WorldWideScience

Sample records for duty road vehicles

  1. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    An increasing need for goods and passenger transportation drives continued worldwide growth in traffic. As traffic increases environmental concerns, traffic safety, and cost efficiency become ever more important. Advancements in microelectronics open the possibility to address these issues through new advanced driver assistance systems. Applications such as predictive cruise control, automated gearbox control, predictive front lighting control, and hybrid vehicle state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety. These control systems can benefit significantly from preview road grade information. This information is currently obtained using specialized survey vehicles, and is not widely available. This thesis proposes new methods to obtain road grade information using on-board sensors. The task of creating road grade maps is addressed by the proposal of a framework where vehicles using a road network collect the necessary data for estimating the road grade. The estimation can then be carried out locally in the vehicle, or in the presence of a communication link to the infrastructure, centrally. In either case the accuracy of the map increases over time, and costly road surveys can be avoided. This thesis presents a new distributed method for creating accurate road grade maps for vehicle control applications. Standard heavy duty vehicles in normal operation are used to collect measurements. Estimates from multiple passes along a road segment are merged to form a road grade map, which improves each time a vehicle retraces a route. The design and implementation of the road grade estimator are described, and the performance is experimentally evaluated using real vehicles. Three different grade estimation methods, based on different assumption on the road grade signal, are proposed and compared. They all use data from sensors that are standard equipment in heavy duty vehicles. Measurements of the vehicle speed and the engine

  2. On-road emissions of light-duty vehicles in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Bonnel, Pierre; Hummel, Rudolf; Provenza, Alessio; Manfredi, Urbano

    2011-10-01

    For obtaining type approval in the European Union, light-duty vehicles have to comply with emission limits during standardized laboratory emissions testing. Although emission limits have become more stringent in past decades, light-duty vehicles remain an important source of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in Europe. Furthermore, persisting air quality problems in many urban areas suggest that laboratory emissions testing may not accurately capture the on-road emissions of light-duty vehicles. To address this issue, we conduct the first comprehensive on-road emissions test of light-duty vehicles with state-of-the-art Portable Emission Measurement Systems. We find that nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline vehicles as well as carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbon emissions of both diesel and gasoline vehicles generally remain below the respective emission limits. By contrast, nitrogen oxides emissions of diesel vehicles (0.93 ± 0.39 grams per kilometer [g/km]), including modern Euro 5 diesel vehicles (0.62 ± 0.19 g/km), exceed emission limits by 320 ± 90%. On-road carbon dioxide emissions surpass laboratory emission levels by 21 ± 9%, suggesting that the current laboratory emissions testing fails to accurately capture the on-road emissions of light-duty vehicles. Our findings provide the empirical foundation for the European Commission to establish a complementary emissions test procedure for light-duty vehicles. This procedure could be implemented together with more stringent Euro 6 emission limits in 2014. The envisaged measures should improve urban air quality and provide incentive for innovation in the automotive industry.

  3. On-road emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Jing, Qiguo; Wang, Haikun; Pan, Hansheng; Li, Li; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Huang, Haiying; Schipper, Lee; Streets, David G.

    On-road vehicle tests of nine heavy-duty diesel trucks were conducted using SEMTECH-D, an emissions measuring instrument provided by Sensors, Inc. The total length of roads for the tests was 186 km. Data were obtained for 37,255 effective driving cycles, including 17,216 on arterial roads, 15,444 on residential roads, and 4595 on highways. The impacts of speed and acceleration on fuel consumption and emissions were analyzed. Results show that trucks spend an average of 16.5% of the time in idling mode, 25.5% in acceleration mode, 27.9% in deceleration mode, and only 30.0% at cruise speed. The average emission factors of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), and NO x for the selected vehicles are (4.96±2.90), (1.88±1.03) and (6.54±1.90) g km -1, respectively. The vehicle emission rates vary significantly with factors like speed and acceleration. The test results reflect the actual traffic situation and the current emission status of diesel trucks in Shanghai. The measurements show that low-speed conditions with frequent acceleration and deceleration, particularly in congestion conditions, are the main factors that aggravate vehicle emissions and cause high emissions of CO and THC. Alleviating congestion would significantly improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce CO and THC emissions.

