about human behavior. However, most of the results reported so far have been obtained from a population perspective and considered one specific conflicting situation at a time. This makes it difficult to extract conclusions about the consistency of individuals' behavior when facing different situations, and more importantly, to define a comprehensive classification of the strategies underlying the observed behaviors. Here, we present the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment in which subjects face four different dyadic games, with the aim of establishing general behavioral rules dictating individuals' actions. By analyzing our data with an unsupervised clustering algorithm, we find that all the subjects conform, with a large degree of consistency...

  8. Efficient and accurate computation of electric field dyadic Green's function in layered media

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Min Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Concise and explicit formulas for dyadic Green's functions, representing the electric and magnetic fields due to a dipole source placed in layered media, are derived in this paper. First, the electric and magnetic fields in the spectral domain for the half space are expressed using Fresnel reflection and transmission coefficients. Each component of electric field in the spectral domain constitutes the spectral Green's function in layered media. The Green's function in the spatial domain is then recovered involving Sommerfeld integrals for each component in the spectral domain. By using Bessel identities, the number of Sommerfeld integrals are reduced, resulting in much simpler and more efficient formulas for numerical implementation compared with previous results. This approach is extended to the three-layer Green's function. In addition, the singular part of the Green's function is naturally separated out so that integral equation methods developed for free space Green's functions can be used with minimal mo...

  9. Baccalaureate nursing students' experience of dyadic learning in an acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Gregg; Osuji, Joseph; El-Hussein, Mohamed Toufic

    2014-09-01

    This article describes a unique learning project designed to address the praxis gap between baccalaureate nursing students' clinical learning and theoretic principles of collaborative practice on an acute medical-surgical unit in Canada. The study was framed by the active engagement model to provide second-year nursing students a nontraditional approach to develop their nursing practice. Clinical faculty partnered with medical-surgical nursing staff and eight baccalaureate nursing students to explore the experience of collaborative learning and stakeholders' anticipated learning outcomes while working in dyads. A modified phenomenological approach was used in understanding the experience of dyadic learning through reflective journals, course evaluation data, and a semistructured exit interview for analysis. Four themes were revealed based on students' reflection of their experience: work engagement, relational practice, autonomy, and empowerment. These themes underscore the strengths and opportunities associated with this nontraditional approach to clinical learning. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Childhood emotional abuse and attachment processes in the dyadic adjustment of dating couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Shelley A; Cusimano, Angela M; Benson, Karen M

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the mechanisms that link early maltreatment to later outcomes, this study investigated the mediation effects of adult attachment processes on the association between childhood emotional abuse and later romantic relationships among heterosexual couples. College students and their dating partners (N = 310; 155 couples) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Experiences in Close Relationship Scale, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Using the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006), multilevel modeling results indicated that memories of childhood emotional abuse reported by both students and their partners were significantly associated with attachment strategies, as well as romantic relationship quality. Findings supported hypothesized mediation effects of attachment anxiety and avoidance.

  11. The "saying is repeating" effect: dyadic communication can generate cultural stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanova, Boyka; Kashima, Yoshi

    2014-01-01

    It has been long established that interpersonal communication underpins the existence of cultural stereotypes. However, research has either examined the formation of new or the maintenance of existing stereotypes. In a series of three studies, the present research bridges the gap between these phases by showing that newly formed stereotypes can spread through repeated dyadic communication with others. The stereotypic representation arose due to the audience tuning in to communication to a first audience. Further transmission to two types of subsequent audiences was simulated: a newcomer and an old-timer with an unknown attitude towards the target. A "saying-is-repeating" effect was obtained: the stereotypic representation was invariably transmitted to the newcomer, regardless of whether communicators personally believed in the bias; perceived group-level consensus moderated its transmission to the old-timer. These findings demonstrate that once a stereotypic representation is formed, it is likely to spread in a community and potentially become a cultural stereotype.

  12. The segmentation of FMI image based on 2-D dyadic wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Lin; Wu, Yue-Qi; Liu, Jian-Hua; Ma, Yong

    2005-06-01

    A key aspect in extracting quantitative information from FMI logs is to segment the FMI image to get images of pores, vugs and fractures. A segmentation method based on the dyadic wavelet transform in 2-D is introduced in this paper. The first step is to find all the edge pixels of the FMI image using the 2-D wavelet transform. The second step is to calculate a segmentation threshold based on the average value of the edge pixels. Field data processing examples show that sub-images of vugs and fractures can be correctly separated from original FMI data continuously and automatically along the depth axis. The image segmentation lays the foundation for in-situ parameter calculation.

