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Sample records for dwpf startup test

  1. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    from gibbsite to aluminum oxide during the evaporation process. The following recommendations were made: Recycle from the DWTT should be metered in slowly to the ''typical'' recycle streams to avoid spikes in solids content to allow consistent processing and avoid process upsets. Additional studies should be conducted to determine acceptable volume ratios for the HEME dissolution and decontamination solutions in the evaporator feed. Dow Corning 2210 antifoam should be evaluated for use to control foaming. Additional tests are required to determine the concentration of antifoam required to prevent foaming during startup, the frequency of antifoam additions required to control foaming during steady state processing, and the ability of the antifoam to control foam over a range of potential feed compositions. This evaluation should also include evaluation of the degradation of the antifoam and impact on the silicon and TOC content of the condensate. The caustic HEME dissolution recycle stream should be neutralized to at least pH of 7 prior to blending with the acidic recycle streams. Dow Corning 2210 should be used during the evaporation testing using the radioactive recycle samples received from DWPF. Evaluation of additional antifoam candidates should be conducted as a backup for Dow Corning 2210. A camera and/or foam detection instrument should be included in the evaporator design to allow monitoring of the foaming behavior during operation. The potential for foam formation and high solids content should be considered during the design of the evaporator vessel.

  2. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. DWPF Welder Parametric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    After being filled with glass, DWPF canistered waste forms will be welded closed using an upset resistance welding process. This final closure weld must be leaktight, and must remain so during extended storage at SRS. As part of the DWPF Startup Test Program, a parametric study (DWPF-WP-24) has been performed to determine a range of welder operating parameters which will produce acceptable welds. The parametric window of acceptable welds defined by this study is 90,000 + 15,000 lb of force, 248,000 + 22,000 amps of current, and 95 + 15 cycles* for the time of application of the current.

  4. The DWPF Melter proposed heat up sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.

    1989-08-11

    Per the request of DWPT supervision, a proposed heatup sequence for the DWPF Melter has been documented in this report. DWPF personnel will use this report as a guide to write the detailed DWPF Melter startup plan. 6 refs.

  5. NPR Physics Startup Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, C.E.

    1962-04-25

    The New Production Reactor, as compared to existing Hanford reactors, employs new and unique design concepts. To properly evaluate these design concepts and their effects on reactor operations, nuclear safety, and reactor life, a comprehensive testing program is planned; this program, with its objectives and restrictions, is discussed in this report. It has been developed along the same line as the C and K Reactors test, programs, and is expected to require a total time of 6--8 weeks of round-the-clock testing. This estimate includes fuel loading time, but does not include time allotments for engineering acceptance tests prior to power operation nor does it include any of the time necessary for engineering and physics tests during the extensive power ascension program. The main body of this report is presented in three parts. The first section describes startup hazards and restrictions, reactor and component safety provisions prior to loading, and the itemized listing of quantities to be measured. The second includes preliminary material and plant conditions and a brief description of the individual tests. The third section (the Appendix), written in procedure language, comprises a rather detailed description of each individual test on a tentative basis; final test details and procedures, which will lie within the boundaries authorized by this document wil1 be established through joint efforts of Operational Physics and NPR Operations sub-section personnel.

  6. DWPF MATERIALS EVALUATION SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, T.; Chandler, G.; Daugherty, W.; Imrich, K.; Jankins, C.

    1996-09-12

    To better ensure the reliability of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) remote canyon process equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed as part of the overall startup test program. Specific test programs included FA-04 ('Process Vessels Erosion/Corrosion Studies') and FA-05 (melter inspection). At the conclusion of field testing, Test Results Reports were issued to cover the various test phases. While these reports completed the startup test requirements, DWPF-Engineering agreed to compile a more detailed report which would include essentially all of the materials testing programs performed at DWPF. The scope of the materials evaouation programs included selected equipment from the Salt Process Cell (SPC), Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Melt Cell, Canister Decon Cell (CDC), and supporting facilities. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections (work completed in 1992) and follow-up inspections after completion of the DWPF cold chemical runs. Process equipment inspected included: process vessels, pumps, agitators, coils, jumpers, and melter top head components. Various NDE (non-destructive examination) techniques were used during the inspection program, including: ultrasonic testing (UT), visual (direct or video probe), radiography, penetrant testing (PT), and dimensional analyses. Finally, coupon racks were placed in selected tanks in 1992 for subsequent removal and corrosion evaluation after chemical runs.

  7. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

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    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from

  8. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

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    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In

  9. DWPF Development Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1994-05-09

    The DWPF Development Plan is based on an evaluation process flowsheet and related waste management systems. The scope is shown in Figure 1 entitled ``DWPF Process Development Systems.`` To identify the critical development efforts, each system has been analyzed to determine: The identification of unresolved technology issues. A technology issue (TI) is one that requires basic development to resolve a previously unknown process or equipment problem and is managed via the Technology Assurance Program co-chaired by DWPF and SRTC. Areas that require further work to sufficiently define the process basis or technical operating envelop for DWPF. This activity involves the application of sound engineering and development principles to define the scope of work required to complete the technical data. The identification of the level of effort and expertise required to provide process technical consultation during the start-up and demonstration of this first of a kind plant.

  10. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Melt Rate Furnace Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-07-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would like to increase its canister production rate. The goal of this study is to improve the melt rate in DWPF specifically for Macrobatch 3. However, the knowledge gained may result in improved melting efficiencies translating to future DWPF macrobatches and in higher throughput for other Department of Energy's (DOE) melters. Increased melting efficiencies decrease overall operational costs by reducing the immobilization campaign time for a particular waste stream. For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into significant hard dollar savings by reducing life cycle operational costs.

  11. DWPF Hydrogen Generation Study-Form of Noble Metal SRAT Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C

    2005-09-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, has requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, investigate the factors that contribute to hydrogen generation to determine if current conservatism in setting the DWPF processing window can be reduced. A phased program has been undertaken to increase understanding of the factors that influence hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell, CPC. The hydrogen generation in the CPC is primarily due to noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid with a minor contribution from radiolytic processes. Noble metals have historically been added as trim chemicals to process simulations. The present study investigated the potential conservatism that might be present from adding the catalytic species as trim chemicals to the final sludge simulant versus co-precipitating the noble metals into the insoluble sludge solids matrix. Two sludge simulants were obtained, one with co-precipitated noble metals and one without noble metals. Co-precipitated noble metals were expected to better match real waste behavior than using trimmed noble metals during CPC simulations. Portions of both sludge simulants were held at 97 C for about eight hours to qualitatively simulate the effects of long term storage on particle morphology and speciation. The two original and two heat-treated sludge simulants were then used as feeds to Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank, SRAT, process simulations. Testing was done at relatively high acid stoichiometries, {approx}175%, and without mercury in order to ensure significant hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation rates were monitored during processing to assess the impact of the form of noble metals. The following observations were made on the data: (1) Co-precipitated noble metal simulant processed similarly to trimmed noble metal simulant in most respects, such as nitrite to nitrate conversion, formate destruction, and pH, but differently with respect to hydrogen generation: (A

  12. Integration of SWPF into the DWPF Flowsheet: Gap Analysis and Test Matrix Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-10

    Based on Revision 19 of the High Level Waste (HLW) System Plan, it is anticipated that the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will be integrated into the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet in October 2018 (or with Sludge Batch 11 (SB11)). Given that, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has requested a technical basis be developed that validates the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for use during the processing of the SWPF-based coupled flowsheet or that leads to the refinements of or modifications to the models that are needed so that the models may be used during the processing of the SWPF-based coupled flowsheet. To support this objective, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed three key interim activities prior to validation of the current or development of refined PCCS models over the anticipated glass composition region for SWPF processing. These three key activities include: (1) defining the glass compositional region over which SWPF is anticipated to be processed, (2) comparing the current PCCS model validation ranges to the SWPF glass compositional region from which compositional gaps can be identified, and (3) developing a test matrix to cover the compositional gaps.

  13. Initial Plasma Startup Test on SUNIST Spherical Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying(王莹); Zeng Li(曾立); He Yexi(何也熙); SUMST Team

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST) at Tsinghua University is to extend the understanding of toroidal plasma physics at a low aspect ratio (R/a ≈ 1.3) and to demonstrate a maintainable target plasma by non-inductive startup. The SUNIST device is designed to operate with up to 13 kA of ohmic heating field current, and to 0.15 T of toroidal field at 10 kA of discharge current. All of the poloidal fields can provide 30 mVs of Volt-seconds transformer. Experimental results of plasma startup show that SUNIST has remarkable characteristics of high ramp rate (dIp/dt ≈ 50 MA/s ), high normalized current IN of about 2.8 (IN = Ip/aBT),and high-efficiency (Ip/IROD ≈ 0.4) production of plasma current while operating at a low toroidal field. Major disruption phenomena have not been observed from magnetic diagnostics of all testing shots. Initial discharges with 52 kA of plasma current (exceeding the designed value of 50 kA),2 ms of pulse length and 50 MA/s of ramp rate have been achieved easily with pre-ionized filament.

  14. Corrosion Testing of Monofrax K-3 Refractory in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Alternate Reductant Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-06

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) uses a combination of reductants and oxidants while converting high level waste (HLW) to a borosilicate waste form. A reducing flowsheet is maintained to retain radionuclides in their reduced oxidation states which promotes their incorporation into borosilicate glass. For the last 20 years of processing, the DWPF has used formic acid as the main reductant and nitric acid as the main oxidant. During reaction in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), formate and formic acid release measurably significant H2 gas which requires monitoring of certain vessel’s vapor spaces. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (NG) flowsheet from the nitric-formic (NF) flowsheet is desired as the NG flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing from a safety standpoint as close monitoring of the H2 gas concentration could become less critical. In terms of the waste glass melter vapor space flammability, the switch from the NF flowsheet to the NG flowsheet showed a reduction of H2 gas production from the vitrification process as well. Due to the positive impact of the switch to glycolic acid determined on the flammability issues, evaluation of the other impacts of glycolic acid on the facility must be examined.

  15. Results of Hg speciation testing on DWPF SMECT-4, SMECT-6, and RCT-2 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-04

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The fifteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) samples from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 738 and a Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample from SRAT Batch 736. The DWPF sample designations for the three samples analyzed are provided in Table 1. The Batch 738 ‘Baseline’ SMECT sample was taken prior to Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) addition and concentration and therefore, precedes the SMECT-5 sample reported previously. iii The Batch 738 ‘End of SRAT Cycle’ SMECT sample was taken at the conclusion of SRAT operations for this batch (PRFT addition/concentration, acid additions, initial concentration, MCU addition, and steam stripping). Batch 738 experienced a sludge slurry carryover event, which introduced sludge solids to the SMECT that were particularly evident in the SMECT-5 sample, but less evident in the ‘End of SRAT Cycle’ SMECT-6 sample. The Batch 736 ‘After SME’ RCT sample was taken after completion of SMECT transfers at the end of the SME cycle.

  16. Results of Hg speciation testing on DWPF SMECT-8, OGCT-1, AND OGCT-2 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The sixteenth shipment of samples was designated to include a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) sample from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 738 processing and two Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT) samples, one following Batch 736 and one following Batch 738. The DWPF sample designations for the three samples analyzed are provided. The Batch 738 ‘End of SME Cycle’ SMECT sample was taken at the conclusion of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) operations for this batch and represents the fourth SMECT sample examined from Batch 738. Batch 738 experienced a sludge slurry carryover event, which introduced sludge solids to the SMECT that were particularly evident in the SMECT-5 sample, but less evident in the ‘End of SME Cycle’ SMECT-8 sample.

  17. SCIX IMPACT ON DWPF CPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2011-07-14

    A program was conducted to systematically evaluate potential impacts of the proposed Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The program involved a series of interrelated tasks. Past studies of the impact of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and monosodium titanate (MST) on DWPF were reviewed. Paper studies and material balance calculations were used to establish reasonable bounding levels of CST and MST in sludge. Following the paper studies, Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulant was modified to have both bounding and intermediate levels of MST and ground CST. The SCIX flow sheet includes grinding of the CST which is larger than DWPF frit when not ground. Nominal ground CST was not yet available, therefore a similar CST ground previously in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was used. It was believed that this CST was over ground and that it would bound the impact of nominal CST on sludge slurry properties. Lab-scale simulations of the DWPF CPC were conducted using SB10 simulants with no, intermediate, and bounding levels of CST and MST. Tests included both the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. Simulations were performed at high and low acid stoichiometry. A demonstration of the extended CPC flowsheet was made that included streams from the site interim salt processing operations. A simulation using irradiated CST and MST was also completed. An extensive set of rheological measurements was made to search for potential adverse consequences of CST and MST and slurry rheology in the CPC. The SCIX CPC impact program was conducted in parallel with a program to evaluate the impact of SCIX on the final DWPF glass waste form and on the DWPF melter throughput. The studies must be considered together when evaluating the full impact of SCIX on DWPF. Due to the fact that the alternant flowsheet for DWPF has not been selected, this study did not

  18. Results Of Hg Speciation Testing On DWPF SMECT-1, SMECT-3, And SMECT-5 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The thirteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 736 and 738 samples. Triplicate samples of each material were prepared for this shipment. Each replicate was analyzed for seven Hg species: total Hg, total soluble (dissolved) Hg, elemental Hg [Hg(0)], ionic (inorganic) Hg [Hg(I) and Hg(II)], methyl Hg [CH3Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], ethyl Hg [CH3CH2-Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], and dimethyl Hg [(CH3)2Hg]. The difference between the total Hg and total soluble Hg measurements gives the particulate Hg concentration, i.e. Hg adsorbed to the surface of particulate matter in the sample but without resolution of the specific adsorbed species. The average concentrations of Hg species in the aqueous samples derived from Eurofins reported data corrected for dilutions performed by SRNL are tabulated.

  19. Phase Startup Initiative Phases 3 and 4 Test Plan and Test Specification ( OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.; LANGEVIN, M.J.

    2000-08-07

    Construction for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities is continuing per the Level III Baseline Schedule, and installation of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) and Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) in K West Basin is now complete. In order to accelerate the project, a phased start up strategy to initiate testing of the FRS and IWTS early in the overall project schedule was proposed (Williams 1999). Wilkinson (1999) expands the definition of the original proposal into four functional testing phases of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). Phases 1 and 2 are based on performing functional tests using dummy fuel. This test plan provides overall guidance for Phase 3 and 4 tests, which are performed using actual irradiated N fuel assemblies. The overall objective of the Phase 3 and 4 testing is to verify how the FRS and IWTS respond while processing actual fuel. Conducting these tests early in the project schedule will allow identification and resolution of equipment and process problems before they become activities on the start-up critical path. The specific objectives of this test plan are to: Define the Phase 3 and 4 test scope for the FRS and IWTS; Provide detailed test requirements that can be used to write the specific test procedures; Define data required and measurements to be taken. Where existing methods to obtain these do not exist, enough detail will be provided to define required additional equipment; and Define specific test objectives and acceptance criteria.

  20. SRS Software Verification Pre Operational and Startup Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-10-18

    This document defines testing for the software used to control the Sodium Removal System (SRS). The testing is conducted off-line from the. physical plant by using a simulator built-in to the software. This provides verification of proper software operation prior to performing the operational acceptance tests with the actual plant hardware.

  1. DWPF simulant CPC studies for SB8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2013-06-25

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) accepted a technical task request (TTR) from Waste Solidification Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) and to develop the flowsheet for SB8 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Separate studies were conducted for frit development and glass properties (including REDOX). The SRNL CPC effort had two primary phases divided by the decision to drop Tank 12 from the SB8 constituents. This report focuses on the second phase with SB8 compositions that do not contain the Tank 12 piece. A separate report will document the initial phase of SB8 testing that included Tank 12. The second phase of SB8 studies consisted of two sets of CPC studies. The first study involved CPC testing of an SB8 simulant for Tank 51 to support the CPC demonstration of the washed Tank 51 qualification sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells facility. SB8-Tank 51 was a high iron-low aluminum waste with fairly high mercury and moderate noble metal concentrations. Tank 51 was ultimately washed to about 1.5 M sodium which is the highest wash endpoint since SB3-Tank 51. This study included three simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle with the sludge-only flowsheet at nominal DWPF processing conditions and three different acid stoichiometries. These runs produced a set of recommendations that were used to guide the successful SRNL qualification SRAT/SME demonstration with actual Tank 51 washed waste. The second study involved five SRAT/SME runs with SB8-Tank 40 simulant. Four of the runs were designed to define the acid requirements for sludge-only processing in DWPF with respect to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. The fifth run was an intermediate acid stoichiometry demonstration of the coupled flowsheet for SB8. These runs produced a set of processing

  2. Laboratory tests of a modified {sup 3}He detector for use with startup instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, T.; Tonner, P.; Keller, N. [Atomic Eerngy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}) detectors are currently used in all CANDU stations as startup instrumentation (SUI) detectors for monitoring neutron flux during extended outages and startups. Experience at some CANDU stations has shown that some models of BF{sub 3} detectors degrade quickly, even in moderate neutron and gamma fields. Degradation and life expectancy tests for five models of BF{sub 3} detectors from different manufacturers were performed at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to investigate the problem. The test results reveal that most BF{sub 3} detectors have low neutron and gamma durability, and some exhibit an undesirable time-dependent degradation followed by recovery. As a result of this finding, other detector options including a modified helium ({sup 3}He) detector described herein were investigated. Modified {sup 3}He detectors were procured from an established supplier and were found to perform without degradation in neutron and gamma fields. (author)

  3. Phased Startup Initiative Phase 3 Test Procedure (OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-05-10

    The purpose of this test procedure is to safely operate the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) and Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) with specific fuel canisters, and show that canisters containing fuel can be retrieved from the canister queue, decapped in the Canister Decapper, loaded into the Primary Clean Machine (PCM) for fuel cleaning, fuel sorted on the Process Table, then loaded back into fuel canisters and relocated in Basin Storage. Additional Data are collected during this test, beyond that collected during production operations. These data support qualifying the cleaning performance of the PCM, assessing the quantity of scrap generated during the cleaning, and evaluating the impact of fuel retrieval operations on the Basin water quality. The additional data collected primarily consist of weighing fuel and scrap at selected points in the operation, as well as photographing fuel and scrap as it is processed. The time to perform operations is also monitored for comparison with design predictions. Water quality data are collected to establish a base line to predict the effectiveness of equipment design for control of contamination and visibility during production operation.

  4. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for a Test or Demonstration Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hayes, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Walters, L. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document explores startup fuel options for a proposed test/demonstration fast reactor. The fuel options considered are the metallic fuels U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr and the ceramic fuels UO2 and UO2-PuO2 (MOX). Attributes of the candidate fuel choices considered were feedstock availability, fabrication feasibility, rough order of magnitude cost and schedule, and the existing irradiation performance database. The reactor-grade plutonium bearing fuels (U-Pu-Zr and MOX) were eliminated from consideration as the initial startup fuels because the availability and isotopics of domestic plutonium feedstock is uncertain. There are international sources of reactor grade plutonium feedstock but isotopics and availability are also uncertain. Weapons grade plutonium is the only possible source of Pu feedstock in sufficient quantities needed to fuel a startup core. Currently, the available U.S. source of (excess) weapons-grade plutonium is designated for irradiation in commercial light water reactors (LWR) to a level that would preclude diversion. Weapons-grade plutonium also contains a significant concentration of gallium. Gallium presents a potential issue for both the fabrication of MOX fuel as well as possible performance issues for metallic fuel. Also, the construction of a fuel fabrication line for plutonium fuels, with or without a line to remove gallium, is expected to be considerably more expensive than for uranium fuels. In the case of U-Pu-Zr, a relatively small number of fuel pins have been irradiated to high burnup, and in no case has a full assembly been irradiated to high burnup without disassembly and re-constitution. For MOX fuel, the irradiation database from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is extensive. If a significant source of either weapons-grade or reactor-grade Pu became available (i.e., from an international source), a startup core based on Pu could be reconsidered.

  5. The Start-up Test of Mechanical Sodium Pump installed in STELLA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Testing at the high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming because of difficulties of operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities. Consequent upon those problems, water is often selected as a surrogate test fluid because its important hydraulic properties such as a density and a kinematic viscosity are not only very similar to that of the sodium but also it is cheap, easily available and easy to handle. SFR NSSS System Design Division of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is performing a development and demonstration of sodium technology using various sodium experimental facilities, especially STELLA-1. STELLA-1 (Sodium inTegral Effect test Loop for safety simuLation and Assessment) is a large-scale separated effect test facility for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a Sodium-to-Sodium heat exchanger (DHX), Sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS). The result of start-up test, most of the instruments and components except for flow control valve are functionally work. Also, we confirmed that performance test of mechanical sodium pump is unable at the high flow rate with lower RPM because pressure drops of pump performance test loop are bigger than the pump head of some cases. To confirm the safety and operability of major components in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), demonstration of component performance should be carried out before its installation in reactor. So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the mechanical sodium pump, the performance tests of the model pump with water environment was carried out using a pump vender's experimental facility. Also, to compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump with sodium environment were performed using STELLA-1. The present paper describes

  6. 3RIP trip startup test simulation of TRACE/PARCS model for Lungmen ABWR under different power and flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu-Ming; Wang, Jong-Rong; Chen, Hsiung-Chih; Shih, Chunkuan; Chen, Shao-Wen [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science; Lin, Hao-Tzu [Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research

    2015-12-15

    Lungmen nuclear power plant project started long time ago, it is not yet commercially operated but Taiwan Power Company has already prepared for its startup tests. 3RIP trip startup test is one of them. Three of the 10 RIPs will be manually tripped in the test. Response of the plant for this transient will be watched and recorded to check if the test criteria are satisfied. This paper is a result of code simulation of 3RIP trip startup test of Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant. Thermal hydraulic code TRACE coupled with neutronics code PARCS were used to build the simulation model of Lungmen nuclear power plant. Startup tests under different plant power and flow conditions are considered in this research. A sensitivity study on the impact of different pump moment of inertia has been performed. Simulation results with TRACE and PARCS shows that the acceptance criteria for this startup test can be satisfied and the impact of different pump inertia is little.

  7. Freeze and restart of the DWPF Scale Glass Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    1989-07-31

    After over two years of successful demonstration of many design and operating concepts of the DWPF Melter system, the last Scale Glass Melter campaign was initiated on 6/9/88 and consisted of two parts; (1) simulation of noble metal buildup and (2) freeze and subsequent restart of the melter under various scenarios. The objectives were to simulate a prolonged power loss to major heating elements and to examine the characteristics of transient melter operations during a startup with a limited supply of lid heat. Experimental results indicate that in case of a total power loss to the lower electrodes such as due to noble metal deposition, spinel crystals will begin to form in the SRL 165 composite waste glass pool in 24 hours. The total lid heater power required to initiate joule heating was the same as that during slurry-feeding. Results of a radiative heat transfer analysis in the plenum indicate that under the identical operating conditions, the startup capabilities of the SGM and the DWPF Melter are quite similar, despite a greater lid heater to melt surface area ratio in the DWPF Melter.

  8. DWPF Simulant CPC Studies For SB8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J. D.

    2013-09-25

    Prior to processing a Sludge Batch (SB) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), flowsheet studies using simulants are performed. Typically, the flowsheet studies are conducted based on projected composition(s). The results from the flowsheet testing are used to 1) guide decisions during sludge batch preparation, 2) serve as a preliminary evaluation of potential processing issues, and 3) provide a basis to support the Shielded Cells qualification runs performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). SB8 was initially projected to be a combination of the Tank 40 heel (Sludge Batch 7b), Tank 13, Tank 12, and the Tank 51 heel. In order to accelerate preparation of SB8, the decision was made to delay the oxalate-rich material from Tank 12 to a future sludge batch. SB8 simulant studies without Tank 12 were reported in a separate report.1 The data presented in this report will be useful when processing future sludge batches containing Tank 12. The wash endpoint target for SB8 was set at a significantly higher sodium concentration to allow acceptable glass compositions at the targeted waste loading. Four non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 40 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry (146% acid) SRAT testing up to 31% of the DWPF hydrogen limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 48% of of the DWPF limit for the high acid run. Two non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 51 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry SRAT testing up to 16% of the DWPF limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 49% of the DWPF limit for hydrogen in the SME for the high acid run. Simulant processing was successful using previously established antifoam addition strategy. Foaming during formic acid addition was not observed in any of the runs. Nitrite was destroyed in all runs and no N2O was detected

  9. DWPF GC FILTER ASSEMBLY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Imrich, K.

    2009-11-11

    On March 18, 2009 a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) GC Line Filter Assembly was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This filter assembly was removed from operation following the completion of Sludge Batch 4 processing in the DWPF. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request. This document reports the pictures, observations, samples collected, and analytical results for the assembly. The assembly arrived at SRNL separated into its three component filters: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-1, HEPA-2, and a high efficiency mist evaporator (HEME). Each stage of the assembly's media was sampled and examined visually and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solids built up in the filter housing following the first stage HEME, were dissolved in dilute nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-AES and the undissolved white solids were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The vast majority of the material in each of the three stages of the DWPF GC Line Filter Assembly appears to be contaminated with a Hg compound that is {approx}59 wt% Hg on a total solids basis. The Hg species was identified by XRD analysis to contain a mixture of Hg{sub 4}(OH)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Hg{sub 10}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}. Only in the core sample of the second stage HEPA, did this material appear to be completely covering portions of the filter media, possibly explaining the pressure drops observed by DWPF. The fact that the material migrates through the HEME filter and both HEPA filters, and that it was seen collecting on the outlet side of the HEME filter, would seem to indicate that these filters are not efficient at removing this material. Further SRAT off-gas system modeling should help determine the extent of Hg breakthrough past the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT). The SRAT off-gas system has not been modeled since startup of the facility. Improvements to the efficiency of Hg stripping prior to the ammonia scrubber would seem

  10. Liquidus Temperature Data for DWPF Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GF Piepel; JD Vienna; JV Crum; M Mika; P Hrma

    1999-05-21

    This report provides new liquidus temperature (TL) versus composition data that can be used to reduce uncertainty in TL calculation for DWPF glass. According to the test plan and test matrix design PNNL has measured TL for 53 glasses within and just outside of the current DWPF processing composition window. The TL database generated under this task will directly support developing and enhancing the current TL process-control model. Preliminary calculations have shown a high probability of increasing HLW loading in glass produced at the SRS and Hanford. This increase in waste loading will decrease the lifecycle tank cleanup costs by decreasing process time and the volume of waste glass produced.

  11. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  12. Assessment study of RELAP5/MOD2, CYCLE 36. 04 based on spray start-up test for DOEL-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeyaert, P.; Stubbe, E.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents an assessment study for the code RELAP-5 MOD-2 based on a pressurizer spray start-up test of the Doel-4 power plant. Doel-4 is a three loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant ordered by the EBES utility with a nominal power rating of 1000 MWe and equipped with preheater type E steam generators. A large series of commissioning tests are normally performed on new plants, of which the so called pressurizer spray and heater test (SU-PR-01) was performed on February 2nd 1985. TRACTEBEL, being the Architect-Engineer for this plant was closely involved with all start-up tests and was responsible for the final approval of the tests.

  13. Argonne National Laboratory`s photo-oxidation organic mixed waste treatment system - installation and startup testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Torres, T.; Conner, C.; Wygmans, D.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) Photo-Oxidation Organic Mixed Waste Treatment System. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the Waste Management Facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois. 1 fig.

  14. Start-Up Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Thurik, Roy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct effect). Whether gender has an impact on size and composition of start-up capital, is the subject of the present paper. To test for these direct and indirect effects data of 2000 Dutch starting entreprene...

  15. FFTF startup: status and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordhoff, B.H.; Moore, C.E.

    1980-03-01

    Startup testing on the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during the past three years has progressed beyond initial criticality toward the principal goal of power demonstration in 1980. An overview is presented of technical results to date and project plans to achieve power demonstration and complete the startup test program.

  16. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  18. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  19. Corrosion impact of reductant on DWPF and downstream facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Imrich, K. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilderman, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid is not completely consumed and small quantities of the glycolate anion are carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data in glycolate-bearing solution applicable to SRS systems were not available. Therefore, testing was recommended to evaluate the materials of construction of vessels, piping and components within DWPF and downstream facilities. The testing, conducted in non-radioactive simulants, consisted of both accelerated tests (electrochemical and hot-wall) with coupons in laboratory vessels and prototypical tests with coupons immersed in scale-up and mock-up test systems. Eight waste or process streams were identified in which the glycolate anion might impact the performance of the materials of construction. These streams were 70% glycolic acid (DWPF feed vessels and piping), SRAT/SME supernate (Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels and piping), DWPF acidic recycle (DWPF condenser and recycle tanks and piping), basic concentrated recycle (HLW tanks, evaporators, and transfer lines), salt processing (ARP, MCU, and Saltstone tanks and piping), boric acid (MCU separators), and dilute waste (HLW evaporator condensate tanks and transfer line and ETF components). For each stream, high temperature limits and worst-case glycolate concentrations were identified for performing the recommended tests. Test solution chemistries were generally based on analytical results of actual waste samples taken from the various process facilities or of prototypical simulants produced in the laboratory. The materials of construction for most vessels

  20. Liquidus Temperature Data for DWPF Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Vienna, John D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mika, Martin (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Crum, Jarrod V.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Piepel, Gregory F.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1998-12-01

    A liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) database has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass composition region to support DWPF process control schemes. A test matrix consisting of 53 glasses (including two duplicates) was generated at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using statistical experimental design methods. To ensure homogeneity, glasses were melted twice. Both melts were performed at T = T{sub 5} + {Delta}T, where T{sub 5} is the temperature at which the melt viscosity is 5 Pa{center_dot}s and {Delta}T {ge} 100 C. The T{sub 5} value was estimated using a PNNL viscosity database. Its span for the test matrix was 1007 C to 1284 C. Melting at T > T{sub 5} (from 1107 C to 1400 C) was necessary to dissolve (and possibly volatilize) some of the RuO{sub 2}. All glasses contained a large fraction of 0.09 mass% RuO{sub 2}, which prevented a reliable detection of spinel near the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) when the melting temperature was T{sub 5}. T{sub L} was measured by heat-treating glass samples over a range of constant temperatures. They used optical microscopy to detect the presence or absence of crystals in the samples. T{sub L} was determined from observing crystallization within the bulk glass (more than 0.5 mm from the glass surface). The T{sub L} values were adjusted by measuring the T{sub L} of an internal PNNL standard glass in each furnace and checked by a National Bureau of Stands (NBS) standard glass. All measured T{sub L} values are summarized in Table I-S. The accuracy of values is estimated at {+-} 10 C, based on the accuracy of calibrated thermocouples and the ability to discern spinel crystals in glass near T{sub L}. Another possible source of error is glass redox connected with the difference between the melting temperature and T{sub L}. The heat treatment period of samples was long enough to ensure equilibrating the glass with atmospheric air. However, repeated

  1. Analysis of the DWPF glass pouring system using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloway, T.B. Jr.; Jantzen, C.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Medich, L.; Spennato, N. [Pavillion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-05

    Neural networks were used to determine the sensitivity of 39 selected Melter/Melter Off Gas and Melter Feed System process parameters as related to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter Pour Spout Pressure during the overall analysis and resolution of the DWPF glass production and pouring issues. Two different commercial neural network software packages were used for this analysis. Models were developed and used to determine the critical parameters which accurately describe the DWPF Pour Spout Pressure. The model created using a low-end software package has a root mean square error of {+-} 0.35 inwc (< 2% of the instrument`s measured range, R{sup 2} = 0.77) with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The model created using a high-end software package has a R{sub 2} = 0.97 with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The models developed for this application identified the key process parameters which contribute to the control of the DWPF Melter Pour Spout pressure during glass pouring operations. The relative contribution and ranking of the selected parameters was determined using the modeling software. Neural network computing software was determined to be a cost-effective software tool for process engineers performing troubleshooting and system performance monitoring activities. In remote high-level waste processing environments, neural network software is especially useful as a replacement for sensors which have failed and are costly to replace. The software can be used to accurately model critical remotely installed plant instrumentation. When the instrumentation fails, the software can be used to provide a soft sensor to replace the actual sensor, thereby decreasing the overall operating cost. Additionally, neural network software tools require very little training and are especially useful in mining or selecting critical variables from the vast amounts of data collected from process computers.

  2. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  3. Start-up phase of the HELOKA-LP low pressure helium test facility for IFMIF irradiation modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlindwein, Georg, E-mail: georg.schlindwein@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Freund, Jana [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) succesfully taken to operation at the end of 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verified that HELOKA-LP fulfils all requirements to test the High Flux Test Module (HFTM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some improvements could be done (e.g. reduction of power consumption, enhancement of control path parameters). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained a chronological sequence of the helium gas impurity which is important for the International Fusion Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). - Abstract: As part of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) , it is foreseen to design and test a 1:1 scale prototype of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module (HFTM) . The module has been designed to be cooled by a low pressure helium gas flowing through minichannels to remove the nuclear heat. The Helium Loop Karlsruhe-Low Pressure (HELOKA-LP) has been designed to provide coolant at 1:1 HFTM operational conditions: massflow 12-120 g/s, inlet pressure 0.3-0.6 MPa, inlet temperature RT - 250 Degree-Sign C. A secondary objective is to use the experience gained with HELOKA-LP for the planning of the IFMIF helium cooling system. The facility has been put into operation in 2009, and has since then been in a test and optimization phase. It was proven, that the above mentioned requirements for the facility are achieved. The paper describes the process layout and components of the facility. The performance is characterized by the results of several steady state and transient benchmark tests. Typical start-up and transition times relevant for the operation mode in the IFMIF irradiation campaigns are obtained. Additionally first results on the impurity ingress and the cooling gas chemistry are described.

  4. DWPF SIMULANT CPC STUDIES FOR SB7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2011-11-01

    Lab-scale DWPF simulations of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) processing were performed. Testing was performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory - Aiken County Technology Laboratory (SRNL-ACTL). The primary goal of the simulations was to define a likely operating window for acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). In addition, the testing established conditions for the SRNL Shielded Cells qualification simulation of SB7b-Tank 40 blend, supported validation of the current glass redox model, and validated the coupled process flowsheet at the nominal acid stoichiometry. An acid window of 105-140% by the Koopman minimum acid (KMA) equation (107-142% DWPF Hsu equation) worked for the sludge-only flowsheet. Nitrite was present in the SRAT product for the 105% KMA run at 366 mg/kg, while SME cycle hydrogen reached 94% of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle limit in the 140% KMA run. The window was determined for sludge with added caustic (0.28M additional base, or roughly 12,000 gallons 50% NaOH to 820,000 gallons waste slurry). A suitable processing window appears to be 107-130% DWPF acid equation for sludge-only processing allowing some conservatism for the mapping of lab-scale simulant data to full-scale real waste processing including potentially non-conservative noble metal and mercury concentrations. This window should be usable with or without the addition of up to 7,000 gallons of caustic to the batch. The window could potentially be wider if caustic is not added to SB7b. It is recommended that DWPF begin processing SB7b at 115% stoichiometry using the current DWPF equation. The factor could be increased if necessary, but changes should be made with caution and in small increments. DWPF should not concentrate past 48 wt.% total solids in the SME cycle if moderate hydrogen generation is occurring simultaneously. The coupled flowsheet simulation made more hydrogen in the SRAT and SME cycles than the sludge-only run with the

  5. REMOTE IN-CELL SAMPLING IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM AT THESAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzolf, A

    2007-11-26

    Remote Systems Engineering (RSE) of the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) in combination with the Defense Waste Processing Facility(DWPF) Engineering and Operations has evaluated the existing equipment and processes used in the facility sample cells for 'pulling' samples from the radioactive waste stream and performing equipment in-cell repairs/replacements. RSE has designed and tested equipment for improving remote in-cell sampling evolutions and reducing the time required for in-cell maintenance of existing equipment. The equipment within the present process tank sampling system has been in constant use since the facility start-up over 17 years ago. At present, the method for taking samples within the sample cells produces excessive maintenance and downtime due to frequent failures relative to the sampling station equipment and manipulator. Location and orientation of many sampling stations within the sample cells is not conducive to manipulator operation. The overextension of manipulators required to perform many in-cell operations is a major cause of manipulator failures. To improve sampling operations and reduce downtime due to equipment maintenance, a Portable Sampling Station (PSS), wireless in-cell cameras, and new commercially available sampling technology has been designed, developed and/or adapted and tested. The uniqueness of the design(s), the results of the scoping tests, and the benefits relative to in-cell operation and reduction of waste are presented.

