WorldWideScience

Sample records for dwelling chinese hypertensive

  1. eGFRs from Asian-modified CKD-EPI and Chinese-modified CKD-EPI equations were associated better with hypertensive target organ damage in the community-dwelling elderly Chinese: the Northern Shanghai Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongwei Ji,1,* Han Zhang,1,* Jing Xiong,1 Shikai Yu,1 Chen Chi,1 Bin Bai,1 Jue Li,2 Jacques Blacher,3 Yi Zhang,1,* Yawei Xu1,* 1Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, 2Department of Prevention, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Diagnosis and Therapeutic Center, Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: With increasing age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR decline is a frequent manifestation and is strongly associated with other preclinical target organ damage (TOD. In literature, many equations exist in assessing patients’ eGFR. However, these equations were mainly derived and validated in the population from Western countries, which equation should be used for risk stratification in the Chinese population remains unclear, as well as their comparison. Considering that TOD is a good marker for risk stratification in the elderly, in this analysis, we aimed to investigate whether the recent eGFR equations derived from Asian and Chinese are better associated with preclinical TOD than the other equations in elderly Chinese.Methods: A total of 1,599 community-dwelling elderly participants (age >65 years in northern Shanghai were prospectively recruited from June 2014 to August 2015. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors were assessed, and hypertensive TOD including left ventricular mass index (LVMI, carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, ankle–brachial index (ABI and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR was evaluated for each participant. Participant’s eGFR was calculated from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI, Chinese-abbreviated MDRD (c-aMDRD, Asian-modified CKD-EPI (aCKD-EPI equation and Chinese-modified CKD-EPI (cCKD-EPI equation.Results: In multivariate

  2. Chinese Climate and Vernacular Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial and economic expansion of China, particularly its rapid urbanization, has resulted in dramatic increased consumption of energy resources and the resulting environmental impacts at local, regional and global levels. Although a national program aimed at the technological development of sustainable buildings with energy saving potential is ongoing, it is also appropriate to consult vernacular architectural tradition. This holds the potential to learn and adapt important cultural ideas developed over time on the art of balancing thermal comfort between climate and limited resources. This paper explores the five different climatic regions into which China is partitioned by the Chinese authorities: severe cold region, cold region, moderate region, hot summer and cold winter region, and hot summer and mild winter region. Analysis of each region covers the climate and its vernacular architecture with a special focus on how sustainability was addressed. Finally, regional climate scenario has been analyzed on the basis of data from Meteonorm V6.1 with special attention paid to passive design strategies.

  3. Extracellular fluid management and hypertension in urban dwelling versus rural dwelling hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Lloyd, Anita; Pannu, Neesh; Klarenbach, Scott; Ravani, Pietro; Jindal, Kailash; MacRae, Jennifer; Unsworth, Larry; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda

    2018-02-01

    Rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients have less frequent contact with nephrologists than urban-dwelling patients, and are known to have higher mortality. We hypothesized that rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients would have more evidence of poorly controlled extracellular fluid volume (ECVF) than otherwise similar urban-dwellers. We studied prevalent hemodialysis patients within a single renal program in Alberta, Canada and assessed ECFV using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Our primary outcome was impedance vector length (ohm/m) as assessed by BIS using the Xitron Hydra 4200 device, where shorter vector length indicated poorer ECFV control. Because poor ECFV control can lead to hypertension, we also assessed pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure. We measured outcomes at baseline. We studied 228 hemodialysis patients, of whom 115 (50.4 %) and 113 (49.6 %) were urban- and rural-dwelling, respectively. There were no differences in volume control in urban versus rural participants; odds ratio (OR) for vector length in the lowest sex-specific quartile of vector length was 0.93 (95 % CI 0.54, 1.59) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetic status, years since dialysis initiation and phase angle. The odds of very poor blood pressure control (pre-dialysis blood pressure ≥180/100) did not differ between urban and rural participants [fully adjusted OR 0.96 (0.36, 2.60)]. Differences in ECFV control do not appear to explain higher mortality among remote- and rural- dwelling hemodialysis patients, compared to urban-dwellers.

  4. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research.

  5. Hypertension unawareness among Chinese patients with first-ever stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low rates of hypertension treatment and control, partly due to its unawareness, are the main causes of the high stroke incidence in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hypertension unawareness amongst patients with first-ever stroke and to detect factors associated with its unawareness. Methods We selected those diagnosed with hypertension from patients with first-ever stroke registered in the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between 2004 and 2014. These hypertensives were divided as being aware or unaware of their hypertension by using a brief questionnaire conducted shortly after the stroke. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential factors associated with hypertension unawareness. Results Of the 5309 patients with first-ever stroke, 3732 (70.3 % were diagnosed with hypertension. Among which, 593 (15.9 % were unaware of their hypertension at the time of stroke onset. Lower-level of education (primary school or illiteracy and smoking were associated positively with hypertension unawareness; while advanced age, overweight, diabetes mellitus, heart diseases and family history of stroke were associated negatively with hypertension unawareness. Annual data analyzed indicated that the rate of hypertension awareness increased during the past 11 years (r = 0.613, P = 0.045 for trends. Conclusions A substantial proportion (15.9 % of Chinese patients with hypertension had not been aware of this covert risk until an overt stroke occurred. Hypertension unawareness was associated with lower educational levels and smoking, which address the importance of health education especially in these individuals.

  6. Insomnia Severity Index: psychometric properties with Chinese community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Despite the high prevalence of insomnia in older people and its detrimental impact on well-being and healthcare costs, this problem is almost always undetected and consequently under-treated. The Insomnia Severity Index is psychometrically sound in measuring perceived insomnia severity. However, it has had very limited application in non-White populations. An instrument validation study was carried out between October 2008 and April 2009. The Insomnia Severity Index was translated into Chinese using Brislin's model and administered to a convenience sample of 585 older Chinese people recruited from three community centres for elders. Other instruments were also administered, including the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Cronbach's alpha of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index was 0.81, with item-to-total correlations in the range of 0.34-0.67. Construct validity was supported by its moderate relationship with the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep efficiency. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index also indicated more severe level of insomnia in older people who reported depressed mood on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Discriminant validity was supported as the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index could discriminate poorer sleepers from normal sleepers. Exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor structure for the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index in measuring the severity and impacts of insomnia on the Chinese older people. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a culturally-relevant and psychometrically-sound instrument for assessing severity and impact of insomnia in Chinese community-dwelling older people. Nurses can use this tool to assess older people's perceptions of insomnia. © 2010 The

  7. Relationship between chronic kidney disease with diabetes or hypertension and frailty in community-dwelling Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungchul; Lee, Sangyoon; Harada, Kazuhiro; Bae, Seongryu; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between kidney function with concomitant diabetes or hypertension and frailty in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. The participants were 9606 residents (community-dwelling Japanese older adults) who completed baseline assessments. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) was determined according to the serum creatinine level, and participants were classified into four mutually exclusive categories: ≥60.0 (normal range), 45.0-59.9, 30.0-44.9 and who met three, four or five criteria satisfied the definition of having frailty. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate and frailty. After multivariate adjustment, participants with lower kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate hypertension (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.45-5.12) showed a significantly increased risk of frailty in the lower kidney function group, regardless of multivariate controls. Furthermore, the analyses showed an even greater increase in the risk of frailty in patients with a history of both diabetes and hypertension (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.13-14.1) CONCLUSIONS: A lower level of kidney function was associated with a higher risk of frailty in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1527-1533. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO 2 , VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its

  9. [Chinese expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in the elderly(2017)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    China has stepped into an aging society. Hypertension is an independent risk factor of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and related to mortality and disability of the elderly. Compared to middle-aged and young patients with similar blood pressure elevation, the risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events significantly increase in the elderly. Since the Chinese expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in the elderly(2008, 2011 version) were published, many guidelines have been accordingly updated, which further improved the prevention and control strategy of hypertension. In this article, Chinese expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in the elderly(2017) is revised as to facilitate the prevention and treatment of hypertension in Chinese elderly. The consensus is composed of eight parts, including definition, epidemiology, characteristics, evidence, treatment objectives and measurements of elderly hypertension. The purpose of the consensus is to provide guidance for management of elderly hypertensive patients.

  10. Reliability and validity of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) among Chinese community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijuan; Liu, Na; Tian, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Xiaoxia; Gobbens, Robbert J J; Kane, Robert L; Wang, Cuili

    2017-11-01

    To translate the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) into Chinese and assess its reliability and validity. A sample of 917 community-dwelling older people, aged ≥60 years, in a Chinese city was included between August 2015 and March 2016. Construct validity was assessed using alternative measures corresponding to the TFI items, including self-rated health status (SRH), unintentional weight loss, walking speed, timed-up-and-go tests (TUGT), making telephone calls, grip strength, exhaustion, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), Geriatric Depression scale (GDS-15), emotional role, Adaptability Partnership Growth Affection and Resolve scale (APGAR) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). Fried's phenotype and frailty index were measured to evaluate criterion validity. Adverse health outcomes (ADL and IADL disability, healthcare utilization, GDS-15, SSRS) were used to assess predictive (concurrent) validity. The internal consistency reliability was good (Cronbach's α=0.71). The test-retest reliability was strong (r=0.88). Kappa coefficients showed agreements between the TFI items and corresponding alternative measures. Alternative measures correlated as expected with the three domains of TFI, with an exclusion that alternative psychological measures had similar correlations with psychological and physical domains of the TFI. The Chinese TFI had excellent criterion validity with the AUCs regarding physical phenotype and frailty index of 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The predictive (concurrent) validities of the adverse health outcomes and healthcare utilization were acceptable (AUCs: 0.65-0.83). The Chinese TFI has good validity and reliability as an integral instrument to measure frailty of older people living in the community in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of prevalence of sarcopenia by using a new bioelectrical impedance analysis in Chinese community-dwelling elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hai, Shan; Cao, Li; Zhou, Jianghua; Liu, Ping; Dong, Bi-Rong

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China. A total of 944 community-dwelling elderly adults aged ≥60 years were included. ASM was measured by using DXA as a criterion method to validate a standing eight-electrode multifrequency BIA (InBody 720), followed by a further estimation of the prevalence of sarcopenia according the AWGS definition. In the Bland-Altman analysis, no significant difference was found between DXA and BIA based on the ASM measurements. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was 12.5% in the elderly women and 8.2% in the elderly men. BIA is suitable for body composition monitoring (ASM) in elderly Chinese as a fast, noninvasive, and convenient method; therefore, it may be a better choice in large epidemiological studies in the Chinese population. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was approximately 10.4% and increased with age in the Chinese community-dwelling elderly in this study.

  12. Assessing Public's Knowledge About Hypertension in a Community-Dwelling Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshah, Nidal F; Al-Daken, Laila I

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases that affect a high proportion of people worldwide. Understanding people's levels of knowledge about hypertension might contribute effectively to nurses' efforts to prevent, treat, and control the disease. The objectives of this study were to identify the levels of knowledge about hypertension disease among Jordanian adults and to identify differences in knowledge about hypertension on the basis of sociodemographic and clinical variables. A convenience sample was used in this descriptive comparison design as was the Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale, which measures 6 dimensions of knowledge about hypertension (definition, treatment, drug compliance, lifestyle, diet, and complications). There were 284 participants, and the mean total knowledge about hypertension was 73.65. The participants had higher levels of knowledge about lifestyle and complications; lower scores were recorded for definition of hypertension as well as the relationship between diet and hypertension. Participants with higher education levels, who watched health programs, exercised regularly, visited their physicians regularly, and had other chronic diseases, had greater knowledge about hypertension. Although the total level of knowledge about hypertension is good among the participants, more efforts are needed to improve all dimensions of hypertension-related knowledge. Sociodemographic and clinical variables have significant relationships with levels of knowledge about hypertension. This necessitates the importance of considering these variables when designing and providing health educational programs.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes for Essential Hypertension: A Literature Analysis of 13,272 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination.

  14. [Overview and prospect of syndrome differentiation of hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Chen; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    This article is to overview the literature of syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine on hypertension. According to the theory of disease in combination with syndrome, we concluded syndrome types of hypertension in four aspects, including national standards, industry standards, teaching standards and personal experience. Meanwhile, in order to provide new methods and approaches for normalized research, we integrated modern testing methods and statistical methods to analyze syndrome differentiation for the treatment of hypertension.

  15. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged Chinese: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect and relative contributions of different types of stress on the risk of hypertension. Using cluster sampling, 5,976 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-60 were selected. Hypertension was defined according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee, and general psychological stress was defined as experiencing stress at work or home. Information on known risk factors of hypertension (e.g., physical activity levels, food intake, smoking behavior was collected from participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associations between psychological stress and hypertension, calculating population-attributable risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. General stress was significantly related to hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.247, 95% CI [1.076, 1.446]. Additionally, after adjustment for all other risk factors, women showed a greater risk of hypertension if they had either stress at work or at home: OR = 1.285, 95% CI (1.027, 1.609 and OR = 1.231, 95% CI (1.001, 1.514, respectively. However, this increased risk for hypertension by stress was not found in men. General stress contributed approximately 9.1% (95% CI [3.1, 15.0] to the risk for hypertension. Thus, psychological stress was associated with an increased risk for hypertension, although this increased risk was not consistent across gender.

  16. The association between sleep duration and physical performance in Chinese community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liyuan; Jia, Liye; Zhang, Wen; Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Hairui; Zhai, Tianqi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Guo, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Physical performance is an important healthy factor in elder people. Good living habits, which include sleep, can maintain physical strength and physical performance. The aim of the present study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to determine the association between total sleep duration and physical performance. Our study population comprised residents of the township central hospital in the suburban of Tianjin, China. We measured muscle strength, walk speed and balance function by grip, 4-m walk test and timed up and go test (TUGT). We divided sleep duration into four groups 8-9h, >9h. A total 898 participants had completed data (392 men and 506 women, mean age 67.71 years). In man, adjusted sleep duration was associated with lower grip in > 9 h group, the mean value (95% CI) was 0.429 (0.409, 0.448), and longer TUGT time was also associated with long sleep duration, 10.46s (9.97 s, 10.95 s). In women, adjusted slower 4-m walk speed present an inverse U-shaped relation with sleep duration, by 0.93 m/s (0.86 m/s, 0.98 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.96 m/s, 1.00 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.95 m/s, 0.99 m/s) and 0.92 m/s (0.89 m/s, 0.96 m/s); longer TUGT time were associated with long sleep duration (> 9 h), by 11.23 s (10.70 s, 11.77 s). In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, lower muscle strength and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in men. Slower walk speed and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in women.

  17. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Sarcopenia in Suburb-dwelling Older Chinese Using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Suxing; Wang, Xiuyang; Dong, Renwei; Ma, Yixuan; Shi, Yu; Shi, Zhiyang; Li, Hongquan; Li, Chen; Ma, Yige; Wang, Liancheng; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a common condition in older people. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in an elderly Chinese suburb-dwelling population. This study was conducted on 1,069 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, as well as medical conditions, were considered independent variables to determine factors associated with sarcopenia using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.4% in men and 11.5% in women. Age was a significant factor in both sexes. In addition, presence of sarcopenia was inversely associated with BMI for both sexes. The odds ration and 95% confidence interval for factors statistically significantly associated with sarcopenia were 5.04 (1.70-14.89) and 2.36 (1.06-5.25) for diabetes in males and females, respectively; 10.60 (1.75-64.24) for daily consumption of alcohol (daily drinkers), 5.58 (2.13-14.59) for peptic ulcer in female (not statistically significant in males). The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criterion is useful for defining sarcopenia, and our data suggest that the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general elderly suburb-dwelling Chinese population is high. Moreover, we find that high body mass index is inversely associated with the likelihood of being sarcopenic and that several others factors such as diabetes, peptic ulcer, and drinking habits increase the prevalence of sarcopenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Expert Consensus on the Treatment of Hypertension with Chinese Patent Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was aimed to determine the therapeutic principle and identify Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM with corresponding indications for hypertension treatment. Methods. Three rounds of Delphi survey were mailed among 40 cardiovascular integrative medicine specialists. Items with agreement of more than 80% respondents were included in the consensus. Results. According to majority of the panelists, CPM is suitable for most hypertensive patients and should be used according to traditional Chinese medicine pattern classification. CPM could be used alone for grade 1 hypertension and could be used in combination with Western biomedicine (WM for both grade 2 and grade 3 hypertension. It is recommended that less than two CPMs are used simultaneously. For the treatment of grade 2 and 3 hypertension, CPM and WM should be taken separately. Recommended CPMs included Tianma Gouteng granule, Qiju Dihuang capsule, Jinkui Shenqi pill, Yinxingye tablet, Niuhuang Jiangya pill and Banxia Tianma pill. The indications of 4 CPMs were specified with symptoms related to TCM pattern classification by the experts. Conclusions. An expert consensus on CMP application was formed for the treatment of hypertension in the form of integrative medicine. A flow of IM hypertension management was proposed based on the results of the survey.

  19. Correlation between tea consumption and prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Yang, J; Zhu, X S; Li, S C; Ho, P C

    2016-01-01

    By a cross-sectional epidemiology study, we attempted to correlate the consumption of tea and/or health supplements, living habits and socio-demographic factors to the prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents. Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face by clinical research assistants. Hypertension was defined as measured systolic blood pressure at least 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure at least 90  mmHg or self-reported history/treatment for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among the whole investigated population (N=1184, 58.27% females) was 49.73% and the prevalence increased to 66.47% in the sub-population aged ⩾60 years. High risk of hypertension was associated with age ⩾60 years (odds ratio (OR): 4.15-4.19, P25 kg m(-2), OR: 2.10-2.11, Pcoffee intake (OR: 1.44-1.46, Pcoffee could be a risk factor of hypertension. These findings may provide useful information for health promotion to reduce risk of hypertension and warrant further study to confirm and elucidate such association.

  20. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of primary hypertension: a methodology overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinke, Zhao; Yingdong, Li; Mingxia, Feng; Kai, Liu; Kaibing, Chen; Yuqing, Lu; Shaobo, Sun; Peng, Song; Bin, Liu

    2016-10-20

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015. We used AMSTAR to evaluate the methodological quality of included reviews, and we classified the quality of evidence for each outcome in included reviews using the GRADE approach. A total of 12 systematic reviews with 31 outcomes were included, among which 11 systematic reviews focus on the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional medicine or simple Chinese herbal medicine versus simple conventional medicine. Among the 11 items of AMSTAR, the lowest quality was "providing a priori design" item, none review conformed to this item, the next was "stating the conflict of interest" item, only three reviews conformed to this item. Five reviews scored less than seven in AMSTAR, which means that the overall methodological quality was fairly poor. For GRADE, of the 31 outcomes, the quality of evidence was high in none (0 %), moderate in three (10 %), low in 19 (61 %), and very low in nine (29 %). Of the five downgrading factors, risk of bias (100 %) was the most common downgrading factor in the included reviews, followed by imprecision (42 %), inconsistency (39 %), publication bias (39 %), and indirectness (0 %). The methodological quality of systematic reviews about Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension is fairly poor, and the quality of evidence level is low. Physicians should be cautious when applying the interventions in these reviews for primary hypertension patients in

  1. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Fen Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of different dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among a middle-aged Chinese population remain extremely scare. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults aged 45–60 years. The present cross-sectional study includes 2560 participants who reported their dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. We used log-binomial regression analysis to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension risk. Four major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater prevalence ratio (PR for hypertension (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.064–1.727; p < 0.05 in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of high-salt pattern, the highest quartile had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.013–1.635; p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that animal food and high-salt patterns were associated with increased risk of hypertension, while traditional Chinese and western fast-food patterns were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  2. Chinese Mobile Health APPs for Hypertension Management: A Systematic Evaluation of Usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuxi; Zhu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Objective To analyze and compare the usefulness of hypertension management APPs released in the Chinese market; to understand the general situations, characteristics, problems, and trends in hypertension management mHealth APPs; and to identify the gaps between mainland China products and non-mainland China products with the aim to provide recommendations for developers in industry and assist hypertensive patients in selecting suitable APPs. Methods The hypertension management APPs available by October 2016 in China were analyzed from the perspective of data items and function usefulness. Sample sets were determined through PRISMA. An evaluation item set was developed based on the usability framework of TURF and the Chinese Guideline for the Management of Hypertension and used to quantitatively analyze the functionalities and data items collected from the sample APPs from the perspective of designers, users, and activity models. Results Among the 73 Chinese-supported APPs, none of the hypertension management APPs could fully cover the usefulness item set (mean = 37.4%). Regarding the use of mobile terminal hardware, only cameras and positioning sensors are commonly used in information collection. Regarding the data items and services provided, the most commonly collected data are “demographic information” (88% versus 100%) and “vital signs” (76% versus 100%), but APPs developed in mainland China and non-mainland China provided significantly different services and profit-making patterns. Regarding data security and privacy protection, the APPs from mainland China provided far lower usefulness (31% versus 56%). Conclusions mHealth APPs can promptly and efficiently acquire sign-related data by improving the professionality and scientificity of data about healthy living habits. APPs also improve the preventive usefulness of the collected data and bring about new opportunities for the management and control of hypertension. Other important research trends

  3. Chinese Mobile Health APPs for Hypertension Management: A Systematic Evaluation of Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze and compare the usefulness of hypertension management APPs released in the Chinese market; to understand the general situations, characteristics, problems, and trends in hypertension management mHealth APPs; and to identify the gaps between mainland China products and non-mainland China products with the aim to provide recommendations for developers in industry and assist hypertensive patients in selecting suitable APPs. Methods. The hypertension management APPs available by October 2016 in China were analyzed from the perspective of data items and function usefulness. Sample sets were determined through PRISMA. An evaluation item set was developed based on the usability framework of TURF and the Chinese Guideline for the Management of Hypertension and used to quantitatively analyze the functionalities and data items collected from the sample APPs from the perspective of designers, users, and activity models. Results. Among the 73 Chinese-supported APPs, none of the hypertension management APPs could fully cover the usefulness item set (mean = 37.4%. Regarding the use of mobile terminal hardware, only cameras and positioning sensors are commonly used in information collection. Regarding the data items and services provided, the most commonly collected data are “demographic information” (88% versus 100% and “vital signs” (76% versus 100%, but APPs developed in mainland China and non-mainland China provided significantly different services and profit-making patterns. Regarding data security and privacy protection, the APPs from mainland China provided far lower usefulness (31% versus 56%. Conclusions. mHealth APPs can promptly and efficiently acquire sign-related data by improving the professionality and scientificity of data about healthy living habits. APPs also improve the preventive usefulness of the collected data and bring about new opportunities for the management and control of hypertension. Other

  4. The Prevalence and Correlates of Gambling Participation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijia Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of gambling participation and problems among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the U.S. Based on a community-based participatory research approach, the study enrolled 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. Among the participants, 58.9% were women and the average age was 72.8 years. Overall, 467 older adults had engaged in gambling in the past twelve months and 65 older adults had experienced any risk of problem gambling. Visiting a casino was the most commonly reported type of gambling, whereas betting on Mahjong had the highest frequency. Being male, lower educational levels, higher income levels, having more children, living in the U.S. for a longer period of time, living in the community for a longer period of time, better health status, lower quality of life, and improved health over the past year were significantly correlated with any gambling in the past year. Younger age, being male, and living with more people were significantly correlated with experiencing any risk of problem gambling in the past year. Future studies should be conducted to better examine the health effects of gambling and problem gambling among Chinese older adults.

  5. Associations of Common Variants at APLN and Hypertension in Chinese Subjects with and without Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor, has a potent hypotensive effect via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in vivo. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the common variants of apelin gene (APLN and hypertension, which was reported recently in a Chinese Han population with and without diabetes. Methods. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on APLN were genotyped in 3156 diabetic patients and 3736 nondiabetic individuals. For non-diabetic subjects, 1779 were enrolled in stage 1 and 1757 were recruited for validation. A meta-analysis combining the two stages was carried out to obtain the overall effect. Results. In diabetic patients, no significant associations of the three SNPs with hypertension were observed. In contrast, we found that rs2235306 was associated with hypertension in non-diabetic males after adjusting for covariates (OR=1.19, P=0.039 while rs2235307 and rs3115759 displayed no evidence of association in both genders. One haplotype, C-C-A, also showed an association with hypertension (OR=1.47, P=0.032 only in men. However, analysis in stage 2 and meta-analysis did not support these findings. Conclusions. We conclude that common variants on APLN are not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in the Chinese.

  6. Association between sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function among community-dwelling Chinese aged 60 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Shan; Wang, Hui; Cao, Li; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Jianghua; Yang, Ying; Dong, Birong

    2017-08-18

    Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function. The risk factors and causes of sarcopenia must be identified to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this syndrome. Our aim was to examine the association between sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function among community-dwelling Chinese people aged 60 years and older. We conducted this study to evaluate sarcopenia among 834 community-dwelling Chinese individuals aged ≥60 years using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. The sociodemographic characteristics, food consumption patterns, habits of smoking, and alcohol consumption of the participants were collected using a general questionnaire, whereas physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ; long-form version). Family function was assessed using the Family APGAR scale. In addition, the association of sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. The total prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 10.6%. Female participants with sarcopenia had a lower frequency per week of nut consumption than those without sarcopenia (p sarcopenia versus those without sarcopenia were not significant. Among the participants, the mean Family APGAR score was 8 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.92). For both sexes, participants with sarcopenia had lower family function scores than those without sarcopenia. In the multivariate model, after adjustment for all covariates, frequency per week of nut consumption (adjusted OR 0.724, 95% CI 0.532-0.985, P sarcopenia. The relationship between other lifestyle habits and sarcopenia was not significant. There was significant association between sarcopenia with intake of nuts and family function. Further studies should evaluate if adequate intake of nuts and a well-functioning family may be effective in lowering the risk of sarcopenia.

  7. Frequency and co-prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products for hypertension in Taiwan: a Cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Pei-Rung; Shih, Wei-Tai; Chu, Yen-Hua; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been frequently used among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension; however, the co-prescription pattern of herbal formulae and single herbs remain uncharacterized. Thus, this large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study evaluated the frequency and co-prescription pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension in Taiwan from 2003 to 2009. Methods The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the Nati...

  8. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Ji; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results about the association of sleep duration and hypertension. Given the potential relationship between sleep quality and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality on hypertension prevalence in adult Chinese males. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of 4144 male subjects. Sleep duration were measured by self-reported average sleep time during the past month. Sleep quality was evaluated using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure level ≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment. The association between hypertension prevalence, sleep duration, and sleep quality was analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics. Sleep duration shorter than 8 hours was found to be associated with increased hypertension, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52) for 7 hours, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14-1.73) for 6 hours, and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.81-3.11) for quality as the reference, good, poor, and very poor sleep quality were associated with hypertension, with odds ratios of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01-1.42), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.32-2.11), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.67-3.21), respectively. More importantly, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to hypertension indicated an additive interaction. There is an additive interaction of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration on hypertension prevalence. More comprehensive measurement of sleep should be performed in future studies.

  9. Overview of clinical use and side effect profile of valsartan in Chinese hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the Chinese and English literature for the efficacy and safety data of valsartan monotherapy or combination therapy in Chinese hypertensive patients. According to the data of ten randomized controlled trials, valsartan monotherapy was as efficacious as another angiotensin receptor blocker or other classes of antihypertensive drugs, excepting the slightly inferior diastolic blood pressure-lowering effect in comparison with calcium channel blockers. According to the data of six randomized controlled trials, valsartan combination, with hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system, was more efficacious than monotherapy of valsartan, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. According to these trials, valsartan had an acceptable tolerability, regardless of whether it was used as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Nonetheless, several rare side effects have been reported, indicating that it should still be used with caution. This is of particular importance given that there are millions of hypertensive patients, worldwide, currently exposed to the drug. PMID:24403822

  10. Social Support, Social Strain, and Cognitive Function Among Community-Dwelling U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoqing; Wu, Bei; Bailey, Donald E; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Limited research is available on the relationship between social support, social strain, and cognitive function among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the associations between social support/strain and cognitive outcomes. Data were drawn from the Population-Based Study of Chinese Elderly (N = 3,159). Cognitive function was measured by a battery of tests including the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Social support and strain were measured by the scales drawn from the Health and Retirement study. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Social support was significantly associated with global cognitive function (β = .11, SE = .02, p function (β = 1.44, SE = .37, p cognitive function (β = .23, SE = .05, p function (β = 2.75, SE = .85, p cognitive function (β = .04, SE = .02, p function (β = .71, SE = .29, p cognitive function (β = .10, SE = .03, p function (β = 1.28, SE = .49, p function (β = 3.59, SE = 1.17, p cognitive outcomes. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Association of blood glucose level and hypertension in Elderly Chinese Subjects: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qun; Sun, Dongmei; Li, Xu; Chen, Guoliang; Zheng, Qinghu; Li, Lun; Gu, Chenhong; Feng, Bo

    2016-07-13

    There is a scarcity of epidemiological researches examining the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and glucose level among older adults. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of high BP and glucose level in elderly Chinese. A cross-sectional study of a population of 2092 Chinese individuals aged over 65 years was conducted. Multiple logistic analysis was used to explore the association between hypertension and hyperglycemia. Independent risk factors for systolic and diastolic BP were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Subjects in impaired fasting glucose group (IFG) (n = 144) and diabetes (n = 346), as compared with normal fasting glucose (NFG) (n = 1277), had a significant higher risk for hypertension, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.81 (95 % CI, 1.39-2.35) (P = 0.000) and 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.09-1.80) (P = 0.009), respectively. Higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in the normal range were still significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in both genders, with ORs of 1.24 (95 % CI, 0.85-1.80), R (2) = 0.114, P = 0.023 in men and 1.61 (95 % CI, 1.12-2.30), R (2) = 0.082, P = 0.010 in women, respectively, when compared with lower FPG. Linear regression analysis revealed FPG was an independent factor of systolic and diastolic BP. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia as well as higher FPG within the normal range is associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension independent of other cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Chinese. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between hyperglycemia and hypertension in a longitudinal setting.

  12. Isolated Diastolic Hypertension Associated Risk Factors among Chinese in Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore potential risk factors of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH among young and middle-aged Chinese. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 338 subjects, aged 25 years and above, using random sampling technique. There were 68 cases of IDH, 46 cases of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, 89 cases of systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH, and 135 of subjects with normal blood pressure. Cases and controls were matched on sex by frequency matching. Demographic characteristics, blood pressure and other relevant information were collected. Results: Compared with controls, patients with IDH and ISH had significant higher level of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and body mass index (BMI (p < 0.05; while patients with SDH had significantly higher level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and BMI (p < 0.05. Linear mixed effects model showed that drinking tea, family history of hypertension (FHH, higher blood glucose, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein were related with elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP (p < 0.01; HFH, blood glucose, creatinine and BMI have positive effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Drinking tea, FHH, high levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and BMI are associated with IDH among young and middle-aged Chinese.

  13. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Factors in Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly: Comparison Between Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Langli; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Yang, Ming; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in urban and rural Chinese elderly adults and to identify the risk factors related to sarcopenia. A cross-sectional study. Urban and rural communities in western China. A total of 887 community-dwelling elderly adults aged 60 years or older. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Cognitive function, depression, and nutrition status were assessed using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the Chinese version of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30), and the revised Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF), respectively. A total of 612 individuals aged 70.6 ± 6.7 years (range, 60-91 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the study population was 9.8% (women, 12.0%; men, 6.7%; P = .031). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.1% in rural elders and 7.0% in urban elders (P = .012). Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.29), women (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.20-5.65), malnutrition or at risk for malnutrition (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.68-7.41), rural residence (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.33-4.51), and the number of medications (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.06-1.44) were independently associated with sarcopenia. Rural elders are more vulnerable to sarcopenia than urban elders in a sample of western China's elderly population. More attention should focus on rural populations in future sarcopenia studies. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The architectural form of Qikou Cave dwellings in Chinese "Earth" culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanchen; Feng, Xinqun

    2018-03-01

    Cave building is not only a kind of architecture with unique style, but also a manifestation of Chinese traditional culture. Cave culture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture. The main purpose of this thesis which studies the architectural form of Qikou Cave, is to analyze how the cave building plays a positive role in promoting the development and application of modern resources and in cultural transmission. Based on a large amount of literature material, and taking Qikou Cave as an example, by studying the morphological characteristics of cave building, the paper takes an optimistic outlook on its future development and the sustainable development of the resources. It is expected that the cave culture can be further explored to promote the traditional Chinese culture and to drive the development of modern construction industry and resource conservation.

  15. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Xiaoli; Wu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p0.05). The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’), Pielou eveness index (J), and Simpson dominance index (D). All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:25061351

  16. Mitochondrial C4375T mutation might be a molecular risk factor in a maternal Chinese hypertensive family under haplotype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Sun, Min; Fan, Zhen; Tong, Maoqing; Chen, Guodong; Li, Danhui; Ye, Jihui; Yang, Yumin; Zhu, Yongding; Zhu, Jianhua

    2017-12-04

    Here, we reported a Han Chinese essential hypertensive pedigree based on clinical hereditary and molecular data. To know the molecular basis on this family, mitochondrial genome of one proband from the family was identified through direct sequencing analysis. The age of onset year and affected degree of patients are different in this family. And matrilineal family members carrying C4375T mutation and belong to Eastern Asian halopgroup C. Phylogenetic analysis shows 4375C is highly conservative in 17 species. It is suggested that these mutations might participate in the development of hypertension in this family. And halopgroup C might play a modifying role on the phenotype in this Chinese hypertensive family.

  17. IMPACT OF A SERIOUS GAME FOR HEALTH ON CHRONIC DISEASE SELF-MANAGEMENT: PRELIMINARY EFFICACY AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John M; Pinto, Melissa D; Burant, Christopher; Pignatiello, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Most Americans will acquire a chronic disease during their lifetime. One of the most prevalent chronic diseases that affect Americans is hypertension (HTN). Despite the known comorbidities and increased mortality rate associated with uncontrolled HTN, most community dwelling adults with HTN do not have sufficient blood pressure control Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the preliminary efficacy of a serious game for health to enhance blood pressure control among community dwelling adults with HTN. A nonprobability sample of 116 community dwelling adults with HTN participated in this nonblinded, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to: (1) an intervention arm that consisted of four exposures to a serious game for health known as eSMART-HD; or (2) an attentional control arm that compromised of four exposures to screen-based HTN education. The primary outcome measure for this trial was blood pressure reduction over a four month observational period. In this study, baseline characteristics and blood pressure measurements were similar between participants in each study arm. There was no significant between-group difference in blood pressure reduction over time. However, there were significant within-group reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures across time among favoring participants exposed to eSMART-HD. This study establishes the preliminary efficacy of eSMART-HD that can be easily administered to community dwelling adults and facilitate clinically significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Future studies should assess the influential components of this promising serious game for health (eSMART-HD) combined with medication management in larger and more diverse samples of community dwelling adults with HTN.

  18. The effects of an integrated health education and exercise program in community-dwelling older adults with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeon-Hwan; Song, Misoon; Cho, Be-Long; Lim, Jae-Young; Song, Wook; Kim, Seon-Ho

    2011-01-01

    the aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of HAHA (Healthy Aging and Happy Aging) program, which is an integrated health education and exercise program for community-dwelling older adults with hypertension. older adults with hypertension from one senior center were randomly allocated to experimental (n=18) or control group (n=22). Experimental group received health education, individual counseling and tailored exercise program for 12 weeks. the mean ages were 71 years (experimental group) and 69 (control group). After the intervention, systolic blood pressure of experimental group was significantly decreased than that of control group. Scores of exercise self-efficacy, general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health in SF-36 were statistically higher than those of control group. the HAHA program was effective in control of systolic blood pressure and improving self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Chinese American Patients with Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Malcolm; Chu, Alice; Chen, Jack; Lam, Kin Yui; Portenoy, Russell; Dhingra, Lara

    2017-12-01

    Although pain can be a powerful influence on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in cancer populations, culturally-based beliefs and behaviors may directly impact HQRL or modify the association between pain and HQRL. Studies of well-defined ethnic groups may clarify these relationships and inform culturally competent clinical practices intended to reduce illness burden. We evaluated HRQL in 121 non-English-speaking Chinese immigrants with cancer pain using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) scale. Overall, 91.2 % were born in China and 86.0 % were Cantonese-speaking; 50.8 % had no formal education (mean age = 63.2 years; 68.6 % women). Although the mean FACT-G score did not differ from U.S. population norms, most subscale scores for Chinese immigrants were lower and the score for social/family well-being was higher (all p social/family well-being is preserved. Future studies in the growing population of Chinese Americans with cancer are needed to evaluate various aspects of social/family well-being and determine whether they modify the association between pain and HRQL.