  13. Changing Teacher-Child Dyadic Interactions to Improve Preschool Children's Externalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; DeCoster, Jamie; Hartz, Karyn A; Carter, Lauren M; Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Hatfield, Bridget E

    2016-12-19

    A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the impact of an attachment-based, teacher-child, dyadic intervention (Banking Time) to improve children's externalizing behavior. Participants included 183 teachers and 470 preschool children (3-4 years of age). Classrooms were randomly assigned to Banking Time, child time, or business as usual (BAU). Sparse evidence was found for main effects on child behavior. Teachers in Banking Time demonstrated lower negativity and fewer positive interactions with children compared to BAU teachers at post assessment. The impacts of Banking Time and child time on reductions of parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior were greater when teachers evidenced higher-quality, classroom-level, teacher-child interactions at baseline. An opposite moderating effect was found for children's positive engagement with teachers.

  14. A Cognitive Science View of Abhinavagupta’s Understanding of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriliai Biernacki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a comparative analysis of the nature of consciousness correlating the insights of the 11th century Śaiva philosopher Abhinavagupta with the work of some contemporary philosophers of consciousness. Ultimately these comparisons especially bring to light possibilities for constructing a materialist paradigm that might operate from a prioritization of subjectivity rather than objectivity. I propose that the Hindu, nondual Śaivite system that Abhinavagupta lays out offers a framework that may be useful for contemporary cognitive science and philosophy of mind precisely because Abhinavagupta offers a theory for connecting the material with the phenomenal.

  15. The valued consciousness as register of domination and prevailing in gender cultures:systemological dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Svyatnenko

    2016-08-01

    This register is meaningful and full of value-semantic constructs that create a point of reference in the evaluation of certain theoretical umopostroeny and social practices of gender positioning. In such circumstances, the ruling status of the gains that sociogender group that can afford the definition of evaluation samples of other gender, which she occupies the position aksiodatelya (creator of values, that is, what is significant or insignificant. Therefore, acts of consciousness and behavior of subordinate gender in the register shall be subject to censoring value consciousness prevailing gender, so that every time there is their acceptance / denial, legitimation / delegitimation and others.

  16. Neural Correlates of Contents and Levels of Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaard, Morten; Overgaard, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the neural substrate of consciousness typically take one of two paths, studying (1) contents or (2) levels of consciousness. It seems obvious to most that these two “paths” are interrelated, yet much less obvious how. This paper gives one suggestion to grasp the interrelation, arguing that conscious levels are determined by conscious contents in a very specific way. It follows from the argument that conscious contents are so-called natural kinds, whereas conscio...

  17. Networks of conscious experience: computational neuroscience in understanding life, death, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry; Koch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate brain locations appearing to correlate with consciousness, but not being directly responsible for it. Technology reveals that brain activity is associated with consciousness but is not equivalent to it. We examine how consciousness occurs at critical levels of complexity. Conventional explanations portray consciousness as an emergent property of classical computer-like activities in the brain's neural networks. Prevailing views in this camp are that patterns of neural network activities correlate with mental states, that synchronous network oscillations in the thalamus and cerebral cortex temporally bind information, and that consciousness emerges as a novel property of computational complexity among neurons. A hard-wired theory is enigmatic for explaining consciousness because the nature of subjective experience, or 'qualia'- 'inner life' - is a "hard problem" to understand; binding spatially distributed brain activity into unitary objects, and a coherent sense of self, or 'oneness' is difficult to explain as is the transition from pre- to conscious states. Consciousness is non-computable and involves factors that are neither random nor algorithmic - consciousness cannot be simulated; explanations are also needed for free will and for subjective time flow. Convention argues that neurons and their chemical synapses are the fundamental units of information in the brain, and that conscious experience emerges when a critical level of complexity is reached in the brain's neural networks. The basic idea is that the mind is a computer functioning in the brain. In fitting the brain to a computational view, such explanations omit incompatible neurophysiological details, including widespread apparent randomness at all levels of neural processes (is it really noise, or underlying levels of complexity?); glial cells (which account for some 80% of the brain); dendritic-dendritic processing; electrotonic gap junctions; cytoplasmic/cytoskeletal activities; living

  18. Longitudinal Associations Between PTSD Symptoms and Dyadic Conflict Communication Following a Severe Motor Vehicle Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Beck, J Gayle; Shnaider, Philippe; Le, Yunying; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Pentel, Kimberly Z; Monson, Candice M; Simon, Naomi M; Marques, Luana