  4. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandip D.; Johnson, Kent C.; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    Emissions from heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles are affected by many factors. Changes in engine technology, operating mode, fuel properties, vehicle speed and ambient conditions can have significant effects on emission rates of regulated species. This paper presents the results of on-road emissions testing of 11 HDD vehicles (model years 1996-2000) over the ARB Four Phase driving schedule and the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS). Emission rates were found to be highly dependent on vehicle operating mode. Per mile NO x emission rates for vehicle operation at low speeds, in simulated congested traffic, were three times higher per mile emissions then while cruising on the freeway. Comparisons of NO x emission factors to EMFAC baseline emission factors were within 5-40% for vehicles of various model years tested over the UDDS. A comparison of NO x emission factors for a weighted average of the ARB four phase driving schedule yielded values within 17-57% of EMFAC values. Generally, particulate matter (PM) emission rates were lower than EMFAC values.

  5. Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch

    2018-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM), and in particular ultrafine particles, have a negative impact on human health. The contribution of vehicle PM emissions to air pollution is typically quantified with emission inventories, which need vehicle emission factors as input. Heavy-duty vehicles, although they represent a small percentage of the vehicle population in nearly every major country, contribute the majority of the on-road PM emissions. However, the published data of modern heavy-duty vehicle emissions are scarce, and for the newest Euro VI technologies, almost non-existent. The main objective of this paper is to present Solid Particle Number (SPN) emission factors from Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles using diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Urban, rural and motorway (highway) emissions were determined on the road at various European cities using SPN Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS). Additional tests on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer showed that the solid sub-23 nm fraction, which is not covered at the moment in the European regulation, is high, especially for CNG engines. The significant contribution of regeneration events and the effect of ambient temperature and engine cold-start on particle emissions were also discussed. PMID:29425174

  6. Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch Giechaskiel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM, and in particular ultrafine particles, have a negative impact on human health. The contribution of vehicle PM emissions to air pollution is typically quantified with emission inventories, which need vehicle emission factors as input. Heavy-duty vehicles, although they represent a small percentage of the vehicle population in nearly every major country, contribute the majority of the on-road PM emissions. However, the published data of modern heavy-duty vehicle emissions are scarce, and for the newest Euro VI technologies, almost non-existent. The main objective of this paper is to present Solid Particle Number (SPN emission factors from Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles using diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG, or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG. Urban, rural and motorway (highway emissions were determined on the road at various European cities using SPN Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Additional tests on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer showed that the solid sub-23 nm fraction, which is not covered at the moment in the European regulation, is high, especially for CNG engines. The significant contribution of regeneration events and the effect of ambient temperature and engine cold-start on particle emissions were also discussed.

  7. Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch

    2018-02-09

    Particulate matter (PM), and in particular ultrafine particles, have a negative impact on human health. The contribution of vehicle PM emissions to air pollution is typically quantified with emission inventories, which need vehicle emission factors as input. Heavy-duty vehicles, although they represent a small percentage of the vehicle population in nearly every major country, contribute the majority of the on-road PM emissions. However, the published data of modern heavy-duty vehicle emissions are scarce, and for the newest Euro VI technologies, almost non-existent. The main objective of this paper is to present Solid Particle Number (SPN) emission factors from Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles using diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Urban, rural and motorway (highway) emissions were determined on the road at various European cities using SPN Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS). Additional tests on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer showed that the solid sub-23 nm fraction, which is not covered at the moment in the European regulation, is high, especially for CNG engines. The significant contribution of regeneration events and the effect of ambient temperature and engine cold-start on particle emissions were also discussed.

  8. Real-world exhaust temperature profiles of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriboonsomsin, Kanok; Durbin, Thomas; Scora, George; Johnson, Kent; Sandez, Daniel; Vu, Alexander; Jiang, Yu; Burnette, Andrew; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Dai, Zhen; Fulper, Carl; Kishan, Sandeep; Sabisch, Michael; Jackson, Doug