  20. Chinese herbal therapy and Western drug use, belief and adherence for hypertension management in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users. When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy.Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life.

  1. Benefit finding for Chinese family caregivers of community-dwelling stroke survivors: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yongxia; Wilson, Susan; Lin, Beilei; Li, Yingshuang; Zhang, Zhenxiang

    2018-04-01

    To identify whether benefit finding is a mediator or moderator in the relationship between caregiver burden and psychological well-being (anxiety and depression) in Chinese family caregivers of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Family caregivers not only bear a heavy burden, a high level of anxiety and depression, but also experience benefit finding (positive effects result from stressful events). However, the relationships among benefit finding, caregiver burden and psychological well-being in Chinese family caregivers are not well known. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. Caregivers (n = 145) of stroke survivors were recruited from two communities in Zhengzhou, China. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with structured questionnaires, examining caregiver burden, benefit finding and psychological well-being of caregivers. A hierarchical regression analysis explored whether caregiver burden and benefit finding were associated with anxiety and depression of caregivers. The moderator role of benefit finding was examined by testing the significance of the interaction between caregiver burden and benefit finding. A mediational model was used to test benefit finding as a mediator between caregiver burden and psychological well-being of caregivers using process in spss 21.0. Caregiver burden and benefit finding were significantly associated with both anxiety and depression of caregivers. Benefit finding did not portray a moderating role, but portrayed the mediator role in the relationship between caregiver burden, anxiety and depression in caregivers. This study provides the preliminary evidence to nurses that intervention focus on benefit finding may help improve the psychological well-being of caregivers. This study offers nurses rational for assessing caregiver's negative emotions and benefit finding. By targeting benefit finding, the nurse may guide caregivers in benefit identification and implement interventions to reduce anxiety

  2. Fall risk in Chinese community-dwelling older adults: A physiological profile assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siong, Kar-Ho; Kwan, Marcella Mun-San; Lord, Stephen R; Lam, Andrew Kwok-Cheung; Tsang, William Wai-Nam; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The short-form Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) is increasingly used in clinical practice for assessing fall risk in older people. However, a normative database is only available for Caucasian populations. The purpose of the present study was to develop a normative database for Hong Kong Chinese older people and examine the fall risk profile of this population. A total of 622 participants aged 60-95 years were recruited. Participants underwent the PPA (containing tests of contrast sensitivity, proprioception, quadriceps strength, reaction time and sway), and composite fall risk scores were computed. Participants were then followed up for falls for 1 year. Quadriceps strength and lower limb proprioception scores were comparable with those reported for Caucasian populations. However, contrast sensitivity, simple reaction time and postural sway scores were relatively poor. The average composite fall risk score was 1.7 ± 1.5, showing a "moderate" fall risk when compared with the Caucasian norms. Despite the relatively poor physical performances and moderately high fall risk scores, the incidence of one plus falls in the 1-year follow-up period was just 16.4%, with just 2.6% reporting two plus falls. The area under the curve for composite fall risk scores in discriminating fallers from non-fallers was 0.53 (95% CI 0.45-0.60). Despite poorer performance in PPA tests, the incidence of prospective falls in a Hong Kong Chinese population was low. In consequence, the PPA could not discriminate well between fallers and non-fallers. The present study provided normality data for short-form PPA measures for older Chinese people as a reference for further studies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep ...

  4. Association of Anthropometric Indices of Obesity with Hypertension in Chinese Elderly: An Analysis of Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Lingzhong; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Long; Qin, Wenzhe; Ding, Gan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Zihang; Xie, Su

    2018-04-19

    This study aims to explore the association of anthropometric indices of obesity with hypertension in Chinese elderly and its possible gender and age differences. A total of 7070 adults age 60 or older were interviewed in a cross-sectional study conducted in 2017. Anthropometric indices for each participant were measured by using standard methods of trained doctoral/master students. We performed two binary logistic regression models to examine the association of the nine different anthropometric indices and hypertension by gender. Lastly, analyses were performed in two steps stratified for age. Comparing individuals with and without hypertension, there were statistically significant differences in anthropometric indices except height, a body shape index (ABSI), and hip index (HI) in males; and except height in females. There were gender differences in the relationship between anthropometric indices and the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese older adults. After stratification by age, the associations of all anthropometric indices became weaker, disappeared, or even went in the opposite direction. Furthermore, body mass index (BMI) in men (except individuals older than 80) and hip circumference (HC) in women showed a significant impact on the risk of hypertension. The association of anthropometric indices of obesity with hypertension in Chinese elderly differ by gender and age. These findings indicate a need to develop gender-specific strategies for the male and female elderly in the primary and secondary prevention of hypertension.

  5. Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chei, Choy-Lye; Loh, Julian Kenrick; Soh, Avril; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between coffee and tea, and risk of hypertension remains controversial in Western populations. We investigated these associations in an Asian population. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based prospective cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese aged 45-74 years and residing in Singapore from 1993 to 1998. Information on consumption of coffee, tea, and other lifestyle factors was collected at baseline, and self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension was assessed during two follow-up interviews (1999-2004, 2006-2010). We identified 13,658 cases of incident hypertension after average 9.5 years. Compared to those who drank one cup of coffee/day, the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.87 (0.83-0.91) for hypertension risk; compared to the lowest intake (<50 mg/day), those in the highest intake (≥300 mg/day) had a 16% increase in risk; HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31 (p trend = 0.02). Drinking coffee <1 cup/week or ≥3 cups/day had lower risk than drinking one cup/day. Caffeine may account for increased risk in daily tea drinkers and in those who drank one cup of coffee/day. The inverse U-shaped association with coffee suggests that at higher doses, other ingredients in coffee may offset the effect of caffeine and confer benefit on blood pressure.

  6. Frequency and co-prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products for hypertension in Taiwan: a Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Rung; Shih, Wei-Tai; Chu, Yen-Hua; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Ching-Yuan

    2015-06-06

    Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been frequently used among patients with chronic diseases including hypertension; however, the co-prescription pattern of herbal formulae and single herbs remain uncharacterized. Thus, this large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study evaluated the frequency and co-prescription pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension in Taiwan from 2003 to 2009. The database of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims was obtained from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Patients with hypertension during study period were defined according to diagnostic codes in the International Classification of Disease Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The frequencies and percentages of herbal formula and single herb prescriptions for hypertension were analyzed. We also applied association rules to evaluate the CHPs co-prescription patterns. The hypertension cohort included 154,083 patients, 123,240 patients of which (approximately 80 %) had used TCM at least once. In total, 81,582 visits involving CHP prescriptions were hypertension related; Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin and Dan Shen (Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae) were the most frequently prescribed herbal formula and single herb, respectively, for treating hypertension. This study elucidated the utilization pattern of CHPs for treating hypertension. Future studies on the efficacy and safety of these CHPs and on drug-herb interactions are warranted.

  7. Neighbouring green space and mortality in community-dwelling elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Yu, Ruby; Wong, Samuel Y S; Kwok, Timothy T Y; Woo, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Green space has been shown to be beneficial for human wellness through multiple pathways. This study aimed to explore the contributions of neighbouring green space to cause-specific mortality. Data from 3544 Chinese men and women (aged ≥65 years at baseline) in a community-based cohort study were analysed. Outcome measures, identified from the death registry, were death from all-cause, respiratory system disease, circulatory system disease. The quantity of green space (%) within a 300 m radius buffer was calculated for each subject from a map created based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomics, lifestyle, health conditions and housing type were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs. During a mean of 10.3 years of follow-up, 795 deaths were identified. Our findings showed that a 10% increase in coverage of green space was significantly associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.963, 95% CI 0.930 to 0.998), circulatory system-caused mortality (HR 0.887, 95% CI 0.817 to 0.963) and stroke-caused mortality (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.524 to 0.835), independent of age, sex, marital status, years lived in Hong Kong, education level, socioeconomic ladder, smoking, alcohol intake, diet quality, self-rated health and housing type. The inverse associations between coverage of green space with all-cause mortality (HR 0.964, 95% CI 0.931 to 0.999) and circulatory system disease-caused mortality (HR 0.888, 95% CI 0.817 to 0.964) were attenuated when the models were further adjusted for physical activity and cognitive function. The effects of green space on all-cause and circulatory system-caused mortality tended to be stronger in females than in males. Higher coverage of green space was associated with reduced risks of all-cause mortality, circulatory system-caused mortality and stroke-caused mortality in Chinese older people living in a highly urbanised city. © Article author(s) (or their

  8. [Analysis of Medication Laws for Chinese Medicine Treating Hypertension Patients with Yin Defi- ciency Yang Hyperactivity Syndrome Based on Literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Hou, Ya-zhu; Wang, Xian-liang; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze medication laws of Chinese medicine (CM) treatment in hypertension patients with yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Jan. 1979-Dec 2014), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP, Jan 1989-Dec2014), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Jan.1978-Dec.2014), Wanfang Database (Jan 1990-Dec 2014) were retrieved by using "hypertension", "CM", "Chinese herbs", "syndrome" as keywords. Totally 149 literatures concerning CM treatment for hypertension patients with yin deficiency yanghyperactivity syndrome were included in this study. The herbs database was established by SPSS20.0,and correlation laws were analyzed by SAS9.3. With the Pajek3.1, results were presented visually withcomplex networks. There were 149 literatures including 131 kinds of herbs with 1,598 frequencies. The conventional compatibility program of herbs for asthenic yin and predominant yang syndrome of hypertension were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., eucommiabark, baikal skullcap root, and so on, about 29 kinds. Of them, core herbs were two toothed achyranthes root, tall gastrodia rhizome, Cassia obtusifolia L., poria, prepared rhizome of rehmannia, oriental water-plantain tuber, asiatic cornelian cherry fruit, Uncariae Rhynchophylla, common yam rhizome, the rootbark of the peony tree, and so on. Medication laws of CM treatment in hypertension patientswith yin deficiency yang hyperactivity syndrome obtained by analysis of complex networks reflected thetherapeutics of nourishing yin to suppress yang, which could further provide reference for clinical studies.

  9. Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol targets for prevention of recurrent strokes and cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient: design of the European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetti, Alberto; Liu, Lisheng; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco; Grassi, Guido; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Silani, Vincenzo; Bilo, Grzegorz; Corrao, Giovanni; Zambon, Antonella; Scotti, Lorenza; Zhang, Xinhua; Wang, HayYan; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhang, Xuezhong; Guan, Ting Rui; Berge, Eivind; Redon, Josep; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Dominiczak, Anna; Nilsson, Peter; Viigimaa, Margus; Laurent, Stéphane; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Wu, Zhaosu; Zhu, Dingliang; Rodicio, José Luis; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Pinto, Fernando; Schmieder, Roland E; Burnier, Michel; Banach, Maciej; Cifkova, Renata; Farsang, Csaba; Konradi, Alexandra; Lazareva, Irina; Sirenko, Yuriy; Dorobantu, Maria; Postadzhiyan, Arman; Accetto, Rok; Jelakovic, Bojan; Lovic, Dragan; Manolis, Athanasios J; Stylianou, Philippos; Erdine, Serap; Dicker, Dror; Wei, Gangzhi; Xu, Chengbin; Xie, Hengge; Coca, Antonio; O'Brien, John; Ford, Gary

    2014-09-01

    The SBP values to be achieved by antihypertensive therapy in order to maximize reduction of cardiovascular outcomes are unknown; neither is it clear whether in patients with a previous cardiovascular event, the optimal values are lower than in the low-to-moderate risk hypertensive patients, or a more cautious blood pressure (BP) reduction should be obtained. Because of the uncertainty whether 'the lower the better' or the 'J-curve' hypothesis is correct, the European Society of Hypertension and the Chinese Hypertension League have promoted a randomized trial comparing antihypertensive treatment strategies aiming at three different SBP targets in hypertensive patients with a recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack. As the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is also unknown in these patients, LDL-C-lowering has been included in the design. The European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment trial is a prospective multinational, randomized trial with a 3 × 2 factorial design comparing: three different SBP targets (1, hypertension and a stroke or transient ischaemic attack 1-6 months before randomization. Antihypertensive and statin treatments will be initiated or modified using suitable registered agents chosen by the investigators, in order to maintain patients within the randomized SBP and LDL-C windows. All patients will be followed up every 3 months for BP and every 6 months for LDL-C. Ambulatory BP will be measured yearly. Primary outcome is time to stroke (fatal and non-fatal). Important secondary outcomes are: time to first major cardiovascular event; cognitive decline (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and dementia. All major outcomes will be adjudicated by committees blind to randomized allocation. A Data and Safety Monitoring Board has open access to data and can recommend trial interruption for safety. It has been calculated that 925 patients would reach the primary

  10. Individualized prevention against hypertension based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution Theory: A large community-based retrospective, STROBE-compliant study among Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Yin, Lu; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Liu, Chang; He, Yong-Mei; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) theory states that individuals with a biased TCMC are more likely to suffer from specific diseases. However, little is known regarding the influence of TCMC on susceptibility to hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the possible relationship between TCMC and hypertension. Retrospective evaluation and observation were performed using the STROBE guidelines checklist. A large community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 in Changsha, China. TCMC was assessed using a questionnaire that included 68 items. TCMC distributions and the associations of different TCMCs with hypertension risk were analyzed. In total, 144,439 subjects underwent evaluations of TCMC and blood pressure (BP). There were significant differences in the hypertension prevalence among the various TCMC groups (P medicine criteria; for example, phlegm wetness with hypertension was similar to obesity-related hypertension. Our results suggest that phlegm wetness, yin deficiency, blood stasis, and qi deficiency have different effects on the prevalence of hypertension. More attention should be paid to TCMCs associated with susceptibility to hypertension, and corresponding preventive and therapeutic treatments should be developed according to different TCMCs.

  11. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized clinical trials testing Tongxinluo capsule against western medicine, Tongxinluo capsule versus placebo, and Tongxinluo capsule combined with western medicine versus western medicine. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 25 trials with 1958 participants were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. The blood pressure (BP lowering effect of Tongxinluo capsule plus western medicine was significantly higher than that of western medicine (systolic blood pressure (SBP: −3.87, −5.32 to −2.41, P<0.00001; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP: −2.72, −4.19 to −1.24, P=0.0003. The BP also decreased significantly from baseline with Tongxinluo capsule than placebo (SBP: −9.40, −10.90 to −7.90, P<0.00001; and DBP: −11.80, −12.40 to −11.20, P<0.00001 or western medicine (SBP: −3.90, −4.93 to −2.87, P<0.00001; and DBP: −3.70, −3.83 to −3.57, P<0.00001. 12 trials reported adverse events without details. Conclusions. There is some but weak evidence about the effectiveness of TXL in treating patients with hypertension.

  12. Association between Anthropometric Measures and Indicators for Hypertension Control among Kazakh-Chinese Hypertension Patients in Xinjiang, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhang

    Full Text Available Among Kazakh-Chinese population in Xinjiang province of China, prevalence of obesity and hypertension were 40.1% and 50.3% respectively, the highest across all ethnic groups residing in this pastureland. Despite this, there remained a dearth of information regarding the association between the anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR etc.] and indicators for hypertension control [achieved levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, pulse pressure index (PPI, ankle-brachial index (ABI etc.] among them.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Xinjiang to determine the distribution and inter-relationships of the anthropometric measures and indicators for achieved BP control as well as their predictors among hypertension patients of Kazakh-Chinese ethnicity. Out of 550 randomly selected patients, 516 completed the interview, anthropometry and BP assessments.In the sample population, average SBP, DBP and PP were 156.26±24.40mmHg, 87.55±14.73mmHg and 68.71±19.39mmHg respectively. Bivariate analysis identified age, gender, education, duration of hypertension, WC and BMI being factors influencing the achieved levels of BP. Adjusted multiple linear regression models elicited positive associations of age (βa = 0.152, p = 0.001 and duration of hypertension (βa = 0.132, p = 0.003 with achieved level of SBP as well as BMI (βa = 0.135, p = 0.002 with DBP. Age (βa = 0.207, p<0.001 and WHtR (βa = 0.304, p = 0.005 were positively and WC (βa = -0.406, p<0.001 was negatively associated with PPI. Increasing age (βa = -0.125, p = 0.005, female gender (βa = -0.122, p = 0.005 and 5years' duration of hypertension (βa = -0.091, p<0.039 were negatively associated with ABI. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, hypertensive patients with (reference = without abdominal obesity had 93% (p = 0.013 higher odds of missing the target BP control

  13. Clinical Utility of Amlodipine/Valsartan Fixed-Dose Combination in the Management of Hypertension in Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo He, MD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine/valsartan (Aml/Val single-pill combination (SPC therapy has been widely used and studied in clinical practice in recent years. This article reviews the Chinese and English literature on the clinical use of Aml/Val SPC therapy in Chinese hypertensive patients. According to five studies concerning the efficacy and safety of this treatment, Aml/Val SPC therapy was more efficacious than monotherapy with valsartan, amlodipine, or the nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. This treatment showed greater blood pressure-lowering effects, a higher blood pressure control rate, and a higher response rate. Aml/Val SPC treatment was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to those of monotherapy with valsartan or amlodipine and significantly rarer adverse events compared with the nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. Aml/Val SPC is a highly efficacious and well-tolerated antihypertensive treatment in Chinese hypertensive patients.

  14. Examining the association between participation in late-life leisure activities and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace T Y; Fung, Ada W T; Tam, Cindy W C; Lui, Victor W C; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, W M; Lam, Linda C W

    2010-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that participation in late-life leisure activity may have beneficial effects on cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between leisure activity participation and cognitive function in an elderly population of community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese. 512 participants were assessed in the follow-up study of a population-based community survey of the prevalence of cognitive impairment among Hong Kong Chinese aged 60 years and over. Leisure activities were classified into four categories (physical, intellectual, social and recreational). Information regarding leisure activity participation, cognitive function and other variables was collected. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the association between leisure activity participation and cognitive function. A higher level of late-life leisure activity participation, particularly in intellectual activities, was significantly associated with better cognitive function in the elderly, as reflected by the results of the Cantonese Mini-mental State Examination (p = 0.007, 0.029 and 0.005), the Category Verbal Fluency Test (p = 0.027, 0.003 and 0.005) and digit backward span (p = 0.031, 0.002 and 0.009), as measured by the total frequency, total hours per week and total number of subtypes, respectively; the Chinese Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (p = 0.045) and word list learning (p = 0.003), as measured by the total number of subtypes; and digit forward span (p = 0.007 and 0.015), as measured by the total hours per week and total number of subtypes, respectively. Late-life intellectual activity participation was associated with better cognitive function among community-dwelling Hong Kong elderly Chinese.

  15. Blood pressure-to-height ratio for screening prehypertension and hypertension in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B; Wang, Z; Wang, H-J; Ma, J

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis of hypertension in children is complicated because of the multiple age-, sex- and height-specific thresholds. To simplify the process of diagnosis, blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) was employed in this study. Data were obtained from a Chinese national survey conducted in 2010, and 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were included. High normal and elevated blood pressure (BP) were defined according to the National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP) Working Group definition. The optimal thresholds were selected by Youden's index. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and area under the curve (AUC) were assessed for the performance of these thresholds. The systolic and diastolic BPHR thresholds for identifying high normal BP were 0.84/0.55, 0.78/0.50 and 0.75/0.46 for children aged 7-8 years, 9-11 years and 12-17 years, respectively. The corresponding thresholds for identifying elevated BP were 0.87/0.57, 0.81/0.53 and 0.76/0.49, respectively. These proposed thresholds revealed high sensitivity and NPVs, all above 0.96, moderate to high specificity and AUCs, and low PPVs. Our finding suggested the proposed BPHR thresholds were accurate for identifying children without high normal or elevated BP, and could be employed to simplify the procedure of screening prehypertension and hypertension in children.

  16. Examining the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Tak Yu; Fung, Ada Wai Tung; Tam, Cindy Woon Chi; Lui, Victor Wing Cheong; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Chan, Wai Man; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Five hundred and five participants, not clinically demented at the baseline, were analysed in the follow-up study of a population-based community survey among Hong Kong Chinese aged 60 and over. Information regarding leisure activity participation, global cognitive function and important sociodemographic variables was collected. Late life leisure activity profiles were classified into intellectual, social, physical and recreational categories, and were measured by total hours per week, total frequency and total number of subtypes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between leisure activity participation at the baseline and the incidence of global cognitive decline at the 22-month follow-up. The incidence of global cognitive decline was defined as a one-point drop in z-score of the Cantonese version of the mini-mental state examination (CMMSE). At the follow-up, a higher level of participation in intellectual activities was significantly associated with a lower incidence of global cognitive decline as measured by both the total hours per week (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.99, p=0.003)), and the total number of subtypes (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.58-0.95, p=0.018)). A higher level of late-life intellectual activity participation was associated with less global cognitive decline among community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Associations between dietary patterns and demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in Chinese community-dwelling older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined dietary patterns, and the associations of these patterns with demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in 3707 Chinese people aged 65 years and above taking part in a population-based cohort study investigating the risk factors for osteoporosis. Baseline dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Scores were calculated for each pattern. Demographics, lifestyle factors and self-reported hypertension history were collected through a questionnaire. BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Three dietary patterns were identified, namely 'vegetables-fruit', 'snacks-drinks-milk products' and 'meat-fish'. Participants who were more physically active, more educated, non-smokers and non-drinkers were more likely to have higher 'vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores. Current smoking habit and alcohol use were associated with higher 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores and 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores. 'Vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores were inversely (unstandardised regression coefficient B = -0·60 mmHg, 95 % CI -1·04, -0·16) and 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores were positively (B = 0·50 mmHg, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·92) associated with DBP in men in multiple regressions. Higher 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores were associated with higher BMI (B = 0·19 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·06, 0·33), waist-to-hip ratio (B = 0·004, 95 % CI 0·002, 0·007) and WC (B = 0·57 cm, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·97) in men, and higher BMI (B = 0·40 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·22, 0·57), WC (B = 0·87 cm, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·36) and HC (B = 0·61 cm, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·96) in women in multiple regressions. The influence of demographic and lifestyle characteristics on dietary patterns and the health risks associated

  18. Associations between Perceived Neighborhood Walkability and Walking Time, Wellbeing, and Loneliness in Community-Dwelling Older Chinese People in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Cheung, Osbert; Lau, Kevin; Woo, Jean

    2017-10-09

    This study examined the cross-sectional associations between perceived neighborhood walkability and walking time, physical activity, wellbeing, and loneliness, and examined which components of walkability were most strongly associated with better wellbeing and less loneliness in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling Chinese adults aged 60+ ( n = 181). Walkability was measured using nine items selected from the Chinese version of the abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scales (NEWS) and NEWS for Chinese Seniors. Outcomes were walking time, physical activity, wellbeing (life satisfaction, happiness, sense of purpose and meaning in life), and loneliness. The mean age of the participants was 71.7 ± 7.8 years. Walkability was positively associated with walking time ( p = 0.001, p for trend walkable had higher scores for life satisfaction ( p = 0.002) and happiness ( p = 0.002), and lower scores for loneliness ( p = 0.019), compared with those who perceived their neighborhoods as less walkable. However, perceived neighborhood walkability was not associated with sense of purpose and meaning in life. Among components of walkability, land use mix-access, infrastructure and safety for walking, and traffic safety showed the strongest associations with the measures of wellbeing. The results of this study support the importance of neighborhood walkability for health behavior and wellbeing of older adults. The wellbeing of older adults may be enhanced through the improvement of land use mix-access, infrastructure for walking, and traffic safety.

  19. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population.

  20. hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Hatipoglu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disease associated with important cardiovascular complications. Persistent blood pressure of 140/90 or higher despite combined use of a reninangiotensin system blocker, calcium channel blocker and a diuretic at highest tolerated doses constitutes resistant hypertension. Excess sympathetic activity plays an important pathogenic role in resistant hypertension in addition to contributing to the development of metabolic problems, in particular diabetes. Reduction of renal sympathetic activity by percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation via the renal arteries has been shown in several studies to decrease blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension, and importantly is largely free of significant complications. However, longer term follow-up is required to confirm both long-term safety and efficacy.

  1. Hypertension

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for hypertension hyperlipidemia. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County...

  2. Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Emanuel

    2004-01-01

    Hypertension is a rapidly moving clinical field with frequent developments in new pharmacologic agents and management strategies. Perhaps more importantly, there have been substantial improvements in our understanding of how best to use the drugs available to us. In this article, I will review some of the more important advances in our understanding of hypertension over the past two years, specifically by reviewing six important trials, one survey and two sets of guidelines, all published bet...

  3. [Rapid detection of four antipertensive chemicals adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine for hypertension using TLC-SERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Xia; Cao, Yong-Bing; Cao, Ying-Ying; Lu, Feng

    2014-04-01

    A novel facile method for on-site detection of antipertensive chemicals (e. g. nicardipine hydrochloride, doxazosin mesylate, propranolol hydrochloride, and hydrochlorothiazide) adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine for hypertension using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was reported in the present paper. Analytes and pharmaceutical matrices was separated by TLC, then SERS method was used to complete qualitative identification of trace substances on TLC plate. By optimizing colloidal silver concentration and developing solvent, as well as exploring the optimal limits of detection (LOD), the initially established TLC-SERS method was used to detect real hypertension Chinese pharmaceuticals. The results showed that this method had good specificity for the four chemicals and high sensitivity with a limit of detection as lower as to 0.005 microg. Finally, two of the ten antipertensive drugs were detected to be adulterated with chemicals. This simple and fast method can realize rapid detection of chemicals illegally for doping in antipertensive Chinese pharmaceuticals, and would have good prospects in on-site detection of chemicals for doping in Chinese pharmaceuticals.

  4. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  5. A Screening Tool Using Five Risk Factors Was Developed for Fall-Risk Prediction in Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li; Chen, Xiaoyu; Han, Peipei; Ma, Yixuan; Jia, Liye; Fu, Liyuan; Yu, Hairui; Wang, Lu; Hou, Lin; Yu, Xing; An, Zongyang; Wang, Xuetong; Li, Lu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Peng; Guo, Qi

    2018-01-22

    The objective of this study was to determine falls risk profiles to derive a falls risk prediction score and establish a simple and practical clinical screening tool for Chinese community-dwelling elderly individuals. This was a prospective cohort study (n = 619) among adults aged 60 years and older. Falls were ascertained at a 1-year follow-up appointment. Sociodemographic information, medical history, and physical performance data were collected. The mean age was 67.4 years; 57.7% were women. Female sex (odds ratios [ORs] 1.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.17-2.82), diabetes (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.13-3.98), a Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) ≥10.49 seconds (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.23-1.94), a history of falls (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.72-5.79), and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS] ≥11, OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.36-4.63) were the strongest predictors. These predictors were used to establish a risk score. The area under the curve of the score was 0.748. From a clinical point of view, the most appropriate cutoff value was 7 (97.5% specificity, 70.7% positive predictive value, and 83.6% negative predictive value). For this cutoff, the fraction correctly classified was 82.5%. A cutoff score of 7 derived from a risk assessment tool using four risk factors (gender, falls history, diabetes, and depression) and the TUGT may be used in Chinese community-dwelling elderly individuals as an initial step to screen those at low risk for falls.

  6. Hypertension, diabetes and obesity are associated with lower cognitive performance in community-dwelling elderly: Data from the FIBRA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Fernanda Bocchi de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Background: Systemic hypertension (SH, diabetes mellitus (DM and abdominal obesity may negatively impact cognitive performance. Objective: To evaluate the association between SH, DM and abdominal obesity and cognitive performance among cognitively unimpaired elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional study of individuals aged 65+ from seven Brazilian cities was conducted. SH and DM diagnoses were self-reported and abdominal circumference was objectively measured. Individuals who scored below the education-adjusted cutoff scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were excluded. Results: Among 2,593 elderly, 321 (12.38% had SH, DM and abdominal obesity concomitantly (Group I and 421 (16.23% had none of the three diseases (Group II. Group I had a higher proportion of individuals that were women, aged 70-74 years, illiterate and with lower income. Group I had a higher number of participants with low cognitive performance (28.04% vs. 17.58% in Group II. Variables associated with poor cognitive performance were: female gender (OR: 2.43, p < 0.001; and lower education (OR: 0.410, p < 0.001. The presence of the three diseases and age were not significant in the education-adjusted model. Conclusion: There was an association between cognition and the presence of SH, DM and obesity. However, education seems to be decisive in determining cognitive performance in the presence of these three conditions.

  7. The interaction effect of effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment on hypertension among Chinese workers: findings from SHISO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weixian; Yu, Haiyi; Hang, Juan; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Yiming; Guo, Lijun

    2013-12-01

    No previous studies investigated the interaction of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment on blood pressure. Our aim was to investigate associations of ERI and overcommitment (and their interaction) with blood pressure and hypertension within a Chinese population. Seven hundred thirty-four participants from the Stress and Health in Shenzhen Workers study completed a demographics, job stressor and risk factor questionnaire, and their blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometers. Risk factors for blood pressure were analyzed by multiple linear regression and risk factors for hypertension by Poisson regression. Overcommitment was associated with diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for confounders and ERI among men (β = 0.17, P controlling for overcommitment, ERI remained significantly associated with hypertension risk (PR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.53-3.71). When high overcommitment and high ERI was combined, hypertension risk was highest (adjusted PR = 2.99, 95% CI 1.82-4.91, adjusted synergy index 5.85). The interaction was significant when it was tested by an interaction term in the regression (P < 0.001). The interaction effect of overcommitment and ERI on hypertension was independent and synergistic. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Incidence, Risk Factors, and the Protective Effect of High Body Mass Index against Sarcopenia in Suburb-Dwelling Elderly Chinese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Zhao, J; Guo, Q; Wang, J; Zhang, W; Shen, S; Wang, X; Dong, R; Ma, Y; Kang, L; Fu, L; Jia, L; Han, X; He, Z; Bao, Y; Wang, L; Niu, K

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the risk factors of sarcopenia in certain cohorts. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of sarcopenia and associated factors over a 1-year period in an elderly Chinese suburban population. This study was conducted on 356 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years, for whom detailed information regarding sociodemographics, behavioral characteristics, and medical conditions had been documented. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Sarcopenia incidence was documented after one year of follow-up, and correlated with several possible factors. At baseline, 64 (9.7%) of the initial 657 participants had sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 10.4% after one year. Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, 13 of the participants without sarcopenia at baseline had developed sarcopenia. After multivariate adjustments, it was found that the incidence of sarcopenia increased with age and high body mass index (BMI) is associated with less incidence of sarcopenia. Incidence was also higher among women. We found sarcopenia incidence increased with age, and women were more likely to have sarcopenia. A higher BMI is also associated with a lower incidence of sarcopenia. Maintaining a healthy weight could be beneficial in the prevention of sarcopenia.

  9. Different impacts of hypertension and diabetes mellitus on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jee-Young; Allison, Matthew A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence rates of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus are slowing in some high-income countries, HTN and diabetes mellitus remain as the two major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. We aimed to observe the association of HTN and diabetes mellitus with all-cause and CVD mortality in older white adults. All community-dwelling Rancho Bernardo Study participants who were at least 55 years old and had carefully measured blood pressure and plasma glucose from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at the baseline visit (1984-1987, n = 2186) were followed up until death or the last clinic visit in 2013 (median 14.3 years, interquartile range 8.4-21.3). In unadjusted analyses, diabetes mellitus was associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.60] and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 1.67, 95% CI 1.39-2.00); HTN with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 1.93 (1.73-2.15)] and CVD mortality [hazard ratio 2.45 (2.10-2.93)]. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, including age, BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, smoking, exercise, and alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus was associated with CVD mortality only (hazard ratio 1.25, P = 0.0213). Conversely, HTN was associated with both all-cause (hazard ratio 1.34, P diabetes mellitus and HTN was associated with all-cause (hazard ratio 1.38, P = 0.0002) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 1.70, P diabetes mellitus. Having both confers a modest increase in the hazards for these types of mortality.

  10. Associations between Perceived Neighborhood Walkability and Walking Time, Wellbeing, and Loneliness in Community-Dwelling Older Chinese People in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the cross-sectional associations between perceived neighborhood walkability and walking time, physical activity, wellbeing, and loneliness, and examined which components of walkability were most strongly associated with better wellbeing and less loneliness in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling Chinese adults aged 60+ (n = 181. Walkability was measured using nine items selected from the Chinese version of the abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scales (NEWS and NEWS for Chinese Seniors. Outcomes were walking time, physical activity, wellbeing (life satisfaction, happiness, sense of purpose and meaning in life, and loneliness. The mean age of the participants was 71.7 ± 7.8 years. Walkability was positively associated with walking time (p = 0.001, p for trend <0.001 but not with physical activity. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health conditions, lifestyle, and negative life events, those who perceived their neighborhoods as walkable had higher scores for life satisfaction (p = 0.002 and happiness (p = 0.002, and lower scores for loneliness (p = 0.019, compared with those who perceived their neighborhoods as less walkable. However, perceived neighborhood walkability was not associated with sense of purpose and meaning in life. Among components of walkability, land use mix-access, infrastructure and safety for walking, and traffic safety showed the strongest associations with the measures of wellbeing. The results of this study support the importance of neighborhood walkability for health behavior and wellbeing of older adults. The wellbeing of older adults may be enhanced through the improvement of land use mix-access, infrastructure for walking, and traffic safety.

  11. Genome-wide association study of young-onset hypertension in the Han Chinese population of Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chou Yang

    Full Text Available Young-onset hypertension has a stronger genetic component than late-onset counterpart; thus, the identification of genes related to its susceptibility is a critical issue for the prevention and management of this disease. We carried out a two-stage association scan to map young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. The first-stage analysis, a genome-wide association study, analyzed 175 matched case-control pairs; the second-stage analysis, a confirmatory association study, verified the results at the first stage based on a total of 1,008 patients and 1,008 controls. Single-locus association tests, multilocus association tests and pair-wise gene-gene interaction tests were performed to identify young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. After considering stringent adjustments of multiple testing, gene annotation and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP quality, four SNPs from two SNP triplets with strong association signals (-log(10(p>7 and 13 SNPs from 8 interactive SNP pairs with strong interactive signals (-log(10(p>8 were carefully re-examined. The confirmatory study verified the association for a SNP quartet 219 kb and 495 kb downstream of LOC344371 (a hypothetical gene and RASGRP3 on chromosome 2p22.3, respectively. The latter has been implicated in the abnormal vascular responsiveness to endothelin-1 and angiotensin II in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Intrinsic synergy involving IMPG1 on chromosome 6q14.2-q15 was also verified. IMPG1 encodes interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 1 which has cation binding capacity. The genes are novel hypertension targets identified in this first genome-wide hypertension association study of the Han Chinese population.