    2017-03-01

    There are well-documented associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and intimate relationship impairments, including dysfunctional communication at times of relationship conflict. To date, the extant research on the associations between PTSD symptom severity and conflict communication has been cross-sectional and focused on military and veteran couples. No published work has evaluated the extent to which PTSD symptom severity and communication at times of relationship conflict influence each other over time or in civilian samples. The current study examined the prospective bidirectional associations between PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication in a sample of 114 severe motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors in a committed intimate relationship at the time of the accident. PTSD symptom severity and dyadic conflict communication were assessed at 4 and 16weeks post-MVA, and prospective associations were examined using path analysis. Total PTSD symptom severity at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks post-MVA but not vice versa. Examination at the level of PTSD symptom clusters revealed that effortful avoidance at 4weeks prospectively predicted greater dysfunctional communication at 16weeks, whereas dysfunctional communication 4weeks after the MVA predicted more severe emotional numbing at 16weeks. Findings highlight the role of PTSD symptoms in contributing to dysfunctional communication and the importance of considering PTSD symptom clusters separately when investigating the dynamic interplay between PTSD symptoms and relationship functioning over time, particularly during the early posttrauma period. Clinical implications for the prevention of chronic PTSD and associated relationship problems are discussed.

  19. Dyadic Relationship and Quality of Life Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Eduardo Roxo Rodrigues Cravo Barata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIintroduction:Chronic Renal insufficiency (CRI and dialysis treatment lead to a succession of situations for kidney chronic patient, which compromises his aspect, not only physically, and psychologically, with personal, family and social repercussions.Objective:(1 to verify the existence of differences of dyadic adjustment (DA according to renal replacement treatment (RRT and (2 verify the existence of differences quality of life (QOL in accordance with the RRT.Methods:This is a cross-sectional study of a descriptive nature through surveys, exploratory and correlational. The sample consisted of 125 participants. Of these, 31 were to be made RRT by automated peritoneal dialysis (APD and 94 hemodialysis (HD. Participants were selected from three renal centers: (1 Centro Renal da Prelada (Porto, Portugal, (2 Centrodial (S. João da Madeira, Portugal and Centro Renal da Misericórdia de Paredes (Paredes, Portugal. The study was carried out for 6 months. The following instruments were applied: Socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire (SDCQ, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS, World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref.Results:The results demonstrate the existence of statistically significant differences between the type of RRT and most areas of QOL, as well as the existence of statistically significant differences between the subscales of the DAS evaluated and the type of RRT.Conclusion:The present study demonstrates a greater commitment in terms of QOL of individuals undergoing treatment for HD when compared with those subjected to APD. It turns out, also, that DA is most strongly perceived by patients in APD than with HD.

  20. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Liron, Yuvalal; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available. PMID:28141861

  1. Study of dyadic communication in couples managing prostate cancer: a longitudinal perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L; Northouse, LL; Zhang, L; Braun, TM; Cimprich, B; Ronis, DL; Mood, DW

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cancer patients and partners often report inadequate communication about illness-related issues, although it is essential for mutual support and informal caregiving. This study examined the patterns of change in dyadic communication between patients with prostate cancer and their partners, and also determined if certain factors affected their communication over time. METHOD Using multilevel modeling, this study analyzed longitudinal data obtained from a randomized clinical trial with prostate cancer patients and their partners, to examine their communication over time. Patients and partners (N=134 pairs) from the usual-care control group independently completed baseline demographic assessment and measures of social support, uncertainty, symptom distress, and dyadic communication at baseline, and 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-ups. RESULTS The results indicated that (1) patients and partners reported similar levels of open communication at the time of diagnosis. Communication reported by patients and partners decreased over time in a similar trend, regardless of phase of illness; (2) phase of illness affected couples’ open communication at diagnosis but not patterns of change over time; and (3) couples’ perceived communication increased as they reported more social support, less uncertainty, and fewer hormonal symptoms in patients. Couples’ demographic factors and general symptoms, and patients’ prostate cancer-specific symptoms did not affect their levels of open communication. CONCLUSIONS Perceived open communication between prostate cancer patients and partners over time is affected by certain baseline and time-varying psychosocial and cancer-related factors. The results provide empirical evidence that may guide the development of strategies to facilitate couples’ interaction and mutual support during survivorship. PMID:20967920

  2. On the Localization Construction of Music Curriculum Under the Perspective of Cultural Consciousness---Taking the “National Training Plan” in the Music Department of Huaihua University as an Example%文化自觉视阈下音乐国培课程本土化建设思考--以怀化学院音乐“国培计划”实施为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 张慧春

    2015-01-01

    以文化自觉视阈来观之,充分利用区域民族音乐资源来加强国培课程建设是怀化学院音乐国培取得成效的重要原因之一。但目前在实施中还存在着课程设置缺乏科学性与主体自觉性不够等问题。区域民族音乐资源进国培课堂需要做好三方面工作:加强与区域民族音乐传承人合作、开展好区域民族音乐采风活动、实现与国培学员研究性学习有效对接。%Under the perspective of cultural consciousness , making full use of regional ethnic music resources to strengthen the course construction is one of the important reasons for the success in implementing the national training plan in the Music Department of Huaihua University . But there still exist some problems such as the lack of scientific nature in the curriculum and the inadequate consciousness of the main body . In order to make regional ethnic music resources into the classroom smoothly , it is necessary to do a good job in three aspects:strengthening regional cooperation with the inheritors of the regional folk music , carrying out the activities to collect national music heritage , and realizing the effective link with the trainees'inquiry learning .