  6. BENCHMARK EVALUATION OF THE START-UP CORE REACTOR PHYSICS MEASUREMENTS OF THE HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2010-05-01

    The benchmark evaluation of the start-up core reactor physics measurements performed with Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and Very High Temperature Reactor Program activities at the Idaho National Laboratory, has been completed. The evaluation was performed using MCNP5 with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries and according to guidelines provided for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project Handbook. Results provided include updated evaluation of the initial six critical core configurations (five annular and one fully-loaded). The calculated keff eigenvalues agree within 1s of the benchmark values. Reactor physics measurements that were evaluated include reactivity effects measurements such as excess reactivity during the core loading process and shutdown margins for the fully-loaded core, four isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurements for the fully-loaded core, and axial reaction rate measurements in the instrumentation columns of three core configurations. The calculated values agree well with the benchmark experiment measurements. Fully subcritical and warm critical configurations of the fully-loaded core were also assessed. The calculated keff eigenvalues for these two configurations also agree within 1s of the benchmark values. The reactor physics measurement data can be used in the validation and design development of future High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor systems.

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  8. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  9. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-08-10

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992.

  10. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and Testing for DWPF High AI2O3 HLW Sludges, VSL-10R1670-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/20/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to develop and identify glass frit compositions for a specified DWPF high-aluminum based sludge waste stream that maximizes waste loading while maintaining high production rate for the waste composition provided by ORP/SRS. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale, vertical gradient furnace, and confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system. The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests. The DM100-BL was used for previous tests on HLW glass compositions that were used to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter. It was also used to process compositions with waste loadings limited by aluminum, bismuth, and chromium, to investigate the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition, to process glass formulations at compositional and property extremes, and to investigate crystal settling on a composition that exhibited one percent crystals at 963{degrees}C (i.e., close to the WTP limit). The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. The tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Specific objectives for the melter tests are as follows: Determine maximum glass production rates without bubbling for a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 19 (SB19). Demonstrate a feed rate equivalent to 1125 kg/m{sup 2}/day glass production using melt pool bubbling. Process a high waste loading glass composition with the simulated SRS SB19 waste and measure the quality of the glass product. Determine the effect of argon as a bubbling gas on waste processing and the glass product including feed processing rate, glass redox, melter emissions, etc.. Determine differences in feed processing and glass characteristics for SRS SB19 waste simulated by the co-precipitated and direct

  11. Simulation of Watts Bar Unit 1 Initial Startup Tests with Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Celik, Cihangir [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors* is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications. One component of the testing and validation plan for VERA is comparison of neutronics results to a set of continuous energy Monte Carlo solutions for a range of pressurized water reactor geometries using the SCALE component KENO-VI developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent improvements in data, methods, and parallelism have enabled KENO, previously utilized predominately as a criticality safety code, to demonstrate excellent capability and performance for reactor physics applications. The highly detailed and rigorous KENO solutions provide a reliable nu-meric reference for VERAneutronics and also demonstrate the most accurate predictions achievable by modeling and simulations tools for comparison to operating plant data. This paper demonstrates the performance of KENO-VI for the Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle 1 zero power physics tests, including reactor criticality, control rod worths, and isothermal temperature coefficients.

  12. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Summary and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2001-07-11

    The objective for this task is to understand and apply the control of glass batch chemistry (frit composition) and/or changes in chemical processing strategies to improve the overall melting process for Macrobatch 3 (MB3) (Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge-only processing). For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into substantial savings by reducing operational costs without compromising the quality of the final waste product. This report summarizes the key information collected during the FY01 melt-rate testing completed to support the conclusion that switching from Frit 200, the frit currently used to prepare all the glass produced in radioactive processing, to Frit 320 should improve the melt rate during processing of DWPF MB3 sludge (Note: MB3 is referred to as Sludge Batch 2 in the High-Level Waste System Plan). The report also includes recommendations that should be addressed prior to implementation of the new frit and future research that should be completed to further improve melt rate. No analysis has been completed to determine if Frit 320 can be used in processing of other sludge macrobatches. The testing in this report is based on dried-slurry testing of a MB3 melter feed prepared from nonradioactive simulants. Additional testing, particularly with a melter feed slurry and actual waste, would be required before implementing the new frit in DWPF, and a variability study would also be necessary. The work to date, at most, provides relative data until actual melter data can be obtained and compared.

  13. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  14. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); O`Shea, T.P. [Santa Clara Demonstration Project, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  15. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...... point is to develop a Minimum Viable Product that can be tested by potential customers and then pivot the idea if necessary around these customer evaluations. This iterative process goes through a number of stages with the purpose of validating the customers’ problems, the suggested solution...

  16. Evaluation of the Start-Up Core Physics Tests at Japan's High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (Annular Core Loadings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Nozomu Fujimoto; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Atsushi Zukeran

    2010-03-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a 30 MWth, graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor that was constructed with the objectives to establish and upgrade the technological basis for advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) as well as to conduct various irradiation tests for innovative high-temperature research. The core size of the HTTR represents about one-half of that of future HTGRs, and the high excess reactivity of the HTTR, necessary for compensation of temperature, xenon, and burnup effects during power operations, is similar to that of future HTGRs. During the start-up core physics tests of the HTTR, various annular cores were formed to provide experimental data for verification of design codes for future HTGRs. The Japanese government approved construction of the HTTR in the 1989 fiscal year budget; construction began at the Oarai Research and Development Center in March 1991 and was completed May 1996. Fuel loading began July 1, 1998, from the core periphery. The first criticality was attained with an annular core on November 10, 1998 at 14:18, followed by a series of start-up core physics tests until a fully-loaded core was developed on December 16, 1998. Criticality tests were carried out into January 1999. The first full power operation with an average core outlet temperature of 850ºC was completed on December 7, 2001, and operational licensing of the HTTR was approved on March 6, 2002. The HTTR attained high temperature operation at 950 ºC in April 19, 2004. After a series of safety demonstration tests, it will be used as the heat source in a hydrogen production system by 2015. Hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power, irradiation, and safety demonstration testing , have also been performed with the HTTR, representing additional means for computational validation efforts. Power tests were performed in steps from 0 to 30 MW, with various tests performed at each step to confirm

  17. Phase Stability Determinations of DWPF Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L.

    1999-10-22

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. To fulfill this requirement, glass samples were heat treated at various times and temperatures. These results will provide guidance to the repository program about conditions to be avoided during shipping, handling and storage of DWPF canistered waste forms.

  18. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate tank materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to undertand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here. The composition of the Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) RCT material is largely a low base solution of 0.2M NaNO2 and 0.1M NaNO3 with a small amount of formate present. Insoluble solids comprise only 0.05 wt.% of the slurry. The solids appear to be largely sludge-like solids based on elemental composition and SEM-EDS analysis. The sample contains an elevated concentration of I-129 (38x) and substantial 59% fraction of Tc-99, as compared to the incoming SB8 Tank 40 feed material. The Hg concentration is 5x, when compared to Fe, of that expected based on sludge carryover. The total U and Pu concentrations are reduced significantly, 0.536 wt.% TS and 2.42E-03 wt.% TS, respectively, with the fissile components, U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241, an order of magnitude lower in concentration than those in the SB8 Tank 40 DWPF feed material. This report will be revised to include the foaming study requested in the TTR and outlined in the TTQAP when that work is concluded.

  19. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  20. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  1. DWPF SMECT PVV SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Crawford, C.

    2013-06-18

    On April 2, 2013, a solid sample of material collected from the Defense Waste Processing Facility’s Process Vessel Vent (PVV) jumper for the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). DWPF has experienced pressure spikes within the SMECT and other process vessels which have resulted in processing delays while a vacuum was re-established. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request (TAR). This document reports the results of chemical and physical property measurements made on the sample, as well as insights into the possible impact to the material using DWPF’s proposed remediation methods. DWPF was interested in what the facility could expect when the material was exposed to either 8M nitric acid or 90% formic acid, the two materials they have the ability to flush through the PVV line in addition to process water once the line is capped off during a facility outage.

  2. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  3. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  4. DWPF FLOWSHEET STUDIES WITH SIMULANTS TO DETERMINE MCU SOLVENT BUILD-UP IN CONTINOUS RUNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; Frances Williams, F; S Crump, S; Russell Eibling, R; Thomas02 White, T; David Best, D

    2006-05-25

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in these salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Initial MCU incorporation testing for the DWPF flowsheet indicated unacceptable levels of Isopar{reg_sign}L were collecting in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) condenser system and unanticipated quantities of modifier were carrying over into the SRAT condenser system. This work was performed as part of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) flowsheet testing and was reported by Baich et al. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Solvent retention in the DWPF condensers contradicts the DWPF solvent control strategy. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better

  5. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  6. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR DWPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-05-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired

  8. Employer branding in startups : case startup Company CupoUnion

    OpenAIRE

    Sirotina, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the Employer Branding in startups. The research was held within a Human Resources department of the startup company CupoUnion Ltd. The objectives of this study can be divided into theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical objective was to figure out, whether it makes sense for startups to invest money in employer branding. And, if it does, how startup companies can build their employer brand considering unique context and special circumstances of startups operatio...

  9. Employer branding in startups : case startup Company CupoUnion

    OpenAIRE

    Sirotina, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the Employer Branding in startups. The research was held within a Human Resources department of the startup company CupoUnion Ltd. The objectives of this study can be divided into theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical objective was to figure out, whether it makes sense for startups to invest money in employer branding. And, if it does, how startup companies can build their employer brand considering unique context and special circumstances of startups operatio...

  10. Literature Review: Assessment of DWPF Melter and Melter Off-gas System Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Testing to date for the MOC for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melters is being reviewed with the lessons learned from DWPF in mind and with consideration to the changes in the flowsheet/feed compositions that have occurred since the original testing was performed. This information will be presented in a separate technical report that identifies any potential gaps for WTP processing.

  11. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    . Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame, then quenched with a water spray. Approximately 90% of the frit was converted to beads by this process, as shown in Figure 1. Borosilicate beads of various diameters were also procured for initial testing.

  12. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System.

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ARP PRODUCT SIMULANT AND SB4 TANK 40 SLUDGE SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; John Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Kim Crapse, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-14

    The radioactive startup of two new SRS processing facilities, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side-Solvent-Extraction Unit (MCU) will add two new waste streams to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The ARP will remove actinides from the 5.6 M salt solution resulting in a sludge-like product that is roughly half monosodium titanate (MST) insoluble solids and half sludge insoluble solids. The ARP product will be added to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) at boiling and dewatered prior to pulling a SRAT receipt sample. The cesium rich MCU stream will be added to the SRAT at boiling after both formic and nitric acid have been added and the SRAT contents concentrated to the appropriate endpoint. A concern was raised by an external hydrogen review panel that the actinide loaded MST could act as a catalyst for hydrogen generation (Mar 15, 2007 report, Recommendation 9). Hydrogen generation, and it's potential to form a flammable mixture in the off-gas, under SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing conditions has been a concern since the discovery that noble metals catalyze the decomposition of formic acid. Radiolysis of water also generates hydrogen, but the radiolysis rate is orders of magnitude lower than the noble metal catalyzed generation. As a result of the concern raised by the external hydrogen review panel, hydrogen generation was a prime consideration in this experiment. Testing was designed to determine whether the presence of the irradiated ARP simulant containing MST caused uncontrolled or unexpected hydrogen production during experiments simulating the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) due to activation of titanium. A Shielded Cells experiment, SC-5, was completed using SB4 sludge from Tank 405 combined with an ARP product produced from simulants by SRNL researchers. The blend of sludge and MST was designed to be prototypic of planned DWPF SRAT and SME cycles. As glass quality was not an objective

  14. The Behavior and Effects of the Noble Metals in the DWPF Melter System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.

    1997-11-30

    Governments worldwide have committed to stabilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) by vitrification to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. All of these nuclear wastes contain the fission-product noble metals: ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium. SRS wastes also contain natural silver from iodine scrubbers. Closely associated with the noble metals are the fission products selenium and tellurium which are chemical analogs of sulfur and which combine with noble metals to influence their behavior and properties. Experience has shown that these melt insoluble metals and their compounds tend to settle to the floor of Joule-heated ceramic melters. In fact, almost all of the major research and production facilities have experienced some operational problem which can be associated with the presence of dense accumulations of these relatively conductive metals and/or their compounds. In most cases, these deposits have led to a loss of production capability, in some cases, to the point that melter operation could not continue. HLW nuclear waste vitrification facilities in the United States are the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the operating West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. An extensive noble metals testing program was begun in 1990. The objectives of this task were to explore the effects of the noble metals on the DWPF melter feed preparation and waste vitrification processes. This report focuses on the vitrification portion of the test program.

  15. Editorial: Startups (February 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dru Lavigne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bob Sutor, Vice President of the Open Source and Linux division at IBM, recently stated that "there doesn't seem to be very many good guides about the nuts and bolts of starting an open source business". He speculates that one reason is that "there is no one way to start and run a business that involves open source". The authors in this issue of the OSBR are serial entrepreneurs, startup founders, and professionals who provide services to and interact daily with startups.

  16. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard{trademark} sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3

  17. EVALUATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DWPF HIGHER CAPACITY CANISTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Estochen, E.; Jordan, J.; Kesterson, M.; Mckeel, C.

    2014-08-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is considering the option to increase canister glass capacity by reducing the wall thickness of the current production canister. This design has been designated as the DWPF Higher Capacity Canister (HCC). A significant decrease in the number of canisters processed during the life of the facility would be achieved if the HCC were implemented leading to a reduced overall reduction in life cycle costs. Prior to implementation of the change, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct an evaluation of the potential impacts. The specific areas of interest included loading and deformation of the canister during the filling process. Additionally, the effect of the reduced wall thickness on corrosion and material compatibility needed to be addressed. Finally the integrity of the canister during decontamination and other handling steps needed to be determined. The initial request regarding canister fabrication was later addressed in an alternate study. A preliminary review of canister requirements and previous testing was conducted prior to determining the testing approach. Thermal and stress models were developed to predict the forces on the canister during the pouring and cooling process. The thermal model shows the HCC increasing and decreasing in temperature at a slightly faster rate than the original. The HCC is shown to have a 3°F ΔT between the internal and outer surfaces versus a 5°F ΔT for the original design. The stress model indicates strain values ranging from 1.9% to 2.9% for the standard canister and 2.5% to 3.1% for the HCC. These values are dependent on the glass level relative to the thickness transition between the top head and the canister wall. This information, along with field readings, was used to set up environmental test conditions for corrosion studies. Small 304-L canisters were filled with glass and subjected to accelerated environmental testing for 3 months. No evidence of

  18. Software Startups - A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Unterkalmsteiner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Software startup companies develop innovative, software-intensive products within limited time frames and with few resources, searching for sustainable and scalable business models. Software startups are quite distinct from traditional mature software companies, but also from micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises, introducing new challenges relevant for software engineering research. This paper's research agenda focuses on software engineering in startups, identifying, in particular, 70+ research questions in the areas of supporting startup engineering activities, startup evolution models and patterns, ecosystems and innovation hubs, human aspects in software startups, applying startup concepts in non-startup environments, and methodologies and theories for startup research. We connect and motivate this research agenda with past studies in software startup research, while pointing out possible future directions. While all authors of this research agenda have their main background in Software Engineering or Computer Science, their interest in software startups broadens the perspective to the challenges, but also to the opportunities that emerge from multi-disciplinary research. Our audience is therefore primarily software engineering researchers, even though we aim at stimulating collaborations and research that crosses disciplinary boundaries. We believe that with this research agenda we cover a wide spectrum of the software startup industry current needs.

  19. Start-Up Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFemale and male entrepreneurs differ in the way they finance their businesses. This can be attributed to the type of business and the type of management and experience (indirect effect). Female start-ups may also experience other barriers based upon discriminatory effects (direct

  20. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to

  1. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

  2. Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2000-03-22

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

  3. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  4. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  5. SME Acceptability Determination For DWPF Process Control (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-12

    The statistical system described in this document is called the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). K. G. Brown and R. L. Postles were the originators and developers of this system as well as the authors of the first three versions of this technical basis document for PCCS. PCCS has guided acceptability decisions for the processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) since the start of radioactive operations in 1996. The author of this revision to the document gratefully acknowledges the firm technical foundation that Brown and Postles established to support the ongoing successful operation at the DWPF. Their integration of the glass propertycomposition models, developed under the direction of C. M. Jantzen, into a coherent and robust control system, has served the DWPF well over the last 20+ years, even as new challenges, such as the introduction into the DWPF flowsheet of auxiliary streams from the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and other processes, were met. The purpose of this revision is to provide a technical basis for modifications to PCCS required to support the introduction of waste streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) into the DWPF flowsheet. An expanded glass composition region is anticipated by the introduction of waste streams from SWPF, and property-composition studies of that glass region have been conducted. Jantzen, once again, directed the development of glass property-composition models applicable for this expanded composition region. The author gratefully acknowledges the technical contributions of C.M. Jantzen leading to the development of these glass property-composition models. The integration of these models into the PCCS constraints necessary to administer future acceptability decisions for the processing at DWPF is provided by this sixth revision of this document.

  6. FICHe Digital Health startup portfolio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The FICHe (Future Internet CHallenge eHealth) project challenged European SMEs and start-ups to develop innovative applications and businesses in the eHealth market using FIWARE technology. 80 SMEs and start-ups entered the challenge and were offered mentoring, training, technical support, a real li

  7. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION KT07-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-12

    This report is the third in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility is also considered in the study. The KT07-series glasses were selected to evaluate any potential impacts of noble metals on their properties and performance. The glasses characterized thus far for the SCIX study have not included noble metals since they are not typically tracked in sludge batch composition projections. However, noble metals can act as nucleation sites in glass melts, leading to enhanced crystallization. This crystallization can potentially influence the properties and performance of the glass, such as chemical durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature. The noble metals Ag, Pd, Rh, and Ru were added to the KT07-series glasses in concentrations based on recent measurements of Sludge Batch 6, which was considered to contain a high concentration of noble metals. The KT04-series glasses were used as the baseline compositions. After fabrication, the glasses were characterized to determine their homogeneity, chemical composition, durability, and viscosity. Liquidus temperature measurements are also underway but were not complete at the time of this report. The liquidus temperature results for the KT07-series glasses, along with several of the earlier glasses in the SCIX study, will be documented separately. All of the KT07-series glasses, both quenched and slowly cooled, were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. Chemical composition measurements showed that all of the glasses met their targeted compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all of the glasses had chemical durabilities that were far better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass

  8. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C

    2006-04-21

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing

  9. DWPF FLOWSHEET STUDIES WITH SIMULANT TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT ON THE CPC PROCESS AND GLASS FORMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.; Hay, M.; Stone, M.

    2011-06-29

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The NGS is comprised of four components: 0.050 M MaxCalix (extractant), 0.50 M Cs-7SB (modifier), 0.003 M guanidine-LIX-79, with the balance ({approx}74 wt%) being Isopar{reg_sign} L. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST was required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operations, as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), glass formulation activities, and melter operations. Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes. A Technical Task Request (TTR) was issued to support the assessments of the impact of the next generation solvent and mMST on the downstream DWPF flowsheet unit. The TTR identified five tasks to be investigated: (1) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for NGS; (2) Solvent Stability for DWPF CPC Conditions; (3) Glass Formulation Studies; (4) Boron Volatility and Melt Rate; and (5) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for mMST.

  10. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  11. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  12. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J.

    2011-11-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a

  14. Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-05-04

    This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  16. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-03-11

    This Startup Plan encompasses activities necessary to perform startup and operation of the LDUA in Facility Group 3 tanks and complete turnover to CPO. The activities discussed in this plan will occur prior to, and following the US Department Energy, Richland Operations Office Operational Readiness Review. This startup plan does not authorize or direct any specific field activities or authorize a change of configuration. As such, this startup plan need not be Unresolved Safety Question (USQ) screened.

  17. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C.; Crawford, C. L.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-11-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm{sup 3}; The Fe{sup 2+}/ΣFe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  19. Sulfur plant start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  20. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL WITH MATRIX SIMULANTS AND SUPERNATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2012-05-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current DWPF flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the CPC since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  1. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  2. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  3. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS WITH TANK 40 AND H CANYON NEPTUNIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M

    2009-04-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40. SB5 contains the contents of Tank 51 from November 2008, qualified by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the heel in Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 4. Current Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) plans are to (1) decant supernatant from Tank 40 to remove excess liquid caused by a leaking slurry pump and (2) receive a Np stream from H Canyon It should be noted that the Np stream contains significant nitrate requiring addition of nitrite to Tank 40 to maintain a high nitrite to nitrate ratio for corrosion control. SRNL has been requested to qualify the proposed changes; determine the impact on DWPF processability in terms of hydrogen generation, rheology, etc.; evaluate antifoam addition strategy; and evaluate mercury stripping. Therefore, SRNL received a 3 L sample of Tank 40 following the transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40 (Tank Farm Sample HTF-40-08-157 to be used in testing and to perform the required Waste Acceptance Product Specifications radionuclide analyses). Based on Tank Farm projections, SRNL decanted a portion* of the sample, added sodium nitrite, and added a Np solution from H Canyon representative of the Np to be dispositioned to Tank 40 (neutralized to 0.6 M excess hydroxide). The resulting material was used in a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration -- a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle. Preliminary data from the demonstration has been reported previously. This report includes discussion of these results and additional results, including comparisons to Tank Farm projections and the SB5 demonstration.

  5. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  6. FINAL REPORT START-UP AND COMMISSIONING TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-01R0100-2 REV 0 1/20/03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BRANDYS M; WILSON CN; SCHATZ TR; GONG W; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from commissioning tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM 1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part BI [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plan. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Report. The DM1200 system will be used for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. This will include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The results presented in this report are from the initial series of short-duration tests that were conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system prior to conducting the main body of development tests that have been planned for this system. These tests were directed primarily at system 'debugging,' operator training, and procedure refinement. The AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing was selected for these tests.

  7. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  8. An enhanced tokamak startup model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rajiv; Artaud, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    The startup of tokamaks has been examined in the past in varying degree of detail. This phase typically involves the burnthrough of impurities and the subsequent rampup of plasma current. A zero-dimensional (0D) model is most widely used where the time evolution of volume averaged quantities determines the detailed balance between the input and loss of particle and power. But, being a 0D setup, these studies do not take into consideration the co-evolution of plasma size and shape, and instead assume an unchanging minor and major radius. However, it is known that the plasma position and its minor radius can change appreciably as the plasma evolves in time to fill in the entire available volume. In this paper, an enhanced model for the tokamak startup is introduced, which for the first time takes into account the evolution of plasma geometry during this brief but highly dynamic period by including realistic one-dimensional (1D) effects within the broad 0D framework. In addition the effect of runaway electrons (REs) has also been incorporated. The paper demonstrates that the inclusion of plasma cross section evolution in conjunction with REs plays an important role in the formation and development of tokamak startup. The model is benchmarked against experimental results from ADITYA tokamak.

  9. A STATISTICAL REVIEW OF DWPF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS GENERATED DURING THE PROCESSING OF BATCHES 300 THROUGH 356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T

    2006-08-31

    In this report, the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides summaries and comparisons of composition measurements for glass samples that were generated during the processing of batches 300 through 356 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These analyses, which include measurements of samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as samples of glass standards, were provided to SCS by the DWPF Laboratory (DWPF Lab) of Waste Laboratory Services. The comparisons made by SCS were extensive given that these data allowed for contrasts between preparation methods and between the two spectrometers that are currently in use at the DWPF Lab. In addition to general comparisons, specific questions that were posed in the Technical Task Request (TTR) behind this effort were addressed in this report.

  10. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently

  11. Description of DWPF reference waste form and canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This document describes the reference waste form and canister for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The facility is planned for location at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and is scheduled for construction authorization during FY-1983. The reference canister is fabricated of 24-in.-OD 304L stainless steel pipe with a dished bottom, domed head, and lifting and welding flanges on the head neck. The overall canister length is 9 ft 10 in., with a wall thickness of 3/8-in. (schedule 20 pipe). The canister length was selected to reduce equipment cell height in the DWPF to a practical size. The canister diameter was selected to ensure that a filled canister with its shipping cask could be accommodated on a legal-weight truck. The overall dimensions and weight appear to be generally compatible with preliminary assessments of repository requirements. The reference waste form is borosilicate glass containing approximately 28 wt % sludge oxides with the balance glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its high resistance to leaching by water, its relatively high solubility for nuclides found in the sludge, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains approximately 58% SiO/sub 2/ and 15% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/. This composition results in a low average leachability in the waste form of approximately 5 x 10/sup -9/ g/cm/sup 2/-day based on /sup 137/Cs over 365 days in 25/sup 0/C water. The canister is filled with 3260 lb of glass which occupies about 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approximately 425 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and 15-year-old supernate from the Stage 1 and Stage 2 processes. The radionuclide content of the canister is about 150,000 curies, with a radiation level of 2 x 10/sup 4/ rem/hour at 1 cm.

  12. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  13. 反应堆启堆用智能化外推临界装置堆上考验试验%Test on the Reactor with the Intelligent Extrapolation Criticality Device for Physical Startup Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄礼渊

    2011-01-01

    The Intelligent Extrapolation Criticality Device is used for automatic counting and automatic extrapolation during the criticality experiment on the reactor. Test must be performed on the zero - power reactor or other reactor before the Device is used. The paper describes the test situation and test results of the Device on the zero - power reactor. The test results show that the Device has the function of automatic counting and automatic extrapolation, the deviation of the extrapolation data is small, and it can satisfy the requirements of physical startup on the reactor.%反应堆启堆用智能化外推临界装置用于反应堆临界试验过程中进行自动计数和自动外推临界.该装置在用于外推临界试验之前必须在零功率反应堆或其它反应堆上进行考验试验.论文叙述了研制的反应堆启堆用智能化外推临界装置在零功率堆上考验试验的情况及试验结果.试验结果表明:智能化外推临界装置具有自动计数和自动外推临界的功能,且外推结果偏差小,满足反应堆物理启动试验的要求.

  14. SRAT CHEMISTRY AND ACID CONSUMPTION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-12-03

    Due to higher than expected hydrogen generation during the Tank 51-Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification run, DWPF engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to expand the ongoing catalytic hydrogen generation program. The work presented in this Technical Report was identified as part of SRNL/Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) meetings to define potential causes of catalytic hydrogen generation as well as from an external technical review panel commissioned to evaluate SRNL hydrogen related data and programs. New scope included improving the understanding of SRAT/SME process chemistry, particularly as it related to acid consumption and hydrogen generation. The expanded hydrogen program scope was covered under the technical task request (TTR): HLW-DWPF-TTR-2007-0016. A task technical and quality assurance plan (TT&QAP) was issued to cover focus areas raised in meetings with LWO plus a portion of the recommendations made by the review panel. A supporting analytical study plan was issued. It was also noted in the review of catalytic hydrogen generation that control of the DWPF acid stoichiometry was an important element in controlling hydrogen generation. A separate TTR was issued to investigate ways of improving the determination of the acid requirement during processing: HLWDWPF-TTR-0015. A separate TT&QAP was prepared for this task request. This report discusses some progress on this task related to developing alternative acid equations and to performing experimental work to supplement the existing database. Simulant preparation and preliminary flowsheet studies were already documented. The prior work produced a sufficient quantity of simulant for the hydrogen program and melter feed rheology testing. It also defined a suitable acid addition stoichiometry. The results presented in this report come from samples and process data obtained during sixteen 22-L SRAT/SME simulations that were performed in the second half of 2007 to produce eight SME

  15. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08

    -radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7a related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7a processing.

  16. Experimental Report for Thermal Hydraulic Behavior During Startup, Power Change and MCP Transient Operation by using the High Temperature/High Pressure Test Facility(VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Lee, Sung Jae; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyong Ho; Song, Chul Hwa; Park, Chun Kyong; Chung, Moon Ki

    2005-07-15

    The VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents) is an experimental facility to verify the performance and safety issues of the SMART-P (Pilot plant of the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). The basic design of the SMART-P has been completed by KAERI. The present report describes experimental test results for performance test items, including heatup, power change, MCP transient, and natural circulation operations by using the VISTA facility.

  17. Solenoid-free plasma start-up in spherical tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Shevchenko, V. F.

    2014-10-01

    The central solenoid is an intrinsic part of all present-day tokamaks and most spherical tokamaks. The spherical torus (ST) confinement concept is projected to operate at high toroidal beta and at a high fraction of the non-inductive bootstrap current as required for an efficient reactor system. The use of a conventional solenoid in a ST-based fusion nuclear facility is generally believed to not be a possibility. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is therefore an area of extensive worldwide research activity. Solenoid-free plasma start-up is also relevant to steady-state tokamak operation, as the central transformer coil of a conventional aspect ratio tokamak reactor would be located in a high radiation environment but would be needed only during the initial discharge initiation and current ramp-up phases. Solenoid-free operation also provides greater flexibility in the selection of the aspect ratio and simplifies the reactor design. Plasma start-up methods based on induction from external poloidal field coils, helicity injection and radio frequency current drive have all made substantial progress towards meeting this important need for the ST. Some of these systems will now undergo the final stages of test in a new generation of large STs, which are scheduled to begin operations during the next two years. This paper reviews research to date on methods for inducing the initial start-up current in STs without reliance on the conventional central solenoid.

  18. Dampak Mentoring Pada Keberhasilan Start-Up Business: Studi Kasus Pada Start-Up Business di Indonesia [Mentoring the Impact of Success of a Start-Up Business: A Case Study of a Start-Up Business in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Yanita Setyawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a highly developed science today, as well as in the world of education in Indonesia. Teaching entrepreneurship at the university level, especially at some universities in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, shows the positive impact that there were 74.03% of start-up businesses that survived and thrived in 2014. Based on the previous observation, some business start-ups are accompanied by a mentor. Mentoring is a process of forming and maintaining lasting relationships that develop intensively among seniors with juniors. The mentoring function includes career and psychosocial functions. The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship between mentoring and the success of a start-up business. This study is a quantitative descriptive study using a random sampling method to obtain 100 samples. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire. The methodology used to analyze the quantitative description to test the hypothesis. The results of this study indicate that mentoring influences the success of a start-up business that was owned by university students in Surabaya, Indonesia by 32% and 78% was influenced by other variables.

  19. The Phenomenon of Business Start-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Africa

    1990-01-01

    A study of four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain) was conducted to gather data on the business start-up process and its impact on the generation of jobs, small business start-up support programs, training and counseling programs, and characteristics of successful business starters. (The original aim of the study was to…

  20. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  1. Lean and global technology start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the concept of Lean Global Start-up (LGS) as a way of emphasizing the impossibility for new technology start-ups to deal separately with business development, innovation and early internationalization. For a newly established technology firm the task of being...... of their products and the insights from business supporting organizations....

  2. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Almakenzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success factors of Saudi information and communication technology (ICT start-up companies. ICT start-ups are important to the economy because they are needed for the progress of all industries. Therefore, this study will identify the factors that lead to successful ICT start-up projects. Then, it will develop a model for the best practices in the interplay among the defined factors that will increase the opportunity to initiate successful start-ups. This research involves a factor analysis study based on a quantitative method to measure the interdependences among the success factors for ICT start-ups. The identified factors are verified using a sample of Saudi start-up companies. The study will contribute to enhancing the technological content to diversify the Saudi economy in order to prepare for the post-oil era. The study result is a survivability model for Saudi-incubated ICT startups. The resulting model has two phases, as follows: (1 the incubation period, which includes the relationships among three factors leading to constant and successful updates and upgrades of the ICT startup business model; and (2 the postincubation period, which include relationships among the three factors that help to deal with the changing nature of the market and the emergence of competing products. This solution can be applied within startups with similar conditions.

  3. Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.

  4. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  5. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler unit. Facility test plan: startup and shakedown, parametric studies and long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This proposed performance study is to be performed in the anthracite culm prototype boiler located at Paxinos, Pennsylvania. The boiler is designed to produce 23,400 lb/hr of steam of 200 psig. Effects of operating variables on combustion efficiency, sulfur retention, erosion and corrosion will be analyzed during the runs. The boiler will be operated to determine its technical, economic and environmental performance and to project the viability of it for commercial operation. After the initial testing, the boiler performance will be evaluated over the long term operation.

  6. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a

  7. Challenges for Success in Startups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Richard

    2000-03-01

    The basic challenges to a startup company such as IME have stemmed from the need to balance the business world's goal of fast entry into the market place with the necessity for a solid foundation in technology. Our technology base is broad - indeed it has the makings of a new industry - and the lure of quick commercial success in a specific application could easily make IME vulnerable to the R&D might of giant international companies. The essential challenges for success play out in business/technology decision tradeoffs: (i) preserving equity and viability while keeping R&D momentum and establishing intellectual property, (ii) attracting investors while maintaining focus on long-range goals, and (iii) developing a complete team while protecting capital resources. This balancing act keeps the company agile and resilient, qualities that large corporations could emulate with profit.

  8. Final Report - Engineering Study for DWPF Bubblers, VSL-10R1770-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/22/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.; Diener, G. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this work was to perform an engineering assessment of the impact of implementation of bubblers to improve mixing of the glass pool, and thereby increase throughput, in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the melter and off-gas system. Most of the data used for this evaluation were from extensive melter tests performed on non-SRS feeds. This information was supplemented by more recent results on SRS HLW simulants that were tested on a melter system at VSL under contracts from ORP and SRR. Per the work scope, the evaluation focused on the following areas: Glass production rate; Corrosion of melter components; Power requirements; Pouring stability; Off-gas characteristics; Safety and flammability.

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Species Partitioning in the DWPF Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kesterson, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-15

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas entrainment rates from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream compositions and timeaveraged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle. The only case considered in this study involved the SB6 pour stream sample taken while Canister #3472 was being filled over a 20-hour period on 12/20/2010, approximately three months after the bubblers were installed. The analytical results for that pour stream sample provided the necessary glass composition data for the mass balance calculations. To estimate the “matching” feed composition, which is not necessarily the same as that of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batch being fed at the time of pour stream sampling, a mixing model was developed involving three preceding MFT batches as well as the one being fed at that time based on the assumption of perfect mixing in the glass pool but with an induction period to account for the process delays involved in the calcination/fusion step in the cold cap and the melter turnover.