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45 to 75 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Qin

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45-75 years.A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l] and IFG (6.1-6.9 mmol/l were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes.The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women, non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal were important independent associated factors for IFG.In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if only based on the FPG evaluation, and

  13. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version-reintegration to normal living index (C-RNLI) for identifying participation restriction among community-dwelling frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai

    2017-01-31

    The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, older people from day-care centres. The factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" of the C-RNLI were significantly convergent with depressive mood (r s  = -0

  14. The Association between Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Chen, Ruijia; Wu, Bei; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Mui, Ada Chan Yuk-Sim; Chi, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Background Elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation are important public health concerns among aging populations. However, very few studies have been conducted to explore the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation. Objectives To examine the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults in the U.S. Methods Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, this study conducted in-person interviews with Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago Area from 2011–2013. Elder mistreatment was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Hwalek-Sengstok Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) and the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS). Suicidal ideation was assessed by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Geriatric Mental State Examination-Version A (GMS-A). Results Overall, 3,159 Chinese older adults participated in this study and the mean age was 72.8. After controlling for age, gender, education, income, medical comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and social support, elder mistreatment was significantly associated with increased risk for 2-week suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.52 – 4.01) and 12-month suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.62 – 3.73). With respect to gender differences, the study found that the association remained significant in older women but not in older men after adjusting for all confounding factors. Conclusion As the largest epidemiology study conducted among Chinese older adults in the U.S., this study suggests that elder mistreatment was a risk factor for 2-week and 12-month suicidal ideation in older women but not in older men. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which elder mistreatment links with suicidal ideation. PMID:26336817

  15. Effectiveness of Aromatherapy Massage and Inhalation on Symptoms of Depression in Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mei; Li, Yanzhang; Tang, Ping; Zhang, Yuping; Cao, Min; Ni, Junwei; Xing, Mengmeng

    2018-03-22

    Geriatric depression is a major public health problem in China. The study compared the intervention and follow-up effects of aromatherapy massage and inhalation on symptoms of depression in community-dwelling older adults after an 8-week intervention. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted on community-dwelling adults ≥60 years old, with symptoms of depression. Participants were randomly assigned, by Latin Square, to aromatherapy massage, inhalation, or control groups (each n = 20). The aromatherapy massage group received 30 min of aromatherapy massage with 5 mL oil, twice weekly for 8 weeks. The oil contained 50 μL (one drop) of compound essential oils (lavender [Lavandula angustifolia], sweet orange [Citrus sinensis], and bergamot (Citrus bergamia in a 2:1:1 ratio)], diluted in sweet almond oil to a concentration of 1%. The aromatherapy inhalation group received 30 min of nasal inhalation of 50 μL of the compound essential oils blended in 10 mL of purified water, twice weekly for 8 weeks. The control group received no intervention. The Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form (GDS-SF) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used for assessment at pretest, posttest, and 6- and 10-week follow-ups in all groups. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was assessed pretest and posttest. Postintervention, the aromatherapy massage and inhalation groups demonstrated significantly lower GDS-SF and PHQ-9 scores than control participants. Compared with the pretest, the GDS-SF and PHQ-9 scores for depressive symptoms in both experimental groups remained lower at posttest (8 weeks), 6-week (14 weeks), and 10-week (18 weeks) follow-ups. However, the GDS-SF and PHQ-9 scores did not differ among the four time points in the control group. The posttest 5-HT concentrations in the aromatherapy massage and inhalation groups were increased over pretest values. Both aromatherapy massage and aromatherapy inhalation may have important

  16. Dutch Dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Zee, van der A.; Carp, J.C.; Soddu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Applying Generative Design (GD) for dwelling is not very common but it opens up the possibility to study whether GD systems can reproduce existing design typologies. Dutch dwellings as an exemplification of a design typology are analysed using the SAR methodology. Building regulations are used as

  17. The association of metabolic syndrome with left ventricular mass and geometry in community-based hypertensive patients among Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of metabolic syndrome (MS with left ventricular (LV hypertrophy is controversial. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of MS on LV mass and geometry in community-based hypertensive patients among Han Chinese. Materials and Methods: This study included 1733 metabolic syndrome patients according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition and 2373 non-MS hypertension patients. LV hypertrophy was diagnosed by the criteria of LV mass ≥49.2 g/m 2.7 for men and 46.7 g/m 2.7 for women. LV geometric patterns (normal, concentric remodeling, concentric or eccentric hypertrophy were calculated according to LV hypertrophy and relative wall thickness. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of MS for LV hypertrophy and LV geometry abnormality. Results: The LV mass and LV mass index were higher in the MS group than in the non-MS group. In multiple adjusted models. LV mass index, LV mass, interventricular septum, and post wall were raised with the increased number of MS disorders. MS was associated with increased LV hypertrophy risk (unadjusted OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.21-1.57; age, sex, and blood pressure (BP; adjusted OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.22-1.59. MS was also associated with increased risk of eccentric hypertrophy in male and female patients. MS was only associated with increased risk of concentric hypertrophy in female patients; and MS was not associated with concentric remodeling. Conclusion: LV mass and LV mass index were associated with the increased number of MS disorders in the Chinese community-based hypertensive population. MS was not only associated with increased LV hypertrophy risk, but also associated with concentric and eccentric LV geometry abnormality, especially in females.

  18. Comments on Lu et al. Association between Self-Reported Global Sleep Status and Prevalence of Hypertension in Chinese Adults: Data from Kailuan Community. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 488–503

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuee Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lu et al. [1] examined the association between sleep status and prevalence of hypertension among Chinese adults varied by age and sex, using a cross-sectional study, including 5461 Chinese (4076 of them were male aged 18 years or above, in Kailuan communities. Lu et al. claimed that short sleep duration was associated with hypertension only among Chinese men, and was attenuated after adjustment of sleep quality. However, the current conclusion of the study remains unclear.[...

  19. Performance of modified blood pressure-to-height ratio for identifying hypertension in Chinese and American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Chuanwei; Yang, Lili; Bovet, Pascal; Xi, Bo

    2018-04-06

    Blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) has been reported to perform well for identifying hypertension (HTN) in adolescents but not in young children. Our study was aimed to evaluate the performance of BPHR and modified BPHR (MBPHR) for screening HTN in children. A total of 5268 Chinese children (boys: 53.1%) aged 6-12 years and 5024 American children (boys: 48.1%) aged 8-12 years were included in the present study. BPHR was calculated as BP/height (mmHg/cm). MBPHR7 was calculated as BP/(height + 7*(13-age)). MBPHR3 was calculated as BP/(height + 3*(13-age)). We used receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the performance of the three ratios for identifying HTN in children as compared to the 2017 U.S. clinical guideline as the "gold standard". The prevalence of HTN in Chinese and American children was 9.4% and 5.4%, respectively, based on the 2017 U.S. guideline. The AUC was larger for MBPHR3 than BPHR and MBPHR7. All three ratios had optimal negative predictive value (~100%). The positive predictive value (PPV) was higher for MBPHR3 than BPHR in both Chinese (43.9% vs. 37.9%) and American (39.1% vs. 26.3%) children. In contrast, the PPV was higher for MBPHR7 than BPHR in Chinese children (47.4% vs. 37.9%) but not in American children (24.8% vs. 26.3%). In summary, MBPHR3 overall performed better than MBPHR7 and BPHR for identifying HTN in children. However, the three ratios had low PPV (<50%) as compared to the 2017 U.S. guidelines, which makes these ratios of limited use for HTN screening in children.

  20. The effects of a walking program on older Chinese American immigrants with hypertension: a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chun-Ying; Sun, Fan-Ko

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is known to have high rates among Chinese Americans. Identifying culturally specific interventions to reduce sedentary behavior may be effective in reducing hypertension. This study examines the effects of an 8-week walking program with and without cultural modification. The study used a 2-group, pretest and posttest, quasi-experimental design. A total sample of 128 Chinese American immigrants with hypertension were assigned to walking groups. The results showed that the walking program had no significant effects upon participant blood pressure or walking endurance. The results also revealed that individuals in the maintenance stage walked longer than those in the preparation stage. A comparison of demographic data showed that subjects with a lower level of education walked more minutes per week, which contributed to lower systolic blood pressures among this group as compared with those with a higher level of education. These results suggest that this walking protocol, when translated into Chinese and when accompanied by a weekly telephone reminder and other interactions with a Chinese-speaking nurse, is appropriate to use without additional cultural modification. Future research should examine other components of Chinese culture or should apply this protocol for a longer period of time.

  1. A new risk locus in CHCHD5 for hypertension and obesity in a Chinese child population: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Gao, Liwang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Meixian; Wu, Jianxin; Mi, Jie

    2017-09-11

    Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 5 (CHCHD5), a mitochondrial protein, is involved in the oxidative folding process in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A previous study identified a hypertension-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3748024, in CHCHD5 in adults, but there are no reports regarding the association between CHCHD5 and obesity, which is a known risk factor for hypertension. The aim of the present study is to investigate the associations of the SNP rs3748024 with hypertension and obesity. Cohort study. Institute of Pediatrics in China. We genotyped the SNP rs3748024 in the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study. A total of 3503 children participated in the study. Genotyping of rs3748024 was conducted using the TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay. Lipids and glucose were analysed by an automatic biochemical analyser using a kit assay. The levels of adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were measured by ELISA techniques. There was a statistically significant association between rs3748024 and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β=-0.853, 95% CI -1.482 to -0.024, p=0.044) under an additive model adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI) after correction for multiple testing. The SNP was also significantly associated with BMI (β=-0.286, 95% CI -0.551 to -0.021, p=0.043), obesity (OR=0.828, 95% CI 0.723 to 0.949, p=0.018) and triglycerides (β=-0.039, 95% CI -0.070 to -0.007, p=0.044) after correction for multiple testing. We demonstrate for the first time that the SNP rs3748024 in CHCHD5 is associated with SBP, BMI, obesity and triglycerides in Chinese children. Our study identifies a new risk locus for hypertension and obesity in a child population. The function of CHCHD5 remains to be further studied to help elucidate the pathogenic role of CHCHD5 in hypertension and obesity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  2. Elevation in Total Homocysteine Levels in Chinese Patients With Essential Hypertension Treated With Antihypertensive Benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanqun; Pan, Mingluo; Wu, Suwen; Venners, Scott A; Zhong, Guisheng; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Weinstock, Justin; Wang, Binyan; Tang, Genfu; Liu, Dahai; Xu, Xiping

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of benazepril on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and to analyze the correlation between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril. A total of 231 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were enrolled, and benazepril was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/d for 2 weeks. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by TaqMan probe technique. There was no significant change in Hcy level after benazepril treatment for 2 weeks (P = .97). However, stratified by baseline Hcy levels, the patients with baseline Hcy benazepril treatment. There were also no statistically significant interactions of gene and environment factors (ie, gene smoking and drinking) on the changes in Hcy levels after benazepril treatment. Benazepril may cause an increase in plasma Hcy levels among patients with hypertension with low baseline Hcy levels, while effect modification by MTHFR C677T genotypes on the changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril was not significant among patients with essential hypertension. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation. 221 hypertensives (cases) and 221 normotensives (controls) were interviewed, subjected to a physical examination, and provided blood for biochemical and genetic tests. The ACE mRNA expression was analyzed by real time fluorescent quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (FQ-RT-PCR). We performed logistic regression to assess associations of ACE I/D genotypes, ACE activity, and ACE mRNA expression levels with hypertension. Results The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the additive model (ID, DD versus II) of the ACE genotype revealed an association with hypertension with adjusted OR of 1.43(95% CI: 1.04-1.97), and ACE ID genotype with adjusted OR of 1.72(95% CI: 1.01-2.92), DD genotype with adjusted OR of 1.94(95% CI: 1.01-3.73), respectively. In addition, our data also indicate that plasma ACE activity (adjusted OR was 1.13(95% CI: 1.08-1.18)) was significantly related to hypertension. However, the plasma ACE mRNA expressions were not different between the cases and controls. Conclusion ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE activity revealed significant influence on hypertension, while circulating ACE mRNA expression was not important factors associated with hypertension in this Chinese population. The detection of circulating ACE mRNA expression by FQ-RT-PCR might be a useful method for early screening and monitoring of EH. PMID:24098401

  4. Dwelling Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    Children's inventions go far beyond track housing or Ethan Allen furniture; they foreshadow the most innovative ideas in building forms and interior designs. Children improvise with containers and find places in a home that suggest enticing dwellings. A drawer left open becomes a balcony, soap trays become cots, and the space between twin beds…

  5. Prevalence and Gender-Specific Influencing Factors of Hypertension among Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has become the leading cause of death worldwide; data on hypertension among Nanchang adults are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and gender-specific influencing factors of hypertension in adults in Nanchang, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2722 Chinese residents aged 18 years and above between May and September 2016, with a response rate of 92.4% (2516/2722. A stratified cluster sampling method was adopted in this study. Data on prevalence and influencing factors were obtained from a standard questionnaire and physical measurements. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to analyze the influencing factors. The age-standardized prevalence was 19.8% (18.2–21.3 (male: 19.5% (18.0–21.1; female, 20.01% (18.5–21.6. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were past smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM, and overweight and obesity in both genders. Abdominal obesity and family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were risk factors only in males; sleeping time and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits were related to the prevalence of hypertension only in females. These findings will form the baseline information for the development of more effective approaches to enhance current prevention and control management of hypertension.

  6. Associations of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism, ACE Activity, and ACE mRNA Expression with Hypertension in a Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qingfang; Fan, Chunhong; Yu, Min; Wallar, Gina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to explore the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D, rs4646994) polymorphism, plasma ACE activity, and circulating ACE mRNA expression with essential hypertension (EH) in a Chinese population. In addition, a new detection method for circulating ACE mRNA expression was explored. Methods The research was approved by the ethics committee of Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Written i...

  7. Effects of MTHFR and MS gene polymorphisms on baseline blood pressure and Benazepril effectiveness in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Yu, Y; Venners, S A; Zhang, Y; Xing, H; Wang, X; Xu, X

    2011-03-01

    The development of essential hypertension (EH) and inter-individual differences in response to antihypertensive treatment may partly result from genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we conducted an investigation of the combined effects of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G polymorphisms on baseline blood pressure (BP) and BP response to antihypertensive Benazepril treatment in 823 Chinese hypertensive patients with a fixed daily dosage of 10 mg for 15 consecutive days. When MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms were modelled together with adjustment for important covariates, only MTHFR C677T was associated with baseline systolic BP (SBP) (β (s.e.)=2.84 (1.10), P=0.0096) or baseline diastolic BP (DBP) (β (s.e.)=2.19 (0.65), P=0.0008). Modelled together with adjustment for important covariates, MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms were both independently associated with increased DBP response (baseline minus post-treatment) to Benazepril treatment (C677T: β (s.e.)=1.58 (0.76), P=0.038; A2756G: β (s.e.)=2.14 (0.89), P=0.016). Neither polymorphism was associated with SBP response to Benazepril treatment. There were no significant interactions or effect modification between MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G gene polymorphisms in models of baseline SBP, baseline DBP or DBP response to Benazepril treatment. Our results suggest that the effects of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G gene polymorphisms may have pivotal roles in the aetiology of EH and BP response to Benazepril treatment.

  8. Interventions to improve medication adherence among Chinese patients with hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rixiang; Xie, Xuefeng; Li, Shuting; Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Chengyang; Lv, Xiongwen

    2018-04-25

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to understand the effectiveness of medication adherence (MA) interventions among Chinese patients with hypertension. A literature search was conducted with three English databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Embase) and three Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals) for the period from 1970 to October 2017. Only both RCTs with a minimum of 10 participants in each intervention group and Chinese patients with hypertension as participants were included. A random-effects model was applied to calculate pooled effect sizes with 95% CI. Subgroup analysis was conducted to identify potential sources of heterogeneity from duration of intervention, type of intervener, methods of intervention and sites of intervention. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate for publication bias. A total of 48 studies met criteria for the meta-analysis, including 14 568 participants, testing 57 independent comparisons. Overall, the effect size revealed that interventions significantly improved MA (pooled relative risk = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.43 to 1.78; pooled Cohen's d = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.976 to 1.876). Interventions were found to significantly reduce blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP: Cohen's d = -0.85, 95% CI: -1.11 to -0.60 and diastolic BP: Cohen's d = -0.73, 95% CI: -1.00 to -0.46). Longer duration of intervention gave better effectiveness. Physician as interventionist, regular follow-up visits and interventions conducted at a hospital were associated with better effectiveness. Adherence interventions improve MA and reduce uncontrolled BP among Chinese patients with hypertension. In the future, investigators should adopt a skill set to address the problem of poor MA. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Fixed-combination treatments for intraocular hypertension in Chinese patients – focus on bimatoprost-timolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Fang,1,* Zhihong Ling,1,* Xinghuai Sun1–4 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, 3Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, 4State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs. In the People’s Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC in the People’s Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People’s Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26699542

  11. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cell and hypertension risk among mining workers: a case-control study in Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L; Guo, J; Shi, X; Zhang, G; Kang, H; Sun, C; Huang, J; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge. The mtDNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. No significant differences in mtDNA copy number were observed between hypertension patients and healthy controls. However, in both case and control groups, the mtDNA copy number was statistically significantly lower in the elder population (≥45 years old) compared with the younger subjects (associated with hypertension in coal miners.

  12. Efficacy and safety of renal denervation for Chinese patients with resistant hypertension using a microirrigated catheter: study design and protocol for a prospective multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongjun; Shen, Li; Huang, Weijian; Zhao, Xianxian; Fang, Weiyi; Wang, Changqian; Yin, Zhaofang; Wang, Jianan; Fu, Guosheng; Liu, Xuebo; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Jingbo; Lu, Yingmin; Ge, Junbo

    2017-09-01

    Available data show that approximately 8%-18% of patients with primary hypertension will develop resistant hypertension. In recent years, catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as a potential treatment option for resistant hypertension. A number of observational studies and randomised controlled trials among non-Chinese patients have demonstrated its potential safety and efficacy. This is a multicentre, randomised, open-label, parallel-group, active controlled trial that will investigate the efficacy and safety of a 5F saline-irrigated radiofrequency ablation (RFA) used for RDN in the treatment of Chinese patients with resistant hypertension. A total of 254 patients who have failed pharmacological therapy will be enrolled. Eligible subjects will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to undergo RDN using the RFA plus antihypertensive medication or to receive treatment with antihypertensive medication alone. The primary outcome measure is the change in 24 hours average ambulatory systolic blood pressure from baseline to 3 months, comparing the RDN-plus-medication group with the medication-alone group. Important secondary endpoints include the change in office blood pressure from baseline to 6 months after randomisation. Safety endpoints such as changes in renal function will also be evaluated. The full analysis set, according to the intent-to-treat principle, will be established as the primary analysis population. All participants will provide informed consent; the study protocol has been approved by the Independent Ethics Committee for each site. This study is designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of RDN using a 5F saline microirrigated RFA. Findings will be shared with participating hospitals, policymakers and the academic community to promote the clinical management of resistant hypertension in China. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02900729; pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017

  13. Riboflavin intake and 5-year blood pressure change in Chinese adults: interaction with hypertensive medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Taylor, Anne W; Zhen, Shiqi; Zuo, Hui; Dai, Yue; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    One previous large cross-sectional study across four countries suggests that riboflavin intake may be inversely associated with blood pressure. The aim of this analysis was to investigate a possible association between riboflavin intake and change in blood pressure over 5 years. The study population comprised Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study. Quantitative data relating to riboflavin intake at baseline in 2002 and measurements of blood pressure at baseline and follow-up in 2007 were available for 1,227 individuals. Overall, 97.2% of the participants had inadequate riboflavin intake (below the Estimated Average Requirement). In multivariable analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and dietary patterns, a higher riboflavin intake was inversely associated with change in systolic blood pressure (p = .036). In participants taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, the relationship between riboflavin intake and systolic blood pressure persisted; whereas, in those not taking antihypertensive medication, the diastolic blood pressure was less likely to increase with the increasing intake of riboflavin (p = .031). There was a three-way interaction between antihypertensive medications, body mass index, and riboflavin intake. Among those who were obese and taking antihypertensive medication, a higher riboflavin intake was associated with a smaller increment in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. There are complex interactions between riboflavin intake and blood pressure change that depend on prior antihypertensive use and the presence or absence of obesity.

  14. Ausência de relação entre hipertensão arterial sistêmica e desempenho cognitivo em idosos de uma comunidade Lack of relationship between hypertension and cognitive performance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Regina Chinaglia de Freitas Di Nucci

    2010-01-01

    : The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between hypertension and cognitive performance in non-demented non-depressed older adults. METHOD: The sample was constituted by community dwelling older adults from an on-going epidemiological study which includes all senior citizens residing in Amparo (SP. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 80 seniors (40 diagnosed as having hypertension, including men and women over 60, were recruited. Both groups were equivalent as to socio-demographic and other health variables. In order to evaluate depressive symptoms the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS was used. The cognitive tests included the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD neuropsychological battery, the Clock Drawing Test, and Digit Span Forward and Backward. Logistic regression analyses with univariate and multivariate models and cluster analyses were carried out. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the two groups. The difference for verbal fluency approached statistical significance (p = 0.075. DISCUSSION: Present results may be explained by the high compliance of the studied sample to the antihypertensive drug regimen. Longitudinal studies will be needed to continue to investigate the relationship between hypertension and cognition in aging.

  15. [Current status on prevalence, treatment and management of hypertension among Chinese adults in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, R R; Zhang, J; Li, J L; Li, J J; Ma, S; Bian, F; Deng, G J; Su, X W; Shen, Z Z; Wang, Y P; Jiang, Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the current status of prevalence, treatment, and management on hypertension among Chinese adults from the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: We selected a total of 4 000 residents aged ≥18 years for this questionnaire-based survey by multi-stage clustering sampling in 10 National Demonstration Areas between November and December, 2016. Results: There were 3 891 effective questionnaires. The self-reported prevalence of hypertension among aged ≥35 years was 31.47% (1 011/3 213). For the past two weeks, the self-reported treatment of hypertension was 86.75%(877/1 011), with the rates of guidance as 56.87% (575/1 011) on physical activity, 40.95% (414/1 011) on diet, 38.33% (385/1 011) on weight management, and 22.75% (228/1 011) on smoking cessation. For the past 12 months, 74.68% (755/1 011) of the residents aged ≥35 years were under the proper management and 62.12% (628/1 011) of them were under the standardized management programs. The follow-up program lasted for 4 ( P(25) - P(75) : 4-12) times per year, with 15 ( P(25) - P(75) : 10-20) minutes per each visit. Hypertensive patients would mainly visit the outpatient clinics (53.51%), followed by home visits (22.91%) and telephone calls (13.64%). Rate of satisfaction on management services was 94.83% (716/755) from the hypertensive patients. Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of self-reported treatment ( OR =1.986, 95% CI : 1.222-3.228) and self-reported standardized management ( OR =2.204, 95% CI : 1.519-3.199) on hypertension were higher in the Demonstration Areas with higher implementation scores of self-reported non-communicable diseases management. Conclusions: Prevention and management on hypertension in the Demonstration Areas had met the requirement set for the Demonstration Areas during the "12th Five-Year Plan" . Projects on setting up the National Non-communicable Diseases Demonstration Areas

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene 2350 G/A polymorphism and susceptibility to atrial fibrillation in Han Chinese patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hui Jiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is one of the most studied candidate genes related to atrial fibrillation. Among the polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene, the 2350 G/A polymorphism (rs4343 is known to have the most significant effects on the plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2350 G/A polymorphism with atrial fibrillation in Han Chinese patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: A total of 169 hypertensive patients were eligible for this study. Patients with atrial fibrillation (n = 75 were allocated to the atrial fibrillation group, and 94 subjects without atrial fibrillation were allocated to the control group. The PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used to assess the genotype frequencies. RESULTS: The distributions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2350 G/A genotypes (GG, GA, and AA, respectively were 40.43%, 41.49%, and 18.08% in the controls and 18.67%, 46.67%, and 34.66% in the atrial fibrillation subjects (p = 0.037. The frequency of the A allele in the atrial fibrillation group was significantly greater than in the control group (58.00% vs. 38.83%, p = 0.0007. Compared with the wild-type GG genotype, the GA and AA genotypes had an increased risk for atrial fibrillation. Additionally, atrial fibrillation patients with the AA genotype had greater left atrial dimensions than the patients with the GG or GA genotypes (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study indicate that the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2350 G/A polymorphism is associated with atrial fibrillation and that the A allele shows an increased risk for atrial fibrillation in Han Chinese patients with essential hypertension.

  17. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risks of Obesity and Hypertension in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A National Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Huan Gui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB and its association with obesity and hypertension in a national sample of children and adolescents in China, where many low- and middle-income families live. Data were obtained from a 2014 national intervention program against obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Information of SSB consumption, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, screen time, and physical activity were self-reported. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of SSB consumption with obesity and hypertension. A total of 66.6% of the 53,151 participants reported consuming SSB. The per capita and per consumer SSB intake were 2.84 ± 5.26 servings/week and 4.26 ± 5.96 servings/week, respectively. Boys, older children, and adolescents, and individuals with long screen time or high physical activity or low parental education level were more likely to consume SSB. Participants who were high SSB consumers had a higher odds ratio (1.133, 95% CI: 1.054–1.217 than non-consumers for having abdominal obesity after adjustment for age, sex, residence, socioeconomic status, diet, screen time, and physical activity. However, SSB consumption was not associated with general obesity or hypertension in children and adolescents. In conclusion, more than half of the children and adolescents in China consumed SSB, which was independently related to a high risk of abdominal obesity. The results of this study indicated that SSB reduction strategies and policies may be useful in preventing obesity among Chinese children and adolescents.

  18. Common variants of ROCKs and the risk of hypertension, and stroke: Two case-control studies and a follow-up study in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Zhao, Yanping; Tian, Yuanrui; Chen, Yanchun; Zhao, Xianghai; Li, Ying; Zhao, Hailong; Chen, Xiaotian; Zhu, Lijun; Fang, Zhengmei; Yao, YingShui; Hu, Zhibing; Shen, Chong

    2018-03-01

    The Rho kinases (ROCKs) are recognized as a critical regulator of vascular functions in cardiovascular disorders. It is crucial to illustrate the association of ROCKs genetic variation and hypertension and/or stroke events. Herein we aimed at investigating the association of ROCK1 and ROCK2 with hypertension and stroke in Chinese Han population. Seven tagSNPs at ROCK1 and ROCK2 were genotyped in a community-based case-control study consisting of 2012 hypertension cases and 2210 normotensive controls and 4128 subjects were further followed up. In stroke case-control study, 1471 ischemic stroke (IS) inpatients and 607 hemorrhagic stroke (HS) inpatients were collected, and 2443 age-matched controls were selected from the follow-up population. Risks were estimated as odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) by logistic and Cox regression. The community-based case-control study didn't identify any significant tagSNPs associated with hypertension even after adjustment for covariates. The follow-up analysis showed that rs1481280 of ROCK1 significantly associated with incident hypertension (HR=1.130, P=0.048) after adjusting for covariates. rs7589629 and rs978906 of ROCK2 were significantly associated with incident IS (HR=1.373, P=0.004; HR=1.284, P=0.026) respectively. In stroke case-control study, rs288980, rs1481280 and rs7237677 were significantly associated with IS and the adjusted ORs (P values) of additive model were 0.879 (0.010), 0.895 (0.036) and 0.857 (0.002) respectively. Furthermore, rs288980, rs7237677 and rs978906 were significantly associated with HS and the adjusted ORs (P values) of additive model were 0.857 (0.025), 0.848 (0.018) and 0.856 (0.027) respectively. Our findings suggest that ROCK1 and ROCK2 contribute to the genetic susceptibility of hypertension and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant exposure to Chinese famine increased the risk of hypertension in adulthood: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghe Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early-life developmental adaptations in response to severe malnutrition may play a crucial role in susceptibility to hypertension. This study aimed to explore the associations between exposure to the Chinese famine (1959–1961 at fetal, infant and preschool stages during fetal life or childhood and the risk of hypertension in adulthood. Methods We used the data of 1,966 adults born between 1956 and 1964 in selected families from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS national survey. Results Prevalence of hypertension among adults in non-exposed, fetal-exposed, infant-exposed, and preschool-exposed cohorts was 18.9, 20.7, 28.7, and 23.4 %, respectively. In severely affected famine areas, only infant-exposed cohort had a significant increased risk of hypertension compared with non-exposed cohort (OR 2.12; 95 % CI 1.19, 3.79; P = 0.011, and the significance remained after adjusted gender, smoking, and drinking (OR 2.11; 95 % CI 1.18, 3.77; P = 0.012. After stratification by BMI and economic status, the risk of hypertension was higher for subjects with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2(OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.09, 4.01; P = 0.026 or high economic status(OR 2.26; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.31; P = 0.013 than those with BMI < 24 kg/m2(OR 1.65; 95 % CI 0.71, 3.83; P = 0.246 or low economic status (OR 2.18; 95 % CI 1.14, 4.18; P = 0.019 in infant-exposed cohort of severely affected famine areas. However, there was no consistent association observed in less severely affected area or other exposed cohorts in severely affected areas. Conclusions Infanthood exposed to famine might increase the risk of hypertension in adulthood, and a postnatal ‘rich’ nutrient environment further increased the risk.

  20. A Chinese Chan-based mind-body intervention improves psychological well-being and physical health of community-dwelling elderly: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean; Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential benefits of the Dejian mind-body intervention (DMBI) for psychological and physical health in older Chinese adults. After confirmation of eligibility, the subjects were invited to receive DMBI once a week for 12 weeks. The intervention involved components of learning self-awareness and self-control, practicing mind-body exercises, and adopting a special vegetarian diet. Intervention-related changes were measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, and self-report ratings of health. Indicators of metabolic syndrome and walking speed were also measured. Of the 44 subjects recruited, 42 (54.8% men) completed the study, giving an adherence rate of 95%. There was a significant reduction in perceived stress (Pcontrolled trial is needed to confirm these promising preliminary results.

  1. Season and outdoor temperature in relation to detection and control of hypertension in a large rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Danting; Du, Huaidong; Zhang, Xinwei; Qian, Yijian; Chen, Lingli; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Yu, Min

    2014-12-01

    In many Western populations, blood pressure varies moderately with season and outdoor temperature. Relatively little is known about effects of seasonal changes in blood pressure on the detection and control of hypertension in general populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We analysed cross-sectional data of 57 375 (42% men) participants aged 30-79 (mean 52.3) years who were enrolled during 2004-08, as part of the China Kadoorie Biobank, from a rural county in the south-east costal Zhejiang Province. Analyses related daily mean outdoor temperature, obtained from local Meteorological Bureau, to mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), rate of newly detected hypertension and, among those with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, rate of adequate blood pressure control, using multiple linear and logistic regression models. The overall mean blood pressure was 135.9 mmHg for SBP and 80.5 mmHg for DBP. Daily outdoor temperature ranged between -2.9 and 33.7°C, with July being the hottest month (mean 29.4°C) and January the coldest (mean 4.0°C). Comparing January (the coldest month) with July (the warmest), the differences in the adjusted SBP/DBP were 19.2/7.7 mmHg. Each 10°C lower ambient temperature was associated with 6.9/2.9 mmHg higher SBP/DBP,14.1% higher prevalence of newly detected hypertension and, among those with pre-diagnosed hypertension, 13.0% lower hypertension control rate. In rural China, lower outdoor temperature is strongly associated with higher mean blood pressure and hypertension prevalence as well as poorer hypertension control, and should be considered when conducting population-based hypertension surveys and providing treatment for hypertensive patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Associations of ACE I/D, AGT M235T gene polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension in Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Nie, Shaofa; Yan, Weirong

    2012-09-01

    There have been many studies concerning the associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) among Chinese populations. However, the results were inconsistent, prompting the necessity of meta-analysis. Studies published in English and Chinese were mainly searched in EMbase, PubMed and CBM up to January 2012. Twenty-three studies with 3,551 subjects for ACE I/D and seven studies with 1,296 subjects for AGT M235T were included. Significant associations were found between ACE I/D and PIH under dominant, recessive and allelic models. A separate analysis confined to preeclampsia suggested that ACE I/D was associated with preeclampsia under recessive model and allelic model, but not dominant model. Stratified analyses were conducted as meta-regression analysis indicated that the sample size of case group was a significant source of heterogeneity, which suggested no significant association between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Associations were found between AGT M235T and PIH under dominant genetic model (OR = 1.59; 95 %CI: 1.04-2.42), recessive genetic model (OR = 1.60; 95 %CI: 1.07-2.40), and allelic model (OR = 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.17-1.68). No publication bias was found in either meta-analysis. The present meta-analysis suggested significant associations between ACE I/D, AGT M235T and PIH in Chinese populations. However, no significant association was found between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to investigate the associations between gene polymorphisms and PIH in Chinese populations.

  3. Dietary pattern transitions, and the associations with BMI, waist circumference, weight and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up among the older Chinese population: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies explored the effects of nutritional changes on body mass index (BMI, weight (Wt, waist circumference (WC and hypertension, especially for the older Chinese population. Methods By using China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011 waves, a total of 6348 observations aged ≥ 60 were involved in the study. The number of participants dropped from 2197 in 2004, to 1763 in 2006, 1303 in 2009, and 1085 in 2011. Dietary information was obtained from participants using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Wt, WC, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also measured in each survey year. The dietary pattern was derived by exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis methods. Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate associations of dietary patterns with BMI, Wt and WC. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to assess the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Results Over time, older people’s diets were shifting towards a modern dietary pattern (high intake of dairy, fruit, cakes and fast food. Traditional and modern dietary patterns had distinct associations with BMI, Wt and WC. Participants with a diet in the highest quartile for traditional composition had a β (difference in mean of −0.23 (95 % CI: −0.44; −0.02 for BMI decrease, β of −0.90 (95 % CI: −1.42; −0.37 for Wt decrease; and β of −1.57 (95 % CI: −2.32; −0.83 for WC decrease. However, participants with a diet in the highest quartile for modern diet had a β of 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.12; 0.47 for BMI increase; β of 1.02 (95 % CI: 0.58; 1.46 for Wt increase; and β of 1.44 (95 % CI: 0.78; 2.10 for Wt increase. No significant associations were found between dietary patterns and hypertension. Conclusions We elucidate the associations between dietary pattern and change in BMI, Wt, WC and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up study. The strong association between favourable body

  4. Dietary pattern transitions, and the associations with BMI, waist circumference, weight and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up among the older Chinese population: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin; McElduff, Patrick; Hall, John

    2016-08-08

    Few studies explored the effects of nutritional changes on body mass index (BMI), weight (Wt), waist circumference (WC) and hypertension, especially for the older Chinese population. By using China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011 waves, a total of 6348 observations aged ≥ 60 were involved in the study. The number of participants dropped from 2197 in 2004, to 1763 in 2006, 1303 in 2009, and 1085 in 2011. Dietary information was obtained from participants using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Wt, WC, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also measured in each survey year. The dietary pattern was derived by exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis methods. Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate associations of dietary patterns with BMI, Wt and WC. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to assess the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Over time, older people's diets were shifting towards a modern dietary pattern (high intake of dairy, fruit, cakes and fast food). Traditional and modern dietary patterns had distinct associations with BMI, Wt and WC. Participants with a diet in the highest quartile for traditional composition had a β (difference in mean) of -0.23 (95 % CI: -0.44; -0.02) for BMI decrease, β of -0.90 (95 % CI: -1.42; -0.37) for Wt decrease; and β of -1.57 (95 % CI: -2.32; -0.83) for WC decrease. However, participants with a diet in the highest quartile for modern diet had a β of 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.12; 0.47) for BMI increase; β of 1.02 (95 % CI: 0.58; 1.46) for Wt increase; and β of 1.44 (95 % CI: 0.78; 2.10) for Wt increase. No significant associations were found between dietary patterns and hypertension. We elucidate the associations between dietary pattern and change in BMI, Wt, WC and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up study. The strong association between favourable body composition and traditional diet, compared with an increase in BMI, WC and Wt

  5. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese martial art training on musculoskeletal health, balance performance, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Ryan W T; Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Liu, Karen P Y; Guo, X

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) Chinese martial art training on radial bone strength, upper- and lower-limb muscular strength, shoulder joint mobility, balance performance, and self-efficacy in elderly participants. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve seniors voluntarily joined the VT training group, and twenty-seven seniors voluntarily joined the control group. The VT group received VT training for three months, while the control group received no training. The bone strength of the distal radius was assessed using an ultrasound bone sonometer. Muscular strength in the limbs was evaluated using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer and the five times sit-to-stand test. Shoulder joint mobility was examined using a goniometer. Balance performance and self-efficacy were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale and the Chinese version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, respectively. [Results] The results revealed a nonsignificant group-by-time interaction effect, group effect, and time effect for all outcome variables. However, general trends of maintenance or improvement in all outcome parameters were observed to a greater extent in the VT group than in the control group. [Conclusion] VT training might be a potential fall-prevention exercise that can be used to maintain general physique, balance, and confidence in the elderly population. A further randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm this postulation.