  3. The neurochemical correlate of consciousness: exploring neurotransmitter systems underlying conscious vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    How and where does our brain integrated the information that we get into our eyes into a unifying percept and into a conscious experience? Although different neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been proposed, depending on the kind of neural signals recorded, the type of manipulation used,

  4. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R.; Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  5. Measuring the level and content of consciousness during epileptic seizures: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, A E; Mula, M; Servo, S; Strigaro, G; Tota, G; Barbagli, D; Collimedaglia, L; Viana, M; Cantello, R; Monaco, F

    2008-07-01

    Ictal alterations of the level of general awareness and subjective content of consciousness play a pivotal role in the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy, and reflect the pathological involvement of different neurobiological substrates. However, no self-reported measures have been proposed for patients experiencing altered conscious states during seizures. This study describes the development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative assessment of the level and content of ictal consciousness, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI). The ICI is a 20-item questionnaire generated on the basis of interviews with patients, literature review, and consultation with experts. It was tested on a sample of 110 patients attending three different epilepsy clinics in Northern Italy, who also completed standardized clinical scales. Standard psychometric methods were used to demonstrate that this scale satisfies criteria for acceptability, reliability, and validity. The ICI is proposed as a user-friendly and clinically sound instrument for the measurement of ictal alterations of consciousness in patients with epilepsy.

  6. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R; Mateos, D M; Wennberg, R; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  7. Consciousness, the brain, and spacetime geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, S

    2001-04-01

    What is consciousness? Conventional approaches see it as an emergent property of complex interactions among individual neurons; however these approaches fail to address enigmatic features of consciousness. Accordingly, some philosophers have contended that "qualia," or an experiential medium from which consciousness is derived, exists as a fundamental component of reality. Whitehead, for example, described the universe as being composed of "occasions of experience." To examine this possibility scientifically, the very nature of physical reality must be re-examined. We must come to terms with the physics of spacetime--as described by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and its relation to the fundamental theory of matter--as described by quantum theory. Roger Penrose has proposed a new physics of objective reduction: "OR," which appeals to a form of quantum gravity to provide a useful description of fundamental processes at the quantum/classical borderline. Within the OR scheme, we consider that consciousness occurs if an appropriately organized system is able to develop and maintain quantum coherent superposition until a specific "objective" criterion (a threshold related to quantum gravity) is reached; the coherent system then self-reduces (objective reduction: OR). We contend that this type of objective self-collapse introduces non-computability, an essential feature of consciousness which distinguishes our minds from classical computers. Each OR is taken as an instantaneous event--the climax of a self-organizing process in fundamental spacetime--and a candidate for a conscious Whitehead "occasion of experience." How could an OR process occur in the brain, be coupled to neural activities, and account for other features of consciousness? We nominate a quantum computational OR process with the requisite characteristics to be occurring in cytoskeletal micro-tubules within the brain's neurons. In this model, quantum-superposed states develop in microtubule

  8. The emergence of consciousness: Science and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The newborn human infant is conscious at a minimal level. It is aware of its body, itself and to some extent of the outside world. It recognizes faces and vowels to which it has been exposed. It expresses emotions like joy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the newborn brain shows highest activity in the somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortex but less activity in association area and the prefrontal cortex as compared with adults. There is an incomplete default mode network which is assumed to be related to consciousness. Although the fetus reacts to pain, maternal speaking, etc., it is probably not aware of this due to the low oxygen level and sedation. Assuming that consciousness is mainly localized in the cortex, consciousness cannot emerge before 24 gestational weeks when the thalamocortical connections from the sense organs are established. Thus the limit of legal abortion at 22-24 weeks in many countries makes sense. It should also be possible to withdraw or withhold life-saving therapy of extremely preterm infants, especially if they are severely brain-damaged. This may also apply to full-term infants with grade III hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, who show no signs of consciousness.

  9. Functional neuroanatomy of disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Perri, Carol; Stender, Johan; Laureys, Steven; Gosseries, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with chronic disorders of consciousness and subjects undergoing general anesthesia present a complex dysfunctionality in the architecture of brain connectivity. At present, the global hallmark of impaired consciousness appears to be a multifaceted dysfunctional connectivity pattern with both within-network loss of connectivity in a widespread frontoparietal network and between-network hyperconnectivity involving other regions such as the insula and ventral tegmental area. Despite ongoing efforts, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of consciousness after severe brain injury are not thoroughly understood. Important questions remain unanswered: What triggers the connectivity impairment leading to disorders of consciousness? Why do some patients recover from coma, while others with apparently similar brain injuries do not? Understanding these mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of brain function and, hopefully, lead to new therapeutic strategies in this challenging patient population.