    2018-09-01

    On-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a major contributor of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emissions. In the US, many heavy-duty diesel vehicles employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to meet the 2010 emission standard for NO x . Typically, SCR needs to be at least 200°C before a significant level of NO x reduction is achieved. However, this SCR temperature requirement may not be met under some real-world operating conditions, such as during cold starts, long idling, or low speed/low engine load driving activities. The frequency of vehicle operation with low SCR temperature varies partly by the vehicle's vocational use. In this study, detailed vehicle and engine activity data were collected from 90 heavy-duty vehicles involved in a range of vocations, including line haul, drayage, construction, agricultural, food distribution, beverage distribution, refuse, public work, and utility repair. The data were used to create real-world SCR temperature and engine load profiles and identify the fraction of vehicle operating time that SCR may not be as effective for NO x control. It is found that the vehicles participated in this study operate with SCR temperature lower than 200°C for 11-70% of the time depending on their vocation type. This implies that real-world NO x control efficiency could deviate from the control efficiency observed during engine certification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Total Particle Number Emissions from Modern Diesel, Natural Gas, and Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicles During On-Road Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Quiros, David C; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Pradhan, Saroj; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-06-20

    Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study. Fuel-based PNEFs were consistent with previous studies measuring plume exhaust in the ambient air. Meanwhile, on-road PNEF shows route and technology dependence. For vehicles with OEM DPFs and Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, PNEFs under highway driving (i.e., 3.34 × 10 12 to 2.29 × 10 13 particles/mile) were larger than those measured on urban and drayage routes (i.e., 5.06 × 10 11 to 1.31 × 10 13 particles/mile). This is likely because a significant amount of nucleation mode volatile particles were formed when the DPF outlet temperature reached a critical value, usually over 310 °C, which was commonly achieved when vehicle speed sustained over 45 mph. A model year 2013 diesel HDV produced approximately 10 times higher PNEFs during DPF active regeneration events than nonactive regeneration.

  10. On-road assessment of light duty vehicles in Delhi city: Emission factors of CO, CO2 and NOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash; Habib, Gazala

    2018-02-01

    This study presents the technology based emission factors of gaseous pollutants (CO, CO2, and NOX) measured during on-road operation of nine passenger cars of diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas (CNG). The emissions from two 3-wheelers, and three 2-wheelers were measured by putting the vehicles on jacks and operating them according to Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) at no load condition. The emission factors observed in the present work were significantly higher than values reported from dynamometer study by Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI). Low CO (0.34 ± 0.08 g km-1) and high NOX (1.0 ± 0.4 g km-1) emission factors were observed for diesel passenger cars, oppositely high CO (2.2 ± 2.6 g km-1) and low NOX (1.0 ± 1.6 g km-1) emission factors were seen for gasoline powered cars. The after-treatment technology in diesel vehicles was effective in CO reduction. While the use of turbocharger in diesel vehicles to generate high combustion temperature and pressure produces more NOx, probably which may not be effectively controlled by after-treatment device. The after-treatment devices in gasoline powered Post-2010, Post-2005 vehicles can be acclaimed for reduced CO emissions compared to Post-2000 vehicles. This work presents a limited data set of emission factors from on-road operations of light duty vehicles, this limitation can be improved by further measurements of emissions from similar vehicles.

  11. Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Image of a semi improving the thermal efficiency of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) while maintaining the thermal comfort that utility vehicles, vans, and light trucks in use on U.S. roads, and the average American drives 11,300

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Vehicle modeling and duty cycle analysis to validate technology feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, S. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The National Centre for Advanced Transportation (CNTA) is a non-profit organization with a board consisting of representatives from the transportation industry, public service and public transit organizations, research and teaching institutions, and from municipal and economic development organizations. The objectives of the CNTA are to accelerate the introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles; act as a catalyst in projects; assist in increasing Canadian technology assets; initiate and support electric vehicle conversion projects; increase Canadian business for electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and plug-in electric vehicles; and provide a cost-effective solution and aggressive payback for road/off-road vehicles. This presentation provided an overview of the objectives and services of the CNTA. It discussed various road and off-road vehicles, duty cycle and technology of electric vehicles. Specific topics related to the technology were discussed, including configuration; controls and interface; efficiency maps; models and simulation; validation; and support. figs.

  14. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  15. The hybrid electric vehicle revolution, off road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.E. [ePower Technologies (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation the author presents concepts and details of hybrid vehicles in general, including their benefits, then describes off-road hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have been experimented with for over a century. Demonstrator vehicles include a diesel-electric tractor, an electric lawn tractor, a hybrid snow thrower, and a hybrid wheel loader. A duty cycle for the loader is shown with battery-assisted acceleration, and regenerative braking. Both of these keep the size of the engine small, the loads on it less variable, thus improving fuel economy. A hybrid excavator and its duty cycle is shown. A fuel cell lift truck that is currently in design is illustrated. The author then describes the possibilities of the hydrogen economy where sourcing and infrastructure are yet to be demonstrated on a commercial scale. The author predicts that off-road hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be commercially viable five years before on-road applications. The author predicts hydrogen sourced from biogas, photovoltaics, and wind power. tabs, figs.