  6. MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the homocysteine lowering efficacy of different doses of folic acid in hypertensive Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate if the homocysteine-lowering efficacy of two commonly used physiological doses (0.4 mg/d and 0.8 mg/d of folic acid (FA can be modified by individual methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and/or methionine synthase (MTR A2756G polymorphisms in hypertensive Chinese adults. Methods A total of 480 subjects with mild or moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: 1 enalapril only (10 mg, control group; 2 enalapril-FA tablet [10:0.4 mg (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.4 mg of FA, low FA group]; and 3 enalapril-FA tablet (10:0.8 mg, high FA group, once daily for 8 weeks. Results After 4 or 8 weeks of treatment, homocysteine concentrations were reduced across all genotypes and FA dosage groups, except in subjects with MTR 2756AG /GG genotype in the low FA group at week 4. However, compared to subjects with MTHFR 677CC genotype, homocysteine concentrations remained higher in subjects with CT or TT genotype in the low FA group (P P P = 0.005, but not in the low FA group (CC 9.9% vs. TT 11.2%, P = 0.989. Conclusions This study demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism can not only affect homocysteine concentration at baseline and post-FA treatment, but also can modify therapeutic responses to various dosages of FA supplementation.

  7. Association of peripheral differential leukocyte counts with dyslipidemia risk in Chinese patients with hypertension: insight from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Wen; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Yu; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Hou, Fan Fan; Gao, Wei; Sun, Ningling; Li, Jianping; Venners, Scott A; Jiang, Shanqun; Huo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between peripheral differential leukocyte counts and dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 10,866 patients with hypertension were enrolled for a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Plasma lipid levels and total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were determined according to standard methods. Peripheral differential leukocyte counts were consistently and positively associated with serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and TG levels (all P dyslipidemia/normolipidemia), we found that patients in the highest quartile of total leukocyte count (≥7.6 × 10 9 cells/l) had 1.64 times the risk of high TG [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46, 1.85], 1.34 times the risk of high TC (95% CI: 1.20, 1.50), and 1.24 times the risk of high LDL-C (95% CI: 1.12, 1.39) compared with their counterparts in the lowest quartile of total leukocyte count. Similar patterns were also observed with neutrophils and lymphocytes. In summary, these findings indicate that elevated differential leukocyte counts are directly associated with serum lipid levels and increased odds of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Individual and Joint Associations of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Genotype and Plasma Homocysteine With Dyslipidemia in a Chinese Population With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Li, Kang; Venners, Scott A; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Jiang, Shanqun; Weinstock, Justin; Wang, Binyan; Tang, Genfu; Xu, Xiping

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR) C677T genotype with dyslipidemia. A total of 231 patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension were enrolled from the Huoqiu and Yuexi communities in Anhui Province, China. Plasma tHcy levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan allelic discrimination technique. Compared with MTHFR 677 CC + CT genotype carriers, TT genotype carriers had higher odds of hypercholesterolemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.7 [1.4-5.2]; P = .004) and higher odds of abnormal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 2.3 [1.1-4.8]; P = .030). The individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of log(tHcy) than those with the 677 CC + CT genotype (adjusted β [standard error]: .2 [0.03]; P dyslipidemia in Chinese patients with essential hypertension. Further studies are needed to confirm the role of tHcy and the MTHFR C677T mutation in the development of dyslipidemia in a larger sample.

  9. Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Heinrich, Joachim; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Hu, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 10 ) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM 10 ). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM 10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03-1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33-0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Chinese Chan-based mind–body intervention improves psychological well-being and physical health of community-dwelling elderly: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruby Yu,1 Jean Woo,1 Agnes S Chan,2–4 Sophia L Sze2,3 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, 2Department of Psychology, 3Chanwuyi Research Center for Neuropsychological Well-Being, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong; 4Henan Songshan Research Institute for Chanwuyi, Henan, People's Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the potential benefits of the Dejian mind–body intervention (DMBI for psychological and physical health in older Chinese adults. Methods: After confirmation of eligibility, the subjects were invited to receive DMBI once a week for 12 weeks. The intervention involved components of learning self-awareness and self-control, practicing mind–body exercises, and adopting a special vegetarian diet. Intervention-related changes were measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, and self-report ratings of health. Indicators of metabolic syndrome and walking speed were also measured. Results: Of the 44 subjects recruited, 42 (54.8% men completed the study, giving an adherence rate of 95%. There was a significant reduction in perceived stress (P<0.05. A significant improvement was also found in systolic blood pressure among those who had abnormally high blood pressure at baseline (P<0.05. Physical fitness as reflected by walking speed was also significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.05. Sleep disturbances were reduced (P<0.01. Self-rated health was significantly enhanced, with the percentage rating very good health increasing from 14.3% at baseline to 42.8% after the intervention (P<0.001. No intervention effect was found for waist circumference, lipids and fasting blood glucose levels, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score, and constipation measures. Conclusion: The DMBI was feasible and acceptable, and subjects showed some improvements in psychological and physical

  11. Serum betaine is inversely associated with low lean mass mainly in men in a Chinese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Tan, Xu-Ying; Lan, Qiu-Ye; Li, Chun-Lei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all Pwomen (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.

  12. Sibling-based association study of the PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and metabolic variables in Chinese and Japanese hypertension families: a SAPPHIRe study. Stanford Asian-Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, L M; Hsiung, C A; Chen, Y D; Ho, L T; Sheu, W H; Pei, D; Nakatsuka, C H; Cox, D; Pratt, R E; Lei, H H; Tai, T Y

    2001-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma2 is a transcription factor that has been shown to be involved in adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. To address the role of PPARgamma2 in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, among many other objectives, we conducted a sibling-controlled association study in a multicenter program - the Stanford Asian-Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance (SAPPHIRe). Approximately 2525 subjects in 734 Chinese and Japanese families have been recruited from six field centers for SAPPHIRe. In total, 1702 subjects including parents and siblings from 449 families have been genotyped for PPARgamma2, of which 328 families were Chinese and 121 Japanese. Only 88 subjects of the 1525 siblings screened for the P12A polymorphism were found to be carriers of the A variant, the most common variant of the PPARgamma2 gene. A variant frequencies of the siblings were 4.27% in Chinese and 2.72% in Japanese. A sibling-controlled association study was performed through genetically discordant sibships (i.e., P/P genotype vs. P/A + A/A genotypes). Specifically, we examined whether there were differences in metabolic variables between the discordant siblings within families. In total, 88 subjects carrying either 1 or 2 A alleles had at least one sibling who was discordant for the P12A polymorphism, yielding a total of 180 individuals from 47 families for analyses, among which 92 siblings were homozygous for wild-type P allele. Siblings with the A variant tended to have lower levels of fasting plasma glucose (OG-10), and lower glucose levels at 60 min following oral glucose loading after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index. Using a mixed model treating family as a random effect, we found that P12A polymorphism of the PPARgamma2 gene contributes significantly to the variance in fasting plasma glucose, glucose level at 60 min, and insulin-resistance homeostasis model assessment. Our

  13. E112D polymorphism in the prolylcarboxypeptidase gene is associated with blood pressure response to benazepril in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hong, Xiu-mei; Xing, Hou-xun; Li, Jian-ping; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xi-ping

    2009-10-20

    Marked interindividual variation exists in blood pressure response to benazepril, which is considered to have genetic basis. Our objectives were to evaluate whether the E112D polymorphism in the prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) gene has impact on blood pressure response to benazepril. Hypertensive patients from Huoqiu County and Yuexi County of Anhui Province received daily treatment with an oral dosage of 10 mg benazepril for 15 days. Genotypes of the E112D polymorphism in the PRCP gene were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Multivariate linear and Logistic regressions using generalized estimating equation model were performed in a total of 1092 patients to evaluate the association of PRCP genotypes and blood pressure response to benazepril. Patients carrying ED or DD genotype had a less systolic blood pressure reduction (adjusted beta = -3.7 + or - 1.1, P benazepril treatment in hypertensive patients of Anhui Province, China.

  14. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, JingQi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further...... of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification...

  15. Identification of IGF1, SLC4A4, WWOX, and SFMBT1 as hypertension susceptibility genes in Han Chinese with a genome-wide gene-based association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chou Yang

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a complex disorder with high prevalence rates all over the world. We conducted the first genome-wide gene-based association scan for hypertension in a Han Chinese population. By analyzing genome-wide single-nucleotide-polymorphism data of 400 matched pairs of young-onset hypertensive patients and normotensive controls genotyped with the Illumina HumanHap550-Duo BeadChip, 100 susceptibility genes for hypertension were identified and also validated with permutation tests. Seventeen of the 100 genes exhibited differential allelic and expression distributions between patient and control groups. These genes provided a good molecular signature for classifying hypertensive patients and normotensive controls. Among the 17 genes, IGF1, SLC4A4, WWOX, and SFMBT1 were not only identified by our gene-based association scan and gene expression analysis but were also replicated by a gene-based association analysis of the Hong Kong Hypertension Study. Moreover, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci associated with the differentially expressed genes were found and linked to hypertension. IGF1, which encodes insulin-like growth factor 1, is associated with cardiovascular disorders, metabolic syndrome, decreased body weight/size, and changes of insulin levels in mice. SLC4A4, which encodes the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1, is associated with decreased body weight/size and abnormal ion homeostasis in mice. WWOX, which encodes the WW domain-containing protein, is related to hypoglycemia and hyperphosphatemia. SFMBT1, which encodes the scm-like with four MBT domains protein 1, is a novel hypertension gene. GRB14, TMEM56 and KIAA1797 exhibited highly significant differential allelic and expressed distributions between hypertensive patients and normotensive controls. GRB14 was also found relevant to blood pressure in a previous genetic association study in East Asian populations. TMEM56 and KIAA1797 may be specific to

  16. Disease stigma and its mediating effect on the relationship between symptom severity and quality of life among community-dwelling women with stress urinary incontinence: a study from a Chinese city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Cuili; Xu, Dongjuan; Guan, Xiaomeng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Kefang

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association between disease stigma and quality of life and whether disease stigma mediates the relationship between symptom severity and quality of life among community-dwelling women with stress urinary incontinence in China. Urinary incontinent patients perceived great stigma, which inhibited from seeking medical help. There is evidence that stigma associated with some other diseases had a complex relationship with illness severity and quality of life. However, little empirical research has examined the role that stigma plays among urinary incontinent population. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used. A purposive sample of 333 women with stress urinary incontinence from a Chinese city was enrolled. Data were collected on symptom severity, disease stigma and quality of life using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form, Social Impact Scale and Incontinence Quality-of-Life Measure, respectively. The mediate effect of disease stigma was analysed using a series of hierarchical regression models. Disease stigma negatively correlated with quality of life among stress urinary incontinent women. Social isolation and internalised shame, but not social rejection, the domains of disease stigma, partially mediated the effect of symptom severity on quality of life, attenuating the effect by 34·3% together. Disease stigma impairs quality of life of women with stress urinary incontinence and mediates the association between symptom severity and quality of life. Health workers may improve their quality of life by addressing perceived stigma. Our findings suggest that in clinical practice, stigma reduction may have the potential to not only improve quality of life, but also mitigate the impact of the severity on quality of life among urinary incontinent women. Social isolation and internalised shame should be more concerned in targeted interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A novel haplotype of low-frequency variants in the aldosterone synthase gene among northern Han Chinese with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xueyan; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Keyong; Zhang, Qi; Li, Jingping; Wang, Ningning; Jin, Ming; Wu, Nan; Cong, Mingyu; Qiu, Changchun

    2017-09-01

    Low-frequency variants showed that there is more power to detect risk variants than to detect protective variants in complex diseases. Aldosterone plays an important role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and aldosterone synthase catalyzes the speed-controlled steps of aldosterone biosynthesis. Polymorphisms of the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) have been reported to be associated with essential hypertension (EH). CYP11B2 polymorphisms such as -344T/C, have been extensively reported, but others are less well known. This study aimed to assess the association between human CYP11B2 and EH using a haplotype-based case-control study. A total of 1024 EH patients and 956 normotensive controls, which consist of north Han population peasants, were enrolled. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs28659182, rs10087214, rs73715282, rs542092383, rs4543, rs28491316, and rs7463212) covering the entire human CYP11B2 gene were genotyped as markers using the MassARRAY system. The major allele G frequency of rs542092383 was found to be risk against hypertension [odds ratio (OR) 3.478, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.407-8.597, P = .004]. The AG genotype frequency of SNP rs542092383 was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR 4.513, 95% CI 1.426-14.287, P = .010). In the haplotype-based case-control analysis, the frequency of the T-G-T haplotype was higher for EH patients than for controls (OR 5.729, 95% CI 1.889-17.371, P = .000495). All |D'| values of the seven SNPs were >0.9, and r values for rs28659182- rs10087214-rs28491316-rs7463212 SNPs were >0.8 and showed strong linkage intensity. Haplotype T-G-T may therefore be a useful genetic marker for EH.

  18. Variant rs2237892 of KCNQ1 Is Potentially Associated with Hypertension and Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in A Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available KCNQ1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Asian populations through genome-wide association studies. However, studies on the association between gene polymorphism of KCNQ1 and T2DM complications remain unclear. To further analyze the association between different alleles at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2237892 within KCNQ1 and TD2M and its complications, we conducted a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. The C allele of rs2237892 variant contributed to susceptibility to T2DM (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.75. Genotypes CT (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24–3.15 and CC (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.57–3.95 were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with adjustment of age, gender, and body mass index. We found that systolic blood pressure (P = 0.015, prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.037, and risk of macrovascular disease (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00–4.45 were significantly higher in subjects with the CC genotype than in the combined population with genotype either CT or TT. Therefore, our data support that KCNQ1 is associated with an increased risk for T2DM and might contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM carrying the risk allele C though it needs further to be confirmed in a larger population.

  19. Variant rs2237892 of KCNQ1 Is Potentially Associated with Hypertension and Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in A Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanlin; Wang, Hailing; Guan, Xiaomin; Niu, Qing; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    KCNQ1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian populations through genome-wide association studies. However, studies on the association between gene polymorphism of KCNQ1 and T2DM complications remain unclear. To further analyze the association between different alleles at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2237892 within KCNQ1 and TD2M and its complications, we conducted a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. The C allele of rs2237892 variant contributed to susceptibility to T2DM (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.75). Genotypes CT (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24-3.15) and CC (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.57-3.95) were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with adjustment of age, gender, and body mass index. We found that systolic blood pressure (P=0.015), prevalence of hypertension (P=0.037), and risk of macrovascular disease (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00-4.45) were significantly higher in subjects with the CC genotype than in the combined population with genotype either CT or TT. Therefore, our data support that KCNQ1 is associated with an increased risk for T2DM and might contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM carrying the risk allele C though it needs further to be confirmed in a larger population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene polymorphisms are associated with essential hypertension risk and blood pressure levels in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peng; Peng, Yan; Li, Li; Chu, Wei; Wang, Xukai

    2018-01-16

    In this case-control study, 246 EH patients and 157 healthy controls were selected from Chinese Han population to explore the associations between the fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH).The SequenomMassarray system was used for the genotyping of three FGF23 gene Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs7955866, rs13312756, and rs3812822. The primers were designed by Assay Designer 3.1 software, and then the samples were added to a 384-well plate for the polymerase chain reaction amplification, shrimp alkaline phosphatase reaction, and desalting after extension. The distributions of the alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes were compared between the two groups. Confounding factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking, and drinking) were adjusted in the non-logistic regression, and the results showed that rs7955866 and rs3812822 polymorphisms were independently associated with the risk of developing EH (P control group showed that carrying rs7955866 A allele (P = 0.031) and rs3812822 C allele (P = 0.025) was associated with the increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP). The insulin (INS) level in the peripheral blood was significantly different between the case and control groups (P = 0.014). After confounding factors were excluded, the results showed that the serum INS level was also an independent risk factor of developing EH (P = 0.044; OR = 1.604, 95%CI: 1.014-2.539). In summary, our results suggest that FGF23 gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing EH in Chinese Han population.

  1. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, Jingqi; Sørensen, Dan

    2010-02-05

    Based on anecdotal evidence of anti-hypertensive effect of Gold Nine Soft Capsules, an in vivo study of this complex Chinese "herbal-based" medicine was initiated. Dosage of the content of Gold Nine capsules in spontaneous hypertensive rats showed a remarkably good effect. This led to further investigation of the components of the preparation and eventual identification of three known anti-hypertensive drugs; amlodipine, indapamide and valsartan, which were not declared on the label. Compounds were rapidly identified using LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR, quantified by HPLC, and the in vivo activity of a combination of commercially purchased standards was shown to be equivalent to that of the capsule content. Adulteration of herbal remedies and dietary supplements with synthetic drugs is an increasing problem that may lead to serious adverse effects. LC-MS-SPE/NMR as a method for the rapid identification of such adulterants is highlighted in this case study.

  2. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    This article explores changeable dwellings that offer the possibility of satisfying spontaneous activities and needs arising from today's changing family patterns. It deals with dwellings that provide people with room for development and flexibility - an open framework, which can be adapted to new...

  3. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...

  4. Associations of sleep duration and prediabetes prevalence in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population with regard to age and hypertension: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingming; Fu, Zhen; Qin, Tingting; Wu, Nanjin; Lv, Yalan; Wei, Qinyun; Jiang, Hongwei; Yin, Ping

    2018-03-24

    The aim of the present study was to examine the age-specific associations between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent prediabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with or without hypertension. In all, 2985 Chinese adults aged ≥45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) baseline survey were selected for analysis. Sleep duration was assessed by structured questionnaires and then categorized into three groups (≤6, 6-8, and >8 h). The prevalence of prediabetes was defined using fasting plasma glucose (100-125 mg/dL) and/or HbA1c (5.7%-6.4%) in conjunction with no previous diabetes diagnosis and no antidiabetic medication. Relationships between self-reported sleep duration and prevalent prediabetes were examined according to age (45-60 years, middle-aged; ≥60 years, elderly) and hypertension groups using Poisson regression models to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with the reference group of 6-8 h sleep/night, short sleep (≤6 h/night) was associated with an increased risk of prediabetes in the whole sample (PR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17) after adjusting for confounders. This association was more pronounced in elderly participants without hypertension (PR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.51). This study suggests that participants with a short sleep period are at a moderately increased risk of prediabetes, particularly in elderly subjects without hypertension. Aging and hypertension may be important in the relationship between short sleep and impaired glucose metabolism. © 2018 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Progression from impaired fasting glucose to type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese subjects with and without hypertension in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sau Nga; Luk, Wan; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Cheung, Kwok Leung

    2014-09-01

    The progression from impaired fasting glucose (IFG) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Chinese subjects, with and without hypertension, in a primary care setting was unknown. The present retrospective multicenter 5-year (2002-2007) cohort study was performed on IFG subjects attending 23 general outpatient clinics who were identified by their elevated fasting blood glucose laboratory results. Development of T2DM was determined by physician diagnosis of T2DM or starting of oral antidiabetic drugs within 5 years. The relationship between the time of T2DM diagnosis and subject characteristics was assessed by adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) from Cox hazards model. Of the 9161 IFG subjects, 4080 (45%) were men and 5081 (55%) were women. There were 1998 subjects who developed T2DM. The 5-year cumulative incidence was 0.218, whereas the overall annual incidence rate was 5.981/100 person-years. Subjects were more likely to develop T2DM if they were hypertensive (aHR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.62; P < 0.001), aged <60 years (aHR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.24-1.49; P < 0.001), female (aHR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.08-1.29; P < 0.001), and had higher fasting glucose levels (6.39 ± 0.49 vs 6.24 ± 0.43 mmol/L in the group that developed T2DM vs the group without T2DM, respectively; aHR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.83-2.20; P < 0.001). Overall, more than one-fifth of IFG subjects in the primary care setting developed T2DM within 5 years. Health care professionals can target interventions to patients with risk factors for disease progression. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  7. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  8. Gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1981-08-01

    A nationwide investigation has been made into the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings. The measurements were made with small detectors containing thermoluminescent dosimeters. The detectors were sent to the selected participants by mail. 1300 dwellings were included in the investigation. In each dwelling three measurements were made: one detector was placed in the kitchen, one in the living-room and one in the bedroom. The mean annual absorbed tissue dose in dwellings in Sweden was found to be 0.65 mGy (corresponding to an exposition rate of 12 μR/h) when the contribution from cosmic radiation had been subtracted. That represents an annual collective dose of about 4000 mansieverts to the population of Sweden. From a previous investigation we have calculate the mean value for the gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings for 1950 to be 0.4 mGy/a (8μR/h). The reason for the relatively large increase in the mean value is an increased use of building materials on stone, particularly of lightweight concrete based on alum shale, from 1940 to middle 1960s. The production of this type of lightweight concrete was discontinued in 1975 and the use of other stone-based building materials has decreased. The mean value of gamma radiation in Swedish dwellings is therefore expected to decrease slowly in the future if this tendency holds. Sweden has some 3.5 million dwellings. About 10 % of them have mean values of 1 mGy/a (19 μR/h) or more, 0.2 % have 3 mGy/a (57 μR/h) or more and a couple of hundred 5 mGy/a (95 μR/h or more. The mean value for detached houses was found to be 0.43 mGy/a (8 μR/h) and for dwellings in multi-family houses 0.80 mGy/a (15 μR/h). The investigation dwellings have also been classified according to the building materials, the year of construction and the degree of urbanization of the area. (author)

  9. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  10. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  11. Cognitive Function and Emotional Status of Middle-aged Chinese Hypertensive Patients Without Detectable White Matter Brain Lesions or Lacunar Infarctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Heather L

    2006-01-01

    .... Executive functions, speed of processing, memory and attention are especially impacted. Hypertension may affect cognitive function because of pathological physiological changes in the brain (e.g...

  12. A comparative research on obesity hypertension by the comparisons and associations between waist circumference, body mass index with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the clinical laboratory data between four special Chinese adult groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Leng, Jian-Hang; Yang, Fen-Fang; Yang, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Hu; Li, Zeng-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Yuan, Cheng-Da; Li, Jia-Jia; Pan, Qi; Liu, Wei; Ren, Yan-Jun; Liu, Bing; Liu, Qing-Min; Cao, Cheng-Jian

    2018-01-01

    The obesity-hypertension pathogenesis is complex. From the phenotype to molecular mechanism, there is a long way to clarify the mechanism. To explore the association between obesity and hypertension, we correlate the phenotypes such as the waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SB), and diastolic blood pressure (DB) with the clinical laboratory data between four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group), and the results may show something. To explore the mechanisms from obesity to hypertension by analyzing the correlations and differences between WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data indices in four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2012 to July 2014, and 153 adult subjects, 34 women and 119 men, from 21 to 69 years, were taken from four characteristic Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group). The study was approved by the ethics committee of Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data were collected and analyzed by SPSS. Serum levels of albumin (ALB),alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (Ua), and TC/HDLC (odds ratio) were statistically significantly different between the four groups. WC statistically significantly positively correlated with BMI, ALT, Ua, and serum levels of glucose (GLU), and TC/HDLC, and negatively with ALB, HDLC, and serum levels of conjugated bilirubin (CB). BMI

  13. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  14. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report gives a review of the present situation in Sweden concerning the knowledge and research on radon in dwellings.The responsibilities and need for actions in this field are examined. Costs and possibilities for financial help to install radonreducing equipment are also treated. (L.E.)

  15. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  16. Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Gallbladder Cancer Additional Content Medical News Portal Hypertension By Steven K. Herrine, MD, Professor of Medicine, ... Liver Hepatic Encephalopathy Jaundice in Adults Liver Failure Portal Hypertension Portal hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in ...

  17. [Secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice.

  18. Secondary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary hypertension Overview Secondary hypertension (secondary high blood pressure) is high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Secondary hypertension can be caused by conditions that affect your kidneys, ...

  19. Clinical study on the factors affecting the post-partum recovery of patients with hypertensive pregnancy disorders at a Chinese hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jiayuan; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhou, Helen; Liu, Guoli

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the post-partum recovery of blood pressure (BP) in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and to evaluate HDP risk factors. A total of 124 patients with gestational hypertension (n = 63) or pre-eclampsia (n = 61) who gave birth at Peking University People's Hospital between January and December 2013 were included in this study. The recorded clinical and laboratory parameters included the patients' general information, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, gestational age at onset and delivery, delivery mode and time taken for BP to return to normal level. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of various risk factors on post-partum BP recovery. The mean interval for BP normalization was 24.1 ± 22.8 days (median, 7 days). Forty-six percent of the patients recovered from hypertension within three days, and 75% recovered within six weeks of delivery. About 90% of the patients required 60 days for BP to normalize after delivery. After adjusting for confounding factors, post-partum recovery from hypertension was found to be influenced by hypertension severity, maternal serum albumin level, a family history of hypertension and gestational week at delivery. The BP of the majority of the patients with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia returned to normal within 60 days of delivery. Hypertension severity, maternal serum albumin level, a family history of family hypertension and gestational week at delivery influenced the time required for BP normalization. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  1. Dwelling with design

    OpenAIRE

    Paavilainen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Dwelling with Design offers a throughout look at the domestic meanings of design. The research is based on studying households in and around Helsinki, in order to find out what role, if any, design plays in the domestication of a product. The picture emerging from the research is quite different from design’s public and professional image represented for example in the interior decoration magazines, where designed qualities such as usability, reliability, interesting branding and aesthetic co...

  2. Long-Term Effects of Ambient PM2.5 on Hypertension and Blood Pressure and Attributable Risk Among Older Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Di, Qian; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Zeng, Weilin; Cummings-Vaughn, Lenise A; Howard, Steven W; Vaughn, Michael G; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Ma, Wenjun; Wu, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate pollution (PM 2.5 ) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, has also been hypothesized to be linked to PM 2.5 However, epidemiological evidence has been mixed. We examined long-term association between ambient PM 2.5 and hypertension and blood pressure. We interviewed 12 665 participants aged 50 years and older and measured their blood pressures. Annual average PM 2.5 concentrations were estimated for each community using satellite data. We applied 2-level logistic regression models to examine the associations and estimated hypertension burden attributable to ambient PM 2.5 For each 10 μg/m 3 increase in ambient PM 2.5 , the adjusted odds ratio of hypertension was 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.22). Stratified analyses found that overweight and obesity could enhance the association, and consumption of fruit was associated with lower risk. We further estimated that 11.75% (95% confidence interval, 5.82%-18.53%) of the hypertension cases (corresponding to 914, 95% confidence interval, 453-1442 cases) could be attributable to ambient PM 2.5 in the study population. Findings suggest that long-term exposure to ambient PM 2.5 might be an important risk factor of hypertension and is responsible for significant hypertension burden in adults in China. A higher consumption of fruit may mitigate, whereas overweight and obesity could enhance this effect. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  4. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.; Yu, Esther Y. T.; Chow, Gary C. C.; Chak, Yvonne T. C.; Chan, Ivy K. Y.; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  5. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  6. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5±6.7 years underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice, and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0±6.7 years received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P=0.007 in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9% differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P=0.033. For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P=0.002. Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  7. Solar low energy dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestnes, Anne Grete

    2000-01-01

    By now, a lot has been learnt about how to reduce energy use in dwellings using solar and low energy technologies, and many good examples can be found throughout Europe. Still, they are not quite the common feature we would expect them to be, i.e. they have not really penetrated the market. The reason for this is in part a result of the fact that the designers and developers of these buildings have not looked at what the market wants and needs, but rather at how to use a set of given technologies. The buildings are the result of a technology push rather than a market pull and have therefore, often, been detached or semidetached dwellings with different solar technologies added on in less than optimal ways. In order to increase market penetration, it is time to look at the market trends and relate to these. Fortunately, quite a few European architects have realized this and have started designing somewhat different residential buildings. The paper focuses on examples of the new trends in solar residential architecture and by that, hopefully, it shows that we are on the right track. (au)

  8. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    . This confinement of attentional resources leads to the impairment in identifying the second target. With the model, we are able to produce close fits to data from the traditional two target dwell time paradigm. A dwell-time experiment with three targets has also been carried out for individual subjects...... and the model has been extended to fit these data....

  9. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... Nov 13,2017 A hypertensive ( high blood pressure ) crisis is when blood pressure rises quickly and severely ...

  10. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  11. 12 CFR 541.10 - Dwelling unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling unit. 541.10 Section 541.10 Banks and... FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.10 Dwelling unit. The term dwelling unit means the unified combination of rooms designed for residential use by one family, other than a single-family dwelling. ...

  12. 7 CFR 3550.106 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.106 Section 3550.106... Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.106 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one... § 3550.63. (b) Post-repair condition. Dwellings repaired with section 504 funds need not be brought to...

  13. Gender-specific association of MSA2756G with hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MSA2756G) in the hypertensive patients in northwest Chinese population. Methods: A total of 378 unrelated hypertensive patients attending Ningxia Peoples Hospital, Ningxia Province, China, were recruited for this study. We analyzed genotype by ...

  14. Practicing the Attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (.... The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing...

  15. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on specific activities in building materials, gamma-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On the basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950's, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 x 10 3 man-Gy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 x 10 3 man-Gy for dwellings existing in 1975

  16. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  17. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  18. Zhen gan xi feng decoction, a traditional chinese herbal formula, for the treatment of essential hypertension: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Feng, Bo; Liu, Wei; Duan, Lian; Gao, Ao; Li, Haixia; Ma, Jizheng; Du, Xinliang; Li, Nan; Wang, Pengqian; Su, Kelei; Chu, Fuyong; Zhang, Guohao; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the clinical effectiveness and adverse effects of Zhen Gan Xi Feng Decoction (ZGXFD) for essential hypertension (EH). Methods. Five major electronic databases were searched up to August 2012 to retrieve any potential randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of ZGXFD for EH reported in any language, with main outcome measure as blood pressure (BP). Results. Six randomized trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was evaluated as generally low. Four trials compared prescriptions based on ZGXFD with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis showed that ZGXFD was more effective in BP control and TCM syndrome and symptom differentiation (TCM-SSD) scores than antihypertensive drugs. Two trials compared the combination of modified ZGXFD plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis showed that there is significant beneficial effect on TCM-SSD scores. However, no significant effect on BP was found. The safety of ZGXFD is still uncertain. Conclusions. ZGXFD appears to be effective in improving blood pressure and hypertension-related symptoms for EH. However, the evidence remains weak due to poor methodological quality of the included studies. More rigorous trials are warranted to support their clinical use.

  19. Mineralocorticoid hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension affects about 10 - 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta, aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism - Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3, non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia, and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics. Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy.

  20. Radon in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1978-04-01

    Studies on the specific activities in building materials, the γ-radiation levels in dwellings, the concentrations of radon and daughters in the air indoors and the concentration of radon in tap water are in progress in Sweden. On basis of these investigations and of the investigation of Hultqvist from the beginning of the 1950s, an attempt has been made to show how the radiation doses in dwellings have changed or may be changed by human activities and what these changes imply in terms of collective dose. The annual collective absorbed dose in the basal cells of the critical bronchial region have increased from 11 . 10 3 manGy for the occupants of dwellings existing in 1950 to 25 . 10 3 manGy for dwellings existing in 1975. If the building of houses continues as at present it can be estimated that the annual collective dose will be between 25 and 31 . 10 3 manGy for the dwellings of 1985. (author)

  1. Hypertension hos gravide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Johansen, Marianne; Kamper, Anne Lise

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...

  2. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.57 Section 3550.57... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.57 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one that is considered modest for the area, must not be...

  3. Raising the energy performance of historical dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krugten, L.T.F.; Hermans, L.M.C.; Havinga, L.C.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Schellen, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Earlier studies assume that historical dwellings and post-war dwellings in particular, are less sustainable than modern dwellings, justifying its demolition. Over time, historical buildings have been transformed and their energy performance improved. However, there is little known on the

  4. Dwelling towers of Czech castles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durdík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2009), s. 139-150 ISSN 1875-2896. [Meeting of Europa Nostra Scientific Council /44./. Kilkenny, 27.09.2008-02.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : castle * castellology * dwelling tower * donjon * keep * medieval archaeology * architecture * Bohemia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Particle transport in urban dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, R.J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; ApSimon, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative investigation of the potential for contamination of a dwelling by material carried in on the occupants' footwear has been completed. Data are now available on the transport capacity of different footwear for a small range of particle sizes and contamination source strengths. Additional information is also given on the rate of redistribution

  6. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  7. Endokrin hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Ibsen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma-aldosterone-to-renin ......Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma...

  8. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Qi-Fang; Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-06-15

    The publication of the first non-randomised proof-of-concept trial of renal denervation as a treatment modality in treatment-resistant hypertension set the stage for a search for novel devices with the expectation that technology would reduce the burden of hypertension by reducing or eliminating the costly and lifelong use of blood pressure lowering medications. As we demonstrate in this review, this idea so attractive to manufacturers and invasive cardiologists and radiologists overlooked decades of careful pathophysiological research in a disease, which still remains enigmatic but remains the major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide. To make our point, we first reviewed the prevalence and risks associated with treatment-resistant hypertension. Next, we highlighted the key points required for the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension, including the recording of the ambulatory blood pressure and the assessment of adherence to medication. Finally, we summarised new insights in the management of treatment-resistant hypertension by medication and devices and in the future research. Throughout our review, we focused on new evidence became available since 2013. Our conclusion is that optimising medical treatment based on simple algorithms remains the state of the art in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  9. The efficacy and safety of fixed-dose combination of amlodipine/benazepril in Chinese essential hypertensive patients not adequately controlled with benazepril monotherapy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pingping; Fan, Weihu

    2014-01-01

    This double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of two strengths of fixed-dose combination of amlodipine/benazepril in Chinese hypertensive patients not adequately controlled with benazepril. Of 442 patients who received treatment with benazepril 10 mg for 4 weeks, 341 patients failed to achieve to diastolic blood pressure (DBP) benazepril 2.5/10 mg, or amlodipine/benazepril 5/10 mg, or benazepril 10 mg for 8 weeks. BP reductions with amodipinel/benazepril 2.5/10 mg (15.2/11.8 mmHg) or amlodipine/benazepril 5/10 mg (15.4/12.4 mmHg) were significantly greater than that with benazepril 10 mg (9.88/9.46 mmHg) at study end (p benazepril). BP control rate was 83.8% with amlodipine/benazepril 2.5/10 mg, 80.2% with amlodipine/benazepril 5/10 mg, 64.9% with benazepril 10 mg at study end (p benazepril). Three groups were generally well tolerated. Our study indicated that amlodipine/benazepril fixed-dose combination offered significant additional BP reductions and BP control rate compared with the continuation of benazepril monotherapy. No significant differences were observed in both BP reductions and BP control rate between amlodipine/benazepril 2.5/10 mg and amlodipine/benazepril 5/10 mg.

  10. Radon measurements in hispaniola dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Colgan, P.A.; Cancio, D.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a national radon survey and a number of regional surveys of radon in spanish dwelling are reviewed. The best estimate of the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations is 41.1. Bq/m -3 and single-family dwellings have been shown to be more at risk than apartments. Results need to be interpreted with some caution due to differences in survey methodologies and measurement procedures. The risks from radon exposure are put in perspective by comparison with other voluntary risks. Finally, although a number of 'high risk' areas have already been identified, it is concluded that implementation of a national programme to reduce radon exposure may await a better definition of the problem extent. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab

  11. Renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Sos, T.A.; Nielsen, S.L.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Cornell Univ., New York

    1989-01-01

    Hypertension constitutes a major health problem and the challenge is to identify patients having 'surgically' curable renal vascular disease among the majority with so-called essential hypertension. The best of unsatisfactory diagnostic tests are renography and plasma renin activity both before and during angiotensin II blockade. The necessity of better screening tests has increased because of the recent advances in surgical techniques and especially percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. The latter has definitely become the method of choice for correction of suspected hemodynamically significant artery stenoses whenever technically feasible. With improved angioplasty techniques the risk of treating renal artery stenosis without hemodynamic and clinical importance (so-called cosmetic repair) has increased. Unfortunately randomized trials including surgery versus angioplasty are not available. It should be kept in mind that only after correction of the stenosis is achieved and the blood pressure has become normal, can the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension be made with certainty. (orig.)