  10. The associations between self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yan-Gang; Li, Jian-Bin; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2014-07-01

    Self-consciousness is considered as a multifaceted and hierarchical construct that includes self-evaluation, self-experience, and self-control. This study assumes that self-consciousness is a preventative factor of internalizing and externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. 1202 Chinese adolescents from grade 7 to grade 12 participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires that assessed self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems. The results showed that, after controlling demographic variables, some lower-order factors (i.e., sense of satisfaction, sense of anxiety, social self, self-restraint, self-esteem, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-evaluation and self-experience) of self-consciousness significantly predicted internalizing problems, while externalizing problems were predicted by several lower-order factors (i.e., self-restraint, sense of satisfaction, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-control and self-experience). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems are related with different aspects of self-consciousness, which sheds light on the prevention into adolescents' problem behaviors.

  11. Emotion and Consciousness: Ends of a Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri I. Alexandrov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a united concept of consciousness and emotion, based on the systemic cognitive neuroscience perspective regarding organisms as active and goaldirected. We criticize the idea that consciousness and emotion are psychological phenomena having quite different neurophysiological mechanisms. We argue that both characterize a unified systemic organization of behavior, but at different levels. All systems act to achieve intended behavioral results in interaction with their environment. Differentiation of this interaction increases during individual development. Any behavioral act is a simultaneous realization of systems ranking from the least to the most differentiated. We argue that consciousness and emotion are dynamic systemic characteristics that are prominent at the most and least differentiated systemic levels, correspondingly. These levels are created during development. Our theory is based on both theoretical and empirical research and provides a solid framework for experimental work.

  12. Bosman and self-conscious fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meihuizen

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Bosman, in a number of ways, underlines his fascination with his medium. In this article, an attempt is made to indicate some of the ways in which he does this. Particular attention is paid to Bosman’s use of commentary, his own self-conscious reflections on the text before the reader. Using two stories, “Unto Dust”, and “Old Transvaal Story”, I present the ways in which Bosman’s self-consciousness manifests itself in his art. If he is so adept at undermining illusion, what yet entertains us in the most self-conscious of his texts? It is argued that his fascination with his medium is buttressed by his ability to delude us, which displaces our reliance on illusion.

  13. [Pain as a biological phenomenon of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, A

    1998-02-11

    Pain has not to be considered a false step of nature. On the contrary, it is an extremely effective warning mechanism through which the individual becomes aware of a danger to its own physical integrity from inside the body or from the environment. Pain therefore belongs to the biological devices for evading bodily danger. The conscious experience of pain is the most sophisticated stage of evolution of warning systems, whose simplest form is represented by an unicellular organism which moves away if it anticipates danger from an environmental state. Similar to all qualia, conscious experience of pain cannot be fully explained in terms of neurophysiological events. Conscious pain is a complex perceptual and affective experience influenced not by the amount of the bodily lesion alone, but also by the whole personality of the sufferer. This often makes surgical, medical and psychological treatment of pain difficult and disappointing.

  14. Against the View that Consciousness and Attention are Fully Dissociable

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will try to show that the idea that there can be consciousness without some form of attention, and high-level top-down attention without consciousness, originates from a failure to notice the varieties of forms that top-down attention and consciousness can assume. I will present evidence that: there are various forms of attention and consciousness; not all forms of attention produce the same kind of consciousness; not all forms of consciousness are produced by the same kind o...

  15. Phenomenological views on intersubjectivity: towards a reinterpretation of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, Luis Manuel

    2008-06-01

    Intersubjectivity and consciousness are reinterpreted according to the dynamic and relational coordinates of lived experience. Consciousness is not just another property of the subject, but rather the condition itself of his/her own being-in-the-world. The different aspects of consciousness are the moments and movements which constitute its intentional structure. These structures lead us to reinterpret material embodiment, temporality, and intersubjectivity as the "complex" steps taken by consciousness, which in its movements does not turn inward, on itself like a transcendental, reasoning, and self-centred consciousness, but, on the contrary, as an embodied consciousness immersed in others and in the world.

  16. Big Five predictors of behavior and perceptions in initial dyadic interactions: personality similarity helps extraverts and introverts, but hurts "disagreeables".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperman, Ronen; Ickes, William

    2009-10-01

    The authors used the unstructured dyadic interaction paradigm to examine the effects of gender and the Big Five personality traits on dyad members' behaviors and perceptions in 87 initial, unstructured interactions. Most of the significant Big Five effects (84%) were associated with the traits of Extraversion and Agreeableness. There were several significant actor and partner effects for both of these traits. However, the most interesting and novel effects took the form of significant Actor x Partner interactions. Personality similarity resulted in relatively good initial interactions for dyads composed of 2 extraverts or 2 introverts, when compared with dissimilar (extravert-introvert) pairs. However, personality similarity resulted in uniquely poor initial interactions for dyads composed of 2 "disagreeables." In summary, the Big Five traits predict behavior and perceptions in initial dyadic interactions, not just in the form of actor and partner "main effects" but also in the form of Actor x Partner interactions.