  16. Driving behaviors and on-duty road accidents: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Emmanuel; Chiron, Mireille; Davezies, Philippe; Bergeret, Alain; Charbotel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out to identify driving behaviors associated with the risk of on-duty road accident and to compare driving behaviors according to the type of journey (on duty, commuting, and private) for on-duty road accident victims. Cases were recruited from the Rhône Road Trauma Registry between January 2004 and October 2005 and were on duty at the time of the accident. Control subjects were recruited from the electoral rolls of the case subjects' constituencies of residence. Cases' and controls' driving behavior data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression was performed to identify behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents, taking into account age, sex, place of residence, road accident risk exposure, socio-occupational category, and type of road user. A second analysis focused specifically on the case subjects, comparing their self-assessed usual behaviors according to the type of journey. Significant factors for multivariate analysis of on-duty road accidents were female gender, history of on-duty road accidents during the previous 10 years, severe time pressure at work, and driving a vehicle not belonging to the driver. On-duty road accident victims reported behavioral risk factors more frequently in relation to driving for work than driving for private reasons or commuting: nonsystematic seat belt use, cell phone use at least once daily while driving, and history of accidents with injury during the previous 10 years. This study provides knowledge on behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents and differences in behavior according to the type of journey for subjects who have been on-duty road accident victims. These results will be useful for the design of on-duty road risk prevention.

  17. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  18. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  19. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO x ) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO x emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO x emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO x value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO x values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO x values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs

  20. Tailpipe, resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Gillies, John A.; Gertler, Alan W.; Clayton, Russ; Proffitt, David

    Intensive mass and chemical measurements were performed at roadside locations in Reno, Nevada, and Durham/Research Triangle Park), North Carolina to derive tailpipe, resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from in-use vehicles. Continuous particulate matter (PM) data were utilized to derive total emission factors while integrated PM data were used to attribute the calculated emission factors to different mechanisms using chemical mass balance receptor modeling and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Resuspended road dust and tailpipe emissions were found to be the dominant mechanisms that contribute significantly to the total PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors, respectively. Small contributions from brake-wear were observed at locations where strong braking occurs, but no tire-wear was seen at any sampling location. PM 10 emission rates from light-duty spark ignition (LDSI) vehicles ranged from 40 to 780 mg/km, 10 to 70 mg/km, and 0 to 80 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 10 emission rates from heavy-duty vehicles ranged from 230 to 7800 mg/km, 60 to 570 mg/km, and 0 to 610 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 2.5 emission rates from LDSI vehicles ranged from 2 to 25 mg/km, 10 to 50 mg/km, and 0 to 5 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 2.5 emission rates from heavy-duty vehicles ranged from 15 to 300 mg/km, 60 to 480 mg/km, and 0 to 15 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively.

  1. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Heavy-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Infrared image of a control materials and equipment on heavy-duty vehicles. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL Illustration of a Ray David, NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers are assisting heavy-duty

  2. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  3. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  4. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  5. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  6. NOx, NH3, N2O and PN real driving emissions from a Euro VI heavy-duty vehicle. Impact of regulatory on-road test conditions on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Villafuerte, Pablo; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Riccobono, Francesco; Bulgheroni, Claudia; Astorga, Covadonga; Perujo, Adolfo

    2017-12-31

    Euro VI emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) introduced for the first time limits for solid particle number (PN) and NH 3 emissions. EU regulation also includes a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) based test at type approval, followed by in-service conformity (ISC) testing. A comprehensive study on the real-time on-road emissions of NO x , NH 3 , N 2 O and PN from a Euro VI HDV equipped with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particle Filter (DPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and an Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX) is presented. Our analyses revealed that up to 85% of the NO x emissions measured during the tests performed are not taken into consideration if the boundary conditions for data exclusion set in the current legislation are applied. Moreover, it was found that the highest NO x emissions were measured during urban operation. Analyses show that a large fraction urban of operation is not considered when 20% power threshold as boundary condition is applied. They also show that cold start emissions account for a large fraction of the total NO x emitted. Low emissions of PN (2.8×10 10 to 6.5×10 10 #/kWh) and NH 3 (1.0 to 2.2ppm) were obtained during the on-road tests, suggesting effectiveness of the vehicle's after-treatment (DPF and AMOX). Finally, a comparison between speed-based (as currently defined by Euro VI legislation) and land-use-based (using Geographic Information System (GIS)) calculation of shares of operation was performed. Results suggest that using GIS to categorize the shares of operation could result in different interpretations depending on the criteria adopted for their definition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On-road heavy-duty diesel particulate matter emissions modeled using chassis dynamometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Tom; Niemeier, D A