  12. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  13. Essential hypertension vs. secondary hypertension among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E; Barratt, Michelle S; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Milewicz, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents") from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3-17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08-19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P secondary hypertension. The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun M. Adeoye; Adewole Adebiyi; Bamidele O. Tayo; Babatunde L. Salako; Adesola Ogunniyi; Richard S. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% fema...

  15. Controlling Hypertension

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects one third of U.S. adults and is a leading cause of heart disease and stroke. A recent study found an increase in self-reported high blood pressure among U.S. adults, and an increase in the use of medications to control high blood pressure. In this podcast, Dr. Fleetwood Loustalot discusses the importance of controlling high blood pressure.

  16. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun M. Adeoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% female, hypertensive, aged 18 and above were recruited into the study from two centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Hypertension was identified using JNCVII definition and was further grouped into four subtypes: controlled hypertension (CH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH. Results. Systolic-diastolic hypertension was the most prevalent. Whereas SDH (77.6% versus 73.5% and IDH (4.9% versus 4.7% were more prevalent among females, ISH (10.1% versus 6.2% was higher among males (P=0.048. Female subjects were more obese (P<0.0001 and SDH was prevalent among the obese group. Conclusion. Gender and obesity significantly influenced the distribution of the hypertension subtypes. Characterization of hypertension by subtypes in genetic association studies could lead to identification of previously unknown genetic variants involved in the etiology of hypertension. Large-scale studies among various ethnic groups may be needed to confirm these observations.

  17. Dealing with radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castren, O.

    1987-01-01

    A review is made of the measurements, regulatory initiatives and remedial action taken in Finland since the discovery in 1981 of the first indoor radon concentrations higher than 10,000 Bq/m 3 . The emphasis is on the results of measurements, explanations of them and their use for the rational solution of the radon problems. Localizing the high-concentration areas and dwellings has been one of the main objectives. The latest radon map is based on measurements in 8,150 dwellings in 235 localities. The geographical distribution cannot be explained only by the uranium concentration of the bedrock. The main reason for deviations is the ground permeability. The local fine structure is most notably influenced by the glacifluvial sand and grvel formations (eskers and ice-marginal formations). The highest concentrations are often caused by synergism between an elevated uranium concentration, situation on an esker and a great temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air. They are usually connected with a large seasonal variation, the concentration being at maximum during the coldest time in winter. Indoor radon distribution is compared with newly published maps on the incidence of lung cancer in Finland

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  19. 517 DWELLING DENSITY VARIABILITY ACROSS GOVERNMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    confidence level, apartment type had no significant effect on dwelling density in ... words: dwelling density, home spaces, housing units, multifamily apartments ... spaces for work, Obateru (2005) defined .... of Statistics Year Book, 2008; Seeling et al., ... stress. The bedroom and habitable room indicators show similar trend.

  20. Cooking exhaust systems for low energy dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Especially in airtight low energy dwellings exhaust systems are of utmost importance as cooking can be a major source of PM2.5 exposure. Dwellings should be designed including facilities enabling extraction of at least 83 dm3/s (300 m3/h) directly to outside. Residents should be able to select an

  1. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China: data from 1·7 million adults in a population-based screening study (China PEACE Million Persons Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiapeng; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Xinyue; Linderman, George C; Wu, Chaoqun; Cheng, Xiuyuan; Mu, Lin; Zhang, Haibo; Liu, Jiamin; Su, Meng; Zhao, Hongyu; Spatz, Erica S; Spertus, John A; Masoudi, Frederick A; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-12-09

    Hypertension is common in China and its prevalence is rising, yet it remains inadequately controlled. Few studies have the capacity to characterise the epidemiology and management of hypertension across many heterogeneous subgroups. We did a study of the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China and assessed their variations across many subpopulations. We made use of data generated in the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE) Million Persons Project from Sept 15, 2014, to June 20, 2017, a population-based screening project that enrolled around 1·7 million community-dwelling adults aged 35-75 years from all 31 provinces in mainland China. In this population, we defined hypertension as systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg, or self-reported antihypertensive medication use in the previous 2 weeks. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were defined, respectively, among hypertensive adults as a self-reported diagnosis of hypertension, current use of antihypertensive medication, and blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg. We assessed awareness, treatment, and control in 264 475 population subgroups-defined a priori by all possible combinations of 11 demographic and clinical factors (age [35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-75 years], sex [men and women], geographical region [western, central, and eastern China], urbanity [urban vs rural], ethnic origin [Han and non-Han], occupation [farmer and non-farmer], annual household income [education [primary school and below, middle school, high school, and college and above], previous cardiovascular events [yes or no], current smoker [yes or no], and diabetes [yes or no]), and their associations with individual and primary health-care site characteristics, using mixed models. The sample contained 1 738 886 participants with a mean age of 55·6 years (SD 9·7), 59·5% of whom were women. 44·7% (95% CI

  2. Reliability and validity of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status in community-dwelling elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Wu, Wenyuan; Wang, Jiaqi; Feng, Wei; Li, Chunbo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a widely used screening instrument in neuropsychological assessment and is a brief, individually administered measure. The present study aims to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the RBANS in community-dwelling elderly. Material and methods All subjects come from the community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai, China. They completed a questionnaire concerning demographic information, the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Chinese version of the RBANS. To test for internal consistency, Cronbach's α was calculated for all six RBANS indices. Correlations between each of the RBANS and MMSE subtests were conducted to measure the concurrent validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the construct validity. Results The final sample of participants included 236 community-dwelling elderly. The mean total score on the RBANS was 86.02 (±14.19). The RBANS total score showed strong internal consistency (r = 0.806), and the coefficient α value for each of the RBANS scales ranged from 0.142 to 0.727. The total RBANS score was highly correlated with that of the MMSE (r = 0.594, pvalidity in a community-dwelling elderly sample. It may be a useful screening instrument for conducting cognitive assessments in community-dwelling elderly. PMID:22291831

  3. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  4. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. If the high ... the right side of the heart. Patients with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from ...

  5. Hypertension and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Hypertension A disease that often goes undetected. What is hypertension? Hypertension, also called high blood pressure , is a condition in which the arteries of ...

  6. Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARTNERSHIPS Meet our Fundraising Partners Tweet Welcome Intracranial hypertension (IH) is the general term for the neurological ... high. (Old names for IH include Benign Intracranial Hypertension and Pseudotumor Cerebri). The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation ...

  7. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  8. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  9. Neonatal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.

  10. Solar-assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, T V

    1980-02-01

    The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

  11. Dyslipidemia and the risk of incident hypertension in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging Dislipidemia e risco de incidência de hipertensão em uma população de idosos Brasileiros vivendo em comunidade: estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of lipid parameters for incident hypertension in elderly living in a community. The study included 306 (81% from total persons aged > 60 years who were free of hypertension and of cardiovascular diseases at the baseline survey of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. The cumulative incidence of hypertension over three years was 37.3%. The relative risk (RR of incident hypertension decreased 0.92 for each unit of HDL-cholesterol (95%CI: 0.86-0.99 independent of several potential confounding factors. Individuals with HDL-cholesterol in the top tercile (> 55mg/dL had a risk of hypertension halve that those in the bottom tercile (RR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.33-0.90. Other lipid parameters had no significant effect on the outcome. High HDL-cholesterol showed an independent protective effect on subsequent development of hypertension in the elderly.O objetivo do estudo foi examinar o valor prognóstico de parâmetros lipídicos para a incidência de hipertensão arterial em idosos vivendo na comunidade. A pesquisa incluiu 306 (81% do total pessoas com idade > 60 anos que estavam livres de hipertensão e de doenças cardiovasculares na linha de base do Estudo de Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí. A incidência acumulada em três anos da hipertensão arterial foi de 37.3%. O risco relativo (RR para a incidência da hipertensão diminuiu 0,92 para cada unidade de colesterol HDL (IC95%: 0,86-0,99, independente de vários potenciais fatores de confusão. Indivíduos com colesterol HDL no tercil superior (> 55mg/dL apresentaram metade do risco de hipertensão que aqueles no tercil inferior (RR = 0,54; IC95%: 0,33-0,90. Os outros parâmetros lipídicos não apresentaram efeitos estatisticamente significantes sobre o evento. Valores mais altos de colesterol HDL apresentaram efeito protetor para o desenvolvimento da hipertensão em idosos.

  12. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable federal...

  13. Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hui Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003 and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011 might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013. Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  14. Short-term variability and nocturnal decline in ambulatory blood pressure in normotension, white-coat hypertension, masked hypertension and sustained hypertension: a population-based study of older individuals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Graciani, Auxiliadora; López-García, Esther; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; García-Esquinas, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2017-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability and nocturnal decline in blood pressure are associated with cardiovascular outcomes. However, little is known about whether these indexes are associated with white-coat and masked hypertension. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1047 community-dwelling individuals aged ⩾60 years in Spain in 2012. Three observer-measured home BPs and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were performed under standardized conditions. BP variability was defined as BP s.d. and coefficient of variation. Differences in BP variability and nocturnal BP decrease between groups were adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates using generalized linear models. Of the cohort, 21.7% had white-coat hypertension, 7.0% had masked hypertension, 21.4% had sustained hypertension, and 49.9% were normotensive. Twenty-four hour, daytime and night-time systolic BP s.d. and coefficients of variation were significantly higher in subjects with white-coat hypertension than those with normotension (Pcoat hypertension than in those with normotension (Pcoat hypertension group and lowest in the masked hypertension group in all patients and untreated patients (Pcoat hypertension, 78.1% of subjects with masked hypertension, and 72.2% of subjects with sustained hypertension (Pcoat hypertension and blunted nocturnal BP decrease was observed more frequently in subjects with masked hypertension. These findings may help to explain the reports of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with white-coat hypertension and poor prognosis in those with masked hypertension, highlighting the importance of ABPM.

  15. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Stroke in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; He, Y.; Lai, J.Q.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.G.; Qi, L.

    2011-01-01

    We recently featured Chinese dietary patterns that were associated with obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we examined the association of those dietary patterns and risk of stroke among 26,276 Chinese adults aged >= 45 y by using data from the 2002 China

  16. Hold it! memory affects attentional dwell time

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Emily L.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory affects attentional dwell time by using a modified version of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Across four experiments, our results revealed that the AB was significantly affected by memory status (novel vs. old), but critically, this ef...

  17. Dwelling thermal renovation: which stakes, which solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, Paul; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Verdure, Mathieu; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Fuk Chun Wing, Dimitri; Kiefer, Noemie; Mauroux, Amelie; Charlier, Dorothee; Hini, Sihame; Pinto Silva, Kleber; Giraudet, Louis Gaetan; Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Daussin-Benichou, Jeanne-Marie; Teissier, Olivier; Finidori, Esther; Grandjean, Alain; Allibe, Benoit; Gadrat, Pierre; Couriol, Aude; Menard, Francois; Rouquette, Celine; Houriez, Guillaume; Francois, Dominique; Aubert, Celine; Canardon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes three sets of contributions. The first one addresses context and stakes. The contributions propose: a literature review on household behaviour and investments in energy efficiency, a focus on the key role of dwellings in energy transition through a comparative study of the four pathways of the National Debate for Energy Transition, and a discussion about consensus and uncertainties regarding the determining factors of heating temperature in dwellings. The second set addresses public policies and their assessment: improvement of the technical-economical assessment of the benefit of dwelling energetic renovations, discussion of the organisation and results of a survey on dwelling, equipment, and energy needs and uses, an analysis of several measures aimed at reaching objectives of energy efficiency of dwellings, a discussion of renovation works quality, a discussion of the impact of the sustainable development tax credit on thermal renovation, the optimisation of energy renovation in co-properties by third party financing, some foreign examples of policies in favour of dwelling thermal renovation. The third set of contributions addresses the needed technical, organisational and market evolutions: how the building sector can face the challenges of energy transition, the possibilities to propose innovative solutions adapted to existing housing buildings, and a comparative analysis of material and building equipment costs and market structures in Europe. Other texts are proposed in appendix: the origin of the Phebus survey, a description of incentive arrangements, and a map of climate zones in France

  18. Neurobiological Mediators of Squalor-dwelling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David A

    2017-09-01

    Squalor-dwelling behavior has been characterized as living in conditions so unsanitary that feelings of revulsion are elicited among visitors. This behavior is commonly associated with an insensitivity to distress/disgust and a failure to understand the direness of one's living situation, which leads to social isolation and impairment in quality of life. Etiologically, several associations have been described in the literature, including age-related decline, lower socioeconomic status, and rural dwelling status. Primary neuropsychiatric disorders, such as psychosis, alcoholism, dementia, personality disorders, developmental delays, and learning or physical disabilities are frequently seen in squalor-dwelling individuals. However, none of these disorders seems to be necessary or sufficient to explain the behavior. Neurobiologically, squalor-dwelling behavior has been associated with frontal lobe dysfunction as evidenced by executive dysfunction; however, cognitive impairments also fail to completely explain this behavior. The purpose of this report is to describe a typical case of squalor-dwelling behavior and use it as an example to illustrate the complexity of uncovering the neurobiological basis for this maladaptive personal and public health threat. Neuroimaging findings from our case and a review of the literature point toward decreased activity in the insular cortex and the amygdala as a unifying biological explanation for squalor-dwelling behaviors.

  19. Hypertension in women

    OpenAIRE

    Hage, Fadi G; Mansur, Sulaf J; Xing, Dongqi; Oparil, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in both men and women. The prevalence and severity of hypertension rise markedly with age, and blood pressure control becomes more difficult with aging in both genders, particularly in women. In addition, there are forms of hypertension that occur exclusively in women, e.g., hypertension related to menopause, oral contraceptive use, or pregnancy (e.g., chronic hypertension, gestationa...

  20. Adipokine Profiling in Adult Women With Central Obesity and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Supriya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity and hypertension are common risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Studies have shown that it is more difficult to control blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage in obese individuals with hypertension compared to their non-obese counterparts, especially among women. Obese females have a 6 times higher risk of developing hypertension than non-obese females while obese males are at a 1.5 times higher risk of developing hypertension, compared to their non-obese counterparts. Indeed, the inter-relationship between obesity and hypertension is unclear. Adipokines have been proposed to play a mediating role in the relationship between obesity and hypertension and are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study sought to determine the role of adipokines (adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypertensive Hong Kong Chinese women with central obesity. A total of 387 women aged 58 ± 11 years who were examined with a 2 × 2 factorial design for central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm and hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, were recruited from a pool of 1,492 Hong Kong Chinese adults who were previously screened for metabolic syndrome. Subjects with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were excluded to eliminate confounding effects. Our findings revealed that hypertensive women with central obesity had a lower anti-inflammatory status (adiponectin and a higher pro-inflammatory status (TNF-α than obese alone or hypertensive alone women. Also, women with central obesity had higher circulatory PAI-1 and leptin concentrations than their non-obese counterparts. We conclude that obesity may shift toward a more pro-inflammatory state and may become more severe in the presence of hypertension or vice versa.

  1. Systolic hypertension in adult nigerians with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opadijo, O.G.; Salami, T.A.T.; Sanya, E.O.; Omotoso, A.B.O.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertensions in relation to age and their impacts on target organ among adult Nigerians with hypertension. Newly diagnosed adult hypertensives, with blood pressure 140/90mm Hg, taken twice with mercury column sphygmomanometer at 3 weeks interval, were studied. The total number of hypertensive patients treated over this period was also taken into consideration. The newly diagnosed hypertensives were classified using JNC VI classification. The frequency of occurrence of target organ damage such as Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), heart failure, renal impairment etc. was charted according to systolic and or diastolic pressures. The occurrence of systolic or diastolic blood pressure was also related with the age of the patients. Blood metabolic parameters were compared in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures for their possible contributory role. Two thousand seven hundred and ninety-two adult hypertensive patients were managed over the study period. Of them, 218 (7.8%) were newly diagnosed and studied. There were 94 males and 124 females. Seventy-seven (35.3%) were aged 60 years and above with equal frequency in the gender. One hundred and seventy-eight (81.7%) cases had combined systolic and diastolic pressures. Twenty-nine (13.3%) patients had systolic hypertension. Twenty-five (86.2%) of these 29 were aged 50 years and above and 20 (69.0%) were aged 60 years and above. Eleven (5.0%) patients had isolated diastolic hypertension and they were all in the age bracket 40-49 years. Systolic blood pressure was found to be rising with advancing age while diastolic blood pressure peaked at mid 40's and declined. Target organ damage occurred more frequently with systolic hypertension and advancing age than with diastolic hypertension. Systolic hypertension occurred more frequently in this series of adult Nigerians with hypertension. It was higher with advancing age and associated with more target organ

  2. Radon in dwellings and shelters in Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, radon activity was measured in dwellings of Zagreb. In only small number of dwellings radon activity exceeded 100 Bq.m -3 . Since the inhabitants of Croatia have to stay in the facilities below the ground due to the war against Croatia, the paper gives also data on radon activity measured in the shelters and cellars in 1991. Measurements were performed using Kodak LR-115 detectors, type II. At several locations radon activity was measured with a silicon detector (Radhome). Radon values obtained for the shelters, cellars and dwellings at all locations were compared. With respect to children as most susceptable population group the paper gives data on radon activity for kindergartens and elementary schools (and its shelters) where children usually spend almost one-third to the day. (orig.)

  3. Recommended action levels for radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The recommendation made by a group appointed by the Directorate of Public Health, arrives at the conclusion that radon in Norwegian dwellings implies a substantial health problem for the country. For this reason it is recommended that actions should be taken to reduce the radiation exposure from radon in Norway. Upper levels for such actions are set to 200 Bq/m 3 (radon in air of dwellings) for new contructions. For existing dwellings having concentrations of 200 - 800 Bq/m 3 , simple and unexpensive remedial actions to reduce levels are sufficient. When levels exceed 800 Bq/m 3 , more elaborate and costly actions are necessary. An evaluation of the extent of the radon problem in Norway is included, together with a survey of the cost and benefit involved in choosing various levels for remedial actions

  4. Hypertensive retinopathy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... retina from high blood pressure is called hypertensive retinopathy. It occurs as the existing high blood pressure ... flame hemorrhages and cotton wool spots. As hypertensive retinopathy progresses, hard exudates can appear around the macula ...

  5. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  6. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/ by guest on June 19, 2018 Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy Ellen W. Seely, MD; Cynthia Maxwell, ... M any women have been diag- nosed with hypertension (blood pressure Ͼ 140/ 90 mm Hg) when ...

  7. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  8. Maskeret hypertension i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels...... monitored in a clinical setting, may lead to cardiovascular and obstetric complications equal to those of sustained hypertension. This article discusses masked hypertension and the need for further investigation of blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy....

  9. Maskeret hypertension i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels monit...... monitored in a clinical setting, may lead to cardiovascular and obstetric complications equal to those of sustained hypertension. This article discusses masked hypertension and the need for further investigation of blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy....

  10. Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of Ground Dwelling Arthropods Associated with Two Habitat Types in the Jos ... in the mean abundance of ground dwelling arthropods in relation to taxa. ... Food availability and vegetation cover were found to be critical to arthropods ...

  11. Hypertension after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolski, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In chapter 2 we found that hypertension was highly prevalent in adult (77.2%), paediatric (62.7%) and young adult (86.4%) KTRs. Transition from the paediatric to adult care did not affect hypertension and there

  12. Hypertension in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ungar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories: chronic hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, pre-eclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and gestational hypertension. A relative paucity of investigative data, as well as the frequent difficulty in making an etiological diagnosis, may lead to problems in its management. This case report analyses current concepts regarding the hypertensive disorders of gestation, focusing on chronic hypertension. Chronic hypertension is defined as blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mmHg before pregnancy or before 20 weeks gestation. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal morbidity and remain a leading source of maternal mortality. A prompt diagnosis is needed also because hypertension may be an indicator of pre-eclampsia, a condition which can evolve into serious complications. Maintaining blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg is recommended, although treatment should be determined on an individual basis. Many anti-hypertensive agents appear to be safe for use during pregnancy: methildopa has been the most studied of the anti-hypertensive drugs and has the best safety record. Labetalol, idralazine and nifedipine also have been found to be safe; ACE-inhibitors are absolutely contraindicated, because they are associated with intrauterine growth retardation.

  13. Genetik og hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tarnow, Lisa; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2009-01-01

    Monogenic forms of hypertension are very rare, but have a well-characterized heredity. Primary hypertension is very common with a complex and polygenic heredity. Primary hypertension arises due to an interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Its heredity is unknown, although...

  14. Low frequency sounds in dwellings : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Frits (G P)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the level and spectral distribution of low frequency (LF) sounds in dwellings. Measurements of broad and narrow hand sound levels have been made in 36 Dutch dwellings in 1998. In 19 dwellings there were complaints about LF noise, in 17 others no

  15. Curriculum Making as the Enactment of Dwelling in Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hamish; Mannion, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article uses an account of dwelling to interrogate the concept of curriculum making. Tim Ingold's use of dwelling to understand culture is productive here because of his implicit and explicit interest in intergenerational learning. His account of dwelling rests on a foundational ontological claim--that mental construction and representation…

  16. 24 CFR 203.38 - Location of dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location of dwelling. 203.38... § 203.38 Location of dwelling. At the time a mortgage is insured there must be located on the mortgaged property one or more dwellings designed principally for residential use for not more than four families...

  17. 24 CFR 9.153 - Distribution of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution of accessible dwelling units. 9.153 Section 9.153 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... dwelling units. Accessible dwelling units required by § 9.152 shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be...

  18. 24 CFR 8.26 - Distribution of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution of accessible dwelling units. 8.26 Section 8.26 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... accessible dwelling units. Accessible dwelling units required by § 8.22, 8.23, 8.24 or 8.25 shall, to the...

  19. Idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Kyun; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Heung Chul; Hur, Hun; Eom, Kyeung Tae; Namkung, Sook; Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Chul; Lee, Kwan Seop

    1996-01-01

    To describe the radiologic findings of idiopathic portal hypertension and to find the points of differentiation between idiopathic portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Four portograms in five patients who for four years had suffered from pathologically confirmed idiopathic portal hypertension were retrospectively analyzed and compared with a portogram obtained from a control subject with liver cirrhosis. Portographic finding s of idiopathic portal hypertension were paucity of medium-sized portal branches, irregular and obtuse-angled division of peripheral branches, abrupt interruption and an avascular area beneath the liver margin. A portogram of idiopathic portal hypertension may be useful in differentiation this and liver cirrhosis

  20. SECONDARY (ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION: LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  1. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Environmental impact of NORM in Israeli dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeman, E.; Steiner, V.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade the construction of public dwellings in Israel has been intensified. New construction sites are being created and new construction materials, local or imported, are being used. Since the origin of the building materials is essentially the soil, they inherit the radioactive properties of the environment. The level of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM),from the decay chains of the ubiquitous radio nuclides U 238 ,Th 232 ,U 235 and K 40 ,as well as artificial radioisotopes like Cs 137 ,in building materials needs to be controlled, in order to limit the gamma and Radon radiation dose of the general public in dwellings. The Ministry of the Environment collaborates with other institutions to evaluate, document and control the NORM content in our environment, based on international standards. The operation of quarries is controlled to ensure a low NORM content in raw building materials. The use of bottom and fly ash, abundantly produced in electrical power stations, in constructions is also being controlled. A new Israeli standard controls the NORM content in building materials such as to limit the radiation dose in dwellings from this practice to 0.45 mSv /year. Special construction solutions are developed and used in areas with high Radon concentration in the soil. The aim is to maintain the Radon concentration in dwellings below the Action Limit of 200 Bq/m 3

  3. Radon in your dwellings - problems and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of radon in dwellings gained importance in 1984 after the Stanely Watra's house incidence in Pennsylvania USA. Since then several radon measuring techniques have been identified and instrumentations developed. National survey programs were started for monitoring radon levels in dwellings by Government authorities in all developed and developing countries including India. Successively, the measurement of thoron levels was also found desirable especially in high radiation background areas. A lot of work has been done since then by scientists and university researches and thousands of publications have been made in this field. Several developed countries have given guide lines for initiating action to reduce radon levels in dwellings if it is beyond 200-400 Bq/m 2 . The recommended 'action level' is found to depend upon the authorities making the recommendations. This talk is aimed to produce public awareness about the health hazard posed by concentration of naturally occurring radon gas in our dwellings, the sources of its production and mitigation of radon problem. The matter will be discussed in a general way using ppt presentation. (author)

  4. [Design of traditional Chinese medicines with antihypertensive components based on medicinal property combination modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Su-Fen; Yan, Su-Rong; Guo, Wei-Jia; Luo, Ji; Sun, Jing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Multi-component traditional Chinese medicines are an innovative research mode for traditional Chinese medicines. Currently, there are many design methods for developing multi-component traditional Chinese medicines, but their common feature is the lack of effective connection of the traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this paper, the authors discussed the multi-component traditional Chinese medicine design methods based on medicinal property combination modes, provided the combination methods with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine for the prescription combinations, and proved its feasibly with hypertension cases.

  5. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. The dwelling space of postnatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth A; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Wynyard, Sue

    2013-06-01

    This paper considers the dwelling space of postnatal care, how being-there feels for the woman going through the experience of matrescence. The research takes a hermeneutic approach and draws on philosophical notions from Heidegger. 'What is the nature of the dwelling space of valued postnatal care?'. Appropriate ethics approval was gained. Participants were midwives, nurses, women, and other relevant stakeholders. There were 4 focus groups involving 11 participants and 19 individual interviews. Data collection was conducted over a one week period by a team of three researchers. An interview schedule had been organised by the administrator at the Centre. Participants chose whether to come to the centre to be interviewed, or be interviewed in their own homes. Most interviews were an hour. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed, with the participant's permission. Data was analysed through a hermeneutic process set in the context of related literature. When women are invited into a dwelling space that strengthens them they feel 'mothered': being listened to, have their needs anticipated, and are cared for in a loving manner. In such a way they grow confidence. A child health nurse reported the difference such care made to on-going mothering at home. All women deserve a dwelling space in their early days of matrescence. Small birthing centres perhaps achieve such care and ambience more easily than large institutional units. Nevertheless, wherever the place, practices need to be enabled that foster the spirit of dwelling. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Canoba, A.; Czerniczyniec, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a- 1. (Bq.m -3 ) -1 , which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m -3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  8. Health system strengthening and hypertension management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kehui; Song, Yu Ting; He, Yong Huan; Feng, Xing Lin

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of global burden of diseases, and hypertension is one of the most important risk factors. Hypertension prevalence doubled in China in the past decade and affects more than 300 million Chinese people. In the review we systematically searched peer-reviewed publications that link health system level factors with hypertension management in China and provide the current knowledge on how to improve a country's health system to manage the hypertension epidemic. A framework was developed to guide the review. The database of PubMed, CNKI were systematically searched from inception to April 13, 2016. Two authors independently screened the searched results for inclusion, conducted data extraction and appraised the quality of studies. Key findings were described according to the framework. Five hundred seventy-two publications were identified, where 11 articles were left according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study periods range from 2010 to 2015. All about 11 researches linked health system factors to the outcome of hypertension management. And the outcomes were just focused on the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension but not hypertension incidence. One study is about the role of health system governance, investigating the performance of different organized community health care centers; three studies were about health financing comparing differences in insurance coverage; three studies were about health information practicing the hypertension guidelines of China or the WHO, and the rest three about mechanisms of health service delivery. No researches were identified about physical resources for health and human resources for health. Hypertension prevalence has been rising rapidly in China and the management of hypertension in China is a detection problem rather than treatment problem. Limited evidence shows the positive effect of health system factors on hypertension management and joint efforts

  9. Yet one more dwell time algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Alexander; Rascher, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The current demand of even more powerful and efficient microprocessors, for e.g. deep learning, has led to an ongoing trend of reducing the feature size of the integrated circuits. These processors are patterned with EUV-lithography which enables 7 nm chips [1]. To produce mirrors which satisfy the needed requirements is a challenging task. Not only increasing requirements on the imaging properties, but also new lens shapes, such as aspheres or lenses with free-form surfaces, require innovative production processes. However, these lenses need new deterministic sub-aperture polishing methods that have been established in the past few years. These polishing methods are characterized, by an empirically determined TIF and local stock removal. Such a deterministic polishing method is ion-beam-figuring (IBF). The beam profile of an ion beam is adjusted to a nearly ideal Gaussian shape by various parameters. With the known removal function, a dwell time profile can be generated for each measured error profile. Such a profile is always generated pixel-accurately to the predetermined error profile, with the aim always of minimizing the existing surface structures up to the cut-off frequency of the tool used [2]. The processing success of a correction-polishing run depends decisively on the accuracy of the previously computed dwell-time profile. So the used algorithm to calculate the dwell time has to accurately reflect the reality. But furthermore the machine operator should have no influence on the dwell-time calculation. Conclusively there mustn't be any parameters which have an influence on the calculation result. And lastly it should take a minimum of machining time to get a minimum of remaining error structures. Unfortunately current dwell time algorithm calculations are divergent, user-dependent, tending to create high processing times and need several parameters to bet set. This paper describes an, realistic, convergent and user independent dwell time algorithm. The

  10. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Ben L; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo

    2018-05-01

    Noncirrhotic portal hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of liver disorders that is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. The purpose of this review is to serve as a guide on how to approach a patient with noncirrhotic portal hypertension with a focus on recent developments. Recent studies pertaining to noncirrhotic portal hypertension have investigated aetiological causes, mechanisms of disease, noninvasive diagnostic modalities, clinical characteristics in the paediatric population and novel treatment targets. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension is an underappreciated clinical entity that can be difficult to diagnosis without a healthy suspicion. Diagnosis then relies on a comprehensive understanding of the causes and clinical manifestations of this disease, as well as a careful interpretation of the liver biopsy. Noninvasive approaches to diagnosis may play a significant role moving forward in this disease. Treatment in NCPH remains largely targeted at the individual sequalae of portal hypertension.

  11. Hypertension in Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Mingshan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its role in the development of athe- rosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, hypertension is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is limited knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension among seafarers who......, however, are known to have an excess morbidity and mortality from these disorders. This article addresses the prevalence of hypertension among Danish seafarers and discusses potential risk factors for hypertension in maritime settings. Materials and methods: A representative sample of 629 Danish seafarers...... who had statutory medical examinations was studied from the beginning of October 2011 to the end of June 2012. The medical examination included measurements of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the study po- pulation was stratified by age, work place on board, smoking status, alcohol...

  12. Associations between traffic noise, particulate air pollution, hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension in adults: the KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babisch, Wolfgang; Wolf, Kathrin; Petz, Markus; Heinrich, Joachim; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Studies on the association between traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases have rarely considered air pollution as a covariate in the analyses. Isolated systolic hypertension has not yet been in the focus of epidemiological noise research. The association between traffic noise (road and rail) and the prevalence of hypertension was assessed in two study populations with a total of 4,166 participants 25-74 years of age. Traffic noise (weighted day-night average noise level; LDN) at the facade of the dwellings was derived from noise maps. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations at residential addresses were estimated by land-use regression. Hypertension was assessed by blood pressure readings, self-reported doctor-diagnosed hypertension, and antihypertensive drug intake. In the Greater Augsburg, Germany, study population, traffic noise and air pollution were not associated with hypertension. In the City of Augsburg population (n = 1,893), where the exposure assessment was more detailed, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 10-dB(A) increase in noise was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.30) after additional adjustment for PM2.5. The adjusted OR for a 1-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.27) after additional adjustment for noise. For isolated systolic hypertension, the fully adjusted OR for noise was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.86) and for PM2.5 was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.34). Traffic noise and PM2.5 were both associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. Mutually adjusted associations with hypertension were positive but no longer statistically significant.

  13. Pediatric portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Clarissa Barbon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric portal hypertension management is a team approach between the patient, the patient's family, the primary caregiver, and specialty providers. Evidence-based practice guidelines have not been established in pediatrics. This article serves as a review for the primary care NP in the management of pediatric portal hypertension, discussing the etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of pediatric portal hypertension, diagnostic tests, and treatment and management options. PMID:28406835

  14. Hypertension og hyperlipidaemi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Steen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are well-established and partially overlapping risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Analyses of cardiovascular morbidity in relationship to changes in blood pressure and in serum cholesterol levels have shown that combined reduction of both risk factors...... are important to achieve a reduction in morbidity. Statins have been shown to be effective in preventing both coronary and cerebrovascular events in both hypertensive and normotensive cases. Consequently, most recent guidelines recommend that statin treatment be considered in hypertensive patients aged less...

  15. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  16. Monitoring of radon concentration in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryuhei

    1991-01-01

    Radon problems in dwellings have recently received much attention. Radon concentration in dwellings, as well as in the general environment, varies with various factors such as meteorological conditions and soil components. Therefore, a long term monitoring of radon concentration is required to obtain an average concentration. This paper reviews a passive type radon monitor that is handy and allows a long term radon monitoring. It provides the structure and principle of the radon monitor, covering the type, filter function, sensitivity of diffusion collecting type (cup type), electrostatic collecting type, adsorption collecting type, and detector of radon monitor. Actual examples of the radon monitor are also given. Radon daughter nuclides will have become major foci of exposure countermeasures. In the future, the development of a passive type monitor for determining potential alpha energy concentration is required. (N.K.)

  17. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Mizoram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalramengzami, R.; Laldawngliana, C.; Sinha, D.; Ghosh, S.; Dwivedi, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of indoor radon has been measured in some dwellings of Mizoram state by employing time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector. This state is located in the north eastern region of India which has been identified as a high background area. The indoor radon levels determined in this work are compared with data obtained from other regions of India and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed safe limit. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  18. 42. Hypertension: Morbidity review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzullah khan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, eye abnormalities and end stage renal disease, which require proper counseling and management of patients.

  19. The new hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph H

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Hypertension in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.

  1. Interaction between body mass index and serum uric acid in relation to blood pressure in community-dwelling Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Senzaki, Kensuke; Kumagi, Teru

    2018-01-01

    Few data is available on the association between body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid (SUA) levels and blood pressure (BP) categories in the disease continuum, when efforts for its prevention may be applicable. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association between BMI, SUA and BP in a community-dwelling sample of Japanese men. Individuals not on antihypertensive and uric acid lowering medications, and aged 50 to 90 years [817men aged 66 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation) years] were recruited for the survey during a community based annual medical check-up. The main outcome was the presence of prehypertension [systolic BP (SBP) 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) 80-89 mmHg] and hypertension [SBP ≥ 140 and /or DBP ≥ 90]. In participants with a BMI of dwelling men.

  2. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  3. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  4. Radon in Finnish dwellings. Sample survey 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Kinnunen, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Valmari, T.; Arvela, H.

    2009-12-01

    Indoor radon concentration was measured in 2882 dwellings randomly selected by the Population Register Centre of Finland. Radon measurements were made in two half-year periods, the first one lasting from April to November 2006 and the second one from November 2006 to April 2007. Measurements were made using STUK's alpha track detectors. According to the decree 944 / 92 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed the 400 Bq /m 3 , whereas new buildings should be built so that 200 Bq /m 3 is not exceeded. In addition, the part D2 of the National Building Code of Finland (Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings) sets 200 Bq /m 3 as a reference value for planning of new buildings. Since 2004, according to the regulation B3 (Foundations), radon should be taken into account in new building in the whole country. A radon technical plan should be included into the building licence application. This plan can be exceptionally ignored only when building in areas where exceeding of 200 Bq / m 3 seldom occurs. In this study the nationwide means weighted by number of inhabitants in provinces in houses and flats were 121 Bq /m 3 and 49 Bq /m 3 , and 96 Bq /m 3 for all dwellings. The percentages of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 for houses and flats were 15.1% and 1.5%, and 10.4% for all dwellings. The respective values for the reference value 400 Bq/m 3 were 3.8%, 0.7%, and 2.7%. The numbers of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 were 204 000 for houses and 16 000 for flats, respectively. The respective numbers of dwellings exceeding 400 Bq /m 3 were 51 000 and 8.000. The highest radon concentrations were measured in the areas of Tavastia and South-Eastern Finland, in the provinces Eastern Uusimaa, Kymenlaakso, Paeijaenne Tavastia, Tavastia Proper, Pirkanmaa and South Karelia. In these provinces 29 - 51 per cent of small houses exceed 200 Bq /m 3 . The lowest radon concentrations were achieved with a crawl space foundation. Radon

  5. Therapeutic Exercise and Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    patients but may not reduce the BP of normotensive individual. Exercise function ... and mortality in all age groups; it also creates major social, personal and financial ... drug therapy by as symptomatic hypertensive and high cost of drugs particularly in a ..... Events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxagosin versus.