  17. Large-scale information flow in conscious and unconscious states: an ECoG study in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Yanagawa

    Full Text Available Consciousness is an emergent property of the complex brain network. In order to understand how consciousness is constructed, neural interactions within this network must be elucidated. Previous studies have shown that specific neural interactions between the thalamus and frontoparietal cortices; frontal and parietal cortices; and parietal and temporal cortices are correlated with levels of consciousness. However, due to technical limitations, the network underlying consciousness has not been investigated in terms of large-scale interactions with high temporal and spectral resolution. In this study, we recorded neural activity with dense electrocorticogram (ECoG arrays and used the spectral Granger causality to generate a more comprehensive network that relates to consciousness in monkeys. We found that neural interactions were significantly different between conscious and unconscious states in all combinations of cortical region pairs. Furthermore, the difference in neural interactions between conscious and unconscious states could be represented in 4 frequency-specific large-scale networks with unique interaction patterns: 2 networks were related to consciousness and showed peaks in alpha and beta bands, while the other 2 networks were related to unconsciousness and showed peaks in theta and gamma bands. Moreover, networks in the unconscious state were shared amongst 3 different unconscious conditions, which were induced either by ketamine and medetomidine, propofol, or sleep. Our results provide a novel picture that the difference between conscious and unconscious states is characterized by a switch in frequency-specific modes of large-scale communications across the entire cortex, rather than the cessation of interactions between specific cortical regions.

  18. Gender minority stress, mental health, and relationship quality: A dyadic investigation of transgender women and their cisgender male partners

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Reisner, Sari L.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (non-transgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relati...

  19. A vector-dyadic development of the equations of motion for N-coupled rigid bodies and point masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1974-01-01

    The equations of motion are derived, in vector-dyadic format, for a topological tree of coupled rigid bodies, point masses, and symmetrical momentum wheels. These equations were programmed, and form the basis for the general-purpose digital computer program N-BOD. A complete derivation of the equations of motion is included along with a description of the methods used for kinematics, constraint elimination, and for the inclusion of nongyroscope forces and torques acting external or internal to the system.

  20. The establishment of industrial branding through dyadic logistics partnership success (LPS): The case of the Malaysian automotive and logistics industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman, NA; Melewar, TC; Sharif, AM

    2014-01-01

    Logistics partnerships across dyadic and triadic relationship networks have been the basis of extensive research in the extant literature. It is well understood that competitive advantage within logistics and distribution and within supply chains are driven by value-adding aspects of not only the core competencies of each tier in the network, but also via tangential supporting factors. It is also well understood that there is a strong relationship between logistics and distribution and market...

  1. Which characteristics of planning matter? Individual and dyadic physical activity plans and their effects on plan enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jan; Fleig, Lena; Hohl, Diana Hilda; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Burkert, Silke; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Knoll, Nina

    2017-09-01

    Past research supports individual planning as an effective intervention strategy to increase physical activity in individuals. A similar strategy, dyadic planning, adds a planning partner who supports an individual's planning processes. Whether the two planning formats differ in terms of participants' entered plan content and whether and how different content characteristics are linked to plan enactment remains unknown. By investigating the content of generated plans, this study aimed at distinguishing plan characteristics of the two planning formats and examining their role as predictors of later plan enactment. Secondary analyses of a three-arm RCT with German couples (data collection between 2013 and 2015). Couples were assigned to an individual (IPC, n = 114) or dyadic planning condition (DPC, n = 111) and formulated up to 5 physical activity plans for a target person. Couples assigned to a control condition were not included as they did not generate plans. The following characteristics were distinguished and coded for each plan: number of planned opportunities, presence of a planned routine, planned cue- or activity-related specificity, activity-related intensity, and chronological plan rank. One week before (T0) and two weeks following (T2) the intervention (T1), increase vs. no increase of the planned activity was coded as a dichotomous plan enactment variable. Multilevel logistic regressions were fit. Plan enactment was higher in dyadic than in individual planners. Findings indicated that routines (e.g., after work) were positively related to plan enactment, whereas a high specificity of when-cues (e.g., Friday at 6.30 p.m.) showed a negative relationship. None of the examined plan characteristics could explain differences in enactment between IPC and DPC. Linking health behaviours to other behavioural routines seems beneficial for subsequent plan enactment. Dyadic planning was linked with higher enactment rates than individual planning. However, as

  2. Fractal characterization of neural correlates of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Molina, A. J.; Iglesias-Parro, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present a novel experimental paradigm, based on binocular rivalry, to address the study of internally and externally generated conscious percepts. Assuming the nonlinear nature of the EEG signals, we propose the use of fractal dimension to characterize the complexity of the EEG associated with each percept. Data analysis showed significant differences in complexity between the internally and externally generated percepts. Moreover, EEG complexity of auditory and visual percepts was unequal. These results support fractal dimension analyses as a new tool to characterize conscious perception.