  10. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    the targeted values. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 418 showed an apparent trend of increasing sulfate retention with increasing Na{sub 2}O additions to the 5/25/11 sludge projection. This trend appears contradictory to other recent studies of sulfate retention in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) type glasses. Additional apparent contradictions to this trend were found in the data collected in the present study. Overall, the results for the SB7b sulfate study glasses with Frit 418 and the 5/25/11 projection with Na{sub 2}O additions showed that subtle changes in this complex glass composition impacted the degree of sulfate retention. These results do however provide confidence that a 0.6 wt % sulfate limit in glass is warranted for Frit 418 with the SB7b compositions evaluated in this study. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 702 are consistent with those of the previous SB7a study in that Frit 702 allowed for higher sulfate retention as compared to Frit 418 for the same sludge compositions. It is recommended that the DWPF implement a sulfate concentration limit of 0.6 wt % in glass for SB7b processing with Frit 418. If a higher than projected sulfate concentration is measured when SB7b processing begins (i.e., if a sulfate concentration higher than 0.6 wt % becomes necessary to achieve targeted waste loadings), DWPF should consider a transition to Frit 702. The sulfate limit could likely be raised to 0.8 wt % by transitioning to this frit. However, if DWPF considers transitioning from Frit 418 to Frit 702, additional glasses should be fabricated to confirm this higher limit due to the issues with incorrect B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations for some of the glasses made with Frit 702 in this study. There are several factors other than sulfate retention that must also be carefully considered prior to changing frit compositions.

  11. Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    2000-08-23

    The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C.

  12. Diffusion-controlled startup of a gas-loaded liquid-metal heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappan, R.; Boehman, L. I.; Mahefkey, E. T.

    1990-07-01

    Liquid-metal heat pipes have exhibited difficulties starting up from a frozen-state. Inert gas loading is a possible solution to the frozen-state startup problem. The present study deals with the diffusion-controlled startup analysis and testing of an argon-loaded, 2-m-long, stainless steel-sodium heat pipe of the double-walled type with artery channel and long adiabatic section. A two-dimensional, quasi-steady state, binary vapor-gas diffusion model determined the energy transport rate of vapor at the diffusion front. The analytical solution to the diffusion problem provided the vapor flux, which in turn was used in the one-dimensional transient thermal model of the heat pipe to predict the time rate-of-change of temperature and position of the hot front. The experimental test results successfully demonstrated the startup of a gas-loaded sodium heat pipe and validated the diffusion model of the startup.

  13. Corporate leadership and start-up entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a paper prepared by Colin Coulson-Thomas for the 2016 Dubai Global Convention on Leadership for Business Excellence. It examines the role of leadership in relation to start-up enterprises.

  14. Discrete event simulation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1992-02-01

    A discrete event simulation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory has been constructed in the GPSS language. It was used to estimate laboratory analysis times at process analytical hold points and to study the effect of sample number on those times. Typical results are presented for three different simultaneous representing increasing levels of complexity, and for different sampling schemes. Example equipment utilization time plots are also included. SRS DWPF laboratory management and chemists found the simulations very useful for resource and schedule planning.

  15. Is there a lean future for global startups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    This article integrates insights from the latest research on the lean startup entrepreneurial method, born-global firms, and global startups. It contributes to the clarification of terminology referring to the global aspects of startups, summarizes insights from previous literature focusing on gl......-based global startup research and practice. The analysis should benefit both researchers and practitioners in technology entrepreneurship, international entrepreneurship, and global innovation management.......This article integrates insights from the latest research on the lean startup entrepreneurial method, born-global firms, and global startups. It contributes to the clarification of terminology referring to the global aspects of startups, summarizes insights from previous literature focusing...... on global startups, and further substantiates the articulation of the need for considering the lean global startup as a new type of firm. The main message is that the lessons learned from the emergence of lean startup entrepreneurship offer a basis for promoting a similar lean phase in technology...

  16. The LEP startup Plan, 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The startup planning for LEP in 1998 is presented. Operation this year is planned with the 102/90o lattice. The machine will be commissioned with this optics and operation for physics at 45 GeV fo r the Zo calibration data will be attempted. The 90/90o lattice, as a 'backup' solution for the Zo running, will only be commissioned in case of dire need. As usual there have been changes to the machine during the shutdown. The most important of which is the re-arrangement of IP6 with the installation of 8 new SC-RF modules there. IP6 and IP2 are now similar. 36 CU-RF cavities have been removed from the machine. In addition the polarisation wiggler positions have been changed in IP3 and IP7 to protect the separators from synchrotron radiation produced by the wigglers. Finally the vertical aperture of the vacuum chamber in all four experiments has been reduced to 55 mm.

  17. Research Strategies in Science-based Start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    Although biotech start-ups fail or succeed based on their research few attempts have been made to examine if and how they strategize in this core of their activity. Popular views on Dedicated Biotech Firms (DBFs) see the inherent uncertainty of research as defying notions of strategizing, directing...... instead the attention to the quality of their science, or the roles of boards, management, and collaborative networks etc. Using a unique comprehensive dataset on Danish and Swedish biotech start-ups in drug discovery this paper analyzes their research strategies. Adopting a Simonean point of departure we...... developed as congruent responses to problem architectures; 3) Testing and confirming that financial valuation of firms is driven by achievements conforming to requisite research strategies. These strategies, in turn, require careful combination of multiple dimensions of research.Findings demonstrate...

  18. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  19. WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

    2008-04-28

    The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus

  20. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-04-26

    This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally

  1. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-04-26

    This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally

  2. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  3. DWPF saltstone study: Effects of thermal history on leach index and physical integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1992-11-18

    This report summarizes the observations made during the curing and testing of DWPF simulated saltstones which have been cured under isothermal conditions in sealed glass envelopes at temperatures from room temperature to 95[degrees]C. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of curing at and around temperatures representing conditions created within large pours of grout. There appears to be no difference in the leaching resistance of samples cured at the same temperature for varying times to 1 year. Curing at higher temperatures decreases the effective diffusivity of this waste formulation. These results are encouraging in that leaching resistance for samples near the expected maximum vault temperature (55[degrees]C) show effective diffusion coefficients (D[sub effective] [approximately]10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 2]/sec) that agree with previous work and values that are believed to adequately protect the groundwater. The isothermal conditions of these tests simulate the nearly adiabatic conditions existing near the centerline of the monolith. The elevated temperatures due to hydration heat decrease over long times. This has been simulated by a series (1X) of staged isothermal cures. Since modeling indicated it would take nearly two years for emplaced grout to cool to near ambient temperatures, accelerated (2X) cooling curves were also tested. Specimens cured under these staged-isothermal conditions appear to be no different from specimens cured under isothermal conditions for the same time at the maximum temperature. The unexpected generation of nitrous oxide within saltstone creates internal stresses which cause fracturing when exposed to leaching conditions. Such fracturing is not considered significant for saltstone emplaced in engineered vaults for disposal.

  4. IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-04-26

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and

  5. Preliminary analysis of species partitioning in the DWPF melter. Sludge batch 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith III, F. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas carryover from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream (PS) compositions and time-averaged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle.

  6. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Foaming Theory and Mitigation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-07-24

    The objective of this research is to enhance the basic understanding of the role of glass chemistry, including the chemical kinetics of pre-melting, solid state reactions, batch melting, and the reaction pathways in glass and/or acid addition strategy changes on the overall melting process for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Macrobatch 3 (MB3).

  7. CATALYTIC INTERACTIONS OF RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM, AND MERCURY DURING SIMULATED DWPF CPC PROCESSING WITH HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D

    2008-10-09

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels were performed as part of the ongoing investigation into catalytic hydrogen generation. Rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury have been identified as the principal elemental factors affecting the peak hydrogen generation rate in the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) for a given acid addition. The primary goal of this study is to identify any significant interactions between the three factors. Noble metal concentrations were similar to recent sludge batches. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%. An experimental matrix was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), two duplicate midpoint runs, and two additional replicate runs to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing can identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge simulant was used for all tests. Acid addition was kept effectively constant except to compensate for variations in the starting mercury concentration. Six Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed to supplement the SME hydrogen generation database. Some of the preliminary findings from this study include: (1) Rh was linked to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the first two hours after acid addition in preliminary statistical modeling. (2) Ru was linked conclusively to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the last four hours of reflux in preliminary statistical modeling. (3) Increasing the ratio of Hg/Rh shifted the noble metal controlling the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate from

  8. Two-port network model and startup criteria for thermoacoustic oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU XingHua; ZHANG XiaoQing; WANG HuiLing; SHU ShuiMing

    2009-01-01

    The startup process of a thermoacoustic engine is a self-excited oscillation process generated in in-homogeneous acoustic media. To reveal these coupling relations between various influential factors is an important task of basic research on thermoacoustics. In this paper thermoacoustic engines are re-garded as thermoacoustic oscillators consisting of the active network and the passive network. Ac-cordingly, the two-port Y-parameter for relevant component is derived, and standing wave and traveling wave thermoacoustic engine are described by the negative-resistance and feedback model, respec-tively. The relevant two-port network topology is given as well. The startup criteria for thermoacoustic oscillators are obtained by using Nyquist instability criterion. The model prediction of startup parame-ters, particularly, startup frequency and mode characteristic are in agreement with that of experimental results reported in the literature. Moreover, with topological graphs it is verified that standing wave engines would start up in a negative-resistance state and there would exist high frequency modes in thermoacoustic-Stirling engines. By investigating into the frequency response of thermoacoustic sys-tem, this method proposed can achieve such an objective that these effects of operating and structural parameters of engine on startup modes and startup temperature can be revealed in an analytical way.Thus this approach to test and check thermal stability can be provided in a design phase, instead of using empirical frequency to design thermoacoustic systems.

  9. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  10. DISP: Optimizations towards Scalable MPI Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Huansong [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Pophale, Swaroop S [ORNL; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Florida State University, Tallahassee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of MPI for high performance computing, the startup of MPI programs faces a scalability challenge as both the execution time and memory consumption increase drastically at scale. We have examined this problem using the collective modules of Cheetah and Tuned in Open MPI as representative implementations. Previous improvements for collectives have focused on algorithmic advances and hardware off-load. In this paper, we examine the startup cost of the collective module within a communicator and explore various techniques to improve its efficiency and scalability. Accordingly, we have developed a new scalable startup scheme with three internal techniques, namely Delayed Initialization, Module Sharing and Prediction-based Topology Setup (DISP). Our DISP scheme greatly benefits the collective initialization of the Cheetah module. At the same time, it helps boost the performance of non-collective initialization in the Tuned module. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on Titan supercomputer at ORNL with up to 4096 processes. The results show that our delayed initialization can speed up the startup of Tuned and Cheetah by an average of 32.0% and 29.2%, respectively, our module sharing can reduce the memory consumption of Tuned and Cheetah by up to 24.1% and 83.5%, respectively, and our prediction-based topology setup can speed up the startup of Cheetah by up to 80%.

  11. Testing of the Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Dissolution Method in Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-10

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tests the applicability of the digestion methods used by the DWPF Laboratory for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt samples and SRAT Product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a method referred to as the DWPF Cold Chemical or Cold Chem Method (CC), (see DWPF Procedure SW4- 15.201). Testing indicates that the CC method produced mixed results. The CC method did not result in complete dissolution of either the SRAT Receipt or SRAT Product with some fine, dark solids remaining. However, elemental analyses did not reveal extreme biases for the major elements in the sludge when compared with analyses obtained following dissolution by hot aqua regia (AR) or sodium peroxide fusion (PF) methods. The CC elemental analyses agreed with the AR and PF methods well enough that it should be adequate for routine process control analyses in the DWPF after much more extensive side-by-side tests of the CC method and the PF method are performed on the first 10 SRAT cycles of the Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) campaign. The DWPF Laboratory should continue with their plans for further tests of the CC method during these 10 SRAT cycles.

  12. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17

    will not impact decontamination or immobilization operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications have zero tolerance for dimensional changes such as the operation of valves while other applications a finite dimensional change improves the function of the application such as seals and gaskets. Additional considerations are required before using the conclusions from this work to judge outcomes in field applications. Decane, a component of Isopar L that is most likely to interact with the polymers, mildly interacted with the elastomers and the propylene based polymers but their degree of swelling is at most 10% and the confined geometry that they are typically placed in indicate this is not significant. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid may leach protein into the NGS solvent. Since Vellumoid is used at the mixer in Saltstone where it sees minimum quantities of solvent, this leaching has no effect on the extraction process at MCU or the immobilization process at saltstone. No significant interaction is expected between MaxCalix and the polymers and elastomers used at MCU, DWPF, and Saltstone. Overall, minimal and insignificant interactions are expected on extraction and immobilization operations when MCU switches from CSSX to NGS solvent. It is expected that contacting NGS will not accelerate the aging rate of polymers and elastomers under radiation and heat. This is due to the minimal interaction between NGS and the polymers and the confined geometries for these polymers. SRNL recommends the use of the HSP method (for screening) and some testing to evaluate the impact of other organic such as alcohols, glycolate, and their byproducts on the polymers used throughout the site.

  13. THE IMPACT OF THE MCU LIFE EXTENSION SOLVENT ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION EFFORTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D; Edwards, T

    2011-03-24

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NG-CSSX), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S operations as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass formulation activities, and melter operations at DWPF. To support programmatic objectives, the downstream impacts of the boric acid strip effluent (SE) to the glass formulation activities and melter operations are considered in this study. More specifically, the impacts of boric acid additions to the projected SB7b operating windows, potential impacts to frit production temperatures, and the potential impact of boron volatility are evaluated. Although various boric acid molarities have been reported and discussed, the baseline flowsheet used to support this assessment was 0.01M boric acid. The results of the paper study assessment indicate that Frit 418 and Frit 418-7D are robust to the implementation of the 0.01M boric acid SE into the SB7b flowsheet (sludge-only or ARP-added). More specifically, the projected operating windows for the nominal SB7b projections remain essentially constant (i.e., 25-43 or 25-44% waste loading (WL)) regardless of the flowsheet options (sludge-only, ARP added, and/or the presence of the new SE). These results indicate that even if SE is not transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), there would be no need to add boric acid (from a trim tank) to compositionally compensate for the absence of the boric acid SE in either a sludge-only or ARP-added SB7b flowsheet. With respect to boron volatility, the Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments also

  14. The Fragile Success of Team Start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, Erik; Schutjens, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups perform better than solo start-ups on several success indicators. However, after this start phase, entrepreneurial teams face particular problems in realizing further growth. These team-specific bottlenecks can...

  15. Tokamak Start-up under Assistance of RF Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德

    2004-01-01

    To improve the start-up behavior of tokamak discharges and realize the low loop voltage start-up is required by performance of large scale, full superconductor tokamaks. In recent years, some kinds of RF wave have been used to assist the start-up and some exciting results have been gained. This paper introduce the investigation on both in physical principle and experimental research of the start-up process, in which high frequency RF waves were used to assist it.

  16. Tokamak startup with electron cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C

    1980-04-01

    Experiments are described in which the startup voltage in a tokamak is reduced by approx. 60% by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for preionization. A 50% reduction in volt-second requirement and impurity reflux are also observed.

  17. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  18. The Lean and Global Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  19. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  20. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  1. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2012-10-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed.

  2. PROCESS CHANGES TO DWPF TO INCREASE THROUGHPUT AND INCORPORATE SALT STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Michael Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2007-06-13

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been vitrifying High Level Waste sludge since 1996. Sludge batch 1a, 1b, 2, and 3 have been successfully stabilized. In the last several years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has worked with DWPF to implement process and compositional changes to improve throughput. These changes allowed significant increases in waste throughput for processing of sludge batch 3 and will be necessary to maintain reasonable throughput for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). SB4 processing was initiated in June 2007 and will be the first significantly HM-type sludge batch processed. This sludge is high in aluminum and other components troublesome to DWPF processing. In addition, coupled processing is scheduled to start in the next fiscal year, which will also impact throughput. Coupled processing will begin with the incorporation of waste streams from the Actinide Removal Process and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and will eventually transition to the feed from the larger scale Salt Waste Processing Facility. A discussion of the programs to improve throughput and implement salt processing will be provided.

  3. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  4. Lean Startup: A success factor? A quantitative study of how use of the Lean Startup framework affects the success of Norwegian high-tech startups.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Lean Startup is a framework for entrepreneurship that has gained considerable popularity among entrepreneurs, yet the framework has not been thoroughly scrutinized in academic circles. This thesis aims to fill this gap in two ways. First, by comparing Lean Startup to more established models on entrepreneurship in a theoretical perspective. Second, by conducting an empirical study of how Lean Startup influences entrepreneurial success in practice. In our theoretical review, we found that while...

  5. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  6. Missing links between lean startup, design thinking, and experiential learning approaches in entrepreneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst

    2016-01-01

    , design thinking, and experiential learning be identified? • How can new concepts of learning models, taking lean startup, design thinking and experiential learning approaches into account, be developed in entrepreneurship education? Approach This 3e conference paper begins as a conceptual paper...... highlighting the theories and underlying learning models behind three pedagogical approaches within entrepreneurship education, namely lean startup, design thinking and experiential learning. The paper builds this knowledge framework in order to set the design for an empirical investigation of the proposed...... valuable for research in entrepreneurship education. In-depth interviews will provide data to be analyzed in combination with vignette methods that seeks to test the following research question: How do entrepreneurship educators reflect upon the three approaches lean startup, design thinking...

  7. Marketing plan for business start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisar, Jabed

    2016-01-01

    The marketing plan for the startup company concentrates on the affordable and effective marketing strategies for the new company with the limited budget for marketing. In this thesis, the shoe company named Jalkani is selected as the case study for the marketing plan. In the age of Internet, the marketing becomes more complex with the combination of the traditional advertising (paid advertisements in newspapers, billboard, or television) and the model digital marketing. The costs for each ...

  8. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  9. Start-up date announced

    CERN Multimedia

    7th August 2008. CERN has announced that the first attempt to circulate the beam in the LHC will be made on the 10th September. This news comes as the cool down phase of commissioning the accelerator reaches a successful conclusion.The next phase is the synchronization of the LHC with the SPS accelerator, the last link in the LHC’s injector chain. A first synchronization test is scheduled for the 9th August, for the clockwise circulating beam, with the second to follow over the coming weeks.Once stable circulating beams have been established in September they will be brought to collision, and the final step will be to commission the LHC’s acceleration system to boost the energy to 5 TeV, the target energy for 2008.“We’re finishing a marathon with a sprint”, said LHC project leader Lyn Evans. “It’s been a long haul, and we’re all eager to get the LHC research programme underway.”For more information, please see the recent press release at: http://press.web.cern.ch/press/PressReleases/Rele...

  10. CONSERVATION AREA START-UPS: COMBINING THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN S. WRIGHT; JEFF CANEEN; NATHAN ALEXANDER; ANDREW GOMEZ

    2010-01-01

    Business start-ups by indigenous people in wildlife conservation areas are prone to failure. Funding issues have been identified as a contributing cause of the disappointing results. A great deal has been written about capital structure both in the start-up literature and the corporate literature, but the applicability of this research to small, indigenous start-ups in and around conservation areas is lacking. Although current practice dictates a reliance on equity, we apply the relevant corp...

  11. Electrical start-up for diesel fuel processing in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Tschauder, Andreas; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    As auxiliary power units in trucks and aircraft, fuel cell systems with a diesel and kerosene reforming capacity offer the dual benefit of reduced emissions and fuel consumption. In order to be commercially viable, these systems require a quick start-up time with low energy input. In pursuit of this end, this paper reports an electrical start-up strategy for diesel fuel processing. A transient computational fluid dynamics model is developed to optimize the start-up procedure of the fuel processor in the 28 kWth power class. The temperature trend observed in the experiments is reproducible to a high degree of accuracy using a dual-cell approach in ANSYS Fluent. Starting from a basic strategy, different options are considered for accelerating system start-up. The start-up time is reduced from 22 min in the basic case to 9.5 min, at an energy consumption of 0.4 kW h. Furthermore, an electrical wire is installed in the reformer to test the steam generation during start-up. The experimental results reveal that the generation of steam at 450 °C is possible within seconds after water addition to the reformer. As a result, the fuel processor can be started in autothermal reformer mode using the electrical concept developed in this work.

  12. From Jam to Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Production workshops such as game jams are popular ways of letting participants acquire hands-on knowledge and experience in producing an artifact or game prototype in a very limited timespan. Some of the games made at these production workshops are later published with great success, and create...... the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  13. Examination Of Sulfur Measurements In DWPF Sludge Slurry And SRAT Product Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wiedenman, B. J.

    2012-11-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to re-sample the received SB7b WAPS material for wt. % solids, perform an aqua regia digestion and analyze the digested material by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), as well as re-examine the supernate by ICP-AES. The new analyses were requested in order to provide confidence that the initial analytical subsample was representative of the Tank 40 sample received and to replicate the S results obtained on the initial subsample collected. The ICP-AES analyses for S were examined with both axial and radial detection of the sulfur ICP-AES spectroscopic emission lines to ascertain if there was any significant difference in the reported results. The outcome of this second subsample of the Tank 40 WAPS material is the first subject of this report. After examination of the data from the new subsample of the SB7b WAPS material, a team of DWPF and SRNL staff looked for ways to address the question of whether there was in fact insoluble S that was not being accounted for by ion chromatography (IC) analysis. The question of how much S is reaching the melter was thought best addressed by examining a DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Product sample, but the significant dilution of sludge material, containing the S species in question, that results from frit addition was believed to add additional uncertainty to the S analysis of SME Product material. At the time of these discussions it was believed that all S present in a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt sample would be converted to sulfate during the course of the SRAT cycle. A SRAT Product sample would not have the S dilution effect resulting from frit addition, and hence, it was decided that a DWPF SRAT Product sample would be obtained and submitted to SRNL for digestion and sample preparation followed by a round-robin analysis of the prepared samples by the DWPF Laboratory, F/H Laboratories, and SRNL for S and sulfate. The

  14. Water soluble decontamination coating for Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, C.L.

    1986-12-17

    Water soluble sodium borate glass coating was successfully codeveloped by Clemson University (Dr. H.G. Lefort) and Du Pont as an alternative decontamination process to frit slurry blasting of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters. Slurry blasting requires transport of abrasive slurries, might cause galling by entrapped frit particles, and could result in frit slurry freezeup in pumps and retention basins. Contamination can be removed from precoated canisters with a gentle hot water rinse. Glass waste spilled on a coated canister will spall off spontaneously during canister cooling. A glass coating appears to prevent transfer of contamination to the Canister Decontamination Cell (CDC) guides and cradle. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  15. Startup Time, Startup Power and Startup Loss in Reduced-voltage Startup of Induction Motor%异步电机降压起动的起动时间、起动功率和起动损耗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦达; 李明辉; 曹玉泉

    2011-01-01

    为了限制异步电机较大的起动电流,经常采用降压起动的方法.但目前对异步电机降压起动的问题研究较少.以电机理论为基础,利用电机的机械特性曲线,分析了异步电机降压Uσ起动时的起动时间、起动功率和起动损耗.设Uσ与额定电压UN之比为降压系数σ(0<σ<1),与额定电压UN起动时相比,降压Uσ起动时的起动时间tσ增大到1/σ2,起动功率△Pσ减小到1/σ2,起动损耗△W不变,降压起动不能节能.%In order to limit the larger starting current of induction motor, re duced-voltage startup is used frequently, but up to now, studies of reduced-voltage startup for induction motors have been relatively scarce.Therefore based on the electric theory, and using torque-speed characteristic curve of induction motor, the startup time, startup power and startup loss of induction motor are analyzed when the reduced-voltage Uσ startup.Set the ratio of Uσ to rated-voltage UN is reduced-voltage coefficient σ(0 < σ < 1 ), compared with the rated-voltageUN startup, can get that the reduced-voltage Uσ startup time tσincreased to 1/(σ2) times, startup power APσ reduced to 1/(σ2), startup loss △ W is unchanged, reduced-voltage startup can not be energy-saving.

  16. Business Startups: Cultural-Economic Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Erk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine whether national cultural differencesand/or economic, macroeconomic indicators are dominantin explaining business startups in selected EU countries. Among Hofstede’snational cultural differences, we have used the individualismcollectivenessindexmeasuring preference behavior that promotes one’sself interest, while the power distance index measures tolerance of citizensin terms of social inequality in terms of superiors or subordinates;the uncertainty avoidance index reflects tolerance towards uncertaintyand ambiguity among citizens, while the masculinity index measureswhether the society is male centered (Hofstede 2003. The last variablein the model related to culture is the corruption index (TransparencyInternational 2008, which reflects how sensitive the nation is towardscorruption. Among the macroeconomic indicators we have looked atwhether the firm birth rate in an economy is strongly influenced bythe given average wage rate, overall productivity level among nations,index for profitability and real per capita GDP growth. Findings showthat with some exclusion, cultural factors are as important as economicindicators in explaining national business startups. Towards this end wehave used factor and principle component analysis towards explainingthe strength of the relationship among the variables.

  17. Social capital of venture capitalists and start-up funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Alexy (Oliver); J.H. Block (Jörn); P.G. Sandner (Philipp); A.L.J. Ter Wal (Anne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHow does the social capital of venture capitalists (VCs) affect the funding of start-ups? By building on the rich social capital literature, we hypothesize a positive effect of VCs' social capital, derived from past syndication, on the amount of money that start-ups receive. Specifically

  18. Viral startup a guide to designing viral loops

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Andrew Chen is a blogger and entrepreneur focused on consumer internet, metrics and user acquisition. He is an advisor/angel for early-stage startups including Appsumo, Cardpool (acquired by Safeway), Catchfree, Gravity, Mocospace, Launchbit, Qik (acquired by Skype), WeeWorld, Votizen, and is also a 500 Startups mentor.

  19. Genetic Counselors in Startup Companies: Redefining the Genetic Counselor Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Marina M; Wong, Kenny; Gordon, Erynn S; Ryan, Lauren

    2016-08-01

    Genetic counselors (GCs) have recently begun moving into non-clinic based roles in increasing numbers. A relatively new role for GCs is working for startup companies. Startups are newly established companies in the phase of developing and researching new scalable businesses. This article explores the experiences of four GCs working at different startup companies and aims to provide resources for GCs interested in learning more about these types of roles. The article describes startup culture, including a relatively flat organizational structure, quick product iterations, and flexibility, among other unique cultural characteristics. Financial considerations are described, including how to understand and evaluate a company's financial status, along with a brief explanation of alternate forms of compensation including stock options and equity. Specifically, the article details the uncertainties and rewards of working in a fast-paced startup environment that affords opportunities to try new roles and use the genetic counseling skill set in new ways. This article aims to aid GCs in determining whether a startup environment would be a good fit, learning how to evaluate a specific startup, and understanding how to market themselves for positions at startups.

  20. Strategies, Uncertainty and Performance of Small Business Startups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Gelderen (Marco); M. Frese (Michael); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPersonal strategies of owners/founders of small business startups are related to performance and to environmental uncertainty. This is done using a longitudinal data set of some 50 Dutch startups. The results suggest a dynamic process between strategy and performance. A discrimination is

  1. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  2. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya); J.H. Block (Jörn); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A. Simonyan (Aram)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off

  3. DWPF saltstone study: Effects of thermal history on leach index and physical integrity. Part 2, Final report: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1992-11-18

    This report summarizes the observations made during the curing and testing of DWPF simulated saltstones which have been cured under isothermal conditions in sealed glass envelopes at temperatures from room temperature to 95{degrees}C. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of curing at and around temperatures representing conditions created within large pours of grout. There appears to be no difference in the leaching resistance of samples cured at the same temperature for varying times to 1 year. Curing at higher temperatures decreases the effective diffusivity of this waste formulation. These results are encouraging in that leaching resistance for samples near the expected maximum vault temperature (55{degrees}C) show effective diffusion coefficients (D{sub effective} {approximately}10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec) that agree with previous work and values that are believed to adequately protect the groundwater. The isothermal conditions of these tests simulate the nearly adiabatic conditions existing near the centerline of the monolith. The elevated temperatures due to hydration heat decrease over long times. This has been simulated by a series (1X) of staged isothermal cures. Since modeling indicated it would take nearly two years for emplaced grout to cool to near ambient temperatures, accelerated (2X) cooling curves were also tested. Specimens cured under these staged-isothermal conditions appear to be no different from specimens cured under isothermal conditions for the same time at the maximum temperature. The unexpected generation of nitrous oxide within saltstone creates internal stresses which cause fracturing when exposed to leaching conditions. Such fracturing is not considered significant for saltstone emplaced in engineered vaults for disposal.

  4. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2012-12-17

    The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. Twenty-seven radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b. Each of these radionuclides has a half-life greater than ten years and contributes more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis at some point from production through the 1100 year period between 2015 and 3115. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are the most extensive conducted to date. Some method development/refinement occurred during the conduct of these measurements, leading to lower detection limits and more accurate measurement of some isotopes than was previously possible.

  5. DWPF Melter Off-Gas Flammability Assessment for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The slurry feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter contains several organic carbon species that decompose in the cold cap and produce flammable gases that could accumulate in the off-gas system and create potential flammability hazard. To mitigate such a hazard, DWPF has implemented a strategy to impose the Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) limits on all key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability and operate the melter within those limits using both hardwired/software interlocks and administrative controls. The operating variables that are currently being controlled include; (1) total organic carbon (TOC), (2) air purges for combustion and dilution, (3) melter vapor space temperature, and (4) feed rate. The safety basis limits for these operating variables are determined using two computer models, 4-stage cold cap and Melter Off-Gas (MOG) dynamics models, under the baseline upset scenario - a surge in off-gas flow due to the inherent cold cap instabilities in the slurry-fed melter.

  6. New Solutions to the Funding Dilemma of Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kousari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the current funding challenges facing technology startups and describes new models based on smaller investments and collective action. First, the advantages and disadvantages of traditional startup funding models are presented, with an emphasis on venture capital and angel investment. Next, an overview of existing seed funds, or seed accelerators, shows how entrepreneurs can leverage this approach to access subsequent rounds of funding and create successful ventures. Then, an overview of crowd funding is provided, including examples of companies that have adopted this approach to funding startups and their founders. Finally, the article presents the basis of a new approach that uses crowd funding as means of attracting investors to collectives. In these business ecosystems, startups are exposed to less risk and investors can benefit from attractive returns by investing in these promising startups.

  7. Impact of startup scheme on Francis runner life expectancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, M; Tahan, S A; Bocher, P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) 1100, rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal (Canada); Thibault, D, E-mail: martin.gagnon.8@ens.etsmtl.c [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec (IREQ), 1800, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Francis runners are subject to complex dynamic forces which might lead to eventual blade cracking and the need for corrective measure. Damage due to cracks in runner blades are usually not a safety issues but might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. Avoiding the main damaging operating conditions is often the only option left to plant operators to maximize the life expectancy of their runner. The startup scheme is one of the available parameter which is controlled by the end user and could be used to minimize the damage induced to the runner. In this study, two startup schemes have been used to investigate life expectancy of Francis runner using in situ measurements. The results obtained show that the induced damage during the startup event could be significantly reduced with change to the startup scheme. In our opinion, an optimization of the startup scheme with regard to fatigue damage could extend significantly the life expectancy and the reliability of Francis runner.

  8. Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

    2013-04-26

    The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

  9. Impeller radial force evolution in a large double-suction centrifugal pump during startup at the shut-off condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhichao [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Fujun, E-mail: wangfj@cau.edu.cn [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Safety and Energy Saving Technology for Water Supply Network System, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yao, Zhifeng [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Safety and Energy Saving Technology for Water Supply Network System, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Tao, Ran [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiao, Ruofu [College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Safety and Energy Saving Technology for Water Supply Network System, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Huaicheng [Shanghai Liancheng (Group) Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201812 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Conclude the characteristics of transient radial force in the startup process for a large double-suction centrifugal pump. • The overall direction of the radial force during startup process is also confirmed. • A formula used to calculate the transient radial force during startup process is proposed. • A relationship between radial force variation and axial vortex development in blade channel during the startup process is established. The mechanism of the radial force evolution is revealed. - Abstract: Double-suction centrifugal pumps play an important role in the main feedwater systems of nuclear power plant. The impeller radial force in a centrifugal pump varies dramatically during startup at the shut-off condition. In this study, the startup process of a large double-suction centrifugal pump is investigated using CFD. During testing, the impeller speed is accelerated from zero to its rated speed in 1.0 s (marked as t{sub 0}) and is then maintained at the rated speed. The results show that the radial force increase lags behind the impeller speed increase. At 0–0.4t{sub 0}, the radial force is small (approaching zero). At 0.4–1.4t{sub 0}, the radial force increases rapidly. After 1.4t{sub 0}, the average radial force stabilizes and reaches its maximum value of 55,619 N. The observed maximum radial force value during startup is approximately nine times as high as the radial force under rated condition. During startup, the overall radial force direction is proximate to the radial line located 25° from the volute tongue along circumferential direction. A transient radial force formula is proposed to evaluate the changes in radial force during startup. The streamline distribution in impeller passages and the impeller outlet pressure profile varying over time are produced. The relationship between radial force evolution and the varying axial-to-spiral vortex structure is analyzed. The radial force change mechanism is revealed. This research

  10. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary

  11. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  12. Innovative Startup-Projects: Experience, Evaluation, Implementation Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakov Maksim Olegovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative companies in the conditions of global post-crisis economic recovery and increased economic activity become again a promising area for investments of large investment and venture capital funds, venture divisions of large transnational corporations, business angels and other private investors. This is confirmed by the data on the increase in the volume of venture capital market in the US and Europe and on a significant increase in the cost of the leading foreign and Russian start-up companies which are rated as of 2014 in the present article. The comparative analysis of the leading Russian and foreign start-ups showed the prevalence of companies engaged in the field of IT-Internet-Mobile and focused on the provision of various kinds of innovative services to consumers among the foreign participants of the rating. Among Russian startups-winners the companies of technological orientation (biological, medical, and “clean” technologies dominate. They reflect the increasing importance of start-ups in the innovative development of the Russian economy. Participation in such competitions and ratings is a favorable factor of promoting start-ups, increasing awareness of potential investors and consumers of start-up products. The importance of start-ups formation and the development of effective regional and national innovation systems update the studies related to the identification of the fundamental contradictions in the activities of Russian start-ups and to the development of recommendations for their resolution. The article identifies the key issues of economic, organizational, informational and marketing character causing the collapse of start-up projects in the Russian economy in modern conditions.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-06-06

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample

  14. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  15. Skill Heterogeneity in Startups and its Development over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Müller, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    at startup and how it evolves as the new venture matures. We use the population of Danish startups that were established in 1998 and track them until 2001. Main findings are that teams are relatively more homogeneous at startup compared to our benchmark, indicating that difficulties associated with workforce...... heterogeneity (like affective conflict or coordination cost) as well as “homophily” (people’s inclination to bound with others with similar characteristics) may overweigh the benefits of heterogeneity. While workforce heterogeneity does increase over time, the increase is smaller compared to our benchmark...