    2006-12-15

    This study presents a model, derived from chassis dynamometer test data, for factors (operational correction factors, or OCFs) that correct (g/mi) heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates measured on standard test cycles for real-world conditions. Using a random effects mixed regression model with data from 531 tests of 34 heavy-duty vehicles from the Coordinating Research Council's E55/E59 research project, we specify a model with covariates that characterize high power transient driving, time spent idling, and average speed. Gram per mile particle emissions rates were negatively correlated with high power transient driving, average speed, and time idling. The new model is capable of predicting relative changes in g/mi on-road heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates for real-world driving conditions that are not reflected in the driving cycles used to test heavy-duty vehicles.

  8. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  9. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Robin J. D. [Smith Electric Vehicles Corporation, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  10. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles dominate vehicle emissions in a tunnel study in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Congbo; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Yanjie; Wang, Ting; Wu, Lin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Yan; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jinsheng; Dai, Qili; Zou, Chao; Sun, Luna; Mao, Hongjun

    2018-05-09

    The relative importance of contributions of gasoline vehicles (GVs) and diesel vehicles (DVs), heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and non-HDDVs to on-road vehicle emissions remains unclear. Vehicle emission factors (EFs), including fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), NO-NO 2 -NO x , and carbon monoxide (CO), were measured (August 4-18, 2017) in an urban tunnel in Tianjin, northern China. The average EFs (mg km -1 veh -1 ) of the fleet were as follows: 9.21 (95% confidence interval: 1.60, 23.07) for PM 2.5 , 62.08 (21.21, 138.25) for NO, 20.42 (0.79, 45.48) for NO 2 , 83.72 (26.29, 162.87) for NO x , and 284.54 (18.22, 564.67) for CO. The fleet-average EFs exhibited diurnal variations, due to diurnal variations in the proportion of HDDVs in the fleet, though the hourly proportion of HDDVs never exceeded 10% during the study period. The reconstructed average EFs for on-road vehicle emissions of PM 2.5 , NO, NO 2 , and NO x , and CO were approximately 2.2, 1.7, 1.5, 2.0, and 1.6 times as much as those in the tunnel, respectively, due to the higher HDDV fractions in the whole city than those in the tunnel. The EFs of PM 2.5 , NO, NO 2 , and NO x , and CO from each HDDV were approximately 75, 81, 24, 65, and 33 times of those from each non-HDDV, respectively. HDDVs were responsible for approximately 81.92%, 83.02%, 59.79%, 79.79%, and 66.77% of the total PM 2.5 , NO, NO 2 , and NO x , and CO emissions from on-road vehicles in Tianjin, respectively. DVs, especially HDDVs, are major sources of on-road PM 2.5 , NO-NO 2 -NO x , and CO emissions in northern China. The contribution of HDDVs to fleet emissions calculated by the EFs from Chinese 'on-road vehicle emission inventory guidebook' were underestimated, as compared to our results. The EFs from on-road vehicles should be updated due to the rapid progression of vehicle technology combined with emission standards in China. The management and control of HDDV emissions have become urgent to reduction of on-road vehicle

  11. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  12. Vehicle speed control using road bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. O. Salau