  3. A thalamic reticular networking model of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Byoung-Kyong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract [Background] It is reasonable to consider the thalamus a primary candidate for the location of consciousness, given that the thalamus has been referred to as the gateway of nearly all sensory inputs to the corresponding cortical areas. Interestingly, in an early stage of brain development, communicative innervations between the dorsal thalamus and telencephalon must pass through the ventral thalamus, the major derivative of which is the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN. The TRN occupies a striking control position in the brain, sending inhibitory axons back to the thalamus, roughly to the same region where they receive afferents. [Hypotheses] The present study hypothesizes that the TRN plays a pivotal role in dynamic attention by controlling thalamocortical synchronization. The TRN is thus viewed as a functional networking filter to regulate conscious perception, which is possibly embedded in thalamocortical networks. Based on the anatomical structures and connections, modality-specific sectors of the TRN and the thalamus appear to be responsible for modality-specific perceptual representation. Furthermore, the coarsely overlapped topographic maps of the TRN appear to be associated with cross-modal or unitary conscious awareness. Throughout the latticework structure of the TRN, conscious perception could be accomplished and elaborated through accumulating intercommunicative processing across the first-order input signal and the higher-order signals from its functionally associated cortices. As the higher-order relay signals run cumulatively through the relevant thalamocortical loops, conscious awareness becomes more refined and sophisticated. [Conclusions] I propose that the thalamocortical integrative communication across first- and higher-order information circuits and repeated feedback looping may account for our conscious awareness. This TRN-modulation hypothesis for conscious awareness provides a comprehensive rationale regarding

  4. Brain Endogenous Feedback and Degrees of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia; Pereira Jr., Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    positive and negative feedback loops. Variable levels of consciousness are proposed to depend on the degree of resonance between these networks. The resonance can occur in the absence of salient external stimulation and, even when such stimulation occurs, the response of the coupled networks is always......We present a hypothesis to explain how the brain operates to generate different degrees of consciousness. We relate our model to recent evidence from brain morphology and physiology, indicating that the central nervous system contains two parallel networks (neuronal and astroglial) establishing...

  5. Self-consciousness Scale: a Brazilian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M A; Gomes, W B

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a Brazilian version of the Self-consciousness Scale to university students. Factorial structure, subscale intercorrelations, and normative data obtained with 182 subjects are reported. These results suggest that the proposed model of self-consciousness is applicable in the Brazilian culture, although some significant sex differences were found for two of the scales. Reliability tests and the factorial validity of the scale showed that this version still needs refinement to be used as a reliable research tool.

  6. Stimulus independence, social cognition and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Abstract A consensus emerging from neuroscience is that certain brain regions show activity correlated with stimulus independent (e.g. private) conscious thought and yet are also implicated in public social processes. The fact that systems supporting social processing also exhibit activity with no obvious perceptual referent, can be seen as support for the framework suggested by Graziano and Kerber (this volume) once it is recognized that the property of stimulus independence is also an important feature of consciousness. Understanding the social basis behind private stimulus independent thought, therefore, may provide an important assessment of the validity of the Graziano and Kerber hypothesis.

  7. Measuring consciousness in coma and related states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol; Di; Perri; Aurore; Thibaut; Lizette; Heine; Andrea; Soddu; Athena; Demertzi; Steven; Laureys

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a prismatic and ambiguous concept that still eludes any universal definition. Severe acquired brain injuries resulting in a disorder of con-sciousness(DOC) provide a model from which insights into consciousness can be drawn. A number of recent studies highlight the difficulty in making a diagnosis in patients with DOC based only on behavioral assessments. Here we aim to provide an overview of how neuroimaging techniques can help assess patients with DOC. Such techniques are expected to facilitate a more accurate understanding of brain function in states of unconsciousness and to improve the evaluation of thepatient’s cognitive abilities by providing both diagnostic and prognostic indicators.

  8. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.