  16. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge-intensive industries. Using multilevel data of all knowledge-intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate...... demand-side and supply-side context than is the case for high-tech start-ups in general. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably academic institutions, such as universities that contribute to knowledge...

  17. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  18. Decision Enhancement Services for Small and Medium Enterprise Start-Ups in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Basaza, Habinka; Sprague, Ralph H.

    2012-01-01

    While start-up firms create a substantial economic impact on most economies, the failure rate of start-up firms seems to remain high due to inadequate agile decision services. Deciding to start-up mining Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) is a challenging task in Uganda. Research on SME start-up sup

  19. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  20. Impact of glycolate anion on aqueous corrosion in DWPF and downstream facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-15

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion.

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model: Revisions for Processing High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. The DWPF SPC system is known as the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The DWPF will soon be receiving wastes from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) containing increased concentrations of TiO2, Na2O, and Cs2O . The SWPF is being built to pretreat the high-curie fraction of the salt waste to be removed from the HLW tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at the SRS. In order to process TiO2 concentrations >2.0 wt% in the DWPF, new viscosity data were developed over the range of 1.90 to 6.09 wt% TiO2 and evaluated against the 2005 viscosity model. An alternate viscosity model is also derived for potential future use, should the DWPF ever need to process other titanate-containing ion exchange materials. The ultimate limit on the amount of TiO2 that can be accommodated from SWPF will be determined by the three PCCS models, the waste composition of a given sludge

  2. Interim glycol flowsheet reduction/oxidation (redox) model for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-08

    Control of the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of glasses containing high concentrations of transition metals, such as High Level Waste (HLW) glasses, is critical in order to eliminate processing difficulties caused by overly reduced or overly oxidized melts. Operation of a HLW melter at Fe+2/ΣFe ratios of between 0.09 and 0.33, a range which is not overly oxidizing or overly reducing, helps retain radionuclides in the melt, i.e. long-lived radioactive 99Tc species in the less volatile reduced Tc4+ state, 104Ru in the melt as reduced Ru+4 state as insoluble RuO2, and hazardous volatile Cr6+ in the less soluble and less volatile Cr+3 state in the glass. The melter REDOX control balances the oxidants and reductants from the feed and from processing additives such as antifoam. Currently, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is running a formic acid-nitric acid (FN) flowsheet where formic acid is the main reductant and nitric acid is the main oxidant. During decomposition formate and formic acid releases H2 gas which requires close control of the melter vapor space flammability. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (GN) flowsheet is desired as the glycolic acid flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing. Development of an EE term for glycolic acid in the GN flowsheet is documented in this study.

  3. Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) ... Participatory Savings And Borrowing For Start-Up And Recapitalization Needs: Farmers ... be considered for more loans whenever they meet up with the conditions for such new contracts.

  4. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC), in 2007." (1 page)

  5. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types of crowdfund......Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms...

  6. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms....... Its first result is that German start-ups select crowdinvesting because (1) it is a funding opportunity and (2) it has an expected marketing effect. To organize the results of relevant success factors, the Crowdinvesting Success Model was designed by the researchers. This supports German entrepreneurs...

  7. Intellectual property and financing strategies for technology startups

    CERN Document Server

    Halt, Jr , Gerald B; Stiles, Amber R; Fesnak, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, easy to understand guide for startup entities and developing companies, providing insight on the various sources of funding that are available, how these funding sources are useful at each stage of a company’s development, and offers a comprehensive intellectual property strategy that parallels each stage of development. The IP strategies offered in this book take into consideration the goals that most startups and companies have at each stage of development, as well as the limitations that exist at each stage (i.e., limited available resources earmarked for intellectual property asset development), and provides solutions that startups and companies can implement to maximize their return on intellectual property investments. This book also includes a number of descriptive examples, case studies and scenarios to illustrate the topics discussed, and is intended for use by startups and companies across all industries. Readers will garner an appreciation for the value that inte...

  8. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  9. Subsidizing Start-Ups: Policy Targeting and Policy Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Kösters, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Start-up subsidies are a frequently employed policy instrument, the use of which is justified by alleged market failure resulting from positive external effects and capital market imperfections. This article investigates whether the allocation of subsidies reflects a policy focus on addressing these market failure occurrences. However, using survey data from the East German state of Thuringia, logistic regressions reveal a rather random subsidization of start-ups. Furthermore, propensity scor...

  10. GUERRILLA MARKETING : A creative marketing method for start-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Zujewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis work was to introduce guerrilla marketing as a valuable marketing method for small and medium size startup companies. The thesis presents the theoretical studies on the subject based on literature and case studies. The practical use of the theory is demonstrated in the marketing plan based on guerrilla marketing approach. The marketing plan was written based on the example of an existing startup company, mCASH. The company is located in Oslo, Norway. The thesis...

  11. Start-ups, Venture Capitalists and the Capital Gains Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    A model of start-up finance with double moral hazard is proposed. Entrepreneurs have ideas but lack their own resources as well as commercial experience. Venture capitalists provide start-up finance and managerial support. Both types of agents thus jointly contribute to the firm's success, but neither type's effort is verifiable. We find that the market equilibrium is biased towards inefficiently low venture capital support. In this situation, the capital gains tax is particularly harmful. Th...

  12. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Darnihamedani, Pourya; Block, Jörn; Hessels, Jolanda; Simonyan, Aram

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off costs, may reduce the entry of entrepreneurs whose ideas are not very promising, thus increasing the proportion of innovative entrepreneurs. Taxes, being recurring costs, may reduce the “prize” of innov...

  13. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  14. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim; Bowens, Ebony; Balcer, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up.The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) was originally designed to use Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. As the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. The first set of 6 Li-ion battery replacements were launched in December 2016 and deployed in January 2017. This paper will discuss the Li-ion battery on-orbit start-up and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  15. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  16. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  17. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  18. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  19. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; DiPrete, D. P.

    2013-08-22

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  20. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Durability-Composition Models and the Applicability of the Associated Reduction of Constraints (ROC) Criteria for High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trivelpiece, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the DWPF since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it has been poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than relying on statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to determine, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. The DWPF SPC system is known as the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). One of the process models within PCCS is known as the Thermodynamic Hydration Energy Reaction MOdel (THERMO™). The DWPF will soon be receiving increased concentrations of TiO2-, Na2O-, and Cs2O-enriched wastes from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF has been built to pretreat the high-curie fraction of the salt waste to be removed from the HLW tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at the SRS. In order to validate the existing TiO2 term in THERMO™ beyond 2.0 wt% in the DWPF, new durability data were developed over the target range of 2.00 to 6.00 wt% TiO2 and evaluated against the 1995 durability model. The durability was measured by the 7-day Product Consistency Test. This study documents the adequacy of the existing THERMO™ terms. It is recommended that the modified THERMO™ durability models and

  2. Influence of external circulation on sludge characteristics during start-up of internal circulation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jian-nan; WANG Dian-zuo

    2005-01-01

    The start-up of external circulation-added internal circulation(IC) reactor was finished in 26 d, 32 d fewer than that of IC reactor. To evaluate the influence of the added external circulation on the development of granular sludge, the characteristics of the granular sludge taken from the two tested laboratory-scale reactors during start-up were studied. The results show that the added external circulation can enhance biomass granulation, accelerate granule development and improve sludge characteristics. At the end of start-up, the granular size of sludge in external circulation-added IC reactor greatly increases with a size distribution much better than that of sludge in IC reactor. The granular sludge originated from external circulation-added IC reactor contains more extracellular polymers and has a greater settling velocity than that from IC reactor. Methanogenic activity of the granular sludge from the external circulation-added IC reactor started 26 d ago reaches 358.23 mL·g-1·d-1, 1.66 and 1.20 times as great as that of the sludge from the IC reactor started 26 d and 58 d ago respectively.

  3. Resonance investigation of pump-turbine during startup process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L. Y.; Wang, Z. W.; Kurosawa, S.; Nakahara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The causes of resonance of a certain model pump-turbine unit during startup process were investigated in this article. A three-dimensional full flow path analysis model which contains spiral case, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner, gaps outside the runner crown and band, and draft tube was constructed. The transient hydraulic excitation force of full flow path was analyzed under five conditions near the resonance region. Based on one-way fluid- structure interaction (FSI) analysis model, the dynamic stress characteristics of the pump-turbine runner was investigated. The results of pressure pulsation, vibration mode and dynamic stress obtained from simulation were consistent with the test results. The study indicated that the hydraulic excitation frequency (Zg*fn) Hz due to rotor-stator interference corresponding to the natural frequency of 2ND+4ND runner mode is the main cause of resonance. The relationship among pressure pulsation, vibration mode and dynamic stress was discussed in this paper. The results revealed the underlying causes of the resonance phenomenon.

  4. Advancing Non-Solenoidal Startup on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, J. A.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Perry, J. M.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    The Pegasus experiment utilizes compact, edge-localized current sources (Ainj 2 - 4 cm2, Iinj 10 kA, Vinj 1 kV) for non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) startup. Recent campaigns are comparing two injector geometries that vary the differing relative contributions of DC helicity input and non-solenoidal inductive voltages. A predictive 0-D model that treats the plasma as a resistive element with time-varying inductance and enforces Ip limits from Taylor relaxation was tested with inward growth of the plasma current channel using injectors on the outboard midplane. Strong inductive drive arises from plasma shape evolution and poloidal field (PF) induction. A major unknown in the model is the resistive dissipation, and hence the electron confinement. Te (R) profile measurements in LHI show centrally-peaked Te > 100 eV while the plasma is coupled to the injectors, suggesting LHI confinement is not strongly stochastic. A second campaign utilizes new injectors in the lower divertor region. This geometry trades subtler relaxation field programming and reduced PF induction for higher HI rates. Present efforts are developing relaxation methods at high BT, with relaxation at BT , inj > 0.15 T achieved to date via higher Iinj and PF manipulation. Conceptual design studies of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and ECH heating systems for Pegasus have been initiated to explore direct comparison of LHI to CHI with and without ECH assist. Supported by US DOE Grants DE-FG02-96ER54375, DE-SC0006928.

  5. Pinon Pine power project nears start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatar, G.A. [Sierra Pacific Power Co., Reno, NV (United States); Gonzalez, M. [Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States); Mathur, G.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The IGCC facility being built by Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) at their Tracy Station in Nevada is one of three IGCC facilities being cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under their Clean Coal Technology Program. The specific technology to be demonstrated in SPPCo`s Round Four Project, known as the Pinon Pine IGCC Project, includes the KRW air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification process with hot gas cleanup coupled with a combined cycle facility based on a new GE 6FA gas turbine. Construction of the 100 MW IGCC facility began in February 1995 and the first firing of the gas turbine occurred as scheduled on August 15, 1996 with natural gas. Mechanical completion of the gasifier and other outstanding work is due in January 1997. Following the startup of the plant, the project will enter a 42 month operating and testing period during which low sulfur western and high sulfur eastern or midwestern coals will be processed.

  6. Physics and optimization of plasma startup in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, W.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Ko, J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Brower, D. L.; Liu, W.

    2015-05-01

    In the tokamak and reversed-field pinch (RFP), inductively driven toroidal plasma current provides the confining poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating power, but the magnitude and/or duration of this current is limited by the available flux swing in the poloidal field transformer. A portion of this flux is consumed during startup as the current is initiated and ramped to its final target value, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding startup and minimizing the amount of flux consumed. Flux consumption can be reduced during startup in the RFP by increasing the toroidal magnetic field, Bti, applied to initiate the discharge, but the underlying physics is not yet entirely understood. Toward increasing this understanding, we have for the first time in the RFP employed advanced, non-invasive diagnostics on the Madison Symmetric Torus to measure the evolution of current, magnetic field, and kinetic profiles during startup. Flux consumption during startup is dominantly inductive, but we find that the inductive flux consumption drops as Bti increases. The resistive consumption of flux, while relatively small, apparently increases with Bti due to a smaller electron temperature. However, the ion temperature increases with Bti, exceeding the electron temperature and thus reflecting non-collisional heating. Magnetic fluctuations also increase with Bti, corresponding primarily to low-n modes that emerge sequentially as the safety factor profile evolves from tokamak-like to that of the RFP.

  7. Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Singh, Amit Kumar; Rathi, Amit; Singhal, Sonal

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design of a Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits. Memristor has many advantages over conventional CMOS devices such as low leakage current at nanometer scale, easy to manufacture. In this work the switching characteristics of memristor is utilized. First the theoretical equations describing the switching behavior of memristor are investigated. To prove the switching capability of Memristor, a startup circuit based on memristor is proposed which uses series combination of Memristor and capacitor. Proposed circuit is compared with the previously reported MOSFET based startup circuits. Comparison of different circuits was done to validate the results. Simulation results show that memristor based circuit can attain on (I = 12.94 µA) to off state (I = 1 .2 µA) in 25 ns while the MOSFET based startup circuits take on (I = 14.19 µA) to off state (I = 1.4 µA) in more than 90 ns. The benefit comes in terms of area because the number of components used in the circuit are lesser than the conventional startup circuits.

  8. The Rationality and Irrationality of Financing Green Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bergset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green start-ups contribute towards a transition to a more sustainable economy by developing sustainable and environmentally friendly innovation and bringing it to the market. Due to specific product/service characteristics, entrepreneurial motivation and company strategies that might differ from that of other start-ups, these companies might struggle even more than usual with access to finance in the early stages. This conceptual paper seeks to explain these challenges through the theoretical lenses of entrepreneurial finance and behavioural finance. While entrepreneurial finance theory contributes to a partial understanding of green start-up finance, behavioural finance is able to solve a remaining explanatory deficit produced by entrepreneurial finance theory. Although some behavioural finance theorists are suggesting that the current understanding of economic rationality underlying behavioural finance research is inadequate, most scholars have not yet challenged these assumptions, which constrict a comprehensive and realistic description of the reality of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups. The aim of the paper is thus, first, to explore the specifics of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups and, second, to demonstrate the need for a more up-to-date conception of rationality in behavioural finance theory in order to enable realistic empirical research in this field.

  9. Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-06-30

    The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require the identification of any inorganic phases that may be present in the canister that may lead to internal corrosion of the canister or that could potentially adversely affect normal canister handling. During vitrification, volatilization of mixed (Na, K, Cs)Cl, (Na, K, Cs){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (Na, K, Cs)BF{sub 4}, (Na, K){sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and (Na,K)CrO{sub 4} species from glass melt condensed in the melter off-gas and in the cyclone separator in the canister pour spout vacuum line. A full-scale DWPF prototypic canister filled during Campaign 10 of the SRS Scale Glass Melter was sectioned and examined. Mixed (NaK)CI, (NaK){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NaK) borates, and a (Na,K) fluoride phase (either NaF or Na{sub 2}BF{sub 4}) were identified on the interior canister walls, neck, and shoulder above the melt pour surface. Similar deposits were found on the glass melt surface and on glass fracture surfaces. Chromates were not found. Spinel crystals were found associated with the glass pour surface. Reference amounts of the halides and sulfates were found retained in the glass and the glass chemistry, including the distribution of the halides and sulfates, was homogeneous. In all cases where rust was observed, heavy metals (Zn, Ti, Sn) from the cutting blade/fluid were present indicating that the rust was a reaction product of the cutting fluid with glass and heat sensitized canister or with carbon-steel contamination on canister interior. Only minimal water vapor is present so that internal corrosion of the canister, will not occur.

  10. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT05- AND KT06-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-03

    This report is the second in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT05-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions where iron titanate crystals had been previously found to form. The intent was to better understand the mechanisms and compositions that favored the formation of crystals containing titanium. Formation of these crystalline phases was confirmed. Increased Na{sub 2}O concentrations had little if any impact on reducing the propensity for the formation of the iron titanate crystalline phases. Other physical properties of these glasses were not measured since the intent was to focus on crystallization. Additional studies are suggested to investigate the potential impacts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O on crystallization in glasses with high TiO{sub 2} concentrations. The KT06-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions that, while broader than the current projections for DWPF feeds with SCIX material, are potential candidates for future processing (i.e., the compositions are acceptable for processing by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) with the exception of the current TiO{sub 2} concentration constraint). The chemical compositions of these glasses matched well with the target values. The chemical durabilities of all the glasses were acceptable relative to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark. Minor crystallization was identified in some of the slowly cooled glasses, although this crystallization did not impact chemical durability. Several of the KT06-series compositions had durability values that, while acceptable, were not accurately predicted by the current durability models

  11. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT05- AND KT06-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-03

    This report is the second in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT05-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions where iron titanate crystals had been previously found to form. The intent was to better understand the mechanisms and compositions that favored the formation of crystals containing titanium. Formation of these crystalline phases was confirmed. Increased Na{sub 2}O concentrations had little if any impact on reducing the propensity for the formation of the iron titanate crystalline phases. Other physical properties of these glasses were not measured since the intent was to focus on crystallization. Additional studies are suggested to investigate the potential impacts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O on crystallization in glasses with high TiO{sub 2} concentrations. The KT06-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions that, while broader than the current projections for DWPF feeds with SCIX material, are potential candidates for future processing (i.e., the compositions are acceptable for processing by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) with the exception of the current TiO{sub 2} concentration constraint). The chemical compositions of these glasses matched well with the target values. The chemical durabilities of all the glasses were acceptable relative to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark. Minor crystallization was identified in some of the slowly cooled glasses, although this crystallization did not impact chemical durability. Several of the KT06-series compositions had durability values that, while acceptable, were not accurately predicted by the current durability models

  12. Modeling of two-phase flow instabilities during startup transients utilizing RAMONA-4B methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua, J.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Prasad, V.

    1996-10-01

    RAMONA-4B code is currently under development for simulating thermal hydraulic instabilities that can occur in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). As one of the missions of RAMONA-4B is to simulate SBWR startup transients, where geysering or condensation-induced instability may be encountered, the code needs to be assessed for this application. This paper outlines the results of the assessments of the current version of RAMONA-4B and the modifications necessary for simulating the geysering or condensation-induced instability. The test selected for assessment are the geysering tests performed by Prof Aritomi (1993).

  13. Start-Up Processes’ Efficiency of Turbine Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Antoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents diagnoses of example start-up processes of drive units built in military aircraft operated in the Dęblin's “School of Eaglets” during the flight. The significance of this process is very important, especially from the point of view of flight safety, especially as it concerns the training aircraft, on which officer cadets-candidates for pilots are trained. The diagnosis of the start-up process was conducted using data from on-board flight recorders recorded during a flight training, whose aim was an emergency launch of particular drive units, and with the help of the so-called phase mapping of the selected operating parameters of the particular flight drive systems. The standard diagram of typical start-up systems was shown, while presenting their base subassemblies. At the end, the obtained results and the main problems that need intervention were commented, as well as further preventive activities were proposed.

  14. Quel contrôle de gestion pour les startups ?

    OpenAIRE

    Meyssonnier, François

    2015-01-01

    Une étude de huit PME fondées sur la science permet d’identifier les spécificités du contrôle de gestion des startups. Dans les startups émergentes le dirigeant n’utilise que des linéaments de contrôle de gestion essentiellement pour développer son approche cognitive du business model. Dans les startups en croissance le contrôle de gestion a un rôle de garde-fou et les outils de pilotage de la performance sont utilisés essentiellement de façon interactive et pour la prévision. Les principaux ...

  15. Team Heterogeneity in Startups and its Development over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Müller, Bettina

    We investigate the workforce heterogeneity of startups with respect to education, age and wages. Our explorative study uses data on the population of 1,614 Danish firms founded in 1998. We track these firms until 2001 which enables us to analyze changes in workforce composition over time. Such a ......We investigate the workforce heterogeneity of startups with respect to education, age and wages. Our explorative study uses data on the population of 1,614 Danish firms founded in 1998. We track these firms until 2001 which enables us to analyze changes in workforce composition over time...... as “homophily” (people’s inclination to bound with others with similar characteristics) hence appear to generally overweigh the benefits of heterogeneity (like greater variety in perspectives or more creativity). We also document that workforces become more heterogeneous over time startups add workers...

  16. A Sales Execution Strategy Guide for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gilbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of startups fail to consider sales execution as part of their overall strategy. This article demonstrates how a sales execution strategy can help a company take a product or service to market more efficiently and effectively by focusing on the customers that are key to generating revenue. Combined with techniques for recruiting effectively and measuring sales outcomes, a sales execution strategy helps technology startups exceed growth aspirations and potentially reduce or even eliminate the requirement for external investment. In this article, we first describe the focus of assistance currently given to startups and the reasons why sales execution strategies are often overlooked. Next, we outline recommendations for developing, implementing, and supporting a sales execution strategy. Finally, we summarize the key points presented in the article.

  17. Experimental Plan for the Cold Demonstration (Scoping Tests) of Glass Removal Methods from a DWPF Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.

    2001-09-21

    SRS and WVDP currently do not have the capability to size reduce, decontaminate, classify, and dispose of large, failed, highly contaminated equipment. Tanks Focus Area Task 777 was developed to address this problem. The first activity for Task 777 is to develop and demonstrate techniques suitable for removing the solid HLW glass from HLW melters. This experimental plan describes the work that will be performed for this glass removal demonstration.

  18. Optimising Start-Up of a Crankshaft Press Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Skladchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to decrease energy consumption as well as acceleration and heat time of the engine of main drive crankshaft press when starting it up. Modern crankshaft press designs include a flywheel connected to the engine by a belt drive. The flywheel performing a process operation spends the reserved kinetic energy. By virtue thereof it should possess the significant moment of inertia. It defines duration of acceleration process. High starting currents of engines lead to their vigorous heating and energy consumption at acceleration.The literature describes the way for eliminating these shortcomings, which is confined to the start-up of the asynchronous engine with a phase rotor when the circuit of each rotor phase includes an additional stepped resistance. However, there are no proved recommendations to specified resistance values and duration of engine acceleration at each step.Research used mathematical modeling and process optimization of three-stage acceleration of engine possessing a flywheel with the following optimization criteria: energy consumption at start-up, an equivalent (heating current of engine, acceleration time. Values of additional resistance and start-up time at each step are chosen to be parameters of optimization.Obtained results show, that optimization of drive start-up allows us to reduce time of acceleration from 27.3s up to 11.24s, energy consumption from 4405930 Joule up to 2538400 Joule, and an equivalent (heating current from 60.34 up to 14.01 А.As a result of research it is found, that a preferable start-up is the press drive start-up in modes with optimum time of flywheel acceleration and an optimum equivalent current, as the most efficient according to all optimization criteria.

  19. Female Hires and the Success of Start-up Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrea Maria; Zulehner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between females among the first hires of start-up companies and business success. Our results show that firms with female first hires have a higher share of female workers at the end of the first year after entry. Further, we find that firms with female first hires are more successful and stay longer in the market. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that gender-diversity in leading positions is an advantage for start-up firms.

  20. Team Heterogeneity in Startups and its Development over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Müller, Bettina

    We investigate the workforce heterogeneity of startups with respect to education, age and wages. Our explorative study uses data on the population of 1,614 Danish firms founded in 1998. We track these firms until 2001 which enables us to analyze changes in workforce composition over time...... as “homophily” (people’s inclination to bound with others with similar characteristics) hence appear to generally overweigh the benefits of heterogeneity (like greater variety in perspectives or more creativity). We also document that workforces become more heterogeneous over time startups add workers...

  1. Improvement of operational efficiency based on fast startup plant concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, Ulrich; Kurz, Harald; Meinecke, Gero; Pickard, Andreas

    2010-09-15

    The power generation sector is currently confronted with new challenges relating to the conservation of dwindling fuel reserves. At the same time we must reduce CO2 emissions in order to counteract global warming. This paper shows that power plant operation, which employs shutdowns during periods of low load demand coupled with the optimization of startup procedures are a key to reducing CO2 emissions and to conserving resources. The startup technology developed by Siemens also offers grid support in the event of naturally occurring failures of renewable energy sources. Additionally, plant profitability is improved due to the resulting savings in fuel.

  2. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  3. Financement et gouvernance des start-ups en equitycrowdfunding

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Par rapport aux modes de financement traditionnels, l’equitycrowdfunding (ECF) introduit deux nouveaux acteurs : la plateforme et la foule. Cet article étudie leurs rôles et leurs spécificités dans le processus de financement et dans le design de la gouvernance de la start-up. Ce nouveau système est totalement ouvert, composé d’un très grand nombre de participants hétérogènes qui apportent des ressources financières mais aussi et surtout un retour à la start-up sur leur perception du projet. ...

  4. Start-up business plan: organic food restaurant in Bilbao

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafutdinova, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    My thesis is a start-up business plan for a restaurant in Bilbao, Spain. This product-oriented thesis is a part of the Hospitality Management program of Haaga-Helia UAS. The purpose of this work is to build a theoretical framework about successful business plan writing and follow it up by writing a start-up business plan according to the studied theory. A business plan is a first important step for starting a business and the practice of writing it will be beneficial while helping me to ...

  5. Transient CFD simulation of a Francis turbine startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, J.; Morissette, J. F.; Giroux, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    To assess the life expectancy of hydraulic turbines, it is essential to obtain the loading on the blades, especially during transient operations known to be the most damaging. This paper presents a simplified CFD setup to model the startup phase of a Francis turbine while it goes from rest to speed no-load condition. The fluid domain included one distributor sector coupled with one runner passage. The guide vane motion and change in the angular velocity were included in a commercial code with user functions. Comparisons between numerical results and measurements acquired on a full-size turbine showed that most of the flow physics occurring during startup were captured.

  6. The emergence of the lean global start-up as a new type of firm

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2015-01-01

    The present paper contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks and early internationalization research emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm – the Lean Global Start-up. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean start-up and born global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean start-ups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (Lean-to-Global Start-ups). The s...

  7. Start-up success of freelancers New microeconometric evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Merz, Joachim; Paic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    If certain start-up characteristics will indicate a business success, knowing such characteristics could generate more successful start-ups and more efficient start-up counseling. Our study will contribut e to this by quantifying individual success determinants of freelance start-ups. The data base for the microeconometric analyses of the survival of the first three years is a revised German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for 1992 until 2002, which allows to incorporate institutional, personal a...

  8. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.

  9. Dynamics and Control During Start-Up of Energy Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a systematic procedure for development of plant start-up sequences. The basis for the start-up procedure development is available qualitative process knowledge. Application of the start-up sequence generation procedure is demonstrated upon an energy integrated distillation plant. This plant illustrates some...

  10. Dynamics and Control During Start-up of Energy Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Mario Richard; Koggersbøl, Arne; Hallager, L.;

    2000-01-01

    of a generated start-up sequence illustrates that safe and reliable start- ups are ensured. The main conclusions of the paper are that it is indeed possible to generate safe and reliable start-up sequences using qualitative process knowledge. However the selection of an optimal start-up sequence is not possible...

  11. The Performance Of Team Start-Ups In The First Phases Of The Life Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Stam (Erik); V. Schutjens (Veronique)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the benefits and pitfalls of starting a firm with an entrepreneurial team, drawing on a longitudinal empirical analysis of the life course of 90 team start-ups and 1196 solo start-ups in the Netherlands. In the first three years of their existence, team start-ups p

  12. Our start-up could never have been successful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, S.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, TU Delft alumnus Jan van Kranendonk and his business partner Thomas de Leeuw decided to discontinue their start-up company Sunuru. The reason was that customers were not interested in their ingenious solar project. Van Kranendonk spoke about his failure during the Failcon event in Amst

  13. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Vanden Broeck, Renilde

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC) in 2007. (1/2 page)

  14. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007." (1/2 page)

  15. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  16. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    that the professional venture-capital-funded start-up firm will generally reflect the practices of perceptive management regarding: style, team approach, structure of the firm, market definition, culture, vision, and a formal strategy. Nevertheless, there are some questions about differences those characteristics...

  17. How do new product development startups handle missing expertise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eris, O.; van den Eijnden, W.; Roling, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for how new product development focused startup firms (NPDSF) handle missing expertise. The dimensions of the framework are: strategies for handling missing expertise, channels used to acquire missing expertise, and a priori awareness, timing and nature of missing exp

  18. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential diffe

  19. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  20. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests that the p...

  1. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates how regional start-up rates in the knowledge-intensive services and high-tech industries are influenced by knowledge spillovers from both universities and firm-based R&D activities. Integrating insights from economic geography and organizational ecology into the literatu...

  2. Start-up of a drinking water biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren; Søborg, Ditte; Breda, Inês Lousinha Ribeiro

    When virgin filter media is placed in drinking water biofilters, a start-up period of some months typically ensues. During this period, the necessary inorganic coating and bacterial community are established on the filter medium, after which the treated water complies with drinking water criteria...

  3. Trends in the Crowdfunding of Educational Technology Startups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Lee, Brenda R.; Kleinheksel, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of active crowdfunding campaigns posted on ten crowdfunding platforms in May 2013 to provide a glimpse of the recent trends in the crowdfunding of educational technology startups. We describe the characteristics of the most successful crowdfunding campaigns in educational technology and identify the most popular…

  4. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential

  5. Success of Breast Cancer Startup Challenge Inspires Second Challenge | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Thomas Stackhouse, Joseph Conrad, and Michele Newton, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer Sixty-one teams have been accepted into, and are now competing in, the Neuro Startup Challenge, a new collaboration established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with The Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI) and Heritage Provider Network, Inc.

  6. Acetate enhances startup of a H2-producing microbial biocathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Croese, E.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    H2 can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H2 at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H2 production

  7. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  8. Accelerating Research Innovation by Adopting the Lean Startup Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Still

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Converting scientific expertise into marketable products and services is playing an increasingly important role in the launching of new ventures, the growth of existing firms, and the creation of new jobs. In this article, we explore how the lean startup paradigm, which validates the market for a product with a business model that can sustain subsequent scaling, has led to a new process model to accelerate innovation. We then apply this paradigm to the context of research at universities and other research organizations. The article is based on the assumption that the organizational context matters, and it shows how a deeper understanding of the research context could enable an acceleration of the innovation process. We complement theoretical examples with a case example from VTT Technical Research Institute of Finland. Our findings show that many of the concepts from early-acceleration phases – and the lean startup paradigm – can also be relevant in innovation discussions within the research context. However, the phase of value-proposition discovery is less adequately addressed, and that of growth discovery, with its emphasis on building on a scalable, sustainable business does not seem to be addressed with the presented innovation approaches from the research context. Hence, the entrepreneurial activities at the research context differ from those in startups and internal startups in established organizations.

  9. Beta: An Experiment in Funded Undergraduate Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Forbes-Simpson, Kellie; Maas, Gideon; Newbery, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a funded undergraduate project designed to enable student business start-up. The programme, entitled "Beta", provides undergraduate students with £1,500 of seed-corn funding. The key objective of the project is for the participants to exit it with a viable and legal business entity through which…

  10. Ant Colony Search Algorithm for Optimal Generators Startup during Power System Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ketabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators startup sequence plays a significant role in achieving a suitable and effective restoration strategy. This paper outlines an ant colony search algorithm in order to determine the generator starting times during the bulk power system restoration. The algorithm attempts to maximize the system generation capability over a restoration period, where the dynamic characteristics of different types of units and system constraints are considered. Applying this method for the 39-bus New England test system, and comparing the results with backtracking-search and P/t methods, it is found that proposed algorithm improved generation capability.

  11. Using genetic algorithm to learn neural network identifier for modeling gyro startup drift rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Studies the modeling of gyro startup drift rate from acquired experimental gyro startup drift rate data and the nonlinear dynamic models of gyro startup drift rate related temperature established by time-delay neural network which enables the gyro temperature drift rate to be compensated in the process of startup and the gyro instant startup to be implemented. And introduces an improved genetic algorithm to learn the weights of neural network identifier to avoid stacking into the local minimal value and achieve rapid convergence.

  12. The emergence of the lean global start-up as a new type of firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2015-01-01

    The present paper contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks and early internationalization research emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm – the Lean Global Start-up. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean...... and adopted the lean start-up approach by seamlessly synergizing their global and lean product development activities. The paper emphasizes several aspects that could be used as part of the theoretical foundation for conceptualizing lean global start-ups as a special new type of firm: the emergent nature...... start-up and born global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean start-ups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (Lean-to-Global Start-ups). The second path refers to start-ups that have started operating on global scale since their inception...

  13. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model: Revisions for Processing High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  14. Defense waste processing facility (DWPF) liquids model: revisions for processing higher TIO2 containing glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trivelpiece, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-01

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. This report documents the development of revised TiO2, Na2O, Li2O and Fe2O3 coefficients in the SWPF liquidus model and revised coefficients (a, b, c, and d).

  15. Sludge Washing and Demonstration of the DWPF Nitric/Formic Flowsheet in the SRNL Shielded Cells for Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to qualify the next batch of sludge – Sludge Batch 9 (SB9). Current practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge to Tank 51 from other tanks. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to sludge transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Tank 51 sludge must be qualified. SRNL qualifies the sludge in multiple steps. First, a Tank 51 sample is received, then characterized, washed, and again characterized. SRNL then demonstrates the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet with the sludge. The final step of qualification involves chemical durability measurements of glass fabricated in the DWPF CPC demonstrations. In past sludge batches, SRNL had completed the DWPF demonstration with Tank 51 sludge. For SB9, SRNL has been requested to process a blend of Tank 51 and Tank 40 at a targeted ratio of 44% Tank 51 and 56% Tank 40 on an insoluble solids basis.

  16. Webometrics for an Open Access Start-Up Journal (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf-Dietrich Reips

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Before you stands the fourth issue of the International Journal of Internet Science. It will be the last one that is the only issue in its volume, because an increasing rate of manuscript submissions of high quality to this start-up journal forces us to jump to two issues next year. From citation analysis to webometrics Our citation analysis in the previous issue (Reips & Matzat, 2008 revealed a surprisingly high journal impact for the International Journal of Internet Science. To publish very few high quality articles has already catapulted this start-up journal beyond many of the long-standing journals in the field. Looking up "International Journal of Internet Science" in Google Scholar now returns 90 instead of 50 references (December 15, 2009, compared to the same day in 2008. Among them are many new citations relevant to the journal's impact factor.

  17. Lean Startup and Lean Canvas Using for Innovative Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new approaches to product development have emerged that focus on idea generation techniques and customer itself. One of them is the Lean Startup method that is described in this article along with the Lean Canvas method. The main goal of the article is to demonstrate the application of both methods to an innovative product development focused on providing interactive trips for families with children. The development of the product during individual phases is described and application of the Lean Startup and Lean Canvas principles is demonstrated. Finally, benefits of both methods contributing to the product success are discussed. Similar case studies start emerging worldwide, however in the Czech context are quite rare.

  18. Watts Bar Unit 2 Startup Results with VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gentry, Cole A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ritchie, John A. [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    CASL members TVA, Westinghouse, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have successfully completed a detailed simulation of the initial startup of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 2 (WBN2) using the advanced reactor simulation tools known as VERA. WBN2 is the first commercial power reactor to join the nation’s electrical grid in over two decades, and the modern core design and availability of data make it an excellent benchmark for CASL. Calculations were performed three months prior to the startup, and in the first blind application of VERA to a new reactor, predicted criticality and physics parameters very close to those later measured by TVA. Subsequent calculations with the latest version of VERA and using exact measurement conditions improved the results even further.

  19. Sustainability Strategies for Regional Health Information Organization Startups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Ozturk, Pinar; Brown, Carol V.