  6. Noncirrotisk intrahepatisk portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Fialla, Annette; Havelund, Troels

    2007-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of liver cirrhosis or portal vein thrombosis. The disease is common in the East and rarely seen in the West. Two cases with oesophageal varices are described. The histopathology is heterogeneous...... but includes vascular lesions and portal fibrosis. Patient management follows the current recommendations for variceal bleeding....

  7. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart). This type of pulmonary hypertension was called “secondary pulmonary hypertension” but is now referred to as PH, because the cause is known to be from lung disease, heart disease, or chronic thromboemboli (blood clots). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) used to be ...

  8. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  9. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.

  10. The principles of radon remediation and protection in UK dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolliscroft, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of radon remediation and protection in UK dwellings. It states briefly why and how radon gets into dwellings and the main methods of remediation and protection; sealing, pressurisation, sub-floor ventilation, sub-floor depressurisation and, more problematically, ventilation of the dwelling. It goes on to discuss the effectiveness of the methods and why some methods are more or less effective than others. Data is presented on the effectiveness of protection in new dwellings. Solutions for existing dwellings are discussed and the remaining issues which are the subject of ongoing research are described. It is concluded that in general radon protection and remediation in new and the great majority of existing dwellings can be achieved simply and cheaply. (Author)

  11. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188

  12. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS:: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS:: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION:: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  13. Hypertension in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.

  14. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5,868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  15. Prevalence and Factors Associated to Hypertension Among Older Adults in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Gutierrez, Carlos; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Gélvez-Rueda, Juan Sebastián; Borda, Miguel German

    2015-09-01

    To characterize older adults in Bogotá with high blood pressure and identify factors associated to this condition within this population. Using data from the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) (Health, Well-being and Aging) Bogotá Study, we analyzed community-dwelling adults 60 years and older with hypertension. We estimated the prevalence and used logistic regression models to identify factors associated to hypertension. The overall prevalence for hypertension was 56.9%. Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.07, 1.97]), having health insurance (OR = 4.15, CI = [1.95, 8.85]), cardiovascular diseases (ORs between 1.70 and 3.65), and poor self-rated health (OR = 1.57, CI = [1.20,2.06]) significantly increased the odds of hypertension. Most individuals received pharmacologic treatment (93.5%); however, 28.4% of individuals had uncontrolled hypertension. We found a high prevalence of hypertension in our cohort and found that comorbidities and poor self-rated health increase the odds of hypertension. Future studies need to tailor interventions for hypertension management in old age. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  17. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  18. Dismantling the dwelling : A systematic approach to investigating the meaning of the dwelling: draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, J.; Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The meaning of the dwelling consists of multiple layers, which makes it a complex concept. Therefore it should be dismantled (ref. Rapoport, 2001). This paper presents a conceptual framework in which settings, activities and values are systematically related. The data is derived from a telephone

  19. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...... showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  20. [Comparison of arterial stiffness in non-hypertensive and hypertensive population of various age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Wu, S L; Li, H Y; Zhao, Q H; Ning, C H; Zhang, R Y; Yu, J X; Li, W; Chen, S H; Gao, J S

    2018-01-24

    Objective: To investigate the impact of blood pressure and age on arterial stiffness in general population. Methods: Participants who took part in 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan health examination were included. Data of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) examination were analyzed. According to the WHO criteria of age, participants were divided into 3 age groups: 18-44 years group ( n= 11 608), 45-59 years group ( n= 12 757), above 60 years group ( n= 5 002). Participants were further divided into hypertension group and non-hypertension group according to the diagnostic criteria for hypertension (2010 Chinese guidelines for the managemengt of hypertension). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) with baPWV in the total participants and then stratified by age groups. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence of blood pressure on arterial stiffness (baPWV≥1 400 cm/s) of various groups. Results: (1)The baseline characteristics of all participants: 35 350 participants completed 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan examinations and took part in baPWV examination. 2 237 participants without blood pressure measurement values were excluded, 1 569 participants with history of peripheral artery disease were excluded, we also excluded 1 016 participants with history of cardiac-cerebral vascular disease. Data from 29 367 participants were analyzed. The age was (48.0±12.4) years old, 21 305 were males (72.5%). (2) Distribution of baPWV in various age groups: baPWV increased with aging. In non-hypertension population, baPWV in 18-44 years group, 45-59 years group, above 60 years group were as follows: 1 299.3, 1 428.7 and 1 704.6 cm/s, respectively. For hypertension participants, the respective values of baPWV were: 1 498.4, 1 640.7 and 1 921.4 cm/s. BaPWV was significantly higher in hypertension group than non-hypertension group of respective age groups ( Page groups ( t -value

  1. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  2. Concentrations of indoor radon and thoron in cave-dwellings with discussions on risk estimation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Hou Changsong; Zhang Shouzhi; Nie Xiaoqian; Shang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a residential area with elevated indoor radon exposure for conducting epidemiological studies on indoor radon and lung cancer. Methods: Two hundred and two cave-dwellings (CD) including loess CD, brick CD, stone CD, and ordinary house in twenty villages were selected from Yan'an and Lvliang in the Chinese loess plateau. Indoor levels of thoron and its progeny as well as radon were measured with passive radon-thoron discriminative detectors and thoron progeny deposition rate devices. The exposure period covered from August 2001 through August 2002. Results: Loess CD was one of the most common type of dwelling caves in both areas. The indoor radon concentrations in loess CD ranged from 17 to 179 Bq/m 3 ; thoron varied sub-stantially depending upon the distance from the device to the wall, ranged from 10 to 760 Bq/m 3 . Geometric means of indoor radon, thoron and thoron's progeny (EEC Tn ) of loess caves in Yan'an area were estimated to be 71, 185 and 2.2 Bq/m 3 , respectively, and the corresponding figures were 73, 145 and 116 Bq/m 3 in Lvliang area. Possible contamination of thoron on radon measurement in a previous case-control study on lung caner was discussed. The study revealed that the indoor air pollution in Yan'an area was slight compared with that in Lvliang area. Migration was very low. Eighty-six percent of the investigated persons have had no migration in Yan'an area, and 90 percent of the cave-dwellings where the subjects once resided were available to our measurements. Two million people have been living in cave-dwellings over several generations. Conclusion: The investigated cave-dwelling area in Yan'an is suitable for conducting epidemiological study on residential thoron and radon exposure and lung cancer.(authors)

  3. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...

  4. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice....

  5. Hypertension and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation......) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence...

  6. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  7. Radon level in China and elevated indoor exposure in carbon brick and cave dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1992-01-01

    A nation wide survey of Chinese houses was conducted to determine the average annual effective dose to Chinese population from exposure to radon and its daughter products. The indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its daughters were measured using scintillation flask, two filter and carbon canister methods, as well as modified Tsivoglou methods for Rn daughters. Average Rn concentrations are 26.2Bqm -3 and 13.5Bqm -3 for indoor and outdoor environment, respectively. Potential alpha energy concentration, indoor is 744 x 10 -10 Jm -3 , outdoor is 511 x 10 -10 Jm -3 . Equilibrium Factor of Rn daughters are 0.49 (indoor) and 0.61 (outdoor). Occupancy Factor is 0.77 and 0.23. Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose to Chinese population is 0.967 mSv. And also, the indoor Rn concentration and gamma dose rate were surveyed in two rural Provinces: Gansu and Jianxi. The fact was found that lung cancer mortality of population lived in high Rn level dwellings is higher than in control groups. An epidemiological retrospective case-control study is recommended in houses with high Rn level. (author)

  8. Locating and limiting radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildingson, O.; Gustafsson, J.; Nilsson, I.

    1984-01-01

    More than 3,300 Swedish dwellings have an indoor radon daughter concentration above 400 Bq.m -3 (or 0.108 WL). It is considered to be unsafe to live in any of these dwellings and the radon daughter concentration has to be reduced. Before deciding what measures to take, it is important to determine the radon sources. Possible sources are exhalation from building materials and/or radon transport from the ground into the building through cracks and joints in the slab. Different methods of locating the sources have been developed. To locate cracks and joints in slabs the ventilation rate and the air pressure difference relative to the ground are changed while monitoring radon/radon daughter concentration. The effect of five different measures to reduce the indoor radon daughter concentration have also been evaluated: increased ventilation rate by mechanical ventilation, ventilation of the small spaces between the floor and the slab, sealing the surface of radon exhaling walls, sealing joints and cracks in the slab, and ventilation of the drainage under the slab. (author)

  9. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  10. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin......Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... hemodynamics in cirrhosis. The most characteristic findings in cirrhotic patients are vasodilatation with low systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, high arterial compliance, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

  11. Secondary hypertension in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-05-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...

  13. Hypertension and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    worldwide, and is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, myocardial ... pressure falls in different categories of systolic and diastolic pressure the higher ... Without this consensus, the management of the elderly hypertensive patient.

  14. Diabetes + Hypertension (comorbidity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set provides de-identified population data for diabetes and hypertension comorbidity prevalence in Allegheny County.

  15. Understanding idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder characterised by raised intracranial pressure that predominantly affects young, obese women. Pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but several causal factors have been proposed. Symptoms can include headaches, visual loss, pulsatile tinnitus...

  16. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  17. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal insufficiency. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both...... supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in hypertensive patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or HF. Also, some of the antihypertensive drugs commonly used to reduce blood pressure, such as thiazide diuretics, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia......, hypomagnesemia), further contributing to arrhythmias, whereas effective control of blood pressure may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between hypertension and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society...

  18. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Some factors that possibly affect tropical disease distribution was investigated in about 500 randomize human dwellings. The studied factors include wild animals, domestic animals, wild plants, cultivated plants, nature of soil, nature of water, positions of human dwellings, nature of building material and position of animal ...

  19. Pinyon pine mortality alters communities of ground-dwelling arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Delph; Michael J. Clifford; Neil S. Cobb; Paulette L. Ford; Sandra L. Brantley

    2014-01-01

    We documented the effect of drought-induced mortality of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) on communities of ground-dwelling arthropods. Tree mortality alters microhabitats utilized by ground-dwelling arthropods by increasing solar radiation, dead woody debris, and understory vegetation. Our major objectives were to determine (1) whether there were changes in...

  20. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    for the sandflies which is the vector of visceral leishmaniasis. It seems that the effect of microclimate was not on the considerations of villagers to build their dwellings as the very dense of date palms trees, vegetable farms and irrigation canals which are a determinant factors in the prevalence of diseases. Some dwellings ...

  1. 7 CFR 1924.259 - Handling dwelling construction complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling dwelling construction complaints. 1924.259 Section 1924.259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Construction Defects § 1924.259 Handling dwelling construction complaints. This section describes the procedure...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.424 - Dwelling construction and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dwelling construction and standards. 1944.424 Section 1944.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....424 Dwelling construction and standards. All construction will be performed in accordance with subpart...

  3. 24 CFR 9.154 - Occupancy of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy of accessible dwelling units. 9.154 Section 9.154 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... dwelling units. (a) The agency shall adopt suitable means to assure that information regarding the...

  4. 24 CFR 990.145 - Dwelling units with approved vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling units with approved vacancies. 990.145 Section 990.145 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...; Computation of Eligible Unit Months § 990.145 Dwelling units with approved vacancies. (a) A PHA is eligible to...

  5. 24 CFR 8.27 - Occupancy of accessible dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy of accessible dwelling units. 8.27 Section 8.27 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing... accessible dwelling units. (a) Owners and managers of multifamily housing projects having accessible units...

  6. The meaning of dwelling features : Conceptual and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the meaning of dwelling features. It relates the research areas of housing preferences and the meaning of a dwelling with each other and with aspects of the means-end approach as applied in marketing research. It results in a conceptual and methodological framework for studying

  7. 24 CFR 990.140 - Occupied dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupied dwelling units. 990.140 Section 990.140 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Eligible Unit Months § 990.140 Occupied dwelling units. A PHA is eligible to receive operating subsidy for...

  8. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğrul, Armağan

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major worldwide health problem. Its prevalence is 1.5-2 times higher in diabetic population than that in non-diabetic individuals. Its pathogenesis depends on diabetic nephropathy in type 1, whereas may be multifactorial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are most widely preferred in the treatment of hypertension because of their numerous desirable effects. In this article, the most recent data are presented on the relationshi...

  9. Hypertension og hjernen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a major and modifiable risk factor of stroke and dementia. Hypertension causes remodelling of the cerebral resistance vessels, impairing their tolerance to very low blood pressure. In primary prevention of stroke, the effect of beta-blockers is inferior to other classes...... of antihypertensives. In secondary prevention of stroke, ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin blockers may be recommended as first choice drugs. Lowering of the blood pressure is, however, more important than the choice of drug. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-8...

  10. Cervical Spondylosis and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully w...

  11. Thromboembolic chronicle pulmonary Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovalle, Amador

    2003-01-01

    The thromboembolic chronicle pulmonary Hypertension, also well known as chronic lung thromboembolism not resolved; it is a form not very common of lung thromboembolism. Until very recently was considered a rare curiosity of autopsy, but as the methods of diagnoses have improved and our attitude has changed, the incidence of this nosological entity has experienced a notable increment, but the most excellent in this illness is maybe that it is a form of lung hypertension, potentially recoverable

  12. Renovascular hypertension: bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Guzman, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    A review of the literature on the management of the renovascular disease is performed to provide better attention to patients. Renovascular hypertension is defined. The clinical implications and complications of the disease are determined. Pharmacological and surgical management are specified. Endovascular therapy has allowed to determine some indication in the management of hypertension renovascular. Instances where endovascular therapy has been beneficial are detailed. The new interventions for the management of renovascular disease are exposed [es

  13. Studies on bioactive peptide from Chinese soft-shelled turtle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper dealt with a novel anti-hypertensive collagen peptide from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), which was an efficient inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1). ACE plays an important physiological role in the regulation of blood pressure by virtue of the rennin angiotensin ...

  14. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  15. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    be met. The classification system is based on limit values for airborne sound insulation, impact sound pressure level, reverberation time and indoor and outdoor noise levels. The purpose of the standard is to offer a tool for specification of a standardised acoustic climate and to promote constructors......A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  16. Association of "Elevated Blood Pressure" and "Stage 1 Hypertension" With Cardiovascular Mortality Among an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Hosseini, Naeimeh; Koh, Angela S; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2018-04-10

    The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association high blood pressure (BP) guidelines in the United States have lowered definition of hypertension by defining normal as systolic/diastolic BP hypertension as systolic between 130 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic between 80 and 89 mm Hg. We investigated the association between the new hypertension definition and cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese in Singapore. We used data from 30 636 participants of a population-based cohort, the SCHS (Singapore Chinese Health Study), who had BPs measured using a standard protocol at ages 46 to 85 years between 1994 and 2005. Information on lifestyle factors was collected at recruitment (1993-1998) and follow-up 1 interviews (1999 and 2004). Mortality was identified via nationwide registry linkage up to December 31, 2016. Neither elevated BP (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.07) nor stage 1 hypertension (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.11) was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with normal BP in the whole cohort. Stage 1 hypertension was associated with increased cardiovascular risk only in those hypertension may not be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality across all ages among Chinese in Singapore, but that the at-risk subpopulation is limited to those <65 years of age and without a prior cardiovascular disease. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. Biology of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Matthew; Iwakiri, Yasuko

    2018-02-01

    Portal hypertension develops as a result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance often caused by chronic liver disease that leads to structural distortion by fibrosis, microvascular thrombosis, dysfunction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. While the basic mechanisms of LSEC and HSC dysregulation have been extensively studied, the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelet function in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension remains to be clearly characterized. As a secondary event, portal hypertension results in splanchnic and systemic arterial vasodilation, leading to the development of a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome and subsequently to clinically devastating complications including gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy from the formation of portosystemic shunts, ascites, and renal failure due to the hepatorenal syndrome. This review article discusses: (1) mechanisms of sinusoidal portal hypertension, focusing on HSC and LSEC biology, pathological angiogenesis, and the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelets, (2) the mesenteric vasculature in portal hypertension, and (3) future directions for vascular biology research in portal hypertension.

  18. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  19. Simulating occupant behaviour and energy performance of dwellings : A sensitivity analysis of presence patterns in different dwelling types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Harputlugil, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of occupant behaviour on the energy performance of dwellings is an emerging research topic: Not only the amount of studies is insufficient, but also they provide contradictory results. The aim of this study is to reveal the sensitivity of dwelling energy performance to the presence of

  20. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radom levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in 'The householders' guide to radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. (Author)

  1. Frailty and cardiovascular risk in community-dwelling elderly: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci NA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Aquaroni Ricci,1 Germane Silva Pessoa,1 Eduardo Ferriolli,2 Rosangela Correa Dias,3 Monica Rodrigues Perracini1 1Master’s and Doctoral Programs in Physical Therapy, Universidade Cidade de São Paulo (UNICID, São Paulo, 2Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, Ribeirão Preto, 3Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Background: Evidence suggests a possible bidirectional connection between cardiovascular disease (CVD and the frailty syndrome in older people.Purpose: To verify the relationship between CVD risk factors and the frailty syndrome in community-dwelling elderly.Methods: This population-based study used data from the Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (FIBRA Network Study, a cross-sectional study designed to investigate frailty profiles among Brazilian older adults. Frailty status was defined as the presence of three or more out of five of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported fatigue, slow walking speed, and low physical activity level. The ascertained CVD risk factors were self-reported and/or directly measured hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, waist circumference ­measurement, and smoking.Results: Of the 761 participants, 9.7% were characterized as frail, 48.0% as pre-frail, and 42.3% as non-frail. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension (84.4% and the lowest one was smoking (10.4%. It was observed that among those participants with four or five risk factors there was a higher proportion of frail and pre-frail compared with non-frail (Fisher’s exact test: P=0.005; P=0.021. Self-reported diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among frail and pre-frail participants when compared with non-frail participants (Fisher’s exact test: P≤0.001; P≤0.001. There was little agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension identified by blood pressure measurement.Conclusion: Hypertension was

  2. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  3. Exposure to Radon in Dwellings in the Area of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Petroci, Lj.; Sokolovic, E.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Until the 1970s radon and its progeny were regarded as radiation health hazards encountered only in the mining and processing of uranium ore. This notion has dramatically changed as a result of increasing efforts made by many countries to measure radon in dwellings. Since it has been assessed that radon constitutes on average about 53% of the human exposure to natural radiation (UNSCEAR 1993), attention to the problem of exposure to radon and associated health risk has been growing in both developed and developing countries. This paper deals with the investigations of indoor radon activity concentrations at selected dwellings in the area of Zagreb. The fact that concentration of indoor radon depends strongly on radium sources in the soil pointed to the possibility that increased radon levels could be measured in the ground floor dwellings. The measurements of indoor radon performed by Honeywell professional radon monitor in the 30 ground floor dwellings, and at same location in 10 dwellings on higher floors. In order to obtain average daily values, radon activity concentrations were measured throughout 24 hours at each dwelling, over the seasons spring-summer and autumn-winter. In the season spring-summer radon activity concentrations in the ground floor dwellings ranged from 22±5 to 133±12 Bqm -3 (mean value 56±31 Bqm -3 ) and in the season autumn-winter ranged from 22±5 to 311±18 Bqm -3 (mean value 94±64 Bqm -3 ). In the dwellings on higher floors radon activity concentrations in the season spring-summer ranged from 11±3 to 78±9 Bqm -3 (mean value 32±21 Bqm -3 ), and in the season autumn-winter ranged from 30±5 to 137±12 Bqm -3 (mean value 60±32 Bqm -3 ). Average annual radon activity concentration for the 30 investigated ground floor dwellings were 75±45 Bqm -3 , and 46±26 Bqm -3 for the 10 dwellings on higher floors. Investigations performed in the dwellings in the area of Zagreb revealed significant differences in radon levels between the ground

  4. Variation of radon exposure in Damascus dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, activity concentrations of 222 Rn in air and 222 Rn and 226 Ra in drinking water were measured in Damascus city covering its old and modern parts. It was found that the average air radon activity concentration in the old part was higher than in the modern part, and in drinking water, radon was found to be 60±3 Bq/l, and less than 0.13 Bq/l for radium, which were lower than the recommended levels set by WHO. - Highlights: ► This work presents screening of natural radioactivity in dwellings in Damascus city. ► Radon, 226 Rn and total alpha/beta in air and drinking water were measured. ► Most of the obtained results were within the recommended levels set by WHO. ► In general radon in the old part was higher than the modern part of the city.

  5. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  6. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  7. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  8. [The impact of hypertension on active life expectancy among senior citizens of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-ying; Tang, Zhe; Feng, Ming

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the influence of hypertension on life expectancy (LE), active life expectancy (ALE) and active life expectancy/life expectancy (ALE/LE) among senior citizens in Beijin. The sample derived from Beijing multidimensional longitudinal study on aging, baseline survey consisted of 1847 elderly people aged 60 years and over dwelling in the communities from one urban district (Xuanwu), one suburban country (Daxing) and one mountainous country (Huairou) in Beijing, 2004. Cluster, stratified and randomly selected sampling technique was used and a follow-up program was carried out in 2007. The subjects were invited to fill in questionnaires at home through well-trained interviewers, together with medical history of hypertension and repeated blood pressure measurements adopted. The state of activity was defined according to whether they could perform activities of daily life (ADL). IMaCH software for multi-state life table method was used to calculate the life expectancy (LE), active life expectancy (ALE) and active life expectancy/life expectancy (ALE/LE) in people with hypertension and normal blood tension, as well as on those people with hypertension with or without cardio-cerebral disease. The study manifested that hypertensives were associated with the reduction of LE, ALE and ALE/LE compared to the normotensives. The ALE/LE was descending along with ageing, and the speed of reduction was much faster in the hypertensive group, especially within senile population. LE, ALE and LE/LE among the hypertensives with cardio-cerebral vascular diseases were shorter than the hypertensives without the disease. Difference in ALE/LE was striking in people with virile senility. Hypertension remarkably impacted the active life expectancy on senior citizens living in Beijing, especially for elderly. Hypertensives with cardio-cerebral vascular diseases exerted further influence on active life expectancy, particularly among population of virile senility

  9. Massage therapy for essential hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X J; Li, S J; Zhang, Y Q

    2015-03-01

    Massage, an ancient Chinese healing art, is widely practiced for symptom relief in hypertensive patients with anxiety, depression, headache, vertigo, chronic pain in neck, shoulder and back. A large number of case series and clinical trials have been published. However, it is still unclear whether massage can be recommended as an effective therapy for essential hypertension (EH). We estimated the current clinical evidence of massage for EH. Articles published before 10 December 2013 were searched using Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang data and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials comparing massage with any type of control intervention were included. Trials testing massage combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included as well. Meta-analysis was performed on the effects on blood pressure (BP). Twenty-four articles involving 1962 patients with EH were selected. Methodological quality of most trials was evaluated as generally low. Meta-analyses demonstrated that massage combined with antihypertensive drugs may be more effective than antihypertensive drugs alone in lowering both systolic BP (SBP; mean difference (MD): -6.92 (-10.05, -3.80); Phypertensive patients as compared with antihypertensive drugs. Safety of massage is still unclear. There is some encouraging evidence of massage for EH. However, because of poor methodological quality, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to validate the use of massage in future.

  10. Portal hypertension as the initial manifestation of POEMS syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lina; Li, Yue; Yao, Fang; Lu, Chongmei; Li, Jian; Zhou, Weixun; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension has a broad differential diagnosis. POEMS syndrome is an uncommon cause of it. POEMS syndrome is a rare disease involving multiple organs. In differential diagnosis of portal hypertension, POEMS syndrome should be considered especially when other symptoms such as numbness, organomegaly, endocrine alteration and skin changes also present, as it is highlighted by our case. We report a 46-year-old Chinese male, a teacher, presenting with portal hypertension. Electromyography revealed peripheral neuropathy. Immunofixation showed monoclonal immunoglobulin A lambda protein. The diagnosis of POEMS syndrome was established. After treatment of lenalidomide combined with dexamethasone over 2 years, the patient achieved a considerable improvement. This case highlights the manifestation of portal hypertension in POEMS syndrome. Lenalidomide with or without dexamethasone is effective for portal hypertension due to POEMS syndrome, though esophageal and gastric varices seems not reversible so easily.

  11. Balancing out dwelling and moving: optimal sensorimotor synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Benoît; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization is a fundamental skill involved in the performance of many artistic activities (e.g., music, dance). After a century of research, the manner in which the nervous system produces synchronized movements remains poorly understood. Typical rhythmic movements involve a motion and a motionless phase (dwell). The dwell phase represents a sizable fraction of the rhythm period, and scales with it. The rationale for this organization remains unexplained and is the object of this study. Twelve participants, four drummers (D) and eight nondrummers (ND), performed tapping movements paced at 0.5–2.5 Hz by a metronome. The participants organized their tapping behavior into dwell and movement phases according to two strategies: 1) Eight participants (1 D, 7 ND) maintained an almost constant ratio of movement time (MT) and dwell time (DT) irrespective of the metronome period. 2) Four participants increased the proportion of DT as the period increased. The temporal variabilities of both the dwell and movement phases were consistent with Weber's law, i.e., their variability increased with their durations, and the longest phase always exhibited the smallest variability. We developed an optimal statistical model that formalized the distribution of time into dwell and movement intervals as a function of their temporal variability. The model accurately predicted the participants' dwell and movement durations irrespective of their strategy and musical skill, strongly suggesting that the distribution of DT and MT results from an optimization process, dependent on each participant's skill to predict time during rest and movement. PMID:25878154

  12. Radon concentration in dwellings in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Kondo, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe

    2002-01-01

    To obtain an average dose from 222 Rn to the people in Aomori Prefecture where the first Japan's nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction, we surveyed 222 Rn concentrations in 109 dwellings in the Prefecture from 1992 to 1996. The outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were also measured in gardens of 15 dwellings. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with passive 222 Rn detectors which used a polycarbonate film for counting α-ray and could separate concentrations of 222 Rn from 220 Rn. Counting efficiencies of the detectors were calibrated with a standard 222 Rn chamber in the Environmental Measurement Laboratory in USA and in the National Radiological Protection Board in UK. Geometric means of 222 Rn concentration were 13 and 4.4 Bq x m -3 in the dwellings and outdoor, respectively. These values were consistent to nationwide survey results in Japan. The 222 Rn concentrations in the dwellings depended on their age. The concentrations were higher in recent dwellings than in older ones. The radiation dose from 222 Rn was estimated, taking into account the occupancy factor for inside and outside of dwellings. The annual dose was 0.32 mSv x y -1 , and 99% of the dose came from the exposure to 222 Rn inside the dwelling. (author)

  13. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  14. Pregnancy with Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Negi, Neha; Aggarwal, Aakash; Bodh, Vijay; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Even though pregnancy is rare with cirrhosis and advanced liver disease, but it may co-exist in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension as liver function is preserved but whenever encountered together is a complex clinical dilemma. Pregnancy in a patient with portal hypertension presents a special challenge to the obstetrician as so-called physiological hemodynamic changes associated with pregnancy, needed for meeting demands of the growing fetus, worsen the portal hypertension thereby putting mother at risk of potentially life-threatening complications like variceal hemorrhage. Risks of variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation increase many fold during pregnancy. Optimal management revolves round managing the portal hypertension and its complications. Thus management of such cases requires multi-speciality approach involving obstetricians experienced in dealing with high risk cases, hepatologists, anesthetists and neonatologists. With advancement in medical field, pregnancy is not contra-indicated in these women, as was previously believed. This article focuses on the different aspects of pregnancy with portal hypertension with special emphasis on specific cause wise treatment options to decrease the variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation. Based on extensive review of literature, management from pre-conceptional period to postpartum is outlined in order to have optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25755552

  15. Management of diabetic hypertensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Jai; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension occurs twice as commonly in diabetics than in comparable nondiabetics. Patients with both disorders have a markedly higher risk for premature microvascular and macrovascular complications. Aggressive control of blood pressure (BP) reduces both micro- and macrovascular complications. In diabetic hypertensives, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are the first line in management of hypertension, and can be replaced by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) if patients are intolerant of them. Recent studies suggest ARBs to be on par with ACEI in reducing both macro- and microvascular risks. Adding both these agents may have a beneficial effect on proteinuria, but no extra macrovascular risk reduction. Thiazides can also be used as first line drugs, but are better used along with ACEI/ARBs. Beta-blockers [especially if the patient has coronary artery disease] and calcium channel blockers are used as second line add-on drugs. Multidrug regimens are commonly needed in diabetic hypertensives. Achieving the target BP of <130/80 is the priority rather than the drug combination used in order to arrest and prevent the progression of macro- and microvascular complications in diabetic hypertensives. PMID:22145142

  16. Adaptation, allometry, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, A B; Schork, N J

    1994-08-01

    Essential hypertension is a "disease of civilization" but has a clear genetic component. From an evolutionary perspective, persistence in the human genome of elements capable of raising blood pressure presupposes their adaptive significance. Recently, two hypotheses that explicitly appeal to selectionist arguments, the "slavery" and "thrifty gene" theories, have been forwarded. We find neither completely successful, and we advance an alternative explanation of the adaptive importance of genes responsible for hypertension. We propose that blood pressure rises during childhood and adolescence to subserve homeostatic needs of the organism. Specifically, we contend that blood pressure is a flexible element in the repertoire of renal homeostatic mechanisms serving to match renal function to growth. The effect of modern diet and lifestyle on human growth stimulates earlier and more vigorous development, straining biologically necessary relationships between renal and general somatic growth and requiring compensation via homeostatic mechanisms preserved during evolution. Prime among such mechanisms is blood pressure, which rises as a compensation to maintain renal function in the face of greater growth. Since virtually all members of acculturated societies share in the modern lifestyle, the demands imposed by accelerated growth and development result in a populational shift to higher blood pressures, with a consequent increase in the prevalence of hypertension. We propose that hypertension is the product of maladaptation of highly genetically conserved mechanisms subserving important biological homeostatic needs. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying hypertension will require approaches that examine the developmental processes linking growth to blood pressure.

  17. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: how to approach hypertension in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.

  18. Knowledge and awareness of hypertension among patients with systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, B. Oluranti; Ogun, S. Abayomi; Aina, A. Olutoyin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, systemic hypertension is the commonest noncommunicable disease, and public awareness about hypertension and its determinants is poor. This study aims to assess the knowledge and level of awareness of the disease among hypertensive patients attending the medical outpatient clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH). METHODOLOGY: Hypertensive patients who attended the medical outpatient clinic during the one-year study period and gave their consent were recruited into the study. Response to a questionnaire on various aspects of hypertension was analyzed using the STATA for Windows software. RESULTS: There were 254 hypertensive patients, of which 111 were males and 143 were females, giving a male: female ratio of 1:1.3. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 51 years +/- 12.2; 52.4% of the participants were aware that hypertension was the commonest noncommunicable disease in Nigeria. About one in 10 patients (11.4%) was aware that "nil symptom" is the commonest symptom of hypertension, while 37% were not aware that hypertension could cause renal failure. Only about one-third (35.4%) of the patients knew that hypertension should ideally be treated for life, while 58.3% believed that antihypertensive drugs should be used only when there are symptoms. The remaining 6.3% believed that the treatment of hypertension should be for periods ranging from two weeks to five years but not for life. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated inadequate knowledge of hypertension in patients with hypertension in our study population. Conscious efforts should be made and time set aside to health educate hypertensive patients. Organization of "hypertensive club or society" could be encouraged. These will reduce dissemination of false or inaccurate information by hypertensive patients to the public and its attendant dangers. PMID:15160976

  19. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  20. Radon in dwellings and lung cancer - a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the lung cancer risk associated with radon exposure inside dwellings is presented. The risk factors found for miners are discussed and modified according to the lower mean breathing rates inside dwellings and the differences in atmosphere. Statistical information on the lung cancer incidence in the Norwegian population indicates that a 'doubling exposure rate' of radon daughters inside dwellings may be about 2-3 WLM/yr. This corresponds to a radon concentration of about 10-15 pCi/l. These values are used in a discussion of the consequences of a future reduction of the mean ventilation rates in modern houses. (author)

  1. Hypertension og nyresygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  2. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  3. Echocardiography in Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simone, Giovanni; Mancusi, Costantino; Esposito, Roberta; De Luca, Nicola; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2018-05-02

    Hypertension is a condition characterized by pressure and/or volume overloads and echocardiography is helpful and feasible to understand hemodynamic mechanisms. Echocardiographic information is sometimes critical and susceptible of modifying decision making. In this review, we provide detailed descriptions of the parameters that can be derived from a standard transthoracic echocardiogram, including some more recent techniques. We will also explain how each parameter might have impact in the evaluation of the hypertensive patient and give indications on when to refer patients to echo-labs, which parameters are critical and which ones might be redundant, and how to use the information obtained in the report. Cardiac geometry, LV systolic and diastolic function, LV pump performance, output impedance and left atrial function are parameters that might be altered in arterial hypertension, but not necessarily doctors need the whole information for decision making. The critical measures are provided.

  4. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  5. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  6. Peripheral adrenergic receptors in hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Brodde, O. E.; Insel, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased sympathoadrenal activity appears to play an important role in the development or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertensive patients and various animal models of hypertension. Alterations of adrenergic receptor number or responsiveness might contribute to this increased

  7. Radiation-induced renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, G.E.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.; Constable, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation is known to produce changes in the small vessels and interstitium of the kidneys resulting in hypertension. Two cases of renal artery stenosis and resultant hypertension secondary to abdominal irradiation are reported and the literature is reviewed

  8. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  9. 24 CFR 42.375 - One-for-one replacement of lower-income dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to the conversion. (5) The units must be designed to remain lower-income dwelling units for at... result in the demolition of lower-income dwelling units or the conversion of lower-income dwelling units...-income dwelling units. 42.375 Section 42.375 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...

  10. Knowing hypertension and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology...... for diagnosing and treating them. The response to the AIDS epidemic in Uganda provides an important context for, and contrast with, the emergence of hypertension and diabetes as social phenomena. Ethnographic fieldwork shows the interplay between experience of these conditions and the political economy...

  11. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this article are to characterize the headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to field-test the ICHD diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 44 patients with new-onset IIH. Thirty-four patients with suspected but u...... tinnitus may suggest intracranial hypertension. Based on data from a well-defined IIH cohort, we propose a revision of the ICDH-3 beta diagnostic criteria with improved clinical applicability and increased sensitivity and specificity....

  12. Hypertension and renovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, P; Ibsen, H; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21%), nephr......The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21...

  13. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde

  14. Medieval Chinese syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    “Medieval Chinese Syntax” aims to provide a sketch of the development of function words and syntactic structures during the Chinese Medieval period, including Early Medieval Chinese (ca. 0-700 A.D.) and Late Medieval Chinese (ca. 700-1100).

  15. Hyperuricemia in Childhood Primary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Feig, Daniel I.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental animal models suggest that uric acid might have a pathogenic role in the early development of primary hypertension. We hypothesized that serum uric acid is correlated with blood pressure in children with new-onset, untreated, primary hypertension. We evaluated 125 consecutive children referred to the Baylor Pediatric Renal Program for evaluation of hypertension. None of the subjects had previously been evaluated or treated for hypertension. The children ranged in age from 6 to 18...

  16. Hypertension and experimental stroke therapies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Collins, Victoria E; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an established target for long-term stroke prevention but procedures for management of hypertension in acute stroke are less certain. Here, we analyze basic science data to examine the impact of hypertension on candidate stroke therapies and of anti-hypertensive treatments on stroke outcome. Methods: Data were pooled from 3,288 acute ischemic stroke experiments (47,899 animals) testing the effect of therapies on infarct size (published 1978–2010). Data were combined using meta...