  9. Beyond Conceptual Knowledge: The Impact of Children’s Theory-of-Mind on Dyadic Spatial Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Maria Porpino Viana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that Theory of Mind (ToM has implications for children’s social competences and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, although it is well documented that children overall take advantage when they have to resolve cognitive problems together with a partner, whether individual difference in ToM is one of the mechanisms that could explain cognitive performances produced in social interaction has received little attention. This study examines to what extent ToM explains children’s spatial performances in a dyadic situation. The sample includes 66 boys and girls between the ages of 5-9 years, who were tested for their ToM and for their competence to resolve a Spatial task involving mental rotation and spatial perspective taking, first individually and then in a dyadic condition. Results showed, in accordance with previous research, that children performed better on the Spatial task when they resolved it with a partner. Specifically, children’s ToM was a better predictor of their spatial performances in the dyadic condition than their age, gender and spatial performances in the individual setting. The findings are discussed in terms of the relation between having a conceptual understanding of the mind and the practical implications of this knowledge for cognitive performances in social interaction regarding mental rotation and spatial perspective taking.

  10. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  11. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  12. Epic Consciousness: A Pertinent New Unification of an Important Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon M Neppe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Consciousness” has traditionally been the most difficult term to describe because it’s conceptualized variably and incompletely between, and even within different specialties. In this theoretical paper, we propose for the first time a detailed new “EPIC Consciousness” classification integrating four is overlapping EPIC “prongs”: Existential, Paradigmatic, Information-meaning and Cybernetic. Each necessarily comes with new terms. E: Existential “distinctions” of Consciousness are further subdivided into “extent, content and impact distinctions” a. Consciousness extent substrate: measurable ordinal Consciousness dimensions are tethered to measurable Space and Time dimensions. b. Consciousness content matrix: This Consciousness container is comparable with mass- energy containers. c. Consciousness impact: Consciousness impacts and influences the “extent” and “content”. P: Paradigmatic levels of Consciousness: Consciousness involves a four-level gradation I. Qualit Consciousness: the most basic consciousness (Qualit level always exists in everything inanimate or animate as everything contains the most fundamental discrete finite physical meaning. Qualits are quanta plus meaning. II. Neurobiological/ Neurological Consciousness: the endpoint nervous system expression of all living (animate beings. They have awareness and responsiveness. III. Psychological Consciousness: involving humans and animals. The psychological is disputably partly separated from the neurological. IV. Higher Consciousness disputably outside the brain: This might involve dreams, meditation, creative, transcendent, psi and altered states, plus mystical traits. V. These four levels are all applicable to living humans. Information converted to meaning: Infinitely large repositories of general information are expressed as direct targeted, specific meaningful information. Cybernetic consciousness communications: This provides a mechanistic input, central

  13. Vocabulary – semantics – consciousness: scientific-analitical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Telegina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies relations between vocabulary, words meaning, conceptualization process, thinking, consciousness. Consciousness strategies detection necessitates study of mental vocabulary, expressing mental activity state and processes.

  14. Against the View that Consciousness and Attention are Fully Dissociable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will try to show that the idea that there can be consciousness without some form of attention, and high-level top-down attention without consciousness, originates from a failure to notice the varieties of forms that top-down attention and consciousness can assume. I will present evidence that: there are various forms of attention and consciousness; not all forms of attention produce the same kind of consciousness; not all forms of consciousness are produced by the same kind of attention; there can be low-level attention (or preliminary attention), whether of an endogenous or exogenous kind, without consciousness; attention cannot be considered the same thing as consciousness. PMID:22363307

  15. 六朝韵律建构与诗的文化自觉--兼论对当代诗歌韵律建构的启示%On the Construction of Poems’ Rhythm in Feudal Dynasties and Poem’ s Cultural Consciousness--- Also on the Enlightenment for Rhythm Construction of Contemporary Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大雷

    2015-01-01

    , Ming and Qing, there had been constant anti-rhythm tendencies. At that time, free verse poem appeared and the rhythm system of old style poems was broken. It came to a critical time to decide whether to abandon poems’ rhythm or not and how to carry out the construction of rhythm. In the new era, the reconstruction of poem’s rhythm will be one of the difficulties for literature to face.

  16. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  17. Improving spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of sp

  18. Critical Consciousness: A Key to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Aaliyah; Seider, Scott; Graves, Daren; Tamerat, Jalene; Clark, Shelby; Soutter, Madora; Johannsen, Jamie; Malhotra, Saira

    2017-01-01

    Research has suggested that critical consciousness--the ability to recognize and analyze systems of inequality and the commitment to take action against these systems--can be a gateway to academic motivation and achievement for marginalized students. To explore this approach, the authors studied five urban schools that include critical…

  19. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  20. Concepts of Cognition and Consciousness: four voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Nardi

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers theories of cognition and consciousness in four traditions: neuroscience, cognitive science, activity theory and the distributed cognition approach. It is most concerned with social theories of consciousness—activity theory and distributed cognition—but briefly considers biological and computational models as a foil or backdrop against which the social theories stand out more clearly.