    2016-01-01

    initiatives by states and regional health information organizations (HIOs). Given the high failure rates of regional U.S. HIOs in the past, our primary objective is to identify the key characteristics of HIO startups that became operational and demonstrated sustainability with non-renewable SHIECAP funding...... HIOs that became operational during the SHIECAP grant period faced similar startup challenges, the two HIOs that demonstrated sustainability pursued distinct technology and sustainability strategies to develop HIE capabilities to fit their very different regional needs: an HIE capability to improve...... the population health of an underserved urban population, and an HIE capability to enable the transition to a healthcare landscape that rewards care coordination across suburban hospitals and physician practices. Conclusions: We propose two models of technology and sustainability strategies for developing bottom...

  20. Intellectual property in consumer electronics, software and technology startups

    CERN Document Server

    Halt, Jr , Gerald B; Stiles, Amber R; Fesnak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to procuring, utilizing and monetizing intellectual property rights, tailored for readers in the high-tech consumer electronics and software industries, as well as technology startups.  Numerous, real examples, case studies and scenarios are incorporated throughout the book to illustrate the topics discussed.  Readers will learn what to consider throughout the various creative phases of a product’s lifespan from initial research and development initiatives through post-production.  Readers will gain an understanding of the intellectual property protections afforded to U.S. corporations, methods to pro-actively reduce potential problems, and guidelines for future considerations to reduce legal spending, prevent IP theft, and allow for greater profitability from corporate innovation and inventiveness. • Offers a comprehensive guide to intellectual property for readers in high-tech consumer electronics, software and technology startups; • Uses real case studies...

  1. Startup and stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of OFMSW

    KAUST Repository

    El-Fadel, Mutasem E.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and more recently as a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measure. In this context, AD systems operating at thermophilic temperatures (55-60°C)-compared to mesophilic temperatures (35-40°C)-have the unique feature of producing hygienic soil conditioners with greater process efficiency, higher energy yield, and more GHG savings. Startup of AD systems is often constrained by the lack of acclimated seeds, leading to process instability and failure. The authors focus on strategies to startup thermophilic digesters treating OFMSW in the absence of acclimated seeds and examines constraints associated with process stability and ways to overcome them. Relevant gaps in the literature and future research needs are delineated. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  2. Our start-up could never have been successful

    OpenAIRE

    Bonger, S.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, TU Delft alumnus Jan van Kranendonk and his business partner Thomas de Leeuw decided to discontinue their start-up company Sunuru. The reason was that customers were not interested in their ingenious solar project. Van Kranendonk spoke about his failure during the Failcon event in Amsterdam, which is modelled after similar events in Silicon Valley. ‘Having your own company looks good on your CV.’

  3. Research Strategies in Science-based Start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    Although biotech start-ups fail or succeed based on their research few attempts have been made to examine if and how they strategize in this core of their activity. Popular views on Dedicated Biotech Firms (DBFs) see the inherent uncertainty of research as defying notions of strategizing, directi...... is needed along these lines, these findings offer new implications for the understanding, management, and financing of these firms.JEL Codes: L25, L65, O32...

  4. ECommerce Strategy for Footwear Manufacturing Start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmanovic, Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines and analyzes an eCommerce strategy for a footwear manufacturing start-up firm and assesses the financial impact this eCommerce strategy has in supporting the firm’s business model. The market analysis of the importance of eCommerce determined the online channel’s market share and influence on consumer purchasing decisions, while the industry analysis examined the competitive landscape and industry forces as drivers of forward integration from manufacturing to wholesale and ...

  5. A Start-Up Produces Infomercials for the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ The one thing online shopping is missing, says Sukhinder Singh Cassidy, a former Google executive, is infomercials. Ms.Singh Cassidy introduced her new shopping start-up, Joyus.It is an e-commerce site that produces videos to sell products, like a Web version of the Home Shopping Network. "If you think about the ways to sell online, video is underutilized," she said."It's a new way for brands to merchandise their product."

  6. Developing a business plan for a startup e-business

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop an initial business plan for a startup fashion company that operates on the Internet in the Vietnamese market. To reach the target objective, the thesis first examines e-business from a theoretical perspective and considers its advantages and disadvantages. Secondly, the macro environment of the proposed business is analyzed, namely the country of Vietnam and its e-commerce environment. Finally, the outcome of the thesis is presented in the form of a b...

  7. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  8. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  9. Feasibility study of ECRH in NSTX-U startup plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, N. A.; Poli, F.; Taylor, G.; Harvey, R.; Petrov, Yu.

    2016-10-01

    A key mission goal of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) is the demonstration of fully non-inductive startup and operation. In part to accomplish this, a 1MW, 28 GHz ECRH system is presently being developed for implementation on NSTX-U in 2018. Like most spherical tokamaks, NSTX-U operates in the overdense regime (fpe>fce) , which limits traditional ECRH to the early startup phase. An extensive modelling effort of the propagation and absorption of EC waves in the evolving plasma is thus required to define the most effective window of operation, and to optimize the launcher geometry for maximal heating and for current drive during this window. In fact, the ECRH system will play an important role in preparing a target plasma for subsequent injection of IC waves and NBI. Here we assess the feasibility of O1-mode ECRH in NSTX-U startup plasma at full field of 1T through time-dependent simulations performed with the transport solver TRANSP. Linear ray-tracing calculations conducted by GENRAY are coupled into the TRANSP framework, allowing the plasma equilibrium and the temperature profiles to evolve self-consistently in response to the injected microwave power. Furthermore, we investigate additional possibilities of heating and current drive made available through coupling the injected O-mode power to the electrostatic EBW via the slow X-mode as an intermediary.

  10. Long Pulse EBW Start-up Experiments in MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC for electron Bernstein wave (EBW excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR. Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even in cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.

  11. Market Channels of Technology Startups that Internationalize Rapidly from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Yoos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of technology startups that internationalize rapidly from inception has increased in recent years. However, little is known about their channels to market. This article addresses a gap in the "born global" literature by examining the channels used by six startups that internationalized rapidly from inception as well as the programs they used to support their channel partners and customers. The six startups examined combined the use of the Internet with: i a relationship with a multi-national, ii distributors, iii re-sellers, or iv a direct sales force. They also delivered programs to support partners and customers that focused on communications, alliance and network development, education, marketing and promotion, and financial incentives. This article informs entrepreneurs who need to design go-to-market channels to exploit global opportunities about decisions made by other entrepreneurs who launched born-global companies. Normative rules and practitioner-oriented approaches are needed to help entrepreneurs explain and apply the results presented in this article.

  12. Overview of Non-Solenoidal Startup Studies in the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup method pursued on Pegasus utilizing compact, high power current sources (Ainj 2 - 4 cm2, Iinj 10 kA, Vinj 1 kV) at the plasma edge. Outboard injectors (Ninj = 4 , Ainj = 8 cm2) produce Ip 170 kA plasmas compatible with Ohmic drive. A 0-D model that treats the plasma as a resistive element with time-varying inductance and enforces Ip limits from Taylor relaxation is used to interpret experimental Ip(t) in several scenarios. Strong inductive drive arises from the plasma shape evolution, in addition to poloidal field induction. A new injector system has recently been installed in the lower divertor region (Ninj = 2 , Ainj = 8 cm2) to explore the implications of geometric placement of the helicity injectors on LHI startup. This geometry supports tests of reconnection dynamics seen in NIMROD simulations, high-BT effects expected in larger devices, and LHI electron confinement with and without inductive assist. Plasmas with Ip > 130 kA, Vinj 0.5 kV, Δtpulse 8 ms and BT /BT , max = 100 eV during LHI, suggesting the confinement is not strongly stochastic. Conceptual design work is exploring the feasibility of coaxial helicity injection and ECH heating on Pegasus in addition to LHI. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  13. Strategies for Reducing the Start-up Operation of Microbial Electrochemical Treatments of Urban Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Borjas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs constitute the core of a number of emerging technologies with a high potential for treating urban wastewater due to a fascinating reaction mechanism—the electron transfer between bacteria and electrodes to transform metabolism into electrical current. In the current work, we focus on the model electroactive microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens to explore both the design of new start-up procedures and electrochemical operations. Our chemostat-grown plug and play cells, were able to reduce the start-up period by 20-fold while enhancing chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by more than 6-fold during this period. Moreover, a filter-press based bioreactor was successfully tested for both acetate-supplemented synthetic wastewater and real urban wastewater. This proof-of-concept pre-pilot treatment included a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC followed in time by a microbial fuel cell (MFC to finally generate electrical current of ca. 20 A·m−2 with a power of 10 W·m−2 while removing 42 g COD day−1·m−2. The effective removal of acetate suggests a potential use of this modular technology for treating acetogenic wastewater where Geobacter sulfurreducens outcompetes other organisms.

  14. Optical studies of the flow start-up processes in four convergent-divergent nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalka, Klaus O.

    1991-03-01

    In the context of design studies for the U.S. Large Blast/Thermal Simulator, BRL has sponsored optical studies of the flow start-up in convergent-divergent nozzles which have the flow-initiating diaphragm located in the nozzle throat. The experiments were performed in the 200 mm shock tube at the Ernst-Mach Institute in Freiburg (Breisgau), West-Germany. The scope of the studies included divergent nozzles with half cone angles of 6, 16, 45 and 90 deg tested at seven diaphragm pressure ratios ranging from 4 to 188 and resulting in shock strengths ranging from 1.4 to 4.4. Results were summarized in graphs of significant parameters, e.g., shock formation time, flow start-up period, flow expansion angle, and shock strength versus the driver pressure ratio and further compared with numerical results obtained with the BRL-Q1D hydrocode. The numerical-experimental comparison shows qualitative agreement. The flow phenomena are generally reproduced by the computations as long as they are not strongly dependent on viscous effects. The study shows that a pressure loss of 10 percent is connected to the presence of a large area discontinuity at the exit plane of the nozzle throat when no divergent nozzle is attached. Results suggest that a 45 deg divergent nozzle may present an acceptable compromise for minimizing these pressure losses by reducing the associated area discontinuities.

  15. A reload and startup plan for conversion of the NIST research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology operates a 20 MW research reactor for neutron-based research. The heavy-water moderated and cooled reactor is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) but a program to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is underway. Among other requirements, a reload and startup test plan must be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their approval. The NRC provides guidance for what should be in the plan to ensure that the licensee has sufficient information to operate the reactor safely. Hence, a plan has been generated consisting of two parts. The reload portion of the plan specifies the fuel management whereby initially only two LEU fuel elements are in the core for eight fuel cycles. This is repeated until a point when the optimum approach is to place four fresh LEU elements into the reactor each cycle. This final transition is repeated and after eight cycles the reactor is completely fueled with LEU. By only adding two LEU fuel elements initially, the plan allows for the consumption of HEU fuel elements that are expected to be in storage at the time of conversion and provides additional qualification of production LEU fuel under actual operating conditions. Because the reload is to take place over many fuel cycles, startup tests will be done at different stages of the conversion. The tests, to be compared with calculations to show that the reactor will operate as planned, are the measurement of critical shim arm position and shim arm and regulating rod reactivity worths. An acceptance criterion for each test is specified based on technical specifications that relate to safe operation. Additional tests are being considered that have less safety significance but may be of interest to bolster the validation of analysis tools.

  16. Sealed source dismantling hot cell - startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.br, E-mail: rojefer@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos radioativos

    2013-07-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in many applications of nuclear technology and at the end of the useful life, most sources become radioactive waste. In Brazil, this waste is received by the Institutes of the National Nuclear Energy Commission and kept under centralized storage. The Waste Management Department at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute is the main storage center, having received around 20,000 disused sources. A hot cell was designed and constructed to manage Co-60 spent sealed sources with activity up to 3.7 10{sup 1}0 Bq and other sources with equivalent activities. In the hot cell the sources are withdraw from their original shielding and transferred to a standard shielding for further disposal off. The original shielding disassembling is made outside the hot cell and after opening, it is transferred inside the hot cell and the sealed source is removed remotely. The source is checked in relation to external contamination and its activity is checked. After this, the source is positioned in the standard shielding located inside an overpack at the bottom of the hot cell. This paper describes some pre-operational tests carried out in it, that include: opening and closing doors and locks, checking of all electrical and pneumatic controls, the original shielding movement inside the hot-cell, dose rate measurements outside the hot-cell, insertion of the sealed sources inside the activity meter chamber, transferring the sealed source to the standard shielding, movement of the overpack with the standard shielding to outside of the hot-cell and plugging of the standard shielding. (author)

  17. Start-Ups and External Equity: The Role of Entrepreneurial Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Zaleski

    2010-01-01

    A long-standing problem for most business start-ups is acquiring external equity during the first year of operations. In explaining the financing decisions of business start-ups, Meyer’s (1984) pecking order theory serves as a logical working hypothesis. Treating the pecking order to be the resolution to an information problem about the potential profitability of a business startup, this paper analyzes the determinants of obtaining external equity. Special consideration is given to the role o...

  18. Tokamak startup: problems and scenarios related to the transient phases of ignited tokamak operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    During recent years improvements have been made to tokamak startup procedures, which are important to the optimization of ignited tokamaks. The use of rf-assisted startup and noninductive current drive has led to substantial reduction and even complete elimination of the volt-seconds used during startup, relaxing constraints on poloidal coil, vacuum vessel, and structure design. This paper reviews these and other improvements and discusses the various bulk heating techniques that may be used to ignite a D-T plasma.

  19. Ideology as resource in entrepreneurial journalism: The French online news startup Mediapart

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemans, Andrea; Witschge, Tamara; Deuze, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of a startup culture in the field of journalism is global: since the early years of the twenty-first century, new independent journalism companies have formed around the world. Although setting up one's own journalistic practice is not particularly novel in the news industry, the last couple of years have witnessed exponential growth in the startup space. In this context we chose to look more closely at one of the more successful recent online news startups: the French site Medi...

  20. MEMS陀螺仪开机漂移的补偿%Compensation for Startup Drift of MEMS Gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪强; 熊飞; 王志; 杨荣彬

    2014-01-01

    微机电系统( MEMS)陀螺仪体积很小,开机时产生的功耗会导致较大升温,造成电性能漂移严重,增加启动时间。为解决这个问题,分析了MEMS陀螺仪中对温度敏感的环节,并建立温度模型。通过对温度特性的补偿得到最小化的开机漂移。然后设计了一款MEMS陀螺仪电路以实现开机漂移的补偿。实测结果表明,采用该补偿方法,能够把100 s内的开机漂移减小到0.06º/s,满足应用需求。%The power dissipation may cause a large temperature increase because the small micro electronic and mechanic system( MEMS) gyroscope results in serious electrical performance drift and a longer startup time. To solve this problem, an analysis on the points sensitive to temperature is given, and temperature model is built. The smallest startup drift is achieved by temperature compensation. Then a corresponding compensation circuit is implemented. The test results reveal that, by this method, the startup drift is re-duced to 0. 06 o/s within 100 s, which meets the requirement of application.

  1. Start-up and stabilization of an Anammox process from a non-acclimatized sludge in CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Nandy, Tapas

    2010-09-01

    Development of an Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process using non-acclimatized sludge requires a long start-up period owing to the very slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. This article addresses the issue of achieving a shorter start-up period for Anammox activity in a well-mixed continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using non-acclimatized anaerobic sludge. Proper selection of enrichment conditions and low stirring speed of 30 +/- 5 rpm resulted in a shorter start-up period (82 days). Activity tests revealed the microbial community structure of Anammox micro-granules. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were found on the surface and on the outer most layers of granules while nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and Anammox bacteria were present inside. Fine-tuning of influent NO2(-)/NH4+ ratio allowed Anammox activity to be maintained when mixed microbial populations were present. The maximum nitrogen removal rate achieved in the system was 0.216 kg N/(m(3) day) with a maximum specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.434 g N/(g VSS day). During the study period, Anammox activity was not inhibited by pH changes and free ammonia toxicity.

  2. Impact of chemical plant start-up emissions on ambient ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sijie; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Flare emissions, especially start-up flare emissions, during chemical plant operations generate large amounts of ozone precursors that may cause highly localized and transient ground-level ozone increment. Such an adverse ozone impact could be aggravated by the synergies of multiple plant start-ups in an industrial zone. In this paper, a systematic study on ozone increment superposition due to chemical plant start-up emissions has been performed. It employs dynamic flaring profiles of two olefin plants' start-ups to investigate the superposition of the regional 1-hr ozone increment. It also summaries the superposition trend by manipulating the starting time (00:00-10:00) of plant start-up operations and the plant distance (4-32 km). The study indicates that the ozone increment induced by simultaneous start-up emissions from multiple chemical plants generally does not follow the linear superposition of the ozone increment induced by individual plant start-ups. Meanwhile, the trend of such nonlinear superposition related to the temporal (starting time and operating hours of plant start-ups) and spatial (plant distance) factors is also disclosed. This paper couples dynamic simulations of chemical plant start-up operations with air-quality modeling and statistical methods to examine the regional ozone impact. It could be helpful for technical decision support for cost-effective air-quality and industrial flare emission controls.

  3. Novel start-up circuit with enhanced power-up characteristic for bandgap references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    This paper presents a new start-up circuit for low-power bandgap reference (BGR) voltage generators. The BGR is designed for providing a stable 0.3 V power supply for application in low power wireless sensor nodes. The BGR has an enhanced power-up characteristic and demonstrates a reduction...... of the total stand-by current. Simulated results confirm that the proposed start-up circuit does not affect the performance of the BGR even though the supply voltage (VDD) is higher and has more stable power-up characteristic than the conventional start-up circuits. The new start-up circuit is designed with 65...

  4. Novel start-up circuit with enhanced power-up characteristic for bandgap references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre;

    This paper presents a new start-up circuit for low-power bandgap reference (BGR) voltage generators. The BGR is designed for providing a stable 0.3 V power supply for application in low power wireless sensor nodes. The BGR has an enhanced power-up characteristic and demonstrates a reduction...... of the total stand-by current. Simulated results confirm that the proposed start-up circuit does not affect the performance of the BGR even though the supply voltage (VDD) is higher and has more stable power-up characteristic than the conventional start-up circuits. The new start-up circuit is designed with 65...

  5. Bootstrap finance: the art of start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, A

    1992-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is more popular than ever: courses are full, policymakers emphasize new ventures, managers yearn to go off on their own. Would-be founders often misplace their energies, however. Believing in a "big money" model of entrepreneurship, they spend a lot of time trying to attract investors instead of using wits and hustle to get their ideas off the ground. A study of 100 of the 1989 Inc. "500" list of fastest growing U.S. start-ups attests to the value of bootstrapping. In fact, what it takes to start a business often conflicts with what venture capitalists require. Investors prefer solid plans, well-defined markets, and track records. Entrepreneurs are heavy on energy and enthusiasm but may be short on credentials. They thrive in rapidly changing environments where uncertain prospects may scare off established companies. Rolling with the punches is often more important than formal plans. Striving to adhere to investors' criteria can diminish the flexibility--the try-it, fix-it approach--an entrepreneur needs to make a new venture work. Seven principles are basic for successful start-ups: get operational fast; look for quick break-even, cash-generating projects; offer high-value products or services that can sustain direct personal selling; don't try to hire the crack team; keep growth in check; focus on cash; and cultivate banks early. Growth and change are the start-up's natural environment. But change is also the reward for success: just as ventures grow, their founders usually have to take a fresh look at everything again: roles, organization, even the very policies that got the business up and running.

  6. Success and Failure in University-Based Startups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Cunningham, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    Adapting from a traditional government-funded research program to supporting the work through a start-up company is a difficult (and often not successful) transition. This is made more challenging in that with the relative decline in federal funding for the sciences the transition is forced on many researchers as a matter of survival. The business model of traditional research is not that different from that of the private sector; the development of an idea, models or mock-ups of the product, pitching to sources of funding, creating and marketing the product. However they differ significantly in the environment in which they are applied, as well as in the life span of a project or product. The environments for pitching an idea and gaining investment are very different in academia from that of the private sector, and most academics are stymied by the new approach. In addition, many universities labor under the illusion that start-ups will be a windfall, when in reality they represent a long term investment that will not pay out for many years. This extended timeline is also something new to academics, though persistence pays and a project may take years to fund, after it is complete and the publications written, many in the geosciences go on to new ideas. If a business is to be successful it must continue with a product long term, and develop new ideas around it. A hopefully successful balance of these approaches is being tried at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, where start-ups can build upon university intellectual property and use university resources to build a successful business. In turn the business supports research and development, primarily through faculty, staff and students at the university.

  7. Permanent start-up instrumentation for maintenance outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler and Associates Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Nasimi, E.; Gill, H.; Scrannage, R.; Paquette, P. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper assesses the need and feasibility of permanent start-up instrumentation detectors to monitor photoneutron flux during maintenance outages. CANDU ion chamber systems were designed to remain on scale for ten weeks after reactor shutdown. A requirement was imposed in the mid-1990s to put the reactor into an overpoisoned guaranteed shutdown state whenever it is shut down and not actively undergoing a restart. Due to the high gadolinium concentration, the ion chamber systems go off scale within three weeks. Operating policies and procedures require the neutron flux and its rate of change to be monitored when fuel is in the reactor. (author)

  8. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  9. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-08-15

    When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. This strategy is known as 'feed forward statistical process control.' The DWPF depends on chemical analysis of the feed streams from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) where the frit plus adjusted sludge from the SRAT are mixed. The SME is the last vessel in which any chemical adjustments or frit additions can be made. Once the analyses of the SME product are deemed acceptable, the SME product is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and onto the melter. The SRAT and SME analyses have been analyzed by the DWPF laboratory using a 'Cold Chemical' method but this dissolution did not adequately dissolve all the elemental components. A new dissolution method which fuses the SRAT or SME product with cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}), germanium (IV) oxide (GeO{sub 2}) and cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) into a cesium germanate glass at 1050 C in platinum crucibles has been developed. Once the germanium glass is formed in that fusion, it is readily dissolved by concentrated nitric acid (about 1M) to solubilize all the elements in the SRAT and/or SME product for elemental analysis. When the chemical analyses are completed the acidic cesium-germanate solution is transferred from the DWPF analytic laboratory to the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) where the pH is increased to {approx}12 M to be released back to the tank farm and the 2H evaporator. Therefore, about 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2}/year will be diluted into 1.4 million gallons of recycle. This 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2} may increase to 4 kg/yr when improvements are

  10. Start-up analysis for automotive PEM fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, M.; Arato, E.

    The development of fuel cell cars can play an important role in resolving transport problems, due to the high environmental compatibility and high efficiency of this kind of vehicle. Among the different types of fuel cells, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered the best solution for automotive applications at the moment. In this work, constructive criteria are discussed with the aim of obtaining a power generation module adaptable to a wide range of cars. A particular problem in accomplishing the overall project is represented by the definition of the compressor system for air feeding. In this work, the design approach to the problem will be delineated: some options are reviewed and the best solution is analysed. The transient response of the system (fuel cell and compressor) is investigated in order to optimise the start-up running through a model of a fuel cell stack and a compressor simulation. The model and its results are proposed as a work procedure to solve the problem, by varying external conditions: in fact, to perform the system start-up under stable conditions, the air relative humidity and temperature must be maintained in a proper range of values. The approach here presented has been utilised for the definition of the characteristics of the power module and layout of a middle-size hybrid city bus in the framework of a project promoted by the European Union.

  11. Automated Startup of the CEBAF 45 MeV Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D.; Letta, P.; Dunham, B.; Kazimi, R.

    1997-05-01

    In order to improve the speed and reproducibility of restoring the beam in the CEBAF 45 MeV injector after a full or partial shutdown of the accelerator, a program has been written using the Tcl/Tk scripting language to automate most of the required steps. The procedure is separated into three main parts. The first consists of preliminary checks that verify that the hardware is set correctly and that systems are ready to be activated. The second part turns on the main interlocked systems including high power magnets and RF. The final step turns on the beam and verifies that the beam quality is satisfactory by measuring the transmission, orbit, bunch length, transverse emittance and match, energy spread, and dispersion. Minor corrections for phasing are also performed in the program. In order to identify inefficiencies in the startup, each step is timed and parameter changes are logged so that system drifts can be tracked. This paper describes the software implementation, the logic to achieve a successful startup, and efficiency results.

  12. Mathematical modelling of methanogenic reactor start-up: Importance of volatile fatty acids degrading population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Sławomir J; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Development of balanced community of microorganisms is one of the obligatory for stable anaerobic digestion. Application of mathematical models might be helpful in development of reliable procedures during the process start-up period. Yet, the accuracy of forecast depends on the quality of input and parameters. In this study, the specific anaerobic activity (SAA) tests were applied in order to estimate microbial community structure. Obtained data was applied as input conditions for mathematical model of anaerobic digestion. The initial values of variables describing the amount of acetate and propionate utilizing microorganisms could be calculated on the basis of SAA results. The modelling based on those optimized variables could successfully reproduce the behavior of a real system during the continuous fermentation.

  13. Startup and Operation of a Metal Hydride Based Isotope Separation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J.H.; Poore, A.S.

    1995-02-27

    Production scale separation of tritium from other hydrogen isotopes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, has been accomplished by several methods. These methods include thermal diffusion (1957--1986), fractional absorption (1964--1968), and cryogenic distillation (1967-present). Most recently, the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP), a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation system, began production in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) on April 9, 1994. TCAP has been in development at the Savannah River Technology Center since 1980. The production startup of this semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process is a significant accomplishment for the Savannah River Site and was achieved after years of design, development, and testing.

  14. Startup and operation of a metal hydride based isotope separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J.H.; Poore, A.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Production scale separation of tritium from other hydrogen isotopes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, USA, has been accomplished by several methods. These methods include thermal diffusion (1957-1986), fractional absorption (1964-1968), and cryogenic distillation (1967-present). Most recently, the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP), a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation system, began production in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) on April 9, 1994. TCAP has been in development at the Savannah River Technology Center since 1980. The production startup of this semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process is a significant accomplishment for the Savannah River Site and was achieved after years of design, development, and testing. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  16. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  17. 78 FR 38001 - Reconsideration of Certain Startup/Shutdown Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... startup system (like a startup boiler feed pump, if applicable) and transitions to bring emission controls... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil- Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-...

  18. Navigating the Interface between Design Education and Fashion Business Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Colleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the interface between design education and business start-up in the designer fashion industry (DFI) and provide a new framework for reflecting on ways to improve design education and graduates' business start-up preparedness. Design/methodology/approach: This interpretive study employed…

  19. The Emergence of the Lean Global Startup as a New Type of Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Stavnsager Rasmussen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the interplay between international entrepreneurship, innovation networks, and early internationalization research by emphasizing the need to conceptualize and introduce a new type of firm: the lean global startup. It discussed two different paths in linking the lean startup and born-global internationalization strategies. The first path refers to generic lean startups that have undertaken a rapid internationalization strategy (i.e., lean-to-global startups. The second path refers to startups that have started operating on global scale since their inception and adopted the lean startup approach by seamlessly synergizing their global and lean product development activities. The article emphasizes several aspects that could be used as part of the theoretical foundation for conceptualizing lean global startups as a special new type of firm: i the emergent nature of their business models, including the challenges of partnership development on a global scale; ii the inherently relational nature of the global resource allocation processes; iii the integration of the entrepreneurial, effectuation, and global marketing perspectives; iv the need to deal with a high degree of uncertainty, including the uncertainty associated with cross-border business operations; and v linking the ex-ante characteristics of lean startups with the ex-post characteristics of born-global firms in order to develop a technology adoption marketing perspective that considers the “crossing the chasm” process as a successful entry into a global market niche.

  20. Start-ups, long- and short-term survivors, and their contribution to employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritsch, Michael; Noseleit, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study documents that the survival of start-ups is central in explaining the relationship between entry and regional employment growth. Distinguishing between start-ups according to the period of their survival shows that the positive effect of new business formation on employment growth is main

  1. A Studio Based Approach to Enhancing Decision Making in Sme Start-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Ejiri, A.H.; Nabukenya, J.

    2011-01-01

    The start-up phase plays an important role in the success and survival of many enterprises, which greatly depends on adequate and timely services for decision making. However, deciding to startup a mining Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) is a challenging task for many entrepreneurs in Uganda. Resea

  2. Navigating the Interface between Design Education and Fashion Business Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Colleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the interface between design education and business start-up in the designer fashion industry (DFI) and provide a new framework for reflecting on ways to improve design education and graduates' business start-up preparedness. Design/methodology/approach: This interpretive study employed…

  3. Start-ups, long- and short-term survivors, and their contribution to employment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritsch, Michael; Noseleit, Florian

    This study documents that the survival of start-ups is central in explaining the relationship between entry and regional employment growth. Distinguishing between start-ups according to the period of their survival shows that the positive effect of new business formation on employment growth is

  4. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  5. Start-up Success in a Small Island State: A Study among Entrepreneurs in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on entrepreneurs in the small island state of Malta and investigates whether starting up and running an enterprise is facilitated or hindered by being in a small island environment. Specifically it asks (1 whether being on a small island, on the periphery of a major market facilitates or hinders entrepreneurship and start-up success; (2 whether Malta’s cultural context and enterprise environment affect entrepreneurship and start-up success; (3 what the key success factors among Maltese start-ups are; and (4 how are creativity and innovation reflected in Maltese start-ups. Qualitative research among 13 start-ups is supported by telephone-based research among a sample of 90 respondents. Findings contribute to the pool of business expertise and context-specific information from small island states that is often missing from the international literature.

  6. Startup of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors with acetic acid as the substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y; Shieh, W K

    1993-02-05

    The startup of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors, which use Manville R-633 beads as the growth support media, acetate enriched bacterial culture as the inoculum, and acetic acid as the sole substrate, is studied. Tow startup strategies are evaluated: one based on maximum and stable substrate utilization and another based on maximum substrate loading controlled by reactor pH. The startup process is characterized using a number of operational parameters.The reactors again excellent total organic carbon (TOC) removal (i.e., > 97% at a feed concentration of 5000 mg TOC/L) and stable methane production (i.e., 0.90 L CH(4)/g TOC, where TOC(r) is TOC removed) at a early stage of the startup process, regardless of the strategies applied. The loading can be increased rapidly without the danger of being overloaded. Significant losses of growth support media and biomass caused by gas effervescence at higher loadings limits the maximum loading that can be safely applied during startup process.A high reactor immobilized biomass inventory is achievable using the porous growth support media (e.g., Manville 633 beads). A rapid increase in loading creates a substrate rich environment that yields more viable reactor biomass. Both substrate utilization rate (batch and continuous) and immobilized biomass inventory stabilize concomitantly at the late stage of the startup process, indicating the attainment of steady-state conditions in reactors. Therefore, they are better parameters that TOC removal and methane production for characterizing the entire startup process of aerobic fluidized bed reactor.The strategy based on maximum substrate loading controlled by reactor pH significantly shortens the startup time. In this case, the reactor attains steady-state conditions approximately 140 days after startup. On the other hand, a startup time of 200 days is required when the strategy based maximum substrate utilization is adopted.

  7. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with § 61.172(c), the owner or operator shall conduct emission tests and reduce the test data in... existing copper converter or a copper converter that has an initial startup date preceding the effective... copper converter, initial startup of which occurs after the effective date, or (3) At such other times...

  8. Sensitivity analysis of tritium breeding ratio and startup inventory for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Hongli; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Through the calculation method of the model, it was found that the increase of the artificially determined startup inventory I0 causes significant increase of TBRreq and the increase of the achievable tritium breeding ratio TBRachiv leads to the decrease of the Im. • The increase of fueling efficiency and fractional burnup significantly contributes to the decrease of both Im and TBRreq, while the increase of the duty time and availability results in the decrease of TBRreq and the proportional increase of Im. • The outer tritium plant parameters of some subsystems that have relatively big tritium throughput have intense influence on either Im or TBRreq. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the tritium self-sufficiency of fusion plant, citing CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) as an example, a modified tritium fuel cycle model was developed. The calculation method of this model to obtain the minimum startup inventory I{sub m} and its corresponding required minimum tritium breeding ratio TBR{sub req} was first introduced. Then the model was utilized to analyze the influence on I{sub m} and TBR{sub req} by all tritium cycle parameters that were classified into two categories, namely, the tritium burning parameters and the outer tritium plant parameters. As for the tritium burning parameters, the increase of fueling efficiency and fractional burnup significantly contributes to the decrease of both I{sub m} and TBR{sub req}, while the increase of the duty time and availability results in the decrease of TBR{sub req} and the proportional increase of I{sub m}. As for the outer tritium plant parameters, it was found that the outer tritium plant parameters of some subsystems that have relatively big tritium throughput have intense influence on either I{sub m} or TBR{sub req}.

  9. The relationship between start-ups, market mobility and employment growth : An empirical analysis for Dutch regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Sierdjan; van Stel, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent literature suggests two mechanisms through which the start-up of new firms contributes to economic development: the growth of start-ups and competition among incumbent firms induced by the start-ups. While existing studies derive the competition effect indirectly, this paper deploys

  10. Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1998-09-30

    Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

  11. W and Z boson Productions in CMS at LHC startup

    CERN Document Server

    Dobur, Didar

    2009-01-01

    We report on potential for measurement of W and Z boson production, as well as the production in association with jets. Of particular interest are jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ distributions. The 10 to $100~{\\rm pb}^{-1}$ datasets expected in the startup year of operation of LHC are likely to already provide information beyond the reach of the Tevatron collider both in jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ range. We are especially interested in understanding the ratios of W+jets to Z+jets distributions by comparing them to next-to-leading order Monte Carlo generators, as these processes present a formidable background for searches of new physics phenomena.

  12. 40 CFR 53.21 - Test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 § 53.21 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of the test analyzer shall...-balance type. This recorder shall have a chart width of at least 25 centimeters, chart speeds up to 10 cm..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 53.21 Test conditions. (a) Set-up and start-up of the test...

  13. L'évaluation et le financement des start-up Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses some phenomena in the corporate finance of internet start-ups that emerged during the “internet buble” between 1998-2000. The advent of nternet start-ups had a major impact on the investment flow and the operations of the venture capital industry in the US and in Europe. It is argued that some of these transformations could be explained by the potential for specific agency conflicts in the financing of internet start-ups. The paper then turns to a discussion of initial pu...

  14. Research on the soft start-up performance of hydro-viscous drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jian-hua(魏建华); CHEN Ning(陈宁)

    2004-01-01

    The principle and structure of hydro-viscous drive(HVD) set is introduced. Through theoretical analysis of the HVD set start-up steadiness, the conclusions were obtained that the non-linearity of the pressure performance curve and dynamic pressure instability of the pilot-operated electro-hydraulic pressure relief valve, which is used for the HVD speed regulating purpose and usually works within micro flow-rate and low oil pressure state, are the main causes of the poor start-up steadiness. So a special speed regulating valve for HVD set is developed, with which the start-up steadiness of HVD set is much improved.

  15. Development Trajectory of an Innovation-Based Environmental Technology Start-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Saukkonen, Juha; Vänttinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This research paper focuses on the growth models of new business ventures and their applicability to a specific type of start-up, environmental technology–based growth company via a case study. Start-ups companies are a focal point of interest of this decade. Start-ups develop products and services in conditions of market and technological uncertainty and competitive volatility. Due to their crucial role in the net job creation there is a growing need and interest to understand, model and dev...