  17. Construct Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaire on the Quality of Physician-Patient Interaction in Adults With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John M; Hetland, Breanna; Alaamri, Marym

    2017-04-01

    There are limited reliable and valid measures of the patient- provider interaction among adults with hypertension. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to describe the construct validity and reliability of the Questionnaire on the Quality of Physician-Patient Interaction (QQPPI), in community-dwelling adults with hypertension. A convenience sample of 109 participants with hypertension was recruited and administered the QQPPI at baseline and 8 weeks later. The exploratory factor analysis established a 12-item, 2-factor structure for the QQPPI was valid in this sample. The modified QQPPI proved to have sufficient internal consistency and test- retest reliability. The modified QQPPI is a valid and reliable measure of the provider-patient interaction, a construct posited to impact self-management, in adults with hypertension.

  18. Gender differences in the association between self-rated health and hypertension in a Korean adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hee-Young

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health (SRH has been reported as a predictor of mortality in previous studies. This study aimed to examine whether SRH is independently associated with hypertension and if there is a gender difference in this association. Methods 16,956 community dwelling adults aged 20 and over within a defined geographic area participated in this study. Data on SRH, socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, education and health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected. Body mass index and blood pressure were measured. Logistic regression models were used to determine a relationship between SRH and hypertension. Results 32.5% of the participants were found to have hypertension. Women were more likely than men to rate their SRH as poor (p p p Conclusions SRH was independently associated with hypertension in a Korean adult population. This association was modified by gender.

  19. EMERGENCY STATES IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gurevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes in detail potential emergency states in patients with different stages of arterial hypertension with special attention to diagnosis and rational management of hypertensive crisis. Differentiated approach to management of different forms of hypertensive crisis is specified.

  20. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    , 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... of the first mask is further investigated by including a condition where the first mask is presented without a target. The results from individual subjects show that the findings of Moore et al. can be replicated. The results also suggest that presenting the first mask without a target is enough to produce...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  1. Measurements of radon gas in dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Arnaud, M.I.; Lopez, F.O.; Oliveira, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of radon gas in dwellings of several cities of Argentina was measured. For this purpose, different kind of detectors were used such as passive solid state nuclear track detectors, electrets and detectors which use activated charcoal. Since 1983, a total of 1630 dwellings were analysed. The cases monitored were dwellings where the main construction materials are reinforced concrete and brick. The average values found in each city are below 50 Bq/m 3 . The values above 200-Bqm 3 are very few, and none of them is above 300 Bq/m 3 . The average value of radon gas in air dwellings in our country is 33 Bq/m 3 , with a geometric mean of 23 Bq/m 3 , corresponding to an annual effective dose of 0.83 mSv. (author) [es

  2. Primary lung hypertension in-patient with hypertension portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo Uribe; Villa Restrepo, Alfredo

    1990-01-01

    Thorax x-rays were reviewed in 18 patients with portal hypertension. In 28% of these we found radiologic signs of pulmonary hypertension of the precapillary type. The existing relation between primary pulmonary hypertension and portal hypertension has been established in different scientific papers. In the published series the incidence of primary pulmonary hypertension is less than the one of found in these patients the physiopathology of this association is reviewed, and as a hypothetic manner it is postulated the possible roll of the hypoxaemia of the residents, at the altitude of the Bogota city. (2.640 mts) as a helping factor in this phenomenon

  3. [Relationship between hypertension and percentage of body fat, in children of Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R W; Wan, Y H; Zhang, H; Wang, Y F; Wang, B; Xu, L; Zuo, A Z; Tong, S L; Tao, F B

    2016-02-01

    To study the situation of hypertension among children in Anhui province and to analyze its association with the percentage of body fat. A total of 8 890 aged 7-17 years old children, were tested for blood pressure and thickness of skin fold in Anhui province. Hypertension in children was diagnosed referring to the 2010 Chinese guidelines for the management of hypertension (revised in 2010). The percentage of body fat was calculated according to the thickness of skin fold and specific formulas. METHODS used for statistics analysis would include t test, χ(2) test while logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between percentage of body fat in children and adolescents. In total, 8 890 subjects aged 7-17 years were recruited, in Anhui province. The prevalence of hypertension in Children aged 7-17 was 13.6%, with the total number of hypertension as 1 210, in Anhui province. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension among urban and rural children. Both prevalence of hypertension among boys and girls in urban area appeared higher than those in the rural area. In the urban areas, the prevalence rates of hypertension in both boys and girls were higher than the ones in rural area (χ(2) values were 36.36, 7.79, 42.10 and 13.77, respectively, and Pfat between boys and girls from the rural or urban areas were both significant.OR values of the boys and girls of group P(40)- and P(60)-were 1.65 and 1.75, respectively. Risks of hypertension in boys and girls showed significantly increase by P(40) and P(60), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in both boys and girls increased along with the increase of the percentage on body fat. Since higher percentage of body fat could increase the risk of hypertension, reduction of body fat content would be beneficial to the success of prevention and control of hypertension in children.

  4. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  5. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Dingová; Eva Králová

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged...

  6. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-01-01

    222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m -3 (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m -3 for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the 222 Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the 220 Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of 220 Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the 220 Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the 222 Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of 220 Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for 222 Rn but weak for 220 Rn. The effective dose rates for 222 Rn and 220 Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y -1 ), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y -1 ), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y -1 ). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher

  7. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  8. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  9. Angiography for renal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, V.P.; Ernst, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    As angioplasty and operative techniques have become more precise and successful, so have evaluation techniques. Preoperative arteriography is indispensible for deciding on the appropriate treatment modality and the specifics of the procedure. Arteriography, therefore, remains the cornerstone in managing renovascular hypertension and renal arterial disease

  10. Children and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Denise

    1983-01-01

    Since children as young as seven years old can suffer from hypertension, all children should have blood pressure checked during physical examinations. Guidelines for testing children's blood pressure are presented along with suggestions about what schools and parents can do to help deal with the problem. (PP)

  11. Project "Hypertension Alert."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Emma Lou

    1983-01-01

    "Hypertension Alert," a 1979-80 blood pressure screening-awareness project of the Yonkers, New York Public Schools, is described. Data is analyzed in tables for ethnic composition, and range of blood pressure readings for the high school, junior high school, and elementary school students tested. (Author/JMK)

  12. Hypertensive Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hypertensive heart disease is prevalent and during the last decade it has been determined that patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, many have doubted the effectiveness of LV mass assessment because it is difficult...

  13. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Jan ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  14. Hypertension og hjertet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Svendsen, Tage Lysbo

    2009-01-01

    of left ventricular mass is associated with substantial and significant reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is strongly associated with increased risk of subsequent heart failure. Meta analysis data suggests that reduction in blood pressure is also associated with very...

  15. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  16. Nitroglycerin kan give hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Peter; Levinsen, Tine Holbæk; Hovind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hg. The conclusion was that her response was a paradoxical response to glycerylnitrate, orthostatism and a pathological response to massage of the carotid artery. This is the third reported case on paradoxical hypertension induced by glyceryl nitrates. It is speculated that dysfunction of the cerebral bloodflow...

  17. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP

  18. UK standards for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has issued formal advice on the standards to be adopted in the UK for control of exposures to radon daughters in existing dwellings and for changes in building procedures for future dwellings. The standards are based on those recommended by the international commission on radiological protection but adapted to circumstances in the United Kingdom. The matters taken into account by the Board when formulating its advice, and which are discussed in the paper, include the conversion from measured concentrations of radon to effective dose equivalent and the implied levels of risk, the comparison of these levels with risks from other causes, the numbers of dwellings in which various annual doses are likely to be exceeded, the geographical distribution of these dwellings, the likely costs and effectiveness of various remedial measures and the degree of domestic disruption. The action level for existing dwellings selected by the Board was the same, 20 mSv per annum, as that recommended by the ICRP, but the upper bound for new dwellings of 5 mSv per annum was lower than that suggested by the ICRP [fr

  19. Modeling ventilation and radon in new dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, M.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were estimated for various ventilation conditions, the differences being mainly related to the airtightness of the dwelling and the ventilation behavior of its occupants. The estimations were aimed at describing the variation in air change rates and radon concentrations to be expected in the representative newly built Dutch dwellings and identifying the most important parameters determining air change rate and indoor radon concentration. The model estimations were compared with measurements. Most of the air was predicted to enter the model dwelling through leaks in the building shell, independent of the ventilation conditions of the dwelling. Opening the air inlets was shown to be an efficient way to increase infiltration and thus to decrease radon concentration. The effect of increasing the mechanical ventilation rate was considerably less than opening the air inlets. The mechanical ventilation sets the lower limit to the air change rate of the dwelling, and is effective in reducing the radon concentration when natural infiltration is low. Opening inside doors proved to be effective in preventing peak concentrations in poorly ventilated rooms. As the airtightness of newly built dwellings is still being improved, higher radon concentrations are to be expected in the near future and the effect of occupant behavior on indoor radon concentrations is likely to increase. According to the model estimations soil-borne radon played a moderate role, which is in line with measurements. (au)

  20. Cost effectiveness of reducing radon exposure in Spanish dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Gutierrez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Published information on the distribution of radon levels in Spanish single family dwellings is used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three different intervention scenarios: remediation of existing dwellings, radon proofing of all future dwellings and the targetting of areas with higher than average indoor radon concentrations. Analysis is carried out on the basis of a Reference Level of 400 Bq m -3 for the existing housing stock and 200 Bq m -3 for new dwellings. Certain assumptions are made about the effectiveness and durability of the measures applied and annualised costs are used to calculate the costs per lung cancer death averted. The results reveal that targetting future housing is a more cost-effective option than remediation of existing dwellings with radon concentrations above the Reference Level -the costs per lung cancer death averted are typically $145000. In high-risk areas, these costs can be considerably less, depending on the percentage of dwellings expected to exceed the Reference Level and the average savings in exposure as a result of the intervention. The costs of intervention to reduce lung cancer deaths following exposure to radon compare favourably with those of other health programmes in other countries. (Author)

  1. Contamination of dwellings by particulate matter: ingress and distribution within the dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, R.J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; ApSimon, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    A newly developed system for rapid, non-invasive measurements of deposited fluorescent tracer materials over extended surface areas has been used to gather information on the rate at which these materials would be introduced into a dwelling from the exterior by the occupants' footwear. Some additional information on the rate at which redistribution would occur and the potential for decontamination by normal household equipment has also been obtained. The limitations of using tracers to acquire such data are recognised but few experimental alternatives exist. Further work is planned to extend the range of particle sizes used in the continuing laboratory studies before a more realistic simulation is undertaken in test houses. (author)

  2. Radiation in dwellings and cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stjernfeldt, M.; Samuelsson, L.; Ludvigsson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Indoor radiation, especially radon exposure, has been in focus in the public domain during the past several years. The growing concern among parents of children with cancer possibly having high radiation levels in their homes led us to study the levels of gamma- and alpha-radiation levels in the homes of a group of children in the county of Ostergoetland. The indoor concentration of alpha-emitting radon daughters was measured by a high-voltage method. The gamma activity was measured with a standard detector scintillation meter. The yearly average for radon-daughter concentration in both cases (57 Bq/m3) and controls (61 Bq/m3) corresponds fairly well with the national average of 53 Bq/m3. The yearly average for gamma radiation (cases 0.37 mGy, controls 0.36 mGy) is much lower than the permissible upper level in dwellings (2.5 mGy/year). The values seem to be of the same order as the subtracted cosmic radiation, which is 0.24-0.26 mGy. No appreciable difference could thus be found between cases and controls either from gamma radiation or radon-daughter exposure. We cannot from our study rule out the possibility of an effect of low-level radiation in susceptible individuals, but it seems clear that children who get cancer do not live in more radioactive homes than other children

  3. Environmental radon monitoring in Khartoum dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, I. S.

    1992-03-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is released into the surrounding environment. Existence of this gas indoors ( house and dwelling ) mainly depends on its source in the building materials, the soil beneath the buildings and the ventilation of the rooms. In this study the technique of ground activated charcoal and gamma spectrometry system are used for Radon measurement. This technique has been calibrated and optimized. The main reason for radon determination in house comes from the fact that Radon and its daughters are directly responsible of lung cancer and some kidney diseases. The measurements, in this study, have been performed for Khartoum indoors. 644 rooms have been measured. These rooms were sorted out into groups according to their building material as well as the ventilation of each room. The measurements covered the whole year ( the three main seasons ) to see the variation of Radon level, since its emanation is affected by the temperature. Also monthly outdoor measurements have been performed in different locations in Khartoum. On the basis of the results obtained, the radiation dose received by the public due to the inhalation of this gas has been calculated. The average annual effective dose was found to be 1.2 m Sv. (author). 33 refs., 17 tabs., 24 figs

  4. Indoor radon levels in Riyadh city dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Khalid, Aleissa; Ghazi, Alzeer

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Building materials used for construction of houses represent a major source of indoor radon. In this investigation, indoor radon concentrations are found to vary substantially among the different building materials, ventilation, cooling and heating systems used. This paper presents the effects of these factors on the radon concentration in Riyadh city dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm Electret ion chamber. The study covered more than 700 houses and apartments, which were selected to cover the most common type of houses. The concentration range was found to be 1.02 to 196 Bq.m -3 , with an average value of 17.5 ± 3 Bq.m -3 . The results show that the radon concentration is higher in houses where the white bricks, no ventilation systems, plastic paint and Freon air conditioners are used, but relatively lower in houses where the red bricks, window ventilation, and water air conditioner is used. (author)

  5. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2...

  6. Hypertension, a health economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana

    2008-06-01

    The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment.

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  9. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  10. Intensified association between waist circumference and hypertension in abdominally overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yide; Wang, Hai-Jun; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for childhood hypertension. The present study aimed to compare the strength of the association between waist circumference (WC) and hypertension in children with different WC levels. A total of 82,413 Chinese children aged 9-17 years were selected. An abdominally overweight child was defined as a child with WC ≥75th sex- and age-specific percentile. Hypertension was categorised as ≥95th sex-, age- and height-specific percentile. Logistic regression model was applied to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of WC for hypertension after WC was transformed into sex- and age-specific z-score. Abdominally overweight children presented a higher risk of hypertension (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 2.26, 2.54) than children with normal WC. In children with normal WC, one sex- and age-specific standard deviation increase in WC was associated with a 42% increase in odds of hypertension (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.55). That increase was elevated to 74% in abdominally overweight children (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.66, 1.82). A similar pattern was also observed in different sex and area groups, and in children 9-14 years old. An intensified association between WC and hypertension was observed in abdominally overweight Chinese children. The gain in WC was associated with greater increase in hypertensive risk in abdominally overweight children than that of children with normal WC. These findings could improve intervention strategies for hypertension risk reduction in children. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Exploration of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by western medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-jing

    2015-02-01

    "Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of

  12. 25 CFR 256.21 - Will I have to vacate my dwelling while repair work or replacement of my dwelling is being done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I have to vacate my dwelling while repair work or replacement of my dwelling is being done? 256.21 Section 256.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOUSING HOUSING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM § 256.21 Will I have to vacate my dwelling while...

  13. [Hypertension in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem Hachmi, L; Ben Salem Hachmi, S; Bouzid, C; Younsi, N; Smida, H; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of hypertension in a female population with PCOS and to correlate hypertension with her clinical and hormonal profile. it is a transversal study of 79 PCOS patients with mean age of 25 +/- 7 years (range 13-44). PCOS diagnosis is made by Rotterdam consensus criteria's (2003). WHO definition of hypertension is used (BP 140/90 mmHg). Blood pressure is measured three times in each patient. Ovarian echography and biochemical assays (GnRH test, androgens, cholesterol, triglycerides, and oral glucose tolerance test) are made before the 5th day of the menstrual cycle. 12% of PCOS women have hypertension. Family history of hypertension is not a predictive factor of hypertension in our study. PCOS patients with hypertension are not significantly older than those without hypertension (28.4 +/- 6.5 vs. 25.2 +/- 7; p = 0.12). If compared to PCOS women without hypertension, those with hypertension have a significantly higher BMI (39.2 +/- 7 vs. 29.6; p = 0.0004). PCOS patients with and without hypertension do not differ significantly in their level of androgens and total cholesterol. Triglycerides level is higher in PCOS patients with hypertension (p = 0.06). In oral glucose tolerance test, areas under the curve of insulin and glucose are significantly higher in PCOS patients with hypertension (respectively p = 0.06 and 0.02). The area under the curve of LH during GnRH test is lower in PCOS patients with hypertension (p = 0.04).

  14. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: Singapore Chinese health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-06-01

    Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63 257 Chinese adults aged 45 to 74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. During 926 752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1059 from ischemic or nonspecified strokes). Compared with individuals with 7 hours per day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours per day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours per day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours per day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours per day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long durations of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or nonspecified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. Methods The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. Results During 926,752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1,059 from ischemic or non-specified strokes). Compared to individuals with 7 hours/day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours/day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours/day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours/day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours/day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long duration of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or non-specified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. PMID:24743442

  16. Trends in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension during 2001-2010 in an Urban Elderly Population of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Dongling; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shanshan; Wang, Yiyan

    2015-01-01

    As the most important risk factors of cardiovascular disease, pre-hypertension and hypertension are important public health challenges. Few studies have focused on the trends of pre-hypertension and hypertension specifically for the aging population in China. Given the anticipated growth of the elderly population in China, there is an urgent need to document the conditions of pre-hypertension and hypertension in this aging population. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys of Chinese adults aged ≥60 years in 2001 and 2010. A total of 2,272 (943 males, 1,329 females) and 2,074 (839 males, 1,235 females) participants were included in the two surveys, respectively. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 60.1% to 65.2% from the 2001 to the 2010 survey. Among the participants with hypertension, the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension all significantly increased from 69.8% to 74.5%, 50.3% to 63.7%, and 15.3% to 30.3%, respectively, from 2001 to 2010. A logistic regression showed that a higher education level, a higher BMI, a family history of hypertension and doctor-diagnosed cardiovascular disease were significantly associated with hypertension awareness and treatment. Hypertension prevalence increased rapidly between the years surveyed. Although the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension improved significantly, the values of these variables remained low. More attention should be given to the elderly because the population is aging worldwide, and urgent action, optimal treatment approaches and proper public health strategies must be taken to prevent and manage hypertension.

  17. The evolving definition of systemic arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, C Venkata S; Giles, Thomas D

    2010-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality. Whereas excellent therapeutic options are available to treat hypertension, there is an unsettled issue about the very definition of hypertension. At what level of blood pressure should we treat hypertension? Does the definition of hypertension change in the presence of co-morbid conditions? This article covers in detail the evolving concepts in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  18. Astragalus Injection for Hypertensive Renal Damage: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of astragalus injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine for patients with renal damage induced by hypertension according to the available evidence. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese VIP Information, China Biology Medicine (CBM, and Chinese Medical Citation Index (CMCI, and the date of search starts from the first of database to August 2011. No language restriction was applied. We included randomized controlled trials testing astragalus injection against placebo or astragalus injection plus antihypertensive drugs against antihypertensive drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane review standards. Results. 5 randomized trials (involving 429 patients were included and the methodological quality was evaluated as generally low. The pooled results showed that astragalus injection was more effective in lowering β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, microalbuminuria (mAlb compared with placebo, and it was also superior to prostaglandin in lowering blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine clearance rate (Ccr. There were no adverse effects reported in the trials from astragalus injection. Conclusions. Astragalus injection showed protective effects in hypertensive renal damage patients, although available studies are not adequate to draw a definite conclusion due to low quality of included trials. More rigorous clinical trials with high quality are warranted to give high level of evidence.

  19. Prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of china: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Chen

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China.Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9.We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%-26.41%. Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%-27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%-26.35%. For 2004-2006: 18.94% (14.41%-23.94%, for 2007-2009, 21.24% (15.98%-27.01% for 2010-2013: 26.68%, (20.79%-33.02%. For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%-29.32%, for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%-24.08%.The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention.

  20. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Sones, P.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  1. [Exercise in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Schramm, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Regular endurance training has established itself as a major therapeutic principle in the specter of nonpharmacological measures in arterial hypertension. An initial medical check as well as an adequate technique, dosage and intensity of the prescribed exercise training are mandatory. With respect to the concomitant pharmacological treatment, it should be considered that the beneficial effects of lifestyle modification will not be counteracted by the chosen antihypertensive drug but, ideally, synergistically supported. Based on the individual clinical situation, principally all antihypertensive drugs recommended by the current European guidelines, may be prescribed as mono- or combination therapy.beta-receptor blockers are especially capable of controlling excessive exercise-induced blood pressure increase; however, they have metabolic and exercise physiological limitations. The neutrality concerning metabolic and exercise physiological parameters as well as the positive profile of side effects favor ACE inhibitors, long-acting calcium channel blockers and especially AT(1) antagonists in physically active hypertensive patients with concomitant metabolic syndrome.

  2. [Chronic hypertension and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, Edouard; Tsatsaris, Vassili

    2012-09-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The management of patients with chronic hypertension requires a multidisciplinary approach prior to conception, during pregnancy and post-partum. In the preconception period, fetotoxic agents should be discontinued. It is also essential to undertake a full cardiovascular examination which may, in some cases, question the possibility of pregnancy. During pregnancy, blood pressure should be monitored and controlled, but not necessarily returned to a normal value. Low blood pressure levels could indeed lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction. Close clinical, biological and ultrasound monitoring is recommended, even postpartum, since those patients are at higher risk for preeclampsia.

  3. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurological disorders in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Vakhnina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common vascular diseases. The brain as target organs in hypertension is damaged more often and earlier. Neurological complications due to hypertension are frequently hyperdiagnosed in Russian neurological practice. Thus, headache, dizziness, impaired recall of recent events, nocturnal sleep disorders, and many other complaints in a hypertensive patient are usually regarded as a manifestation of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. At the same time headaches (tension headache and migraine in hypertensive patients are predominantly primary; headache associated with dramatic marked elevations in blood pressure is encountered in only a small number of patients. The role of cerebrovascular diseases in the development of dizziness in hypertensive patients is also overestimated. The vast majority of cases, patients with this complaint are in fact identified to have benign paroxysmal postural vertigo, Mеniеre’s disease, vestibular neuronitis, or vestibular migraine. Psychogenic disorders or multisensory insufficiency are generally responsible for non-systemic vertigo in hypertensive patients. Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency may cause non-systemic vertigo as a subjective equivalent of postural instability.Cognitive impairments (CIs are the most common and earliest manifestation of cerebrovascular lesion in hypertension. In most cases, CIs in hypertension were vascular and associated with cerebrovascular lesion due to lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis. However, mixed CIs frequently occur when hypertensive patients are also found to have signs of a degenerative disease, most commonly in Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. Epidemiology of hypertensive kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel; Lazich, Ivana; Bakris, George L

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) attributable to hypertension continues to rise worldwide. Identifying the precise prevalence of CKD attributable to hypertension is difficult owing to the absence of uniform criteria to establish a diagnosis of hypertensive nephropathy. Despite the increasing prevalence of CKD-associated hypertension, awareness of hypertension among individuals with CKD remains suboptimal and rates of blood-pressure control remain poor. Targeted subgroups involved in studies of CKD seem to reach better rates of blood-pressure control, suggesting that this therapeutic goal can be achieved in patients with CKD. Elevated blood-pressure levels are associated with CKD progression. However, the optimal blood-pressure level and pharmacological agent remains unclear. Physicians treating patients with CKD must recognize the importance of maintaining optimal salt and volume balance to achieve blood-pressure goals. Furthermore, agents that modify the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis can be an important adjunct to therapy and physicians must monitor expected changes in serum creatinine and electrolyte levels after their administration. Hypertension remains a common factor complicating CKD. Future investigations identifying early signs of hypertension-related CKD, increasing awareness of the effects of hypertension in CKD and determining optimal therapeutic interventions might help reduce the incidence of hypertensive nephropathy.

  6. Angiography in portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, E

    1982-04-05

    We report on the cooperative possibilities the radiologist has as to diagnosis and therapy of portal hypertension. The catheter angiography allows to make a differentiation between pre- and intrahepatic bloc and the localization of bleeding esophagus varices. Only after all endoscopic measures with sclerotherapy and Laser coagulation have failed, catheter angiography will be carried out as a therapeutic measure. The future development, however, will give the opportunity to a series of therapeutic attempts on the field of interventional radiology.

  7. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  8. Angiography in portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1982-01-01

    We report on the cooperative possibilities the radiologist has as to diagnosis and therapy of portal hypertension. The catheter angiography allows to make a differentiation between pre- and intrahepatic bloc and the localization of bleeding esophagus varices. Only after all endoscopic measures with sclerotherapy and Laser coagulation have failed, catheter angiography will be carried out as a therapeutic measure. The future development, however, will give the opportunity to a series of therapeutic attempts on the field of interventional radiology. (orig.) [de

  9. Health system strengthening and hypertension awareness, treatment and control: data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing Lin; Pang, Mingfan; Beard, John

    2014-01-01

    To monitor hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in China two to three years after major reform of the health system. Data from a national survey conducted in 2011-2012 among Chinese people aged 45 years or older - which included detailed anthropometric measurements - were used to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and the percentages of hypertensive individuals who were unaware of, receiving no treatment for, and/or not controlling their hypertension well. Modified Poisson regressions were used to estimate relative risks (RRs). At the time of the survey, nearly 40% of Chinese people aged 45 years or older had a hypertensive disorder. Of the individuals with hypertension, more than 40% were unaware of their condition, about 50% were receiving no medication for it and about 80% were not controlling it well. Compared with the other hypertensive individuals, those who were members of insurance schemes that covered the costs of outpatient care were more likely to be aware of their hypertension (adjusted RR, aRR: 0.737; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.619-0.878) to be receiving treatment for it (aRR: 0.795; 95% CI: 0.680-0.929) and to be controlling it effectively (aRR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.817-0.996). In China many cases of hypertension are going undetected and untreated, even though the health system appears to deliver effective care to individuals who are aware of their hypertension. A reduction in the costs of outpatient care to patients would probably improve the management of hypertension in China.

  10. Managing hypertension by polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Camps, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Some polyphenols, obtained from plants of broad use, induce a favorable endothelial response in hypertension and beneficial effects in the management of other metabolic cardiovascular risks. Previous studies in our laboratories using the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa as a source of polyphenols show that significant effects on hypertension are noticeable in humans only when provided in high amounts. Available data are suggestive in animal models and ex vivo experiments, but data in humans are difficult to acquire. Additionally, and despite the low bioavailability of polyphenols, intervention studies provide evidence for the protective effects of secondary plant metabolites. Assumptions on public health benefits are limited by the lack of scientific knowledge, robust data derived from large randomized clinical trials, and an accurate assessment of the bioactive components provided by common foodstuff. Because it is likely that clinical effects are the result of multiple interactions among different polyphenols rather than the isolated action of unique compounds, to provide polyphenol-rich botanical extracts as dietary supplements is a suggestive option. Unfortunately, the lack of patent perspectives for the pharmaceutical industries and the high cost of production and release for alimentary industries will hamper the performance of the necessary clinical trials. Here we briefly discuss whether and how such limitations may complicate the extensive use of plant-derived products in the management of hypertension and which steps are the necessary to deal with the predictable complexity in a possible clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-02-04

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypertensive target organ damage in Ghanaian civil servants with hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Addo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of detection, treatment and control of hypertension have repeatedly been reported from sub Saharan Africa, potentially increasing the likelihood of target organ damage.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1015 urban civil servants aged > or = 25 years from seven central government ministries in Accra, Ghana. Participants diagnosed to have hypertension were examined for target organ involvement. Hypertensive target organ damage was defined as the detection of any of the following: left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram, reduction in glomerular filtration rate, the presence of hypertensive retinopathy or a history of a stroke.Of the 219 hypertensive participants examined, 104 (47.5% had evidence of target organ damage. The presence of target organ damage was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. The odds of developing hypertensive target organ damage was five to six times higher in participants with blood pressure (BP > or = 180/110 mmHg compared to those with BP < 140/90 mmHg, and there was a trend to higher odds of target organ damage with increasing BP (p = 0.001. Women had about lower odds of developing target organ damage compared to men.The high prevalence of target organ damage in this working population associated with increasing blood pressure, emphasises the need for hypertension control programs aimed at improving the detection of hypertension, and importantly addressing the issues inhibiting the effective treatment and control of people with hypertension in the population.

  13. Survey of off-grid dwellings : January and February 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents statistics from the results of a survey on off-grid dwellings in the Yukon. Two hundred and fifty-eight surveys were completed, and all questions asked in the survey were represented in this document. Dwellings were defined as any buildings in which people slept or ate, including cabins, cottages, lodges and camps, year-round or otherwise. Information was provided on whether or not the dwellings were main residences or recreational properties and the lengths of time in which the dwellings were used. Comments were presented on the difficulties of getting mortgages or other financing for off-grid dwellings. Detailed and specific questions were asked, requiring information about distances from electric poles and intentions to connect to the grid; whether or not the property was a subsistence and/or commercial residence; energy sources currently used; heating systems; light sources; water pumping; power generators; telephones; wind and solar power generators; and, costs involved in purchase and maintenance of energy systems. A series of questions revolved around the use, cost and maintenance of generators. Maintenance and installation costs of photovoltaic systems and wind power generators were presented. Micro-hydro system generators were discussed. Future involvement in energy programs was suggested with specific reference to off-grid energy programs. The survey concluded with comments and questions about off-grid energy in general. tabs.

  14. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  15. Dwell time adjustment for focused ion beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Satake, Shin-ichi; Oosumi, Takaki; Fukushige, Akihisa; Kogo, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) machining is potentially useful for micro/nano fabrication of hard brittle materials, because the removal method involves physical sputtering. Usually, micro/nano scale patterning of hard brittle materials is very difficult to achieve by mechanical polishing or dry etching. Furthermore, in most reported examples, FIB machining has been applied to silicon substrates in a limited range of shapes. Therefore, a versatile method for FIB machining is required. We previously established the dwell time adjustment for mechanical polishing. The dwell time adjustment is calculated by using a convolution model derived from Preston’s hypothesis. More specifically, the target removal shape is a convolution of the unit removal shape, and the dwell time is calculated by means of one of four algorithms. We investigate these algorithms for dwell time adjustment in FIB machining, and we found that a combination a fast Fourier transform calculation technique and a constraint-type calculation is suitable. By applying this algorithm, we succeeded in machining a spherical lens shape with a diameter of 2.93 μm and a depth of 203 nm in a glassy carbon substrate by means of FIB with dwell time adjustment

  16. Diagnostics of and measures against radon concentrations in a dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.

    1994-02-01

    Results are presented of measurements in a test-dwelling in the period april 1993 - november 1993. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the possibilities of using a blower door (a fan in a wall of the dwelling) for specifying sources of radon in the dwelling, employing the diagnostic method developed at the KVI (Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen, Netherlands). Special attention is paid to the measurement of two input variables for the diagnostic method: transparency of the walls of the dwelling and the strength of static sources. Also measures aimed at reducing radon concentrations in the dwelling are discussed. The main conclusions are that (a) the pressure-variation method is a valid procedure to measure the transparency of walls and floors; (b) the blower door is a suitable technique for arriving at a correct diagnosis; and (c) over-pressurizing the crawl-space is the most effective measure in reducing the radon concentration of the crawl-space. More research on air flows in the soil is recommended. 21 figs., 28 tabs., 7 refs

  17. Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit: a 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kanda, Hideyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-08-01

    Hypertension and smoking are major causes of disability and death, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where there is a high prevalence of a combination of these two risk factors. We attempted to measure the medical expenditures of a Japanese male population with hypertension and/or a smoking habit over a 10-year period of follow-up. A cohort study was conducted that investigated the medical expenditures due to a smoking habit and/or hypertension during the decade of the 1990s using existing data on physical status and medical expenditures. The participants included 1708 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40-69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: 'neither smoking habit nor hypertension', 'smoking habit alone', 'hypertension alone' or 'both smoking habit and hypertension.' Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of > or =140 mm Hg, a diastolic blood pressure of > or =90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medications. In the study cohort, 24.9% had both a smoking habit and hypertension. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with a smoking habit alone (18,444 Japanese yen per month), those with hypertension alone (21,252 yen per month) and those with both a smoking habit and hypertension (31,037 yen per month) had increased personal medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit and hypertension (17,418 yen per month). Similar differences were observed even after adjustment for other confounding factors (Psmoking habit and hypertension incurred higher medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit, hypertension or their combination.

  18. [Control of hypertension in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Alvarez, W; Mulaj, M; De Breucker, S; Leeman, M; Pepersack, T

    2006-09-01

    In a cross sectional study we determined prevalence of hypertension among institutionalized old subjects. Prevalence of hypertension was 69%. Among detected hypertensive patients, 76% received an antihypertensive drug treatment. 61% of the declared hypertensive patients and 80% of the treated hypertensive patients had their blood pressure controlled. The general practitioners should better detect and treat this common geriatric problem associated with a high comorbidity.

  19. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  20. Hypertension--forekomst og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Jensen, Gorm B

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, less than half of all hypertensives have their blood pressure reduced to relevant goals. The prevalence of hypertension in Denmark was found to be between 26% and 40% of the adult population. Just over ...... half were aware of the diagnosis, but less than half were in treatment. Blood pressure control in patients who are undergoing treatment has improved during recent years, but there is still a gap to achievable control rates....

  1. Hypertension--forekomst og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Jensen, Gorm B

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, less than half of all hypertensives have their blood pressure reduced to relevant goals. The prevalence of hypertension in Denmark was found to be between 26% and 40% of the adult population. Just over...... half were aware of the diagnosis, but less than half were in treatment. Blood pressure control in patients who are undergoing treatment has improved during recent years, but there is still a gap to achievable control rates....

  2. Hypertension og det metaboliske syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael Hecht; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun...

  3. Hypertension og det metaboliske syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  4. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  5. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  6. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran C; Srinivas C; Shenoy S

    1991-01-01

    A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  7. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  8. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Hu; Li Zhu; Jiaying Lyu; Wenjun Zhu; Yaping Xu; Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Menopausal transition is often associated with impaired satisfaction with life (SL). Exercise is promising in both managing menopausal symptoms and improving subjective well-being of women after menopause. Purpose: This study examined the effects of a 4-month randomized controlled walking trial on menopausal symptoms and SL in 80 community-dwelling postmenopausal Chinese women (M age = 53.38, SD = 3.41), and identified predictors of changes in SL across the intervention. Met...

  9. [Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Cristina; Schiffer, Eduardo; Aubert, John-David; Vionnet, Julien; Yerly, Patrick; Deltenre, Pierre; Marot, Astrid

    2017-08-30

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) are two frequent pulmonary complications of liver disease. Portal hypertension is a key element in the pathogenesis of both disorders, which are however distinct in terms of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. HPS corresponds to an abnormal arterial oxygenation in relation with the development of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. POPH is a pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of portal hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. As both diseases are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, it is important to screen and evaluate the severity of these two disorders particularly in liver transplant candidates.

  10. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  11. Pulmonary hypertension in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, John R; Trow, Terence K; Lerz, Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a frequently encountered problem in older patients. True idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension can also be seen and requires careful exclusion in older patients. Institution of therapies must be tempered with an appreciation of individual comorbidities and functional limitations that may affect patients' ability to comply and benefit from the complex treatments available for pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article reviews the existing data on the various forms of pulmonary hypertension presenting in older patients and on appropriate therapy in this challenging population.