  16. Optimization of turbine startup: Some experimental results from a propeller runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M.; Jobidon, N.; Lawrence, M.; Larouche, D.

    2014-03-01

    The turbine startup is a transient event generating high amplitude stress cycles in runner blades which might reduce significantly the life expectancy of the runner. Our goal is to use the increased range of possibilities offered by newer governing system to optimize the wicket gates control pattern in order to reduce the amplitude of the strain transient in the runner blade during startup. In this paper, we present our success in defining an optimal wicket gates control pattern for the startup of a newly commissioned propeller runner.

  17. Rapid Startup and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin; Vega, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    The Membrane Aerated Bioreactor (MABR) is an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal. Implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to two weeks and that the surface area to volume ratio baseline used in the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test was higher than what was needed to remove the organic carbon and ammonium from the system.

  18. Mathematical modeling and analysis of heat pipe start-up from the frozen state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Chang, W.S.; Mahefkey, E.T. [Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson, OH (United States)

    1989-08-01

    The start-up process of a frozen heat pipe is described and a complete mathematical model for the start-up of the frozen heat pipe is developed based on the existing experimental data, which is simplified and solved numerically. The two-dimensional transient model for the wall and wick is coupled with the one-dimensional transient model for the vapor flow when vaporization and condensation occur at the interface. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of the boundary specification at the surface of the outer wall on the successful start-up from the frozen state. For successful start-up, the boundary specification at the outer wall surface must melt the working substance in the condenser before dry-out takes place in the evaporator.

  19. Mathematical modeling and analysis of heat pipe start-up from the frozen state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.; Mahefkey, E. T.

    1990-01-01

    The start-up process of a frozen heat pipe is described and a complete mathematical model for the start-up of the frozen heat pipe is developed based on the existing experimental data, which is simplified and solved numerically. The two-dimensional transient model for the wall and wick is coupled with the one-dimensional transient model for the vapor flow when vaporization and condensation occur at the interface. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of the boundary specification at the surface of the outer wall on the successful start-up from the frozen state. For successful start-up, the boundary specification at the outer wall surface must melt the working substance in the condenser before dry-out takes place in the evaporator.

  20. Optimization on start-up process of high-pressure rotor for large power steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Qiu-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines thermal-structure coupling technique and pattern search optimization algorithm to establish an optimization system for the start-up process of a turbine unit. Firstly, a finite element model for thermal-structure coupling calculation is established to accurately analyze the transient temperature field and thermal stress field, which can obtain the thermal stress distribution during start-up process. Afterwards, a program of optimization on rotor start-up process is exploited to improve the time allocation in each operating stage of start-up process, which minimizes the maximum equivalent stress of rotor. The maximum equivalent stress has reduced 25.7% after the optimization, which reveals obvious effect.

  1. Optimization of steam-vortex plasma-torch start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, B. I.

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new optimal method of steam-vortex plasma-torches start-up; this method completely prevents the danger of water steam condensation in the arc chamber and all undesirable consequences of it.

  2. Ecological characteristics of seeding sludge triggering a prompt start-up of anammox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Gao, Da-Wen; Wang, Hao-Yu; de Kreuk, Merle; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2013-04-01

    Anammox start-up can be limited by the availability of seeding biomass in some areas. Previous studies have listed suitable alternative seeding sludge for anammox start-up such as anaerobic digestion sludge and conventional activated sludge (CAS), the ecological reasons behind has long been ignored. In this study, the inherent ecological factors that trigger a prompt start-up of anammox were identified, focusing on the initial relative abundance and concentration of anammox bacteria. An external membrane bioreactor was utilized as an enriching tool due to its suitability of retaining cells. Results revealed that a high initial concentration of anammox bacteria benefitted the start-up, meanwhile an even community seeding sludge (Gini coefficient0.5). The discovery reminds to select the seeding sludge that is ecologically appropriate rather than to only care for the type of sludge in general. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Start-up Grants on Firm Performance in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Siret Vildo; Jaan Masso

    2013-01-01

    As in economic theory start-up enterprises have been seen as important sources of growth, the government support measures to enterprises have been a common practice around the world for decades. As the governmental support to enterprises is often of a considerable amount of money there is a need to assess its efficiency. In the present article we study the impact of Estonian start-up grants distributed in 2002 and 2003 on various indicators of firm performance with econometric methods, namely...

  4. START-UP AND GROWTH OF IMMIGRANT SMALL BUSINESSES: THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    JENNIFER M. SEQUEIRA; Abdul A Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Networks, and their resulting social capital, can be key determinants of successful business start-up for immigrant entrepreneurs. Historically, immigrants have settled in communities characterized by networks that consist of strong ties. Network theory suggests that in addition to strong ties, success also requires the development of weak ties. In this paper, we develop a model of the relationships between strong and weak ties, and the likelihood of a business start-up and its subsequent gro...

  5. >venture>: Support for Early Stage Start-ups and Potential Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauz, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    >venture>, the leading Swiss-wide business plan competition, is an ideal partner for young start-ups and entrepreneurs. For the upcoming tenth anniversary edition the competition will receive an update. Building upon a successful base of the past nine editions and equipped with contemporary networking events and more know-how transferring seminars, >venture> will fit even better into the Swiss start-up ecosystem.

  6. Cooperation between large companies and start-ups: the access to drive disruptive innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruse, Florian; Böhmer, Annette Isabel; Lindemann, Udo

    2016-01-01

    According to Christopher Clayton’s Innovator’s Dilemma large corporations face a threat of disruptive innovation. By use of products and services with a moderate amount of new technologies, new business models can be created, which later on oust established companies. Particularly start-ups seem to be more prone to drive disruptive innovations than large corporations. This paper illustrates the need for cooperation between large companies and start-ups in order to pursue disruptive innovation...

  7. Environmental mitigation for SCC initiation of BWR core internals by hydrogen injection during start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozaki, K.; Abe, A.; Nagata, N.; Takiguchi, H. [The Japan Atomic Power Co. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen injection into the reactor water has been applied to many BWR power stations. Since hydrogen injected accelerates recombination of oxidant generated by water radiolysis, oxidant concentration, such as dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water can be reduced. As the result of the reduction of oxidant concentration, Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) at the surface of structural material can be lowered. Lowered ECP moderates Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) sensitivity of structural materials, such as stainless steels. As usual, hydrogen injection system begins to work after the plant start-up is finished, when the condition of normal operation is established. Accordingly, Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) does not cover all the period of plant operation. As far as SCC crack growth is considered, loss of HWC during plant start-up does not result in significant crack growth, because of duration of plant start-up is much shorter than that of plant normal operation, when HWC condition is being satisfied. However, the reactor water environment and load conditions during a plant start-up may contribute to the initiation of SCC. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has a peak, and ECP is in high levels during start-up. Therefore it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation. We call it HWC During Start-up (HDS) here. (orig.)

  8. START-UP AND GROWTH OF IMMIGRANT SMALL BUSINESSES: THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    JENNIFER M. SEQUEIRA; Abdul A Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Networks, and their resulting social capital, can be key determinants of successful business start-up for immigrant entrepreneurs. Historically, immigrants have settled in communities characterized by networks that consist of strong ties. Network theory suggests that in addition to strong ties, success also requires the development of weak ties. In this paper, we develop a model of the relationships between strong and weak ties, and the likelihood of a business start-up and its subsequent gro...

  9. Electron cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, D. V.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.; Bagryansky, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new plasma startup scenario in the gas dynamic trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target (‘seed plasma’), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition of approximately 1 ms the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. This paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECRH, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of the consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences from the conventional scenario are discussed. A theoretical model describing the ECR breakdown and the seed plasma accumulation in a large-scale mirror trap is developed on the basis of the GDT experiment.

  10. Construction and startup experience for Milliken FGD Retrofit Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvilla, J.; Mahlmeister, M. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States); Buchanan, T.; Jackson, C. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Watts, J. [USDOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Under Round 4 of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program, New York State Electric & Gas Corp. (NYSEG), in partnership with Saarbereg-Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Company, has retrofitted a formic acid enhanced forced oxidation wet limestone scrubber on Units 1 & 2 at the Milliken Steam Electric Station. Units 1 & 2 are 1950`s vintage Combustion Engineering tangentially fired pulverized coal units which are rated at nominal 150 MW each and operate in balanced draft mode. The FGD system for Unit 2 was placed into operation in January 1995 and the Unit 1 system in June, 1995. The project incorporates several unique aspects including low pH operation, a ceramic tile-lined cocurrent/countercurrent, split module absorber, a wet stack supported on the roof of the FGD building, and closed loop, zero liquid discharge operation producing commercial grade gypsum, and calcium chloride brine. The project objectives include 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high sulfur coal, the production of marketable byproducts to minimize solid waste disposal, zero wastewater discharge and space-saving design. The paper provides a brief overview of the project design, discusses construction and startup issues and presents early operating results. Process capital cost and economics of this design, procure and construct approach are reviewed relative to competing technologies.

  11. Electron-cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, D V; Gospodchikov, E D; Solomakhin, A L; Savkin, V Ya; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a new plasma startup scenario in the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target ("seed plasma"), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition (about 1 ms) the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. The paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECR heating, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences to the conventional sce...

  12. Control Valve Trajectories for SOFC Hybrid System Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, Megan; Banta, Larry; Rosen, William; Restrepo, Bernardo; Tucker, David

    2012-07-01

    Control and management of cathode airflow in a solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine hybrid power system was analyzed using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) hardware simulation at the National Energy Technology (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy. This work delves into previously unexplored operating practices for HyPer, via simultaneous manipulation of bypass valves and the electric load on the generator. The work is preparatory to the development of a Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) controller for HyPer. A factorial design of experiments was conducted to acquire data for 81 different combinations of the manipulated variables, which consisted of three air flow control valves and the electric load on the turbine generator. From this data the response surface for the cathode airflow with respect to bypass valve positions was analyzed. Of particular interest is the control of airflow through the cathode during system startup and during large load swings. This paper presents an algorithm for controlling air mass flow through the cathode based on a modification of the steepest ascent method.

  13. Acquisition Integration Models: How Large Companies Successfully Integrate Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Carbone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions (M&A have been popular means for many companies to address the increasing pace and level of competition that they face. Large companies have pursued acquisitions to more quickly access technology, markets, and customers, and this approach has always been a viable exit strategy for startups. However, not all deals deliver the anticipated benefits, in large part due to poor integration of the acquired assets into the acquiring company. Integration can greatly impact the success of the acquisition and, indeed, the combined company’s overall market success. In this article, I explore the implementation of several integration models that have been put into place by a large company and extract principles that may assist negotiating parties with maximizing success. This perspective may also be of interest to smaller companies as they explore exit options while trying to ensure continued market success after acquisition. I assert that business success with acquisitions is dependent on an appropriate integration model, but that asset integration is not formulaic. Any integration effort must consider the specific market context and personnel involved.

  14. Failure prediction of government funded start-up firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lukason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to create a prediction model that would forecast the bankruptcy of government funded start-up firms (GFSUs. Also, the financial development patterns of GFSUs are outlined. The dataset consists of 417 Estonian GFSUs, of which 75 have bankrupted before becoming five years old and 312 have survived for five years. Six financial ratios have been calculated for one (t+1 and two (t+2 years after firms have become active. Weighted logistic regression analysis is applied to create the bankruptcy prediction models and consecutive factor and cluster analyses are applied to outline the financial patterns. Bankruptcy prediction models obtain average classification accuracies, namely 63.8% for t+1 and 67.8% for t+2. The bankrupt firms are distinguished with a higher accuracy than the survived firms, with liquidity and equity ratios being the useful predictors of bankruptcy. Five financial patterns are detected for GFSUs, but bankrupt GFSUs do not follow any distinct patterns that would be characteristic only to them.

  15. The Defense Waste Processing Facility: Two Years of Radioactive Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Gee, J.T.; Sproull, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC is currently immobilizing high level radioactive sludge waste in borosilicate glass. The DWPF began vitrification of radioactive waste in May, 1996. Prior to that time, an extensive startup test program was completed with simulated waste. The DWPF is a first of its kind facility. The experience gained and data collected during the startup program and early years of operation can provide valuable information to other similar facilities. This experience involves many areas such as process enhancements, analytical improvements, glass pouring issues, and documentation/data collection and tracking. A summary of this experience and the results of the first two years of operation will be presented.

  16. Adaption of microbial community during the start-up stage of a thermophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xing; Deng, Ya-Yue; He, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zheng-Wei; Li, Qiang; Qin, Han; Chen, Jing-Tao; He, Ming-Xiong; Zhang, Min; Hu, Guo-Quan; Yin, Xiao-Bo

    2016-10-01

    A successful start-up enables acceleration of anaerobic digestion (AD) into steady state. The microbial community influences the AD performance during the start-up. To investigate how microbial communities changed during the start-up, microbial dynamics was analyzed via high-throughput sequencing in this study. The results confirmed that the AD was started up within 25 d. Thermophilic methanogens and bacterial members functioning in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and syntrophic oxidation became predominant during the start-up stage, reflecting a quick adaption of microorganisms to operating conditions. Such predominance also indicated the great contribution of these members to the fast start-up of AD. Redundancy analysis confirmed that the bacterial abundance significantly correlated with AD conditions. The stable ratio of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to aceticlastic methanogens is also important to maintain the stability of the AD process. This work will be helpful to understand the contribution of microbial community to the start-up of AD.

  17. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content ({lambda}, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical {lambda} ({lambda}{sub h}), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 C. There is a second value of {lambda} ({lambda}{sub l}), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between {lambda}{sub l} and {lambda}{sub h}, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 C. Both {lambda}{sub l} and {lambda}{sub h} are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical {lambda} for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum {lambda} for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the {lambda} is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the {lambda} is much higher than this optimum. (author)

  18. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content (?, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical ? (?h), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 C. There is a second value of ? (?l), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between ?l and ?h, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 C. Both ?l and ?h are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical ? for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum ? for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the ? is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the ? is much higher than this optimum.

  19. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R. K.

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content (λ, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical λ (λ h), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 °C. There is a second value of λ (λ l), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between λ l and λ h, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 °C. Both λ l and λ h are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical λ for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum λ for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the λ is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the λ is much higher than this optimum.

  20. Product/Process (P/P) Models For The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF): Model Ranges And Validation Ranges For Future Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-25

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  1. Rapid Start-up and Loading of an Attached Growth, Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification Membrane Aerated Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.; Barta, Daniel; Shull, Sarah A.; Vega, Letticia M.; Christenson, Dylan; Jackson, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Membrane aerated bioreactors (MABR) are attached-growth biological systems used for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification to reclaim water from waste. This design is an innovative approach to common terrestrial wastewater treatments for nitrogen and carbon removal and implementing a biologically-based water treatment system for long-duration human exploration is an attractive, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes. Two obstacles to implementing such a system are (1) the "start-up" duration from inoculation to steady-state operations and (2) the amount of surface area needed for the biological activity to occur. The Advanced Water Recovery Systems (AWRS) team at JSC explored these two issues through two tests; a rapid inoculation study and a wastewater loading study. Results from these tests demonstrate that the duration from inoculation to steady state can be reduced to under two weeks, and that despite low ammonium removal rates, the MABRs are oversized.

  2. NCI Start-Up 2.0: An Evaluation Option License Program | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Start-Up Evaluation Option License minimizes barriers to entry faced by start-up companies that seek to license NIH technologies. The license encourages and supports the commercial development of early-stage technologies developed in the NIH Intramural Research Program. While the NIH has been quite flexible in structuring licenses for the benefit of start-up companies, one of the goals of the NIH Start-up License program is to further reduce the time and capital to negotiate and finalize an exclusive license agreement. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  3. Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Geertjan; Pennings, Enrico; Block, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the initial intellectual property (IP) right of 4,703 start-up entrants in the US, distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. The results show that start-ups are more likely to file for a trademark instead of a patent when entering into more competitive market structures. Further, we find that start-ups with a focus on distribution that serves end-consumers are more likely to file for a trademark and that start-ups that operate upstream and sell to other ...

  4. Historical aspects of arising and features of activity of startup companies: accounting and economic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Legenchuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of arising and development of the concept of «startup company» have been studied and the importance of their activities have been determined. Using the largest startups (Amazon, Google, Salesforce, VMware, Facebook, Twitter, Groupon, Zynga and Аpple the main components of their activity have been determined. Because of the lack of the scientific literature that directly investigated this topic the approaches of different authors from electronic sources have been systematized and the most used of them have been analyzed. The own vision of the definition of «startup company» and its key features have been formulated as a result of the research. The place of a startup company in the system of economic categories such as an economic activity, results of company activities, accounting, analysis and risks have been determined. The impact of the consequences of risks (positive and negative of economic activity on the future of companies have been considered. The value of accounting and analysis for the economic activity of startup companies have been evaluated.

  5. The Core Interaction of Platforms: How Startups Connect Users and Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. E. Korhonen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The platform economy is disrupting innovation while presenting both opportunities and challenges for startups. Platforms support value creation between multiple participant groups, and this operationalization of an ecosystem’s value co-creation represents the “core interaction” of a platform. This article focuses on that core interaction and studies how startups connect producers and users in value-creating core interaction through digital platforms. The study is based on an analysis of 29 cases of platform startups interviewed at a leading European startup event. The studied startups were envisioning even millions of users and hundreds or thousands of producers co-creating value on their platforms. In such platform businesses, our results highlight the importance of attracting a large user pool, providing novel services to those users, offering a new market for producers, supporting the core interaction in various ways, and utilizing elements of the platform canvas – an adaptation of the business model canvas, which we have accommodated for platform-based business models – to accomplish these goals.

  6. Start-up of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshanew, Martha M; Frunzo, Luigi; Luongo, Vincenzo; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-12-15

    The present work studied the start-up process of a mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days using synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater. Anox Kaldness-K1 carriers were used as biofilm carrier material. The reactor performance and biofilm formation were evaluated during the process. The start-up process at lower liquid recirculation flow rate enhanced the biofilm formation and reactor performance. The organic substrate composition had a major impact on early colonization of methanogenic archaea onto the surface of the Kaldness carriers during the start-up process. Specific organic substrates favouring the growth of methanogenic archaea, such as acetate, are preferred in order to facilitate the subsequent biofilm formation and AFBR start-up. The supply of 'bio-available' nutrients and trace elements, in particular iron, had an important role on optimal methanogenic activity and speeding-up of the biofilm development on the Kaldness carriers. This paper provides possible strategies to optimize the various operational parameters that influence the initial biofilm formation and development in an AFBR and similar high rate anaerobic reactors, hence can be used to reduce the long time required for process start-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary investigation of flow dynamics during the start-up of a bulb turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, M.; Fraser, R.; Lemay, J.; Duquesne, P.; Aeschlimann, V.; Deschênes, C.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the electricity network undergoes more perturbations due to the market demand. Additionally, an increase of the production from alternative resources such as wind or solar also induces important variations on the grid. Hydraulic power plants are used to respond quickly to these variations to stabilize the network. Hydraulic turbines have to face more frequent start-up and stop sequences that might shorten significantly their life time. In this context, an experimental analysis of start-up sequences has been conducted on the bulb turbine model of the BulbT project at the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University. Maintaining a constant head, guide vanes are opened from 0 ° to 30 °. Three guide vanes opening speed have been chosen from 5 °/s to 20 °/s. Several repetitions were done for each guide vanes opening speed. During these sequences, synchronous time resolved measurements have been performed. Pressure signals were recorded at the runner inlet and outlet and along the draft tube. Also, 25 pressure measurements and strain measurements were obtained on the runner blades. Time resolved particle image velocimetry were used to evaluate flowrate during start-up for some repetitions. Torque fluctuations at shaft were also monitored. This paper presents the experimental set-up and start-up conditions chosen to simulate a prototype start-up. Transient flowrate methodology is explained and validation measurements are detailed. The preliminary results of global performances and runner pressure measurements are presented.

  8. Organising a conference? Think about what you can do for start-ups!

    CERN Multimedia

    David Mazur

    2016-01-01

    ICTR-PHE 2016 welcomed 16 exhibitors and sponsors as part of its industrial exhibition. If you have ever (co-)organised a large scientific conference, you almost certainly have your own list of major industrial actors who could be interested in becoming exhibitors or sponsors.   The six start-ups present at ICTR-PHE 2016 – Oncoradiomics, Colnec Health, Dixit Solutions, e-Learning4Health, I-See Computing and SmART Scientific Solutions (not pictured). (Image: Salvatore Fiore) ICTR-PHE has shown that scientific conferences can have a catalysing role in transforming young start-ups and spin-off companies into the key industrial players of tomorrow. A special start-up corner was provided in the industrial exhibition, where small stands were made available for a modest fee to start-ups and spin-off companies in fields relevant to the conference theme, together with a 5-minute timeslot for a pitch to the audience. Six start-ups, from the Netherlands, Italy and France...

  9. ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

    2009-01-01

    This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

  10. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  11. Ophthalmic Start-Up Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Development Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William C; Nelson, Lindsay A; Kruft, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeanette A

    2017-08-26

    To identify current challenges facing ophthalmic pharmaceutical start-ups in developing new products. Surveys were distributed to the chief executive officer (CEO) or president of ophthalmic start-ups. The survey attracted 24 responses from 78 surveys distributed (31%). The CEOs stated that a lack of financial capital (n = 18, 75%), FDA regulations (n = 6, 25%), and failure to meet clinical endpoints (n = 6, 25%) were their greatest development hurdles. Risk aversion to medicines in early development (n = 18, 75%), mergers and acquisitions reducing corporate choice for licensing agreements (n = 7, 29%), the emergence of large pharmaceutical-based venture capital funding groups (n = 12, 50%), and the failure of many large pharmaceutical companies to develop their own medicines (n = 10, 42%) were noted as recent prominent trends affecting fundraising. The study suggests that development funding, regulatory burden, and meeting clinical endpoints are the greatest development challenges faced by ophthalmic start-up CEOs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A simple and effective method to achieve the successful start-up of a current reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Lei; Wang Yujun; Zhang Xiaoxing; DaiYujie; Lü Yingjie

    2012-01-01

    Start-up design is a critical issue in current reference as it is very closely related to production yield.However,its function is difficult to predict using normal transaction simulations before the device is put into diffusion.In this paper,we discuss a simple and effective simulation approach which ensures a successful start-up process in a self-biased temperature independent current reference.The circuit is implemented in a class-D power amplifier with a 0.35 μm BiCMOS process and the experimental result validates that,by using this method,the start-up success rate can be greatly improved to 100%.

  13. The Impact of Institutional Settings on Learning Behavior by Venture Capitalists and Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatti, Anna; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2005-01-01

    capitalists represent an institutionalized type of organization with formalized rules and standards, codified be-havior and roles (Suchman, 1995; Suchman et al., 2001). European venture capitalists and start-ups may imitate behavior and rules developed in Silicon Valley, and thus, a second research objective...... differen-ces in local institutional settings affect learning and adaptation by European venture ca-pitalists and start-ups, and thus, affect the processes of field formation. For example, it has been observed that institutional settings can facilitate or discourage learning from direct experience (Herriot...... et al., 1985). Thus, depending on the institutional settings venture capitalists and start-ups may rely on diffusion of experience in various degrees. Experiences can diffuse from the US, where venture capitalism as an entrepreneurial form evolved in Silicon Valley in the 1970s. In the US venture...

  14. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    that they could create value for the different stakeholders involved in their business ecosystem. The second issue is the need to categorize the various types of business incubators before examining the way they create value for early start-ups. In most national or regional entrepreneurial ecosystems...... there are different types of business incubators that do not necessarily offer the same types of services neither share a common vision about the way they should create value for their client companies. At the same time, early stage start-ups rely on the services provided by incubators and accelerators and need...... of the benefits from engaging in specific incubation programs. The objective of this paper is to investigate the value dimensions of specific types of business incubation services for early-stage start-ups in a way that may help such newly created firms to maximize the benefits from their participation...

  15. An analysis of reactivity prediction during the reactor start-up process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajgl, Josef [CEZ a.s., Dukovany (Czech Republic); Krysl, Vaclav; Svarny, Jiri [SKODA JS a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    The different VVER-440 core fuel loadings subcriticality evaluations are performed during the start-up process by boron dilution or control assembly withdrawn by macrocode MOBY-DICK calculations. The dynamic reactivity and quasicritical reactivity are compared and sensitivity of reactivity prediction at the low boundary of start-up interval (ρ = -0,01) has been provided on the basis of different modelling of ionization chamber (IC) response calculation. Special attention is paid to the impact of power distribution and spontaneous fission distribution form factor on IC response correction during control assembly movement. Precision and robustness of different corrections of IC signal processing in real core start-up processed IC signals was evaluated.

  16. Recent results on the effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of DWPF glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, N.E.; Tosten, M.H.; Beam, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of a simulated nuclear waste glass from the Savannah River Site has been carefully investigated. Three large pieces of glass were irradiated with a Co-60 source to three doses up to a maximum dose of 3.1 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. Internal samples of the large pieces of irradiated and unirradiated glass were leached in deionized water to investigate durability changes and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate microstructure changes. Leach tests were performed in triplicate at 90{degree}C with crushed glass samples in deionized water. A statistical analysis of the results indicated to the 95% confidence level that the radiation did not affect the glass durability. Careful examination by TEM indicated no effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure of the glass although severe damage could be induced by the electron beam from the microscope. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Recent results on the effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of DWPF glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, N.E.; Tosten, M.H.; Beam, D.C.

    1989-12-31

    The effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of a simulated nuclear waste glass from the Savannah River Site has been carefully investigated. Three large pieces of glass were irradiated with a Co-60 source to three doses up to a maximum dose of 3.1 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. Internal samples of the large pieces of irradiated and unirradiated glass were leached in deionized water to investigate durability changes and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate microstructure changes. Leach tests were performed in triplicate at 90{degree}C with crushed glass samples in deionized water. A statistical analysis of the results indicated to the 95% confidence level that the radiation did not affect the glass durability. Careful examination by TEM indicated no effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure of the glass although severe damage could be induced by the electron beam from the microscope. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J. [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  20. The start-up analysis of a PEM fuel cell system in vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbani, Raja Abid; Rokni, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Elham;

    2014-01-01

    results for start-up scenario are presented. It is shown that system stability is influenced by slow thermal management controls. High loads at start-up affect voltage and system efficiency adversely. Cathode inlet water levels are found to be adequate for humidification of recirculated fuel stream......Addressing large load fluctuation in automotive applications, dynamic analysis of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system is conducted here. Operations of a comprehensive system-level control-oriented fuel cell model with all necessary auxiliary components are demonstrated and simulation...

  1. The Impact of Institutional Settings on Learning Behavior by Venture Capitalists and Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatti, Anna; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2005-01-01

    capitalists represent an institutionalized type of organization with formalized rules and standards, codified be-havior and roles (Suchman, 1995; Suchman et al., 2001). European venture capitalists and start-ups may imitate behavior and rules developed in Silicon Valley, and thus, a second research objective...... et al., 1985). Thus, depending on the institutional settings venture capitalists and start-ups may rely on diffusion of experience in various degrees. Experiences can diffuse from the US, where venture capitalism as an entrepreneurial form evolved in Silicon Valley in the 1970s. In the US venture...

  2. Start-up conditions and the performance of women - and men - controlled businesses in manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Driga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the economic performance of women-controlled firms suggests that their underperformance may not be the result of differences in the managerial ability of women as compared to men, and that it may in fact be a consequence of differing levels of start-up resources. Using accounting data, we examine the effects that selected start-up conditions have had on the observed economic performance of a sample of 4450 Spanish manufacturing firms. The results, which indicate significant differences in the initial conditions and show lower levels of assets and employee numbers in women-controlled firms, have implications for the economic performance of such firms.

  3. Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.B. de Vries (Geertjan); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); J.H. Block (Jörn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the initial intellectual property (IP) right of 4,703 start-up entrants in the US, distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. The results show that start-ups are more likely to file for a trademark instead of a patent when entering into more competitive market s

  4. Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.B. de Vries (Geertjan); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); J.H. Block (Jörn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the initial intellectual property (IP) right of 4,703 start-up entrants in the US, distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. The results show that start-ups are more likely to file for a trademark instead of a patent when entering into more competitive market

  5. Non-Solenoidal Tokamak Startup via Inboard Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. M.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Reusch, J. A.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Richner, N. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) is a non-solenoidal startup technique utilizing small injectors at the plasma edge to source current along helical magnetic field lines. Unstable injected current streams relax to a tokamak-like configuration with high toroidal current multiplication. Flexible placement of injectors permits tradeoffs between helicity injection rate, poloidal field induction, and magnetic geometry requirements for initial relaxation. Experiments using a new set of large-area injectors in the lower divertor explore the efficacy of high-field-side (HFS) injection. The increased area (4 cm2) current source is functional up to full Pegasus toroidal field (BT , inj = 0.23 T). However, relaxation to a tokamak state is increasingly frustrated for BT , inj > 0.15 T with uniform vacuum vertical field. Paths to relaxation at increased field include: manipulation of vacuum poloidal field geometry; increased injector current; and plasma initiation with outboard injectors, subsequently transitioning to divertor injector drive. During initial tests of HFS injectors, achieved Vinj was limited to 600 V by plasma-material interactions on the divertor plate, which may be mitigated by increasing injector elevation. In experiments with helicity injection as the dominant current drive Ip 0.13 MA has been attained, with T̲e > 100 eV and ne 1019 m-3. Extrapolation to full BT, longer pulse length, and Vinj 1 kV suggest Ip > 0.25 MA should be attainable in a plasma dominated by helicity drive. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  6. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  7. Pentachlorophenol aerobic removal in a sequential reactor: start-up procedure and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Domenica Mosca; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the applicability of a simple technology such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated with suspended biomass, to the aerobic biodegradation of a highly toxic compound, the pentachlorophenol (PCP). An enrichment of a microbial consortium, originated from the biomass of an urban wastewater treatment plant, was performed and 70 days were sufficient to achieve removal efficiencies of ∼90% with the compound fed as only carbon and energy source Once completed the start-up period, the SBR was operated with the acclimatized biomass for 60 days at a feed concentration of PCP in the range of 10-20 mg L(-1). Improved performance was observed at increased influent concentration and the reached removal efficiency for the highest concentrations was stable at values≥90%. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of the acclimated biomass was performed with biodegradation tests carried out in the bioreactor during the reaction phase. The classical and a modified four-parameter forms of the Haldane equation were applied to model the substrate inhibited kinetics. Both models provided reliable predictions with high correlation coefficients (>0.99). The biomass characterization was completed with the evaluation of the growth yield coefficient, Y (0.075 on chemical oxygen demand base) and endogenous respiration rate, b (0.054 d(-1)). The aerobic SBR, operated in the metabolic mode with a mixed culture, showed superior performance in comparison to continuous systems applied in the same range of PCP influent loads and achieved removal rates are suitable for application.

  8. The Influence of Innovation and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy to Digital Startup Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Dessyana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Establishing and developing a startup business is not easy. Startup success depend on various aspects, such as financial,business model, and learning organizations. Personalities factor of founders have a contribution in business development, especially entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE and innovation. But, in Indonesia, there is still no psychological study who see the contribution of those factors on business success in digital startup. This study aimed to understand how both factors influence startup digital. The sample is 64 founders. The research instrument is ESE, KAI, and Business Success questionnaire (Kirton in Riyanti, 2003; Chen et al, 1998; Kaplan & Norton, 2006. Multiple-regression analyses reveal ESE and innovation contributes 20.8% to business success. ESE regression coefficient is 0.200 (P 0.05. This means, ESE has significant positive effect, while innovation has a positive relationship but insignificant. Interventions in the form of booklets that inform how to increase ESE. The booklet is already conducted trials on five founders.

  9. Barriers to Start-Up and Their Effect on Aspirant Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda; Medeira, Natasha; Slater, James

    2003-01-01

    The importance of new business start-ups cannot be over-emphasised. The UK government has taken actions designed to stimulate the growth of new businesses and aid their survival. The identification of barriers to entry is important, together with strategies to minimise their impact. The UK continues to lag behind the USA in its levels of…

  10. The Impact of Start-up Grants on Firm Performance in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siret Vildo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As in economic theory start-up enterprises have been seen as important sources of growth, the government support measures to enterprises have been a common practice around the world for decades. As the governmental support to enterprises is often of a considerable amount of money there is a need to assess its efficiency. In the present article we study the impact of Estonian start-up grants distributed in 2002 and 2003 on various indicators of firm performance with econometric methods, namely propensity score matching. We use the data from the Estonian Business Register in order to study the impact of start-up grants on various economic indicators like the number of employees, turnover, equity, fixed assets and firm survival. The results showed that the start-up grants proved to affect positively the number of employed people and turnover, yet the impact on productivity was negative. One implication of the study is that it is difficult to achieve different goals to the same extent with a single governmental grant

  11. LightCDD: a lightweight capability-driven development method for start-ups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Hasan; Ruiz Carmona, L.M.; Espana Cubillo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Novice innovators and entrepreneurs face the risk of designing naive business models. In fact, lack of realism and failing to envision contextual constraints is one of the main threats to start-up success. Both the literature and the responses we gathered from experts in incubation confirm this prob

  12. Experimental Labs for Start-Ups: The Role of the "Venture-Sitter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricano, Diego; Pietrobon, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Curley and Formica's (2008, 2010) studies of high-expectation entrepreneurship focus on the role of "experimental laboratories" in promoting the start-up and successful development of high-expectation firms. Although it is not difficult to understand the potential usefulness of these experimental labs--business simulators in which skilled partners…

  13. Social and Environmental Considerations within the IT Sector: Evidence from Romanian Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Eugenia Iamandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research purpose of the present paper is to investigate the nature and depth of integrating social and environmental requirements into daily economic activities of Romanian start-ups from technology and Internet-related business sectors. As such, more than 150 already launched start-ups in Romania were analysed according to their economic, social and environmental scopes, on a scale quantifying their involvement degree. The results emphasize that, although economically-driven in most of the cases, the technology and Internet-related start-ups in Romania are increasingly considering the social and environmental concerns. This finding refers to the strategic inclusion of the sustainability requirements in their object of activity and inner core of their business, and not to mere corporate social responsibility (CSR pursuits. The conclusion emphasizes a new business pattern implemented by Romanian start-ups in the technology, information and Internet-related domains, where economic, social and environmental requirements are considered together when the corporate business strategy is formulated on the long run.

  14. Start-up problem with an induction machine and a permanent magnet gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary work conducted to design a magnetic gear (MG) integrated with a fan and driven by an grid connected induction machine (IM). A start-up problem with a MG, which occurs due to a high oscillating torque and a high breakdown torque of the IM when starting up directly...

  15. Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2V produced the highest power of 1330±60mWm-2 for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. NSFC Supported CERN LHC Accomplished Start-up in September,2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yongtao

    2008-01-01

    @@ After 15 years of construction,the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator accomplished its start-up on September 10,2008.Scientists predict that this historical event will be a milestone on physics research.

  17. 78 FR 40757 - Prospective Grant of Start-Up Exclusive Commercialization License: The Development of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Circularly Permuted Chimeric Molecules'' ; (b) Technology family E-021-2010/0, including U.S. Patent... related continuing and foreign patents/patent applications for these technology families, to Medicenna... start-up exclusive commercialization license to practice the inventions embodied in: (a)...