  12. A study of radon variation in dwelling during 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, A.N.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Muraleedharan, T.S.; Subbaramu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity due to radon and its progeny levels indoors contributes significantly to the total radiation to man. The main source of radon and its progeny in a dwelling is the emanation of radon gas from soil. The temperature and ventilation vary in a dwelling during the year. These parameters influence the indoor radon levels. The seasonal variation of radon was studied in a dwelling as well as in the outside air. The filter paper method and alpha counting, and the solid state track detector technique and track counting were used to study the radon levels. The geometric mean of radon daughters concentrations were 0.5 mWL and 0.8 mWL measured by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. The geometric mean of radon concentrations were 6.2 Bqm -3 and 10.0 Bqm -3 by filter-paper method and SSNTD method respectively. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  13. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  14. ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSIVE NEPHROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Milojković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor that predisposes to cardiovascular disorders and is responsible for most of the morbidity and mortality in patients. Hypertension is closely associated with the kidney, because kidney disease can be both the cause and consequence of increased blood pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is a strong independent risk factor for hypertensive nephropathy and development of ESRD. The pathogenesis of ischemic hypertensive nephropathy (IHN is multifactoral, and in addition to blood pressure other factors contribute to the development of this renal pathology and its progression to end-stage renal disease. These include obesity, smoking, male gender and other still unknown risk factors. The aim of this paper was to analyse the association between essential arterial hypertension and renal hypertensive disease and prevalence of other atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with developed hypertensive renal disease. In this prospective cross sectional study 283 patients of both genders with diagnosed essential hypertension and hypertensive renal disease were analysed. The anamnestic data related to age, duration of hypertension, history of smoking, presence of hypertensive retinopathy, hypertrophy of the left chamber and data about previous renal diseases were collected through conversation and medical documentation. The clinical examination comprise determination of blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, lipid parameters (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, serum urea and creatinine, urine, albumin and protein concentration. The total number of 283 patients (185 males and 98 females with HN was analyzed. The analysis revealed significantly higher proportion of males aged over 60 years with IHN. The mean age of examined hypertensive patients with IHN is 62.6±8.8 years with duration of hypertension 19.8±5.9 years. All examined patients had hypertensive retinopathy and

  15. Health hazards from radon daughters in dwellings in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, O.; Edling, C.

    1980-01-01

    To clarify the possible etiological role for lung cancer from exposure to the low levels of radon and its daughters in dwellings, a case-control study was made, comparing cases of lung cancer with controls with respect to residency in different types of houses. This pilot study was restricted to include only people who lived in typically rural areas. The results support the hypothesis that radon and radon daughter exposure in dwellings is pertinent to the question of the etiology of lung cancer

  16. Spin-dependent dwell time through ferromagnetic graphene barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari, F.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the dwell time of electrons tunneling through a ferromagnetic (FM) graphene barrier. The results show that the spin polarization can be efficiently controlled by the barrier width, barrier height, and the incident electron energy. Furthermore, it is found that electrons with different spin orientations will spend different times through the barrier. The difference of the dwell time between spin-up and spin-down electrons arises from the exchange splitting, which is induced by the FM strip. Study results indicate that a ferromagnetic graphene barrier can cause a nature spin filter mechanism in the time domain

  17. Simplified hourly method to calculate summer temperatures in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Aggerholm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    with an ordinary distribution of windows and a “worst” case where the window area facing south and west was increased by more than 60%. The simplified method used Danish weather data and only needs information on transmission losses, thermal mass, surface contact, internal load, ventilation scheme and solar load...... program for thermal simulations of buildings. The results are based on one year simulations of two cases. The cases were based on a low energy dwelling of 196 m². The transmission loss for the building envelope was 3.3 W/m², not including windows and doors. The dwelling was tested in two cases, a case...

  18. Sound classification of dwellings - Comparison of schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    National sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries in Europe, and proposals are under preparation in more countries. The schemes specify class criteria concerning several acoustic aspects, the main criteria being about airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings......, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The quality classes reflect dierent levels of acoustical comfort. The paper presents and compares the sound classification schemes in Europe. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the 1990es. However, due to lack of coordination...

  19. Exposure to radon in Sweden dwellings - attitudes and elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, B.; Tholander, M.; Axelson, O.

    1989-01-01

    Owners of 208 dwellings with radon daughter concentrations of 400 Bq/m 3 EER or above were asked about attitudes and measures toward elimination via mailed questionnaires. The response rate was 88% and some steps toward elimination had been taken in 83 dwellings. For the remaining houses, no improvements had been made either because of financial problems, lack of technical advice, or doubts about radon daughter exposure as a health hazard. The results of this study suggest the need to more definitely assess the risk through epidemiologic studies, as well as to provide more information about technical solutions and financial support to house owners

  20. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  1. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel NH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nirali H Patel,1 Sarah K Romero,2 David C Kaelber31Division of Emergency Medicine, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH, USA; 2Division of Emergency Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Departments of Information Services, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The Center for Clinical Informatics Research and Education, The MetroHealth System and School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USAAbstract: Hypertension (HTN in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%-5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1 safely lower blood pressure, and (2 treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3 identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8

  2. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  3. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Kroon, A.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Smit, A.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  4. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  5. Dietary habits of hypertensive patients in a tertiary hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prescriptions regarding non-pharmacological care in the management of hypertension has been carefully defined by the various practice guidelines. However, there is paucity of data on dietary practices in our environment, therefore this study set out to determine the dietary practices of hypertensive ...

  6. Drug induced hypertension--An unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Messerli, Franz H; Grossman, Ehud

    2015-09-15

    Most patients with hypertension have essential hypertension or well-known forms of secondary hypertension, such as renal disease, renal artery stenosis, or common endocrine diseases (hyperaldosteronism or pheochromocytoma). Physicians are less aware of drug induced hypertension. A variety of therapeutic agents or chemical substances may increase blood pressure. When a patient with well controlled hypertension is presented with acute blood pressure elevation, use of drug or chemical substance which increases blood pressure should be suspected. Drug-induced blood pressure increases are usually minor and short-lived, although rare hypertensive emergencies associated with use of certain drugs have been reported. Careful evaluation of prescription and non-prescription medications is crucial in the evaluation of the hypertensive individual and may obviate the need for expensive and unnecessary evaluations. Discontinuation of the offending agent will usually achieve adequate blood pressure control. When use of a chemical agent which increases blood pressure is mandatory, anti-hypertensive therapy may facilitate continued use of this agent. We summarize the therapeutic agents or chemical substances that elevate blood pressure and their mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Adolescence: How much ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is an important worldwide public-health challenge because of its high frequency and concomitant risks of cardiovascular and kidney disease. Previous studies have documented that hypertension may begin in adolescence, perhaps even in childhood. Objectives: This study set out to determine ...

  8. Liquorice: a root cause of secondary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Ravi; Ross, Calum N.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a patient presenting with hypertension and hypokalaemia who was ultimately diagnosed with liquorice- induced pseudohyperaldosteronism. This rare cause of secondary hypertension illustrates the importance of a methodical approach to the assessment of hypertension.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Hypertension Guideline 2003 Update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduction of BP in the elderly and in those with severe hypertension should .... management of hypertension in adults by health care .... They may demonstrate postural and post- ..... Persons with severe hypertension fall into three categories.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Pulmonary arterial hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  11. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated systolic hypertension: A health concern? Is having a high top number (systolic) blood pressure, but a normal bottom number (diastolic) ... mm Hg, you have a common type of high blood pressure called isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension can ...

  12. The effects of napping on the risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Srivali, Narat; Vijayvargiya, Priya; Andersen, Carl A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Sathick, Insara J Jaffer; Caples, Sean M; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-11-01

    The risk of hypertension in adults who regularly take a nap is controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the associations between napping and hypertension. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMbase and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through October, 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of hypertension in individuals who regularly take nap were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Nine observational studies with 112,267 individuals were included in the analysis to assess the risk of hypertension in nappers. The pooled RR of hypertension in nappers was 1.13 with 95% CI (0.98 to 1.30). When meta-analysis was limited only to studies assessing the risk of hypertension in daytime nappers, the pooled RR of hypertension was 1.19 with 95% CI (1.06 to 1.35). The data on association between nighttime napping in individuals who work night shift and hypertension were limited, only one observational study reported reduced risk of hypertension in nighttime nappers with odds ratio of 0.79 with 95% CI (0.63 to 1.00). Our meta-analysis demonstrates a significant association between daytime napping and hypertension. Future study is needed to assess the potential benefits of HTN screening for daytime nappers. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Diao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with no previous cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease represent a primary prevention population. The benefits and harms of treating mild hypertension in primary prevention patients are not known at present. This review examines the existing randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective: To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg and without cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Search: We searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1, MEDLINE (1948 to May 2011, EMBASE (1980 to May 2011 and reference lists of articles. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE were searched for previous reviews and meta-analyses of anti-hypertensive drug treatment compared to placebo or no treatment trials up until the end of 2011. Selection criteria: RCTs of at least 1 year duration. Data collection and analysis: The outcomes assessed were mortality, stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD, total cardiovascular events (CVS, and withdrawals due to adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 RCTs identified 4 were included in this review, with 8,912 participants. Treatment for 4 to 5 years with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce total mortality (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63, 1.15. In 7,080 participants treatment with antihypertensive drugs as compared to placebo did not reduce coronary heart disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.80, 1.57, stroke (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.24, 1.08, or total cardiovascular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72, 1.32. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased by drug therapy (RR 4.80, 95% CI 4.14, 5.57, ARR 9%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drugs used in the treatment of adults (primary prevention with mild hypertension (systolic BP 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99 mmHg have not been

  14. Asymmetry of Hippocampus and Amygdala Defect in Subjective Cognitive Decline Among the Community Dwelling Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yue

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD may be the first clinical sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD. SCD individuals with normal cognition may already have significant medial temporal lobe atrophy. However, few studies have been devoted to exploring the alteration of left-right asymmetry with hippocampus and amygdala in SCD. The aim of this study was to compare SCD individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients and the normal population for volume and asymmetry of hippocampus, amygdala and temporal horn, and to assess their relationship with cognitive function in elderly population living in China.Methods: 111 SCD, 30 MCI, and 67 healthy controls (HC underwent a standard T1-weighted MRI, from which the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala were calculated and compared. Then we evaluated the pattern and extent of asymmetry in hippocampus and amygdala of these samples. Furthermore, we also investigated the relationship between the altered brain regions and cognitive function.Results: Among the three groups, SCD showed more depressive symptoms (p < 0.001 and higher percentage of heart disease (16.4% vs. 35.1%, p = 0.007 than controls. In terms of brain data, significant differences were found in the volume and asymmetry of both hippocampus and amygdala among the three groups (P < 0.05. In logistic analysis controlled by age, gender, education level, depression symptoms, anxiety symptom, somatic disease and lifestyle in terms of smoking, both SCD and MCI individuals showed significant decreased right hippocampal and amygdala volume than controls. For asymmetry pattern, a ladder-shaped difference of left-larger-than-right asymmetry was found in amygdala with MCI>SCD>HC, and an opposite asymmetry of left-less-than-right pattern was found with HC>SCD>MCI in hippocampus. Furthermore, correlation was shown between the volume of right hippocampus and right amygdala with MMSE and MoCA in SCD group.Conclusion: Our results supported that SCD individuals are biologically distinguishable from HC, and this may relate to cognitive impairment, although more longitudinal studies are need to investigate this further.Moreover, different levels of asymmetry in hippocampus and amygdala might be a potential dividing factor to differentiate clinical diagnosis.

  15. Nocturnal Hypertension: Neglected Issue in Comprehensive Hypertension Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Kristanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The body circardian rhythm affects blood pressure variability at day and night, therefore blood pressure at day and night might be different. Nocturnal hypertension is defined as increase of blood pressure >120/70mmHg at night, which is caused by disturbed circadian rhythm, and associated with higher cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events also mortality in hypertensive patients. Nocturnal hypertension and declining blood pressure pattern, can only be detected by continuous examination for 24 hours, also known as ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM. Chronotherapy, has become a strategy for managing the hypertensive nocturnal patients, by taking hypertensive medication at night to obtain normal blood pressure decrease in accordance with the normal circadian rhythm and, improving blood pressure control.

  16. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  17. Assessment of knowledge about hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Węgorowski

    2017-07-01

    Patient knowledge about hypertension and its effects can affect the effectiveness of treatment. Medical education should be of paramount importance for medical staff, with particular attention to the self-control of blood pressure by patients. In summary, it is important to note that due to the high risk of complications, both treatment and prevention of hypertension are important.

  18. Resistant Hypertension and Cardiorenovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkacin Ingrid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have documented independent contribution of sympathetic activation to the cardiovascular disease continuum. Hypertension is one of the leading modifiable factors. Most if not all the benefit of antihypertensive treatment depends on blood pressure lowering, regardless how it is obtained. Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains uncontrolled in spite of the concurrent use of three antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Ideally, one of the three drugs should be a diuretic, and all drugs should be prescribed at optimal dose amounts. Poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy, undiscovered secondary causes (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, renal artery stenosis, and lifestyle factors (e.g. obesity, excessive sodium intake, heavy alcohol intake, various drug interactions are the most common causes of resistant hypertension. Cardio(renovascular morbidity and mortality are significantly higher in resistant hypertensive than in general hypertensive population, as such patients are typically presented with a long-standing history of poorly controlled hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment is needed to avoid further end-organ damage to prevent cardiorenovascular remodeling. Treatment strategy includes lifestyle changes, adding a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, treatment adherence in cardiovascular prevention and, in case of failure to control blood pressure, renal sympathetic denervation or baroreceptor activation therapy. The comparative outcomes in resistant hypertension deserve better understanding. In this review, the most current approaches to resistant hypertension and cardiovascular risk based on the available literature evidence will be discussed.

  19. Endocrine hypertension – Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Kotwal, Narendra; Menon, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a major and frequent comorbid finding of Cushing's syndrome. This review discusses the etiology and pathophysiology of hypertension in Cushing's syndrome, while suggesting methods of management of this condition. It also provides an overview of diagnosis and management strategies in this disease. PMID:22145133

  20. The Immune System in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  1. 24 CFR 200.926 - Minimum property standards for one and two family dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable code; and (2) Those portions of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code designated by the HUD... must comply with: (1) The CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code as identified in § 200.926b(a); and (2... (ii) Those portions of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code designated by the HUD Field Office in...

  2. 24 CFR 206.51 - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a condominium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a dwelling unit in a condominium. 206.51 Section 206.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...; Endorsement Eligible Properties § 206.51 Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a condominium. If the mortgage involves a dwelling unit in a condominium, the project in which the unit is located...

  3. 25 CFR 91.7 - Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. 91.7... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.7 Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. The issuance of permits for the use of land for dwelling purposes within any village reserve described in § 91...

  4. 25 CFR 256.19 - Who performs the improvements, repairs, or replacement of my dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... my dwelling? 256.19 Section 256.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... dwelling? Independent or tribal repair or construction trades persons, home building contractors, or construction companies will perform the repairs, renovation, or replacement of your dwelling. [63 FR 10134, Mar...

  5. 49 CFR 24.204 - Availability of comparable replacement dwelling before displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of comparable replacement dwelling... General Relocation Requirements § 24.204 Availability of comparable replacement dwelling before displacement. (a) General. No person to be displaced shall be required to move from his or her dwelling unless...

  6. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  7. Lung doses from radon in dwellings and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1980-01-01

    The radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings and the lung doses received by the Norwegian population are reported. The biological effects of these doses are discussed. The mean value of radon-daughters in Norwegian dwellings was found to be about 7x10 -3 WL (working levels). This corresponds to an annual exposure of about 0.3 WLM (working level months). From studies of the lung cancer statistics of Norway, this exposure may account for about 10% of the annual lung cancer cases in Norway. The variations in the radon concentration inside dwellings are discussed, and the influence of exhalation, ventilation and meteorological parameters upon the respiratory dosage is studied. From the risk estimates performed, the consequences of an increased indoor radon concentration due to reduced ventilation or introduction of building materials with high radium concentrations are discussed. From comparison of the population doses from different sources of radiation, it is evident that a possible future increase in the radon concentration in dwellings is one of the most serious radiation protection problems of our time. (author)

  8. Adaptive heating, ventilation and solar shading for dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of various strategies for the heating of, and the prevention of overheating in, a Dutch standard dwelling that includes (automated) adaptive ventilation systems and solar shading to maintain indoor temperatures at acceptably comfortable temperatures informs this analysis of the costs,

  9. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  10. Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report gives guidance for reducing the presence of radon in new dwellings and hence reducing the risk to occupants of exposure to radon. This is a follow-up to the interim guidance of 1988. The report provides comprehensive practical details on the methods of protection including both primary and secondary measures. (UK)

  11. Environmental radon dosimetry in Indian dwellings and workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, K. [K.L.Mehta Dayanand College for Women, Dept. of Physics, Haryana (India); Upadhyay, S.B. [B.S.A. College, Dept. of Physics, Mathura, (India)

    2006-07-01

    Measurements of radon and its progeny in the dwellings and environment of workplaces are important because the radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contribute more than 50% of the total dose from natural sources and is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of radon progeny, which are the most important source of irradiation of the human respiratory track in workplace and domestic environment could be a cause of lung cancer. The quantification of iidual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. In the present study, we will report the results of radon monitoring carried out in the environment of workplaces of an oil refinery, LPG bottling plant, thermal power plant and gas power plant, besides the typical and modern Indian dwellings using alpha sensitive L.R.-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors in order to quantify the dose to the workers and the inhabitants. For comparison, the radon and its progeny levels were also measured in dwellings far away from the plants. Radon and its progeny levels were found higher in the environment of workplaces and dwellings in the vicinity of the plants. The details of the results obtained will be reported in the full paper. (authors)

  12. Environmental radon dosimetry in Indian dwellings and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radon and its progeny in the dwellings and environment of workplaces are important because the radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contribute more than 50% of the total dose from natural sources and is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of radon progeny, which are the most important source of irradiation of the human respiratory track in workplace and domestic environment could be a cause of lung cancer. The quantification of individual radon exposure over a long time period is one of the main issues. In the present study, we will report the results of radon monitoring carried out in the environment of workplaces of an oil refinery, LPG bottling plant, thermal power plant and gas power plant, besides the typical and modern Indian dwellings using alpha sensitive L.R.-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors in order to quantify the dose to the workers and the inhabitants. For comparison, the radon and its progeny levels were also measured in dwellings far away from the plants. Radon and its progeny levels were found higher in the environment of workplaces and dwellings in the vicinity of the plants. The details of the results obtained will be reported in the full paper. (authors)

  13. The spectrum of worry in the community-dwelling elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golden, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we examine the prevalence and distribution of worry, its content, and its associations with quality of life and depression, based on a large sample of community-dwelling elderly. We will attempt to distinguish between pathological and non-pathological worry based on these associations.

  14. Long term monitoring of window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: During the first eight months of 2008, measurements of occupant behaviour and eight environmental variables was carried out in 15 dwellings. Logistical regression was applied to infer the probability of open window as a function of the outdoor temperature. The results were compared...

  15. PM2.5 in Dutch dwellings due to cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.; Kemp, R.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking emissions have long been seen as an odour problem. However recent studies showed that Particulate Matter (PM) is the main health risk of indoor air and cooking can be a major source. A small field study within 9 Dutch dwellings indicates that depending on the conditions cooking can have a

  16. Relationships between the forest dwelling people of South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief study was carried out in South-West Mau region of the Mau Forest Complex in March 1993. The primary aim was to assess the importance of the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus (A. Smith, 1827), to the local forest-dwelling people as a source of food and medicine and in their spiritual traditions, while investigating ...

  17. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending 5000...

  18. Establishing the level of exposure to radon gas in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karupa, Jackson Uakaningirua

    2016-04-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia will be estimated using passive or active radon detector. The primary objective of the study is to measure and establish radon levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund of Namibia. Measurements will be carried out for the period of twelve months and after three months period the detectors will be exchanged for laboratory analysis. The results obtained from the study will reveal the concentration of radon in most of the selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia. Once Radon level is measured or identified, the results with data from work done in other environments in Africa and elsewhere will be compared. In case of high radon concentrations in dwelling, the occupants will be advised to ensure good ventilation practices as cost effective means of mitigation of indoor radon gas level in the area. (au)

  19. Meaningful spatial and temporal sequences of activities in dwelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hematalikeikha, M.A.; Coolen, H.C.C.H.; Pourdeihimi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human activities based on human needs are affected by affordances and meanings that occur in the dwelling. Activities over time and space have meaningful sequences. The meaningfulness of activities in the cultural framework is conditioned by its special temporality and spatiality. Also, temporal or

  20. Distribution and status of the desert-dwelling giraffe ( Giraffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population density and distribution of desert dwelling giraffes was estimated in three study areas in the Hoanib River catchment, northwestern Namibia. Giraffe population densities (0.01 giraffe/km2) were equal to the lowest recorded in Africa with population numbers fluctuating over past decades. Sex ratios, herd sizes ...

  1. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  2. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 ...

  3. Dutch guideline for the management of hypertensive crisis -- 2010 revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, B. J. H.; Beutler, J. J.; Gaillard, C. A. J. M.; de Gooijer, A.; van den Meiracker, A. H.; Kroon, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertensive crises are divided into hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. Together they form a heterogeneous group of acute hypertensive disorders depending on the presence or type of target organs involved. Despite better treatment options for hypertension, hypertensive crisis and its associated

  4. Management of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, N A; Beevers, D G; Lip, G Y

    2001-01-01

    Hypertension is an important cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. There are still no definitive guidelines as to when and how patients should be treated, but it is important that appropriate treatment is initiated early in patients at highest risk and they are closely monitored. Hypertension in pregnancy can be a difficult condition to diagnose and treat because of the numerous and differing classification systems that have been used in the past. One classification system, which accounts for the multisystem involvement which can occur in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, divides hypertension in pregnancy into 3 main groups: pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension and chronic hypertension. Little benefit to the fetus has been shown from treating gestational and chronic hypertension, but studies in this area have been small and would not have had the power to show a difference in outcome between treated and untreated groups. However, the reduction in morbidity and mortality in the treatment of pre-eclampsia is significant. Therefore, all pregnancies complicated by hypertension require monitoring to detect the possible onset of superimposed pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Institutions should have a management strategy for those mothers with severe hypertension including a multidisciplinary approach, where the patient is to be monitored and which antihypertensive agents are to be used. It should not be forgotten that the definitive treatment for severe hypertension is delivery of the fetus despite risks to fetal morbidity and mortality. This will reduce blood pressure, but hypertension per se may still persist post partum requiring short term therapy.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of Internet gaming disorder among community dwelling adults in Macao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Chen, Juliet Honglei; Tong, Kwok-Kit; Yu, Shu; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested. Methods A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40.0) was surveyed using a telephone poll design from October to November 2016. Results The estimated prevalence of probable IGD was 2.0% of the overall sample and 4.3% among the recent gamers (n = 473), with no statistically significant sex and age effects observed (p > .05). The two most prevalent IGD symptoms were mood modification and continued engagement, despite negative consequences. Probable IGD respondents were more vulnerable to psychological distress (25.0% and 45.0% for moderate or above levels of depression and anxiety, respectively) than their non-IGD counterparts. They also reported a lower level of psychological resilience than non-IGD respondents. No significant buffering effect of the two character strength variables on the distress-IGD relationship was found. Discussion and conclusions These results provide empirical evidence that IGD is a mental health threat not only to adolescents but also to adults. IGD was significantly associated with psychological distress, which should be addressed in conjunction with IGD symptoms in interventions. Inclusion of gamers of both sexes and different age groups in future prevention programs is also recommended.

  6. Development of a community-based diabetes and hypertension preventive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Abbott, L J

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop rapport with a Chinese Community Association and then establish preventive diabetic and hypertension programs with the Chinese in Chinatown, Hawaii. Subjects were recruited from this Chinese Community Association. Two hundred Chinese responded to the invitation. Among these, 75 individuals had either Type 2 diabetes, hypertension or both. Thirty-six males and 39 females ranging in age from 51 years old to 96 years old (Mean = 71.76, SD = 9.58) participated. Surveys and educational programs were carried out in Chinese. Results were described in terms of quantitative measures (family support and health outcomes) and qualitative experiences (case studies). Eighty percent of participants had decreased their diastolic blood pressure from above 95 mmHg to below 90 mmHg and systolic blood pressure from above 155 mmHg to below 140 mmHg. Ninety-five (n = 71) percent of participants had maintained their glucose level within the 90 mg/dL to 150 mg/dL range with a mean reduction of 57.86 mg/dL in one year. The hardest thing for families was the glucose self-monitoring. Case studies suggested that open-minded active listening and persistence formed the basis for developing a culturally sensitive community-based self management program for chronic diseases. Collaboration among the community, public health nurses, and diabetes nurse educators facilitated the process of community education and health promotion.

  7. Compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Wei; Garmston, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly stringent building energy regulations worldwide, non-compliance exists in practice. This paper examines the profile of compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings. In total 404 new-build dwellings completed in the UK from 2006 to 2009 were investigated. Only a third of these dwellings were evidenced as being compliant with Building Regulations Part L (England and Wales). Such low compliance casts a serious concern over the achievability of the UK Government's target for all new-build homes to be ‘zero carbon’ from 2016. Clearly evidenced was a lack of knowledge of Part L and its compliance requirements among the supply and building control sides of new-build dwellings. The results also indicate that the compliance profile was influenced by factors including Standard Assessment Procedure (UK Government's methodology for energy efficiency) calculation submissions, learning and experience of builders and building controls with Part L, use of Part L1A checklist, the introduction of energy performance certificate (EPC), build method, dwelling type, and project size. Better compliance was associated with flats over houses and timber frame over masonry. The use of EPC and Part L1A checklist should be encouraged. Key to addressing the lack of compliance with building energy regulations is training. -- Highlights: ► There exists a lack of compliance, worldwide, with building energy regulations. ► The implementation of England and Wales building energy regulations is problematic. ► Training, learning and experience of builders and building control are critical. ► Energy performance certificate and Part L 2006 checklist helped achieve compliance. ► Flats achieved better compliance over houses; and timber frame over masonry.

  8. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  9. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade, E-mail: wolney@cardiol.br [Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

  11. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  12. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  13. Physical Activity in Relation to Sleep Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Yang, Binbin; Varrasse, Miranda; Ji, Xiaopeng; Wu, MaoChun; Li, Manman; Li, Kun

    2018-02-27

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe physical activity and sleep in 290 community-dwelling Chinese older adults and to examine the association between physical activity and poor sleep outcomes. Almost half of the sample were poor sleepers. The majority of the sample regularly participated in walking, some household activity and light sports; yet, only a small portion were involved in work-related activity or in strenuous sports. A greater level of overall physical activity [Odds Ratio (OR) =0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.73,0.86)], leisure-time exercise [OR=0.77, 95%CI=(0.68,0.85)], and household activity [OR=0.66, 95%CI= (0.56,0.78)] were associated with reduced likelihood of being poor sleepers and other poor sleep outcomes, independent of covariates including age, sex, education, family income, the number of children, drinking, and sleep hygiene. Future larger scale studies that incorporate both objective and subjective measures are needed to further examine the association and to explore the effects of different types of activity on sleep and other well-beings in older adults.

  14. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D

    2016-03-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. pre-hypertension and hypertension in apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    hypertension among urban adolescents in Calabar, south eastern Nigeria. This was a ... disease later in life but also to significantly increase .... beam balance is not available (Paynter and ..... keeping with work done among Nigerian School.

  16. Ethical Dilemmas when Diagnosing Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A review on the ethical dilemmas in the diagnosis of hypertension and some elements in the emergence of the bioethics concept was performed. Ethical conflicts that appear at each stage of diagnosis of hypertension: at the time of providing the information, at the point of indication and performance of diagnostic tests, when communicating the diagnosis and during subsequent decision making were identified. We conclude that technological development will introduce new ethical decisions in the diagnosis of hypertension that will increasingly involve the interests of society and create, in one way or another, ethical and moral conflict in the decision making process.

  17. [Hypertension in women after menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Michel

    2006-06-01

    Menopause coincides with an increase in the incidence of hypertension in women. A direct role of estrogen deprivation in this increased blood pressure remains a topic of debate. Menopause probably accelerates the arterial changes related to aging. Hormone replacement therapy does not influence blood pressure significantly and is not contraindicated in hypertensive women. The effect of hormone replacement treatment on cardiovascular risk was recently the object of controversy. It does not increase risk except in cases of late treatment in older women who already have atherosclerosis. Hypertension management in women is otherwise similar to management in men.

  18. Hypertension--forekomst og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Jensen, Gorm B

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, less than half of all hypertensives have their blood pressure reduced to relevant goals. The prevalence of hypertension in Denmark was found to be between 26% and 40% of the adult population. Just over...... half were aware of the diagnosis, but less than half were in treatment. Blood pressure control in patients who are undergoing treatment has improved during recent years, but there is still a gap to achievable control rates. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-8...

  19. [The magnetotherapy of hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S G; Smirnov, V V; Solov'eva, F V; Liashevskaia, S P; Selezneva, L Iu

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of the constant MKM2-1 magnets on patients suffering from essential hypertension. Continuous action of the magnetic field, created by such magnets, on the patients with stage II essential hypertension was noted to result in a decrease of arterial pressure without the occurrence of any side effects and in a simultaneous reduction of the scope of drug administration. Apart from that fact, magnetotherapy was discovered to produce a beneficial effect on the central hemodynamics and microcirculation. The use of the MKM2-1 magnets may be regarded as a feasible method of the treatment of essential hypertension patients at any medical institution.

  20. Association between sleep duration and sarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Wang, Haozhong; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Birong; Yang, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Both sleep disorders and sarcopenia are common among older adults. However, little is known about the relationship between these 2 conditions.This study aimed to investigate the possible association between sleep duration and sarcopenia in a population of Chinese community-dwelling older adults.Community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older were recruited. Self-reported sleep duration, anthropometric data, gait speed, and handgrip strength were collected by face-to-face interviews. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS).We included 607 participants aged 70.6 ± 6.6 years (range, 60-90 years) in the analyses. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the whole study population was 18.5%. In women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the short sleep duration group (hours) and long sleep duration group (>8 hours) compared with women in the normal sleep duration group (6-8 hours; 27.5%, 22.2% and 13.9%, respectively; P = .014). Similar results were found in men; however, the differences between groups were not statistically significant (18.5%, 20.6%, and 13.0%, respectively; P = .356). After adjustments for the potential confounding factors, older women having short sleep duration (OR: 4.34; 95% CI: 1.74-10.85) or having long sleep duration (OR: 2.50; 95% CI: 1.05-6.99) had greater risk of sarcopenia compared with women having normal sleep duration. With comparison to men with normal sleep duration, the adjusted OR for sarcopenia was 2.12 (0.96-8.39) in the short sleep duration group and 2.25 (0.88-6.87) in the long sleep duration group, respectively.A U-shape relationship between self-reported sleep duration and sarcopenia was identified in a population of Chinese community-dwelling older adults, especially in women.

  1. Association of angiotensin receptor 2 gene polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng; Yan, Weirong

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the association of polymorphisms and haplotypes of angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2R) gene with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) in Chinese Han women. A case-control study was designed with 446 cases (gestational hypertension, GH: 124; pre-eclampsia, PE + eclampsia, E: 322) and 650 controls. rs5193, rs1403543 and rs12710567 of AT2R gene were genotyped. A logistic regression approach was applied to estimate the relationship between the polymorphisms and haplotypes of AT2Rgene with PIH risk. No relationship between AT2R gene polymorphisms and PIH was detected. The haplotype analysis also showed a negative result. rs5193, rs1403543 and rs12710567 of AT2R gene might have no effect on PIH risk among Chinese Han women.

  2. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  3. [Diagnostic of secondary hypertension in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlóová, Z; Rosa, J; Petrák, O; Strauch, B; Zelinka, T; Holaj, R; Widimský, J

    2011-09-01

    Arterial hypertension is a common worldwide disease with a prevalence of approximately 26%. Secondary cause is known in 5-10% of patients with hypertension. We should think of secondary hypertension in all patients with resistant hypertension, in patients with sudden deterioration in the control of hypertension and in patients with laboratory and clinical signs of diseases associated with secondary hypertension. It is important to distinguish between secondary hypertension and pseudo-resistance (noncompliance to treatment, white coat syndrome). Secondary causes of hypertension can be divided into endocrine (primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, hypercortisolism, hyperparathyreoidism), renal - renovascular and renal parenchymal hypertension, and other causes as sleep apnoe syndrome, hypertension in pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta and intracranial tumors.

  4. 25 CFR 256.11 - What are the occupancy and square footage standards for a dwelling provided with Category C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dwelling provided with Category C assistance? 256.11 Section 256.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... footage standards for a dwelling provided with Category C assistance? A modest dwelling provided with... bedrooms Total dwelling square footage 1 (maximum) 1-3 2 2 900 4-6 2 3 1050 7 or more 2 4 31350 1 Total...

  5. 25 CFR 256.16 - Who is responsible for identifying what work will be done on my dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on my dwelling? 256.16 Section 256.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... my dwelling? The servicing housing office is responsible for identifying what work is to be done on your dwelling or whether your dwelling will be replaced. This includes responsibility to communicate...

  6. Triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index as a predictor of incident hypertension: a 9-year longitudinal population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Mao, Yushan

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension and the triglyceride and glucose index both have been associated with insulin resistance; however, the longitudinal association remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the longitudinal association between the triglyceride and glucose index and incident hypertension among the Chinese population. Methods We studied 4686 subjects (3177 males and 1509 females) and followed up for 9?years. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the triglyceride ...

  7. Definition and classification of hypertension: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Thomas D; Materson, Barry J; Cohn, Jay N; Kostis, John B

    2009-11-01

    Since the publication of a paper by the American Society of Hypertension, Inc. Writing Group in 2003, some refinements have occurred in the definition of hypertension. Blood pressure is now recognized as a biomarker for hypertension, and a distinction is made between the various stages of hypertension and global cardiovascular risk. This paper discusses the logic underlying the refinements in the definition of hypertension. 2009 Wiley Periodical, Inc.

  8. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Catherine Ann

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  9. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  10. Intracranial Hypertension: Medication and Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fallen out of favor, unless there is a secondary inflammatory process caused by an underlying disease like ... have little effect on headaches caused by intracranial hypertension, they may temporarily affect the intensity of a ...

  11. Hypertension presenting early in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, Audrey; Kinsley, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Paraganglioma in pregnancy is an exceedingly rare and potentially life?threatening diagnosis. It is important that the clinicians consider secondary causes when women present with hypertension in early pregnancy.

  12. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube About PHA Contact Join Careers Store My Account Donate Patients About PH Diagnosis Treatments Newly ... areas © 2017 Pulmonary Hypertension Association. All Rights Reserved. Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube

  13. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy !

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy ! Liver Disease > Heart. No good non-invasive method. Repeated measurements problematic. Drug efficacy 50% at best. No predictors of response. We Need YOU !!

  14. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression, quality of life (QoL) and will to live of community-dwelling postmenopausal women in three Asian countries: Korea, China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Nomura, Hideki; Ishitsuka, Asako; Hirai, Hisako; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of screening-detected depression and the association of depression with QoL in community-dwelling postmenopausal women living in three Asian countries. We examined self-reported questionnaires and conducted the study. A total of 698 community-dwelling postmenopausal women living in three Asian countries participated in this study. The mean age was 59.4±6.6 years (±SD) Depressive symptoms were assessed using a 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15). Using the cut-off of 5/6 for the GDS-15, the percentages of subjects with depression were 39.0% of the Korean subjects, 29.2% of the Chinese subjects, and 33.9% of the Japanese subjects. For the assessment of QoL, we used the EQ-5D of the EuroQoL Group. The following five dimensions were assessed: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. The proportions of subjects reporting problems for each dimension were examined. Subjects with depression had significantly lower levels of some dimensions of QoL than those without depression in all three countries. In all three countries, 29.2-39.0% of community-dwelling postmenopausal women had screening-detected depression, which was significantly associated with a lower level of some dimensions of QoL. These results suggest that clinicians should pay more attention to depression in community-dwelling postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. What is hypertension in diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K W; Poulsen, P L; Ebbehøj, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To establish reference data for ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) in normotensive, normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients and characterize the relation to clinic blood pressure (BP). To evaluate the statement of the third working party of the British Hypertension Society (BHS) that a target...... clinic BP in diabetes diabetic patients, who had never received anti-hypertensive drugs. Clinic BP was determined as the mean of at least three auscultatory...

  17. Radiological imaging in endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan J Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension.

  18. A focus on paediatric hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension can begin early in childhood, as occasional increases in blood pressure or abnormal blood pressure responses to physical or emotional stress. High blood pressure in juvenile age is defined as a blood pressure repeatedly above the 95th percentile of specific nomograms. Its worldwide prevalence ranges from 1% to about 10%. The purpose of this paper is to perform an overview about characteristics, diagnosis, risk factors, therapy, and prognosis of paediatric hypertension.

  19. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  20. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)