  18. Impedance estimation of photovoltaic modules for inverter start-up analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PALLAVI BHARADWAJ; ABHIJIT KULKARNI; VINOD JOHN

    2017-08-01

    Starting-up of photovoltaic (PV) inverters involves pre-charging of the input dc bus capacitance. Ideally, direct pre-charging of this capacitance from the PV modules is possible as the PV modules are current limited. Practically, the parasitic elements of the system such as the PV module capacitance, effective wire inductance and resistance determine the start-up transient. The start-up transient is also affected by the contactor connecting the PV modules to the inverter input dc bus. In this work, the start-up current and voltages are measured experimentally for different parallel and series connections of the PV modules. These measurements are used to estimate the stray elements, namely the PV module capacitance, effective inductance and resistance.The estimation is based on a linear small-signal model of the start-up conditions. The effect of different connections of the PV modules and the effect of varying irradiation on the scaling of the values of the stray elements are quantified. The System model is further refined by inclusion of connecting cable capacitance and contactor resistance. Dynamics of the resulting fifth-order model are seen to be consistent with those of the simplified third-order model. The analysis of this paper can be used to estimate the expected peak inrush current in PV inverters. It can also be used to arrive at a detailed modelling of PV modules to evaluate the transient behaviour.

  19. 75 FR 26892 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Excess Emissions During Startup...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Administrator for Air, Noise, and Radiation, entitled ``Policy on Excess Emissions During Startup, Shutdown... February 15, 1983, from Kathleen M. Bennett, Assistant Administrator for Air, Noise, and Radiation (1983... based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); Is not...

  20. Plasma system for start-up of pulverized fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyjakon, A.K. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Power Engineering and Fluid Mechanics

    2009-07-01

    Pulverized coal combustion requires preliminary heating of the combustion chamber. Conventional heavy oil start-up systems are used during the boiler kindling, resulting in pollution, additional maintenance and high cost. This paper described the advantages of a plasma start-up system for the ignition and stabilization of a pulverized coal flame in coal-fired steam boiler. In a plasma start-up system, the heat source for ignition and stabilization of the pulverized coal combustion is a plasma at a temperature of 5,000 to 10,000 degrees C. The plasma interaction involves rapid heating of coal particles and thermal decomposition of the organic compounds resulting in fast release of the volatile matter and destruction of particles below 5 {mu}m. It also involves thermal dissociation of gaseous products with radical generation and gas ionization. The highly reactive mixture that is produced promotes flame propagation in the presence of oxygen. A continuous plasma discharge in a pulverized burner stabilizes the dust flame. This paper described the advantages associated with the use of a plasma start-up system, such as the possibility of limiting pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. It also presented laboratory study results on the influence of the fuels such as lignite, bituminous coal, wood and carbonaceous shale and their properties on the operational range of the plasma assisted pulverized coal burner. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. Ed Tech Developer's Guide: A Primer for Software Developers, Startups, and Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Marie; Gerard, Sarah Nixon; Rubin, Shawn; Sanford, Cathy; Borrelli-Murray, Dana; Driscoll, Tom; Arora, Jessie; Hruska, Mike; Beck, Katie; Murray, Thomas; Hoekstra, Jason; Gannes, Stuart; Metz, Edward; Midgley, Steve; Castilla, Stephanie; Tomassini, Jason; Madda, Mary Jo; Chase, Zac; Martin, Erik; Noel, Marcus; Styles, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Opportunities abound for software designers and developers to create impactful tools for teachers, school leaders, students, and their families. This guide for developers, startups, and entrepreneurs addresses key questions about the education ecosystem and highlights critical needs and opportunities to develop digital tools and apps for learning.…

  2. Active vibration control of multibody system with quick startup and brake based on active damping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hua-ping; TANG Yun-jun; TAO Gong-an

    2006-01-01

    A kind of active vibration control method was presented based on active damping and optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multibody system with quick startup and brake and piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was built. The optimum driving load was calculated by applying the presented method. The self-sensing and self-tuning closed-loop active vibration control in quick startup and brake process was realized. The control algorithm, using local velocity negative feedback, i.e. the output of a sensor only affects the output of the actuator collocated, can induce damping effectively to actively suppress the system vibration. Based on the optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and bake, the active damping of piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was used to farther suppress the vibration of system. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical show that the proposed method makes the vibration of system decrease more than the optimal design method for driving load of multibody system.

  3. Ideology as resource in entrepreneurial journalism: The French online news startup Mediapart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, A.; Witschge, T.; Deuze, M.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of a startup culture in the field of journalism is global: since the early years of the twenty-first century, new independent journalism companies have formed around the world. Although setting up one’s own journalistic practice is not particularly novel in the news industry, the last

  4. Ideology as Resource in Entrepreneurial Journalism : The French online news startup Mediapart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, Andrea; Witschge, Tamara; Deuze, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of a startup culture in the field of journalism is global: since the early years of the twenty-first century, new independent journalism companies have formed around the world. Although setting up one's own journalistic practice is not particularly novel in the news industry, the last

  5. Harvesting the results of the mentoring process of knowledge intensive startups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijman, Geertjan; van der Sijde, Peter; van Benthem, Jann W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring is often used by business development programs to assist startups. In this paper we look at the perceptions of protégés and mentors about this process, hereby different business development programs in Europe were incorporated. It was hypothesized that there is a relationship between

  6. PCDD/F emissions during startup and shutdown of a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Chao; Cen, Kefa; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    Compared with municipal solid waste incineration, studies on the PCDD/F emissions of hazardous waste incineration (HWI) under transient conditions are rather few. This study investigates the PCDD/F emission level, congener profile and removal efficiency recorded during startup and shutdown by collecting flue gas samples at the bag filter inlet and outlet and at the stack. The PCDD/F concentration measured in the stack gas during startup and shutdown were 0.56-4.16 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3) and 1.09-3.36 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively, far exceeding the present codes in China. The total amount of PCDD/F emissions, resulting from three shutdown-startup cycles of this HWI-unit is almost equal to that generated during one year under normal operating conditions. Upstream the filter, the PCDD/F in the flue gas is mainly in the particle phase; however, after being filtered PCDD/F prevails in the gas phase. The PCDD/F fraction in the gas phase even exceeds 98% after passing through the alkaline scrubber. Especially higher chlorinated PCDD/F accumulate on inner walls of filters and ducts during these startup periods and could be released again during normal operation, significantly increasing PCDD/F emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Entrepreneurship Education: Enhancing or Discouraging Graduate Start-Up at the University of Pretoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Melodi; Ras, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of BCom Entrepreneurship graduates, as well as a control group to determine whether the exposure to entrepreneurship education can enhance actual business start-up. Information was collected on how they experienced the learning approaches, and the value which they had derived from the degree. This…

  8. The Impact of Domestic Drivers and Barriers on the Entrepreneurial Start-up Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubberink, R.J.B.; Blok, V.; Ophem, van J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the family network on the start-up decision byidentifying domestic drivers and barriers to entrepreneurship. For this, we used anadjusted model of work-family conflict theory, with special attention to the family lifecycle stages. In order to identify the drivers an

  9. 40 CFR 63.310 - Requirements for startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or operator shall operate and maintain the coke oven battery and its pollution control equipment required under this subpart, in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practices for... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.310 Requirements for startups, shutdowns...

  10. Entrepreneurship Education: Enhancing or Discouraging Graduate Start-Up at the University of Pretoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Melodi; Ras, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of BCom Entrepreneurship graduates, as well as a control group to determine whether the exposure to entrepreneurship education can enhance actual business start-up. Information was collected on how they experienced the learning approaches, and the value which they had derived from the degree. This…

  11. Reactor operating procedures for startup of continuously-operated chemical plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Kösters, P.H.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rules are presented for the startup of an adiabatic tubular reactor, based on a qualitative analysis of the dynamic behavior of continuously-operated vapor- and liquid-phase processes. The relationships between the process dynamics, operating criteria, and operating constraints are investigated, sin

  12. Start-up of thermophilic-dry anaerobic digestion of OFMSW using adapted modified SEBAC inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdéz-Güelfo, L A; Alvarez-Gallego, C; Sales Márquez, D; Romero García, L I

    2010-12-01

    The work presented here concerns the start-up and stabilization stages of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) semicontinuously fed for the treatment of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) through anaerobic digestion at thermophilic temperature range (55 degrees C) and dry conditions (30% Total Solids). The procedure reported involves two novel aspects with respect to other start-up and stabilization protocols reported in the literature. The novel aspects concern the adaptation of the inoculum to both the operating conditions (thermophilic and dry) and to the type of waste by employing a modified SEBAC (Sequential Batch Anaerobic Composting) system and, secondly, the direct start-up of the process in a thermophilic temperature regime and feeding of the system from the first day of operation. In this way a significant reduction in the start-up time and stabilization is achieved i.e. 110 days in comparison to 250 days for the processes reported by other authors for the same type of waste and digester. The system presents suitable operational conditions to stabilize the reactor at SRT of 35 days, with a maximum biogas production of 1.944 LR/L.d with a CH(4) and CO(2) percentage of 25.27% and 68.15%, respectively. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Yield Stress and Low-Temperature Start-Up Torque of Lubricating Greases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyriac, F.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Bosman, Rob

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the yield stress and start-up torque for six commonly used rolling bearing greases is presented. Both parameters were found to depend exponentially on temperature where the exponent changes below a low-temperature “break point.” This break point was found to be related to

  14. Network effects on Entrepreneurial Processes: Start-ups in the Dutch ICT Industry 1990-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hulsink (Wim); T. Elfring (Tom)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe value of networks as an integral part of the explanation of entrepreneurial success is widely acknowledged. It is unclear, however, in what way certain networks influence the success of start-up companies. The question of this paper is: 'in what way does the entrepreneur's network

  15. Unpainting the black box : exploring mechanisms and practices of start-up incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although incubators have become one of the most prominent instruments to stimulate the emergence and growth of start-ups, questions are being raised about their effectiveness. One major obstacle to evaluate the effectiveness of incubators is that the incubator remains a ‘black box’: the extant liter

  16. Ideology as Resource in Entrepreneurial Journalism : The French online news startup Mediapart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, Andrea; Witschge, Tamara; Deuze, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of a startup culture in the field of journalism is global: since the early years of the twenty-first century, new independent journalism companies have formed around the world. Although setting up one's own journalistic practice is not particularly novel in the news industry, the last

  17. Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, H.T.

    2000-02-17

    Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental

  18. Modification of the Start-Up Criterion of Translational Gliding Landslide%平推式滑坡启动判据的修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵权利; 尚岳全; 支墨墨

    2014-01-01

    Two aspects are always neglected in the existing research about start-up criterion of translational gliding landslide:one is the normal component force of hydrostatic pressure at posterior border of slope,which acts on slip surface,the other is the action range of confined water.Therefore the calculation results of start-up criterion of translational gliding landslide are inaccurate.Overall force analysis are exerted on translational gliding landslide,meanwhile the conception of action range of confined water is introduced,then the modified start-up criterion is deduced.The modified start-up criterion is applied to analyze the results of physical simulation.It shows that the result of the modified criterion is about 6.0% to 15.5% larger than the traditional criterion and much close to the observed value.The modified criterion is proved to be accurate.Mechanism analysis is applied in the differences of critical hydraulic between the test results and the calculation results obtained from the modified start-up criterion of translational gliding landslide.When the sliding surface inclination of the model slope is less than or equal to 8 degree,the test results are greater than the calculation results obtained from the modified start-up criterion because of the hysteresis of seepage and the inhomogeneity of permeability layer.When the sliding surface inclination is greater than 8 degree,the test results are less than the calculation results due to decrease of the model stability with increase in test time.%对平推式滑坡启动判据的传统研究往往忽略滑块后缘的静水压力沿滑面法向的分力及承压水作用的具体范围,因而导致计算结果不准确。通过对平推式滑坡进行全面的受力分析,同时引入了承压水作用范围的概念,最终推导出修正后的平推式滑坡启动判据公式。将所得的修正判据应用于模型试验的结果分析,发现修正方法计算结果比传统方法大6.0%~15

  19. Influence of temperature histories during reactor startup periods on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Shigeki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Chatani, Kazuhiro; Koshiishi, Masato; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses influence of two different temperature profiles during startup periods in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and a boiling water reactor upon microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons to about 1 dpa and 3 dpa. One of the temperature profiles was that the specimens experienced neutron irradiation in both reactors, under which the irradiation temperature transiently increased to 290 °C from room temperature with increasing reactor power during reactor startup periods. Another was that the specimens were pre-heated to about 150 °C prior to the irradiation to suppress the transient temperature increase. Tensile tests at 290 °C and Vickers hardness tests at room temperature were carried out, and their microstructures were observed by FEG-TEM. Difference of the temperature profiles was observed obviously in interstitial cluster formation, in particular, growth of Frank loops. Although influence of neutron irradiation involving transient temperature increase to 290 °C from room temperature on the yield strength and the Vickers hardness is buried in the trend curves of existing data, the influence was also found certainly in increment of in yield strength, existence of modest yield drop, and loss of strain hardening capacity and ductility. As a result, Frank loops, which were observed in austenitic stainless steel irradiated at doses of 1 dpa or more, seemed to have important implications regarding the interpretation of not irradiation hardening, but deformation of the austenitic stainless steel.

  20. VSC-HVDC系统启动控制%Startup Procedures for the VSC-HVDC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 徐政; 陈海荣

    2009-01-01

    In order to reduce the undesired impacts and damages on the VSC-HVDC system and the connected AC system during the startup and re-startup procedures, appropriate startup control strategy should be dedicatedly designed. Charging the DC capacitor voltage to the preset value quickly is the fundamental of the subsequent control strategy. In this paper, a two-stage self startup procedure is proposed for VSC-HVDC system consisting of two-level and diode-clamped three-level converters. During the first stage, the resistors are inserted to limit the current during the charging. If the DC voltage can not reach the preset value after predetermined time, the startup procedure switches to the second stage and the capacitors will be further charged with a DC voltage controller. The startup procedure completes till the DC link voltage reaches the preset value and then the converters are ready to change from the startup mode to the normal operating mode. In addition, a new control strategy is proposed for the startup of the passive network and the AC system suffered from black out. With the proposed control strategy, the inrush currents during the energization of the transformers and the overvoltage during the closure of the long overhead transmission lines can be suppressed. Simulation results verify the feasibility of the proposed startup procedures.%合适的启动方式对减缓VSC-HVDC系统启动及重新启动时对自身和电网的冲击非常重要.如何把直流电容器电压快速提升到设定值,是后续控制策略正确工作的基础.针对目前应用较广泛的两电平和二极管钳位型三电平换流器拓扑结构,提出了一种简单、适用于VSC-HVDC系统的两阶段自励启动方法.在启动第一阶段,串接限流电阻器对直流侧电路充电;若在设定的时间内电容器电压不能达到设定值,启动转入第二阶段,即换流站在直流电压控制器的作用下对电容器继续充电,直至达到预设值,从而为换

  1. START-UP FINANCING SOURCES: DOES GENDER MATTER? SOME EVIDENCE FOR EU AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badulescu Alina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although financial resources are very important in SMEs in general, and for start-ups in particular, many entrepreneurs face numerous restrictions in finding sources for start-up financing. The present article aims to investigate the similarities or differences in start-up financing sources due to gender issues, otherwise to investigate if female entrepreneurs use (or have access different financial sources in the early stage of their business. As reported by the literature, access to finance is one of the most important issues for SMEs and nascent entrepreneurs. Moreover, among the main financial issues, the first one is the access to start-up finance (Schwartz, 1976; Carter and Cannon, 1992; Johnson and Storey, 1993; Koper, 1993; Van Auken et al, 1993; Carter and Rosa, 1998, FOBS survey 2005. In all sectors, women use for starting up businesses substantially less capital then men. Women encounter, more then men, credibility problems when dealing with bankers. This problem causes important effects concerning the performance, survival and growth of women-run businesses. The present research focuses on revealing how male and female entrepreneurs face and solve the problem of start-up financing sources. The methodology is based on using the dataset "Enterprises managed by the founder - broken down by gender of the entrepreneur", available in EUROSTAT database. The data selected refers to the start-up financing sources available for European Union and Romania, regarding activities included in NACE: Industry and services excluding public administration and management activities of holding companies and 2005 as time of reference. The data were used to make some comparison between: male versus female entrepreneurs in EU; male versus female entrepreneurs in Romania; EU entrepreneurs versus Romanian entrepreneurs. The main findings reveal that there are no significant differences between men and women concerning the start-up financing sources. The main

  2. AUDIT OF INNOVATIVE IDEAS AS THE PREVIOUS STAGE OF THE BUSINESS-PLAN OF START-UP PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of feasibility reasoning of venture capital investment for the implementation of innovative ideas is revealed. The main elements of the methodology for feasibility of start-up projects, based on the concept of combination of life cycle of the market, product innovation and startup companies, are characterized. The comparative analysis of methods feasibility study and business plan start-up project is made, the importance of innovative ideas audit in future economic information generation and investment decisions of informal venture capital investors are shown.

  3. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  4. Fractal dimension and fuzzy logic systems for broken rotor bar detection in induction motors at start-up and steady-state regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezquita-Sanchez, Juan P.; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Perez-Ramirez, Carlos A.; Camarena-Martinez, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2017-07-01

    Squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs) are key machines in many industrial applications. In this regard, the monitoring of their operating condition aiming at avoiding damage and reducing economical losses has become a demanding task for industry. In the literature, several techniques and methodologies to detect faults that affect the integrity and performance of SCIMs have been proposed. However, they have only been focused on analyzing either the start-up transient or the steady-state operation regimes, two common operating scenarios in real practice. In this work, a novel methodology for broken rotor bar (BRB) detection in SCIMs during both start-up and steady-state operation regimes is proposed. It consists of two main steps. In the first one, the analysis of three-axis vibration signals using fractal dimension (FD) theory is carried out. Since different FD-based algorithms can give different results, three algorithms named Katz’ FD, Higuchi’s FD, and box dimension, are tested. In the second step, a fuzzy logic system for each regime is presented for automatic diagnosis. To validate the proposal, a motor with different damage levels has been tested: one with a partially BRB, a second with one fully BRB, and the third with two BRBs. The obtained results demonstrate the proposed effectiveness.

  5. Optimal design method for force in vibration control of multi-body system with quick startup and brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hua-ping; PENG Ya-qing

    2005-01-01

    A kind of active vibration control method was presented through optimal design of driving load of multi-body system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was built, and mathematical model of representing vibration control was also set up according to the moving process from startup to brake. Then optimization vibration control model of system driving load was founded by applying theory of optimization control, which takes rigid body moving variable of braking moment as the known condition, and vibration control equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was converted into boundary value problem of differential equation. The transient control algorithm of vibration was put forward, which is the analysis basis for the further research. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical examples show that the optimal design method for the multi-body system driving load can decrease the vibration of system with duplication.

  6. Strenthening Opportunities Of Economic Relations Between Lithuania And Sweden Within The Perspective Of It Startup Company’s Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Živilė Tunčikienė; Gabrielė Sinkevičiūtė

    2017-01-01

    .... In order to develop and utilize the potential for economic cooperation in the IT field, it is relevant to structuralize IT startup business success factors and to jointly develop base for decisions...

  7. Solvent pre-wetting as an effective start-up method for point-of-use filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toru; Sugiyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Momota, Makoto; Sevegney, Michael; Tsuzuki, Shuichi; Numaguchi, Toru

    2012-03-01

    An effective filter start-up method has been required by device manufacturers, mainly in order to reduce waste volume of lithography process chemicals, which become more expensive as lithography technology advances. Remaining air was monitored during static-pressure-driven filter start-up. As a result, 3500 ml of the resist was needed to eliminate remaining air. For improvement, cyclohexanone pre-wetting was applied prior to the resist introduction. As a result, the resist volume needed for the solvent displacement was 1900 ml, approximately half the volume required for staticpressure- driven start-up. Other solvents were evaluated for the pre-wetting start-up method. Results, in descending order of performance were PGME (best) Hansen solubility parameter distance between each solvent and nylon 6,6 material.

  8. A MEMS stronglink with multi-try function used for PC startup in authentication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yong; CHEN Wen-yuan; ZHANG Wei-ping; XIAO Qi-jun; TAN Shun-yi; FENG Min-hua

    2009-01-01

    The stronglink with multi-try function based on MEMS technology and the PC startup in authentication system have been designed and fabricated. The generation principle and structure of UQS code are introduced, which consists of two groups of metal counter-meshing gears, two pawl/ratchet mechanisms, two driving micromotors and two resetting micromotors. The energy-coupling element is a photoelectric sensor with a circular and notched plate. It is fabricated using the UV-LiGA process and precision mechanical engineering. The PC startup authentication system is controlled by BIOS program, which is written into the chip according with special format. The program in BIOS output signals controls the running of stronglink to finish the process of authentication. The device can run more than 10000 times before a stop. The driving voltage is 12 V, and the normal decoding time is 3 s.

  9. Disruptive innovation potential of the value propositions of 3D printing technology startups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Hahn, Finn

    2014-01-01

    3D printing (or additive manufacturing) is a term used to describe the production of tangible products by using digitally controlled machine tools. The novelty of this manufacturing approach consists in the selective addition of materials layer-upon-layer, rather than through machining from solid...... material objects, moulding or casting. 3D printing (3DP) technologies have the potential to change the traditional manufacturing paradigm as well as to enable the emergence of new innovation practices based on mass customization, user design and distributed product innovation. As a result, 3DP...... potential of 3DP technology startups. The objective of this research is to empirically examine the existing business opportunities in the 3D printing technology sector. To meet this objective we have addressed two research questions: a) How do technology startups integrate new 3D printing technologies...

  10. Market Segmentation, Customers, and Value Propositions Analysis for Polymer Clay Art Business Start-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desman Hidayat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay art is one of the creative businesses that are recently starting to get a lot of attentions. To prepare a startup business in this field, analysis from a lot of aspects is needed. The purpose of this article was to explain the approach of the polymer clay art business startup from the market segmentation, customer, and value proposition side of the business. The method was applied by analyzing those steps in details. The analysis started from brainstorming to choose the market matching to business, the customer side, value proposition, and between both aspects. The result of the analysis shows the business focus of the polymer clay art business, where the value propositions are focusing on unique decorations, and several types of customer segments.

  11. [Start-up characteristics of the anaerobic reactor seeded with immobilized microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-tao; Zhou, Wei-li; Zhang, Zhen-jia; Cheng, Xue-hang; Dong, Ya-mei; Chi, Li-na

    2009-10-15

    In order to overcome the disadvantages of the anaerobic reactor such as slow growth and long start-up, the flocculent anaerobic sludge was embedded and used as the seed sludge in the anaerobic treatment of PTA wastewater with the objective of keeping biomass in the reactor. The start-up characteristics of the UASB reactor were investigated. During the 136 days' running, COD removal rate of PTA wastewater achieved 75%-85% at the volumetric loading rate (COD) of 3 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-4 day. The anaerobic system had good stability and biomass retaining ability. On the other hand, variations of EPS, SEM observation and methanogens DNA in sludge granules verified the growth of immobilized bacteria in both quantity and microorganism morphology, although mass transfer through the immobilization media was to some degree limited.

  12. Integrated physics analysis of plasma start-up scenario of helical reactor FFHR-d1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Sakamoto, R.; Seki, R.; Suzuki, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Satake, S.; Sagara, A.; The FFHR Design Group

    2015-06-01

    1D physics analysis of the plasma start-up scenario of the large helical device (LHD)-type helical reactor FFHR-d1 was conducted. The time evolution of the plasma profile is calculated using a simple model based on the LHD experimental observations. A detailed assessment of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and neo-classical energy loss was conducted using the integrated transport analysis code TASK3D. The robust controllability of the fusion power was confirmed by feedback control of the pellet fuelling and a simple staged variation of the external heating power with a small number of simple diagnostics (line-averaged electron density, edge electron density and fusion power). A baseline operation control scenario (plasma start-up and steady-state sustainment) of the FFHR-d1 reactor for both self-ignition and sub-ignition operation modes was demonstrated.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  14. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential....... In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise...... generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated...

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  16. Fast start-up of expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor using stored Anammox sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie, Zhang; Yuanyuan, Zhang; Liang, Li; Xuehong, Zhang; Yue, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Stored Anammox sludge (SAS) was used in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating synthetic wastewater with the aim of evaluating its possible use as seed sludge. The SAS had been kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) without any feed. After 2 years, only 1-2% Anammox bacteria could survive in the SAS. However, it soon prevailed in the EGSB reactor after loading. Accordingly, the start-up of the EGSB reactor was successfully completed in 34 days. The biomass turned to round reddish granular sludge from irregular brown floc at the end of this study. The results indicate that SAS could serve well as seed sludge. The required time for start-up of the Anammox reactor using SAS was thus demonstrated to be shorter than that of uncultivated sludge under experimental conditions.

  17. How To Design A Triple Bottom Line Organization: A Start-Up Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, where success for a start-up company is measured by early revenue and profit, it can be quite challenging to design a triple bottom line organization (people/planet/profit from the very beginning. We present a case study of a U.S.-based start-up firm and discuss its early challenges, developmental processes, and current success as a triple bottom line firm. The company’s founder and CEO, with no initial product, distribution, or revenue strategy, sought to develop a company that could provide the marketplace with a valuable product while also staying true to a corporate vision of positively affecting less fortunate people. Our analysis of the case suggests that the founder’s vision, passion, transparent communication, and leveraging of partners’ resources were key elements in building the firm. We draw implications of our case study for the designers of future triple bottom line organizations.

  18. Disruptive innovation potential of the value propositions of 3D printing technology startups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Tanev, Stoyan; Hahn, Finn

    2014-01-01

    3D printing (or additive manufacturing) is a term used to describe the production of tangible products by using digitally controlled machine tools. The novelty of this manufacturing approach consists in the selective addition of materials layer-upon-layer, rather than through machining from solid...... material objects, moulding or casting. 3D printing (3DP) technologies have the potential to change the traditional manufacturing paradigm as well as to enable the emergence of new innovation practices based on mass customization, user design and distributed product innovation. As a result, 3DP...... potential of 3DP technology startups. The objective of this research is to empirically examine the existing business opportunities in the 3D printing technology sector. To meet this objective we have addressed two research questions: a) How do technology startups integrate new 3D printing technologies...

  19. Life Science Start-up Activities at the Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Gerda

    2014-12-01

    The universities of applied sciences (UAS) provide several values for the society and economy of a country. Besides education of high level professionals, transfer of knowledge from research to applications in industry or as new start-up companies is an important task. This is done in different ways in the various disciplines. In Life Sciences, a key industry branch in Switzerland, innovation is a competitive success factor and research findings from UAS/Life Sciences contribute to the valorization of new technologies to products, services and to business performance. In order to foster awareness for the innovation need of industry, UAS install processes and support for transfer of research and technology results to marketable applications. Furthermore they may facilitate contacts of researchers and students with entrepreneurs in order to animate start-up founding as a true alternative to being employed. Access to coaching and entrepreneurial training completes the essential basis.

  20. Experience from start-ups of the first ANITA Mox plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, M; Ekström, S; Andersson Chan, A; Le Vaillant, E; Lemaire, R

    2013-01-01

    ANITA™ Mox is a new one-stage deammonification Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) developed for partial nitrification to nitrite and autotrophic N-removal from N-rich effluents. This deammonification process offers many advantages such as dramatically reduced oxygen requirements, no chemical oxygen demand requirement, lower sludge production, no pre-treatment or requirement of chemicals and thereby being an energy and cost efficient nitrogen removal process. An innovative seeding strategy, the 'BioFarm concept', has been developed in order to decrease the start-up time of new ANITA Mox installations. New ANITA Mox installations are started with typically 3-15% of the added carriers being from the 'BioFarm', with already established anammox biofilm, the rest being new carriers. The first ANITA Mox plant, started up in 2010 at Sjölunda wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Malmö, Sweden, proved this seeding concept, reaching an ammonium removal rate of 1.2 kgN/m³ d and approximately 90% ammonia removal within 4 months from start-up. This first ANITA Mox plant is also the BioFarm used for forthcoming installations. Typical features of this first installation were low energy consumption, 1.5 kW/NH4-N-removed, low N₂O emissions, Mox plant, started up at Sundets WWTP in Växjö, Sweden, reached full capacity with more than 90% ammonia removal within 2 months from start-up. By applying a nitrogen loading strategy to the reactor that matches the capacity of the seeding carriers, more than 80% nitrogen removal could be obtained throughout the start-up period.

  1. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim; Laumert, Björn; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential. In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise the life of the components. Moreover, from an operability perspective it might not be optimal to have designs for the highest heating rates, as there may be other components limiting the power plant start-up. Therefore, it is important to look at the interaction between the steam turbine and steam generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated with a control strategy to account for the start-up limitations of both the turbine and steam generator. The models have been introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results indicated that for each application, an optimal heating rates range can be identified. For the specific case presented in the paper, an optimal range of 7-10 K/min of evaporator heating rate can result in a 1.7-2.1% increase in electricity production compared to a slower component (4 K/min).

  2. Load adaptive start-up scheme for synchronous boost DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoding, Dai; Wenliang, Xiu; Yuezhi, Liu; Yawei, Qi; Zuqi, Dong

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a load adaptive soft-start scheme through which the inductor current of the synchronous boost DC-DC converter can trace the load current at the start-up stage. This scheme effectively eliminates the inrush-current and over-shoot voltage and improves the load capability of the converter. According to the output voltage, the start-up process is divided into three phases and at each phase the inductor current is limited to match the load. In the pre-charge phase, a step-increasing constant current gives a smooth rise of the output voltage which avoids inrush current and ensures the converter successfully starts up at different load situations. An additional ring oscillator operation phase enables the converter to start up as low as 1.4 V. When the converter enters into the system loop soft-start phase, an output voltage and inductor current detection methods make the transition of the phases smooth and the inductor current and output voltage rise steadily. Effective protection circuits such as short-circuit protection, current limit circuit and over-temperature protection circuit are designed to guarantee the safety and reliability of the chip during the start-up process. The proposed start-up circuit is implemented in a synchronous boost DC-DC converter based on TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS process with an input voltage range 1.4-4.2 V, and a steady output voltage 5 V, and the switching frequency is 1 MHz. Simulation results show that inrush current and overshoot voltage are suppressed with a load range from 0-2.1 A, and inductor current is as low as 259 mA when the output shorts to the ground.

  3. Digital Start-Ups in the Global South:Embeddedness, Digitality and Peripherality in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinones, Gerardo; Heeks, Richard; Nicholson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about the extent to which digital activity is embedded or disembedded from various aspects of its context including place, institutions and networks. Yet little research has so far been conducted on this issue in relation to digital enterprises, particularly those in developing countries. Because of the growing importance of the digital economy in developing countries, an interview- and observation-based research study was undertaken of digital start-ups in the four largest La...

  4. Ignore the Unicorn: the overhyped startups with multibillion-dollar valuations are setting a bad example

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brodsky, Norm

    2016-01-01

    ... they do it? "Volume." That works for a tiny percentage of startups, but it's a recipe for failure for the vast majority of entrepreneurs who--no matter how cool their idea--will never have access to the amount of outside capital needed to keep a company going for years if it's not earning a profit. I'll give you the example of a couple of bright and idealisti...

  5. Public policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider a nu...... a number of policies to promote entrepreneurship and venture capitalbacked innovation.JEL Classification: D82, G24, G28, H24.Keywords: venture capital bank finance, matching, moral hazard, public policy....

  6. Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2016-07-12

    Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.

  7. Refugee Business Start-ups in the North East of England: An Impossible Dream?

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Hilary; Fitzgerald, Ian; Hudson, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and prior work - For many asylum seekers just getting to the UK is an achievement, let alone obtaining refugee status. When ‘equality’ is achieved with other immigrant workers then the settlement process begins. For some this includes starting a business but there are a number of well documented barriers to business start-up for refugees as well as black minority ethic entrepreneurs, which have been highlighted in the North East region (BRKN, 2007). Given this Northumbria Universit...

  8. Ant Colony Search Algorithm for Optimal Generators Startup during Power System Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ketabi; Feuillet, R

    2010-01-01

    Generators startup sequence plays a significant role in achieving a suitable and effective restoration strategy. This paper outlines an ant colony search algorithm in order to determine the generator starting times during the bulk power system restoration. The algorithm attempts to maximize the system generation capability over a restoration period, where the dynamic characteristics of different types of units and system constraints are considered. Applying this method for the 39-bus New Engl...

  9. Creating a Business Plan for a Start-up Business Consultancy in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    von Wietersheim, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this Thesis is to investigate the process of creating an extensive Business Plan and thereby to practically apply the theory studied during the Degree Programme of International Business. To achieve this objective, a practical business plan for a start-up Business Consultancy in Namibia (called VW-Business Consulting) is created, which at the same time provides a deeper understanding of the current demand for, and awareness of, business consulting companies in Namibia. An...

  10. Emissions Characterisation of residential pellet boilers during start-up and stop periods

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Paavilainen, Janne; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study, gaseous emissions and particles are measured during start-up and stop periods for an over-fed boiler and an under-fed boiler. Both gaseous and particulate matter emissions are continuously measured in the laboratory. The measurement of gaseous emissions includes oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide and (NO). The emissions rates are calculated from measured emissions concentrations and flue gas flow. The behaviours of the boilers during start-u...

  11. ENTREPRENEURIAL FINANCE: ANGEL INVESTING AS A SOURCE OF FUNDING HIGH-GROWTH START-UP FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONJA MARKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most difficult components in starting and growing a new venture is securing funding and other resources to sustain the firm’s survival and growth. Funding for many new ventures comes from a large, yet relatively unidentified, group called angel investors. This paper provides an overview of angel investing as a source of funding for start-up firms.

  12. Start-Up Performance of Ground-Water Recharge Trenches Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    8217 rLASSIFICAT!ON OF THIS PAGE Unclassified SECURIT ’, CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE SECURITY CL.ASSfFICATION OF THISPAGE PREFACE Field investigations were...10 only. ** Data collected after start-up period. LU L9% LA A~ en w! Z 12 w r,..u I- CC. o t)- 00q f It - 4g T 0 , . L .3X ci 0 0 -K o 04 0 0 0

  13. Public policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider...... a number of policies to promote entrepreneurship and venture capitalbacked innovation.JEL Classification: D82, G24, G28, H24.Keywords: venture capital bank finance, matching, moral hazard, public policy....

  14. NTN Swiss Biotech - A Look at Support Measures for Dynamic Start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss biotech landscape seems to be on a healthy footing: There are many imaginative start-ups, we have first-class hospitals, highly advanced clinical research and the availability of a great deal of capital. But we have no reason to rest on our laurels as countries like the USA lead the field. We must lay down the tracks today to remain an attractive country and maintain our ranking among the 10 best locations.

  15. Planning and management of E-commerce Website : Guide for startup B2C E-commerce companies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to help startup B2C E-commerce companies to plan and manage e-commerce website. This thesis is intended to equip current and future e-commerce managers or entrepreneurs with some basic knowledge and practical skills to help them navigate their organisations towards e-business. It does not have any specific commissioner. Thesis will contain most aspects when plan and manage e-commerce website for startups.

  16. Planning and management of E-commerce Website : Guide for startup B2C E-commerce companies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to help startup B2C E-commerce companies to plan and manage e-commerce website. This thesis is intended to equip current and future e-commerce managers or entrepreneurs with some basic knowledge and practical skills to help them navigate their organisations towards e-business. It does not have any specific commissioner. Thesis will contain most aspects when plan and manage e-commerce website for startups.

  17. Modeling the Financial Distress of Microenterprise StartUps Using Support Vector Machines: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Blanco-Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the leading role that micro-entrepreneurship plays in economic development, and the high failure rate of microenterprise start-ups in their early years, very few studies have designed financial distress models to detect the financial problems of micro-entrepreneurs. Moreover, due to a lack of research, nothing is known about whether non-financial information and nonparametric statistical techniques improve the predictive capacity of these models. Therefore, this paper provides an innovative financial distress model specifically designed for microenterprise startups via support vector machines (SVMs that employs financial, non-financial, and macroeconomic variables. Based on a sample of almost 5,500 micro- entrepreneurs from a Peruvian Microfinance Institution (MFI, our findings show that the introduction of non-financial information related to the zone in which the entrepreneurs live and situate their business, the duration of the MFI-entrepreneur relationship, the number of loans granted by the MFI in the last year, the loan destination, and the opinion of experts on the probability that microenterprise start-ups may experience financial problems, significantly increases the accuracy performance of our financial distress model. Furthermore, the results reveal that the models that use SVMs outperform those which employ traditional logistic regression (LR analysis.

  18. Non-inductive Plasma Start-up and Current Ramp-up in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Kessel, C. E.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Poli, F.; Taylor, G.; NSTX Research Team; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2013-10-01

    Results from NSTX Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) experiments have demonstrated generation of 300 kA start-up currents, and when these discharges were coupled to induction they attained 1 MA of plasma current consuming 65% of the inductive flux of standard inductive-only discharges in NSTX. The NSTX-U device, which is now under construction at PPPL, will have numerous improvements to enhance transient CHI start-up. These are: (1) factor of two increase in toroidal field, (2) more than 2.5 times the injector flux, (3) increased CHI voltage, (4) full lithium coverage to reduce low-Z impurities and (5) 1 MW ECH system for increasing the electron temperature of CHI discharges to allow direct coupling to NBI current drive using a new second more tangential neutral beam system. In support of NSTX-U objectives for full non-inductive start-up and current ramp-up, the TSC code has been used for a full discharge simulation in which a transient CHI discharge is used as the front end of the non-inductive current ramp-up simulation. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08.

  19. [Influence of the difference in start-up echo on signal intensity in the FIESTA sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Takanori; Takahashi, Mitsuyuki

    2008-11-20

    The FIESTA sequence is a fast imaging method used for various parts in recent years. A constant flip angle (CFA) or linear flip angle (LFA) are used as the start-up echo in many cases. It is reported from CFA, which is the conventional method, that the T1 value and T2 value influence the speed that reaches steady state. However, there is no such report in LFA. Therefore, we examined the influence of the difference of start-up echo method upon signal intensity. In phantoms other than vegetable oil, the difference was not accepted in the change of speed that reaches steady state and the signal intensity in steady-state transit. In LFA, signal intensity of vegetable oil was clearly lower than CFA. The same result was obtained regardless of on or off resonance. From the result, it was thought that it depended on T2/T1 for the speed that reaches steady state. Moreover, the difference in resonant frequency was considered to greatly influence LFA but not CFA. That is, it was suggested by the difference in start-up echo that the signal intensity of fat changes greatly.

  20. Entrepreneurism from the ground up: Entrepreneurism, innovation, and responsiveness in a start-up university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Paul Anthony

    Colleges and universities are under increased pressure from internal and external constituencies for increased innovation and responsiveness. Entrepreneurial private industry models such as start-up businesses, corporate ventures and spin-off organizations have been recognized for their ability to quickly adapt to changing business environments and rapidly innovate to take advantage of new opportunities. This case study investigates these claims with regard to a start-up university founded with the identity of an entrepreneurial, interdisciplinary institution that prepares graduate level students for leadership careers as entrepreneurs in the bio-tech industry. By interviewing twenty-four administrators, faculty, and members of the Board of Trustees, including all but one of the founding full-time faculty, I present an "insider's" depiction of the lived experience of those most closely associated with the founding and subsequent institution building of this unique higher education organization. Initial chapters present a theory of higher education organizations, derived from Birnbaum (1988) and Bolman and Deal (1991), as driven by two primary tasks: resolving identity and establishing power and resources in relation to that identity. I also present Russell and Russell's (1992) theory of "entrepreneurial posture" in relation to a higher education organization. Subsequent chapters analyze the start-up university's environment, strategy, culture, and structure within the framework of the two primary organizational tasks and Russell and Russell's (1992) definition of an entrepreneurial organization.

  1. STARTUP OF UPELOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET REACTOR FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mesdaghinia

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors have been increasingly used for industrial wastewater treatment. Because of existing problems in startup step of these reactors, in this research the startup of a UASB in pilot scale and room temperature condition was studied. The total height of UASB reactor was 270 cm and effective height was 240 cm. Diameter of the reactor in lower part was 20 cm (reaction zone and 40 cm in upper part (solid-gas-liquid separator five sampling ports with interval of 32 cm were provided and the effective volume of the reactor was 100 liters. Septic tank digested sludge and cow manure were used for the seeding of UASB reactor. In the startup step of the reactor, volumetric loading was increased step by step. After 155 days granule formation was observed and after 215 days of the study the removal rate increased to 4.62 kg COD/m/ day. More than 98% of soluble COD removal was achieved in lower 160 cm of reactor.

  2. Examination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional amendments

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guangli

    2011-08-01

    Rapid startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioreactors is desirable when treating wastewaters. The startup time with unamended wastewater (118h) was similar to that obtained by adding acetate or fumarate (110-115h), and less than that with glucose (181h) or Fe(III) (353h). Initial current production took longer when phosphate buffer was added, with startup times increasing with concentration from 149h (25mM) to 251h (50mM) and 526h (100mM). Microbial communities that developed in the reactors contained Betaproteobacteria, Acetoanaerobium noterae, and Chlorobium sp. Anode biomass densities ranged from 200 to 600μg/cm2 for all amendments except Fe(Sh{cyrillic}) (1650μg/cm2). Wastewater produced 91mW/m2, with the other MFCs producing 50mW/m2 (fumarate) to 103mW/m2 (Fe(III)) when amendments were removed. These experiments show that wastewater alone is sufficient to acclimate the reactor without the need for additional chemical amendments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. On a difficulty in eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.

    2015-11-01

    Most mathematics and engineering textbooks describe the process of ``subtracting off'' the steady state of a linear parabolic partial differential equation as a technique for obtaining a boundary-value problem with homogeneous boundary conditions that can be solved by separation of variables (i.e., eigenfunction expansions). While this method produces the correct solution for the start-up of the flow of, e.g., a Newtonian fluid between parallel plates, it can lead to erroneous solutions to the corresponding problem for a class of non-Newtonian fluids. We show that the reason for this is the non-rigorous enforcement of the start-up condition in the textbook approach, which leads to a violation of the principle of causality. Nevertheless, these boundary-value problems can be solved correctly using eigenfunction expansions, and we present the formulation that makes this possible (in essence, an application of Duhamel's principle). The solutions obtained by this new approach are shown to agree identically with those obtained by using the Laplace transform in time only, a technique that enforces the proper start-up condition implicitly (hence, the same error cannot be committed). Supported, in part, by NSF Grant DMS-1104047 and the U.S. DOE (Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396) through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  4. Theoretical analysis of start-up power in helium pulsating heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Monan; Huang, Rongjin; Xu, Dong; Li, Laifeng

    2017-02-01

    An analytical model for one-turn helium pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) with single liquid slug and vapor plug is established in present study. When an additional heat power takes place in the evaporating section, temperature and pressure will increase. The pressure wave travels through vapor and liquid phases at different speed, producing a pressure difference in the system, which acts as an exciting force to start up the oscillating motion. Results show that the start-up power of helium PHP is related to the filling ratio. The start-up power increases with the filling ration. However, there exist an upper limit. Furthermore, the start-up power also depends on the inclination angle of PHP. When the inclination angle increases, the heat input needed to start up the oscillating motion decreases. But for one-turn helium PHP, it can not be started up when the inclination angle is up to 90°, equalling to horizontal position,. While the inclination angle ranges between 0° (vertical position) and 75°, it can operate successfully.

  5. [Quick Start-up and Sustaining of Shortcut Nitrification in Continuous Flow Reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Zhang Shi-ying; Song, Yin-ling; Xu, Yue-zhong; Shen, Yao-liang

    2016-04-15

    How to achieve fast and stable startup of shortcut nitrification has a very important practical value for treatment of low C/N ratio wastewater. Thus, the quick start-up and sustaining of shortcut nitrification were investigated in continuous flow reactor targeting at the current situation of urban wastewater treatment plant using a continuous flow process. The results showed that quick start-up of shortcut nitrification could be successfully achieved in a continuous flow reactor after 60 days' operation with intermittent aeration and controlling of three stages of stop/aeration time (15 min/45 min, 45 min/45 min and 30 min/30 min). The nitrification rates could reach 90% or 95% respectively, while influent ammonia concentrations were 50 or 100 mg · L⁻¹ with stop/aeration time of 30 min/30 min. In addition, intermittent aeration could inhibit the activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), while short hydraulic retention time (HRT) may wash out NOB. And a combined use of both measures was beneficial to sustain shortcut nitrification.

  6. Time-Frequency Analysis of Rocket Nozzle Wall Pressures During Start-up Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.; Ruf, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of the fluctuating wall pressure were conducted on a sub-scale, thrust- optimized parabolic nozzle in order to develop a physical intuition for its Fourier-azimuthal mode behavior during fixed and transient start-up conditions. These unsteady signatures are driven by shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions which depend on the nozzle pressure ratio and nozzle geometry. The focus however, is on the degree of similarity between the spectral footprints of these modes obtained from transient start-ups as opposed to a sequence of fixed nozzle pressure ratio conditions. For the latter, statistically converged spectra are computed using conventional Fourier analyses techniques, whereas the former are investigated by way of time-frequency analysis. The findings suggest that at low nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in a Free Shock Separation state -- strong spectral similarities occur between fixed and transient conditions. Conversely, at higher nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in Restricted Shock Separation -- stark differences are observed between the fixed and transient conditions and depends greatly on the ramping rate of the transient period. And so, it appears that an understanding of the dynamics during transient start-up conditions cannot be furnished by a way of fixed flow analysis.

  7. Analysis of Three Actors: Roles of Government, Private Sector, and University toward Startup Growth in Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinintya Audori Fathin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information, communication, and technology advancements in 21st century encourage startups to innovate and develop their business further. Because it’s an ICT based business which is supported by the existence of internet, this kind of business starts to become borderless. As a result, the distributions of the products start to become unlimited. The conveniences offered by these advancements invite more ICT based product developers. The positive impact as a result of that such as more new jobs, easier way to access the markets, and also cheaper production cost with guaranteed profits. In addition to that, this of course also becomes an added value to the country because it increases Network Readiness Index and nation’s income from taxes. This research aims to analyze startup’s growth, in addition to its relation with related actors such as government, private sectors, and universities. Analysis on every actor will emphasize on their contribution to startup developments in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta directly or indirectly. In conclusion, there will be an illustration about how big the contributions and how close the actors are between startups and the three actors.

  8. Using Social Media to Accelerate the Internationalization of Startups from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Maltby

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A set of principles, processes, and tools that entrepreneurs can use to rapidly internationalize their technology startups from inception does not exist. This article discusses entrepreneurs’ use of online social media networks to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception. The article was inspired by how the founders of Dewak S.A. rapidly internationalized their technology startup. Dewak was founded by five unemployed Colombians in June 2008. Two years later, foreign sales comprised 95% of the firm’s revenue and provided the founders with full-time employment. Dewak’s only channel to market was via online social media networks. Recognizing that entrepreneurs can use social media to amplify their tacit knowledge and convert it into sellable products and services contributes to the development of a learning-based view of rapid internationalization from inception. The article provides entrepreneurs seeking to launch and grow global businesses with four recommendations that may save them time and money and increase the size of their addressable markets.

  9. Effect of the Modification of the Start-Up Sequence on the Thermal Stresses for a Microgas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Tenango-Pirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgas turbines (MGT are an alternative for small-scale energy production; however, their small size becomes a drawback since it enhances the heat transfer among their components. Moreover, heat transfer drives to temperature gradients which become higher during transient cycles like start-up. The influence of different start-up curves on temperature and thermal stresses of a microgas turbine was investigated. Stationary and rotational blades of the turbine were numerically simulated using CFD and FEM commercial codes. Conjugated heat transfer cases were solved for obtaining heat transfer from fluid toward the blades. Changes of temperature gradients within the blades during the start-ups were calculated under transient state with boundary conditions according to each curve to assess accurate thermal stresses calculations. Results showed that the modification of the start-up curves had an impact on the thermal stresses levels and on the time when highest stresses appeared on each component. Furthermore, zones highly stressed were located near the constraints of blades where thermal strains are restricted. It was also found that the curve that had a warming period at the beginning of the start-up allowed reducing the peaks of stresses making it more feasible and safer for the turbine start-up operation.

  10. Strenthening Opportunities of Economic Relations between Lithuania and Sweden within the Perspective of IT Startup Company’s Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Tunčikienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation with Sweden – one of the key priorities of Lithuania. Economic cooperation potential is promising. One of the priority areas of economic activity, in which Sweden invests in Lithuania, is information and communication. In order to develop and utilize the potential for economic cooperation in the IT field, it is relevant to structuralize IT startup business success factors and to jointly develop base for decisions, execution of which would help ensure effective, economic co-operation development based with Sweden, beginning of IT startup business and such business’s continuity. To achieve the objective, following tasks were resolved: concepts of startup business and the startup company were purified, specifics inconcept’s application in the context of the parties were defined; systematized the startup business success factors and ways of strengthening them, focusing on the factors relevant for strengthening economic ties between Lithuania and Sweden within the perspective of IT startup company’s development. Systematic method of research was applied.

  11. Control of power sourced from a microbial fuel cell reduces its start-up time and increases bioelectrochemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C; Kim, Jung Rae; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Premier, Giuliano C

    2013-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance depends on the selective development of an electrogenic biofilm at an electrode. Controlled biofilm enrichment may reduce start-up time and improve subsequent power performance. The anode potential is known to affect start-up and subsequent performance in electrogenic bio-catalytic consortia. Control strategies varying electrical load through gradient based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and transient poised anode potential followed by MPPT are compared to static ohmic loading. Three replicate H-type MFCs were used to investigate start-up strategies: (1) application of an MPPT algorithm preceded by poised-potential at the anode (+0.645 V vs Ag/AgCl); (2) MFC connected to MPPT-only; (3) static external load of 1 kΩ and 500 Ω. Active control showed a significant reduction in start-up time from 42 to 22 days, along with 3.5-fold increase in biocatalytic activity after start-up. Such active control may improve applicability by accelerating start-up and enhancing MFC power and bio-catalytic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards at Chalmers - Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Pazsit, Imre

    2004-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed at the Dept. of Reactor Physics at Chalmers Univ. of Technology in the second stage of the preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards and nuclear material management. The program is aimed at utilizing the experimental facilities as well as the experience in reactor physics, criticality safety, signal processing and unfolding, and experimental nuclear techniques, in tackling problems in non-destructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. During the present project, the following three main subjects were dealt with: first tests and pilot measurements were performed with one of the two newly acquired {sup 252}Cf detectors that were obtained from JNC Japan; the second exercise of the ESARDA benchmark. which consisted of the evaluation of the pulse train generated by Los Alamos Laboratory for multiplicity counting was performed and reported to the organisers of the benchmark; the modified Monte-Carlo code MCNP-PoliMi was installed, tested and work started for generating (although outside the ESARDA benchmark), pulse train data as obtained from various neutron sources with or without the presence of fissile material, as detected with an Active Well Coincidence Counter.

  13. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  14. Start-up of low-temperature anammox in UASB from mesophilic yeast factory anaerobic tank inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Kroon, Kristel; Seiman, Andrus; Loorits, Liis; Fritze, Hannu; Tuomivirta, Tero; Vabamäe, Priit; Raudkivi, Markus; Mandel, Anni; Tenno, Taavo

    2015-01-01

    Robust start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from non-anammox-specific seeding material was achieved by using an inoculation with sludge-treating industrial [Formula: see text]-, organics- and N-rich yeast factory wastewater. N-rich reject water was treated at 20°C, which is significantly lower than optimum treatment temperature. Increasing the frequency of biomass fluidization (from 1-2 times per day to 4-5 times per day) through feeding the reactor with higher flow rate resulted in an improved total nitrogen removal rate (from 100 to 500 g m(-3)d(-1)) and increased anammox bacteria activity. As a result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, uncultured planctomycetes clone 07260064(4)-2-M13-_A01 (GenBank: JX852965) was identified from the biomass taken from the reactor. The presence of anammox bacteria after cultivation in the reactor was confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR); an increase in quantity up to ∼2×10(6) copies g VSS(-1) during operation could be seen in qPCR. Statistical modelling of chemical parameters revealed the roles of several optimized parameters needed for a stable process.

  15. Numerical simulation on the "S" characteristics and pressure fluctuation of reduced pump-turbine at start-up condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. M.; Zheng, J. S.; Wen, G. Z.; Zhao, Y. Z.; Shi, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    The performance of a reversible pump turbine with S-shaped characteristics is of great importance to the transition processes such as start-up and load rejection. In order to improve the "S" characteristics of reduced pump-turbine, several MGV (misaligned guide vane) schemes are calculated. The SST (shear stress turbulence) model is added to the N-S (Navier-strokes) governing equation. In order to predict the S-shaped curve accurately and develop a reliable tool for design improvement, the "S" characteristic is investigated in a whole pump-turbine including spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. To validate the scheme reasonable, the mesh independent is tested. Comparison of unit discharge and unit speed performance showed that good correspondence is obtained between experimental data and calculated results. The "S shape" of reduced pump-turbine is eliminated with MGV schemes. Based on this, internal flow analysis is carried out adopting six typical MGV schemes at the same working condition. Through the calculation, we find that, first the pressure fluctuation is different between the guide vane and runner among the five MGV schemes, second the pressure fluctuation amplitude of MGV schemes D (4*35° and 16*6° average installed) is smallest, third the main frequency is the blade passing frequency and guide vane passing frequency at vane-less space and head cover, respectively. The conclusion is the "S shape" of pump-turbine can be improved with the average installed scheme.

  16. Indigenous microbial capability in solid manure residues to start-up solid-phase anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, S D; Astals, S; Jensen, P D; Batstone, D J; Tait, S

    2017-06-01

    Batch solid-phase anaerobic digestion is a technology for sustainable on-farm treatment of solid residues, but is an emerging technology that is yet to be optimised with respect to start-up and inoculation. In the present study, spent bedding from two piggeries (site A and B) were batch digested at total solids (TS) concentration of 5, 10 and 20% at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures, without adding an external inoculum. The results showed that the indigenous microbial community present in spent bedding was able to recover the full methane potential of the bedding (140±5 and 227±6L CH4 kgVSfed(-1) for site A and B, respectively), but longer treatment times were required than for digestion with an added external inoculum. Nonetheless, at high solid loadings (i.e. TS level>10%), the digestion performance was affected by chemical inhibition due to ammonia and/or humic acid. Thermophilic temperatures did not influence digestion performance but did increase start-up failure risk. Further, inoculation of residues from the batch digestion to subsequent batch enhanced start-up and achieved full methane potential recovery of the bedding. Inoculation with liquid residue (leachate) was preferred over a solid residue, to preserve treatment capacity for fresh substrate. Overall, the study highlighted that indigenous microbial community in the solid manure residue was capable of recovering full methane potential and that solid-phase digestion was ultimately limited by chemical inhibition rather than lack of suitable microbial community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaybak, Zehra; Pisciotta, John M; Tokash, Justin C; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-12-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34 ± 4 mA/m(2). Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs.

  18. Fusion core start-up, ignition and burn simulations of reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yuh-Yi

    1988-01-01

    A transient reactor simulation model is developed to investigate and simulate the start-up, ignition and burn of a reversed-field pinch reactor. The simulation is based upon a spatially averaged plasma balance model with field profiles obtained from MHD quasi-equilibrium analysis. Alpha particle heating is estimated from Fokker-Planck calculations. The instantaneous plasma current is derived from a self-consistent circuit analysis for plasma/coil/eddy current interactions. The simulation code is applied to the TITAN RFP reactor design which features a compact, high-power-density reversed-field pinch fusion system. A contour analysis is performed using the steady-state global plasma balance. The results are presented with contours of constant plasma current. A saddle point is identified in the contour plot which determines the minimum value of plasma current required to achieve ignition. An optimized start-up to ignition and burn path can be obtained by passing through the saddle point. The simulation code is used to study and optimize the start-up scenario. In the simulations of the TITAN RFP reactor, the OH-driven superconducting EF coils are found to deviate from the required equilibrium values as the induced plasma current increases. This results in the modification of superconducting EF coils and the addition of a set of EF trim coils. The design of the EF coil system is performed with the simulation code subject to the optimization of trim-coil power and current. In addition, the trim-coil design is subject to the constraints of vertical-field stability index and maintenance access. A power crowbar is also needed to prevent the superconducting EF coils from generating excessive vertical field. A set of basic results from the simulation of TITAN RFP reactor yield a picture of RFP plasma operation in a reactor. Investigations of eddy current are also presented. 145 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Development and optimization of new generation Start-Up Instrumentation systems (SUI) for domestic CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Elnara

    Due to the age and operating experience of Bruce Power units, equipment ageing and obsolescence has become one of the main challenges that need to be resolved for all systems, structures and components in order to ensure a safe and reliable production of energy. The research objectives of this thesis will focus on methodology for modernization of Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), both in-core and Control Room equipment, using a new generation of detectors and cables in order to manage obsolescence. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a new systematic approach to SUI installation/replacement procedure development and optimization. Although some additional features, such as real-time data monitoring and storage/archiving solutions for SUI systems are also examined to take full advantage of today's digital technology, the objective of this thesis does not include detailed parametrical studies of detector or system performance. Instead, a number of technological, operational and maintenance issues associated with Start-Up Instrumentation systems at Bruce Power will be identified in this project and a structured approach to developing a replacement/installation procedure that can be standardized and used across all of the domestic CANDU stations is proposed. Finally, benefits of Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for all stages of plant life management, such as system design, development, operation and maintenance are demonstrated. Keywords: Task Breakdown and Analysis methodology, installation/removal procedure development and optimization, risk-based analysis and optimization, Hierarchical Control Chart (HCC) methodology for system maintenance and troubleshooting, Start-Up Instrumentation (SUI), Ion Chambers, Fission Chambers, proportional counters, Shutdown System 1 (SDS1), Shutdown System 2 (SDS2).

  20. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaybak, Zehra

    2013-12-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34±4mA/m2. Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Finding competitive intelligence on Internet start-up companies: a study of secondary resource use and information-seeking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from a study of CI activities involving Internet start-up companies in the telecommunications industry. The CI gathering was conducted by graduate students in library and information science in the context of a class project for a real business client, itself a small Internet start-up company. The primary objective of the study was to provide empirical insights into the applicability of specific types of secondary information resources to finding competitive intelligence information on small Internet start-up companies. An additional objective was to identify the characteristics of research strategies applied in the collection of CI on Internet start-ups from the perspective of current conceptual frameworks of information-seeking behaviour presented in the library and information science literature. This study revealed some interesting findings regarding the types of secondary information resources that can be used to find competitive intelligence on small, Internet start-up companies. The study also provided insight into the characteristics of the overall information-seeking strategies that are applied in this type of competitive intelligence research.

  2. Having your cake and eating it too; effective engagement in start-ups from an academic seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Chad

    2012-02-01

    In order for scientific advances to have a positive impact on society, they must be successfully transitioned from conceptually fundamental endeavors in academic research laboratories to valuable enabling technologies at start-up companies. Nanosphere, NanoInk, and AuraSense are three start-up companies that have been spun out of Northwestern based on research initiated in my laboratory. These companies are focused on commercializing nanotechnology-based applications in the life science and semiconductor industries and have turned discoveries from my lab into viable commercial products. For example, several of the systems developed at these start-ups are in the clinical trial phase, with one already approved by the FDA, and they are poised to have a positive world-wide impact. Herein, I discuss the challenges associated with identifying commercial value in academic research projects, securing intellectual property, forming a company as a legal entity, and locating sources of start-up funds. Further, I will discuss the rewards of venturing into such enterprises and the ways of ensuring a start-up company's long-term success, while juggling the numerous responsibilities of an academic seat. I argue that these two activities are done not in competition, but rather are integral for driving the type of high-level, synergistic scientific research that is being done today.

  3. Startup of the Anammox Process in a Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) from Conventional Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwiński, P; Cema, G; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A; Surmacz-Górska, J; Osadnik, M

    2016-12-01

      In this study, a laboratory-scale anammox process in a membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was used to startup the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process from conventional activated sludge. Stable operation was achieved after 125 days. From that time, nitrogen load was gradually increased. After six months, the average nitrogen removal efficiency exceeded 80%. The highest obtained special anammox activity (SAA) achieved was 0.17 g (-N + -N) (g VSS × d)-1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization also proved the presence of the anammox bacteria, typically a genus of Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis.

  4. Public Policy and Success of Business Start-ups in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Eckl, Verena; Rothgang, Michael; Welter, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the success of publicly supported business start-ups by comparing the outcomes of various support measures. Our question is: do business starter get what they need? Since we do not know the needs of the founders we analyse (1) who received which kind of support (financial support, individual coaching, general information) and (2) which kind of support is successful for whom with regard to his/her job history (employed, unemployed or being not part of the job market)...

  5. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  6. Dual Role of Viscosity During Start-Up of a Maxwell Fluid in a Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玲; 朱克勤

    2004-01-01

    Based on the exact solution of start-up flow of Maxwell fluids in a long circular straight pipe, the effect of viscosity on the time of flow establishment is analysed. It is found that the viscosity of Maxwell fluids plays a dual role.A key parameter is the dimensionless relaxation time λ-. For 0 <λ-< 0.0432, the viscosity mainly plays the same role as in Newtonian fluids, and the time of flow establishment decreases with the increasing viscosity; for λ- > 0.0432, the viscosity mainly plays a role of strengthening the oscillation, and the time of flow establishment increases with the incremental viscosity.

  7. Experience in design and startup of distillation towers in primary crude oil processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Y.N.; D' yakov, V.G.; Mamontov, G.V.; Sheinman, V.A.; Ukhin, V.V.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes a refinery in the city of Mathura, India, with a capacity of 7 million metric tons of crude per year, designed and constructed to include the following units: AVT for primary crude oil processing; catalytic cracking; visbreaking; asphalt; and other units. A diagram of the atmospheric tower with stripping sections is shown, and the stabilizer tower is illustrated. The startup and operation of the AVT and visbreaking units are described, and they demonstrate the high reliability and efficiency of the equipment.

  8. Production of jets accompanied by W and Z bosons at LHC startup

    CERN Document Server

    Dobur, Didar

    2009-01-01

    We report on potential for measurement of W and Z boson production accompanied by jets. Of particular interest are jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ distributions. The 10 to 100 $pb^{-1}$ datasets expected in the startup year of operation of LHC are likely to already provide information beyond the reach of the Tevatron collider both in jet multiplicity and $P_{\\rm T}$ range. We are especially interested in understanding the ratios of W+jets to Z+jets distributions by comparing them to next-to-leading order Monte Carlo generators, as these processes present a formidable background for searches of new physics phenomena.

  9. Vapor Flow Patterns During a Start-Up Transient in Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Ghoniem, N, M.; Catton, I.

    1996-01-01

    The vapor flow patterns in heat pipes are examined during the start-up transient phase. The vapor core is modelled as a channel flow using a two dimensional compressible flow model. A nonlinear filtering technique is used as a post process to eliminate the non-physical oscillations of the flow variables. For high-input heat flux, multiple shock reflections are observed in the evaporation region. The reflections cause a reverse flow in the evaporation and circulations in the adiabatic region. Furthermore, each shock reflection causes a significant increase in the local pressure and a large pressure drop along the heat pipe.

  10. Market research and plan for Chinese fast-food restaurant start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Tianhao

    2017-01-01

    CENTRIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Market research and plan for Chinese fast-food restaurant start-up Instructor Due to the popularity of fast-food services in the Helsinki region, this thesis studies the possibility to find out the market opportunities for Chinese traditional fast-food business. Most of the fast-food restaurants opened are according to European flavor, so there is almost a void for Chinese fast-food to fill in, plus the Helsinki region is an area of ...

  11. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target -the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined.

  12. Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis of Transients of Induction Motor with Soft Starter Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA, G. N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the parameters of the machine and of the soft starter on the dynamics of the induction machine start. In order to evaluate the effects of this variation we have used a design of experiments (DOE. The situations may reproduce actual situations occurred in practice, for example the variation of initial voltage Ui , modification of the start time and load value. In the present paper we have investigated the relation between the inrush current, voltage dip at the startup of one industrial soft starter. Using an already predefined fire angle characteristic the influence of the initial voltage was also evaluated.

  13. Growth Hacking in Start-ups (Case Study IranAuto Oy)

    OpenAIRE

    Salemisohi, Behdad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to make the reader familiar with the growth hacking concepts and the usage of certain hacks in start-ups. VaseForoosh.com at IranAuto Oy Company has been the practical case throughout the studies. VaseForoosh meaning ‘For Sale’ in Persian, is a website similar to Nettiauto in Finland, mainly with the purpose of trading cars and bikes online in Iran. The website has been up since 2011 but haven’t gained enough audience for its services. The aim is to gr...

  14. Ownership Structure and R&D Investment of Japanese Start-up Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Okamuro, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Jian Xiong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the influence of ownership structure on the research and development (R&D) investment of start-up firms. Previous studies on the relationship between ownership and R&D have concentrated on the large, established firms listed on the stock market and have focused on the concentration of ownership, regardless of the types of large shareholders. We argue that the type of large shareholders is an important factor in promoting R&D investment under asymmetric information an...

  15. Social network analysis for startups finding connections on the social web

    CERN Document Server

    Tsvetovat, Maksim

    2011-01-01

    Does your startup rely on social network analysis? This concise guide provides a statistical framework to help you identify social processes hidden among the tons of data now available. Social network analysis (SNA) is a discipline that predates Facebook and Twitter by 30 years. Through expert SNA researchers, you''ll learn concepts and techniques for recognizing patterns in social media, political groups, companies, cultural trends, and interpersonal networks. You''ll also learn how to use Python and other open source tools-such as NetworkX, NumPy, and Matplotlib-to gather, analyze, and vis

  16. Do Specific Growth Drivers Exist for Firms? A Regional Analysis of Start-ups and Industrial Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL I. OJEAGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of start-ups, have remained largely a micro economic issue. Firms are the key drivers of industrial sector GDP (or enterprise growth in countries across regions. Few studies have tried to examine the consequence of start-ups in the broad macroeconomics terms on enterprise growth in general with special emphasis on industrial sector output. This study provides a macroeconomic study of the effect of start- ups on industrial sector growth for countries in some specific geographical regions of the world. Panel data is utilized due to it obvious advantages such its ability to utilize a panel of short time frames and its suitability for controlling for omitted variable bias and unobservable heterogeneity across regions. The results show that start-ups remain an intrinsic variable for enterprise growth and industrial sector output discussion in general.

  17. Startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in continuous-flow reactor with granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The startup and long term operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in a continuous-flow reactor (CFR) with granules were investigated in this study. Through reducing the settling time from 9min to 3min gradually, the startup of EBPR in a CFR with granules was successfully realized in 16days. Under continuous-flow operation, the granules with good phosphorus and COD removal performance were stably operated for more than 6months. And the granules were characterized with particle size of around 960μm, loose structure and good settling ability. During the startup phase, polysaccharides (PS) was secreted excessively by microorganisms to resist the influence from the variation of operational mode. Results of relative quantitative PCR indicated that granules dominated by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were easier accumulated in the CFR because more excellent settling ability was needed in the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low start-up voltage dc–dc converter with negative voltage control for thermoelectric energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Sun Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This Letter presents a low start-up voltage dc–dc converter for low-power thermoelectric systems which uses a native n-type MOS transistor as the start-up switch. The start-up voltage of the proposed converter is 300 mV and the converter does not need batteries to start up. The negative voltage control is proposed to reduce the leakage current caused by native n-type transistor and increase the efficiency. The proposed converter was designed using standard 0.18 µm CMOS process with chip size of 0.388 mm^2. The peak efficiency is 63% at load current of 1.5 mA. The proposed converter provides output voltage >1 V at maximum load current of 3.2 mA.

  19. Electrical conductivity as a state indicator for the start-up period of anaerobic fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, A; Latrille, E; Ribes, J; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the applicability of electrical conductivity sensors for on-line monitoring the start-up period of an anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The evolution of bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate was analysed. Strong linear relationships between electrical conductivity and both bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate were observed. On-line estimations of the studied parameters were carried out in a new start-up period by applying simple linear regression models, which resulted in a good concordance between both observed and predicted values. Electrical conductivity sensors were therefore identified as an interesting method for monitoring the start-up period of anaerobic fixed-bed reactors due to its reliability, robustness, easy operation, low cost, and minimum maintenance compared with the currently used sensors.

  20. The Value of a Biotechnology Start-up: Creative Destruction and Real Options Approach The Value of a Biotechnology Start-up: Creative Destruction and Real Options Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Maya Ochoa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The value of investments in high growth start-up firms is difficult to assess because payments are far in the future and their arrival is uncertain. Some of these firms may seem overvalued according to traditional methods, such as the Net Present Value, which fails to account for three drivers of value for highly innovative industries: intellectual capital as the engine of innovation, market power as the expectation of monopolistic power when innovating, and a growth option which may be exercised in the case of success.This paper presents a case study on a biotechnology start-up and applies the Creative Destruction – Real Options approach (CD-ROA (Maya, 2004 which takes into account all three drivers of value and is able to explain the high prices investors pay for shares of a company in this industry. It proves that such prices are not cases of overpricing but of recognition of the large growth potential of firms which are part of highly innovative industries.La valoración de la inversión en compañías nacientes de alto crecimiento no estarea fácil, pues los ingresos esperados se generan en un futuro lejano y bajo granincertidumbre. De acuerdo con métodos tradicionales de valoración como el ValorPresente Neto, el mercado parece sobrevalorar algunas de estas compañías. Ello sedebe a que estos métodos tradicionales no tienen en cuenta tres elementos esencialesque determinan el valor en estos casos: el capital intelectual como el motor de lainnovación, el poder de mercado por la expectativa de ingresos monopolísticos sise da la innovación y una opción real de crecimiento que puede ser ejercida en casode éxito.Este artículo aplica a una empresa de biotecnología el enfoque de opciones realesy destrucción creativa (Maya, 2004, el cual incluye estos tres determinantes delvalor y logra explicar el alto precio que los inversionistas pagan por una acción deeste tipo de empresas. Se demuestra que éste no es un caso de