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Road bumps play a crucial role in enforcing speed limits, thereby preventing overspeeding of vehicles. It significantly contributes to the overall road safety objective through the prevention of accidents that lead to deaths of pedestrians and damage of vehicles. Despite the importance of road bumps, very little research has been done to investigate into their design. While documentation exists on quantitative descriptions of road bumps, they offer little guidance to decision making. This work presents a unique approach to solving road bumps design problems. The results of our study reveal three important road bumps variables that influence the control of vehicle speeds. The key variables are bump height, bump width, and effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. Since vehicle speed control is the ultimate aim of this study the relationship between vehicle speed and other variables earlier mentioned is established. Vehicle speed is defined as the product of frequency at which a vehicle is moving over road bumps and the sum of effective distance between two consecutive road bumps. In the determination of bump height we assume a conical shaped curve for analysis as a matter of research strategy. Based on this, two stages of motion were analysed. The first concerns the motion over the bump itself while the second relates to the motion between two consecutive road bumps. Fourier series was then used to formulate a holistic equation that combines these two stages. We used trigonometric functions to model the behaviour of the first stage while with the second stage giving a functional value of zero since no changes in height are observed. We carried out vibration analysis to determine the effect of road bumps on a vehicular system. Arising from this a model component is referred to as an isolation factor. This offers guidance to the safe frequency at which vehicles could travel over road bumps. The work appears to contribute to knowledge

  13. Light-Duty Vehicle CO2 and Fuel Economy Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides data on the fuel economy, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and technology trends of new light-duty vehicles (cars, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and pickup trucks) for model years 1975 to present in the United States.

  14. A General Overview of Electric Road Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamblin, Veronique

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue with two articles: the first of these by Pierre Bonnaure, above, assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process; this second article by Veronique Lamblin offers a general over - view of electric road vehicles (passenger cars, heavy good vehicles, bicycles etc.) throughout the world. (author)

  15. Effects of improved spatial and temporal modeling of on-road vehicle emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhjem, Christian E; Pollack, Alison K; DenBleyker, Allison; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2012-04-01

    Numerous emission and air quality modeling studies have suggested the need to accurately characterize the spatial and temporal variations in on-road vehicle emissions. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact that using detailed traffic activity data has on emission estimates used to model air quality impacts. The on-road vehicle emissions are estimated by multiplying the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by the fleet-average emission factors determined by road link and hour of day. Changes in the fraction of VMT from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) can have a significant impact on estimated fleet-average emissions because the emission factors for HDDV nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are much higher than those for light-duty gas vehicles (LDGVs). Through detailed road link-level on-road vehicle emission modeling, this work investigated two scenarios for better characterizing mobile source emissions: (1) improved spatial and temporal variation of vehicle type fractions, and (2) use of Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES2010) instead of MOBILE6 exhaust emission factors. Emissions were estimated for the Detroit and Atlanta metropolitan areas for summer and winter episodes. The VMT mix scenario demonstrated the importance of better characterizing HDDV activity by time of day, day of week, and road type. More HDDV activity occurs on restricted access road types on weekdays and at nonpeak times, compared to light-duty vehicles, resulting in 5-15% higher NOx and PM emission rates during the weekdays and 15-40% lower rates on weekend days. Use of MOVES2010 exhaust emission factors resulted in increases of more than 50% in NOx and PM for both HDDVs and LDGVs, relative to MOBILE6. Because LDGV PM emissions have been shown to increase with lower temperatures, the most dramatic increase from MOBILE6 to MOVES2010 emission rates occurred for PM2.5 from LDGVs that increased 500% during colder wintertime conditions found in Detroit, the northernmost

  16. Multi-Year On-Road Emission Factor Trends of Two Heavy-Duty California Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, M.; Bishop, G.

    2017-12-01

    New heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations have resulted in the development of advanced exhaust after-treatment systems that specifically target particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). This has resulted in significant decreases in the emissions of these species. The University of Denver has collected three data sets of on-road gaseous (CO, HC, NO and NOx) and PM (particle mass, black carbon and particle number) emission measurements from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the spring of 2013, 2015 and 2017 at two different locations in California. One site is located at the Port of Los Angeles, CA (1,150 HDVs measured in 2017) and the other site is located at a weigh station in Northern California near Cottonwood, CA (780 HDVs measured in 2017). The On-Road Heavy-Duty Measurement Setup measures individual HDV's fuel specific emissions (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06172). Vehicles drive under a tent-like structure that encapsulates vehicle exhaust and 15 seconds of data collection is integrated to give fuel specific information. The measurements obtained from these campaigns contain real-world emissions affected by different driving modes, after-treatment systems and location. The Port of Los Angeles contributes a fleet that is fully equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the San Pedro Ports Clean Air Action Plan enforced since 2010 that allows only vehicles model year 2007 or newer on the premises. This fleet, although comprised with relatively new HDVs with lower PM emissions, has increased PM emissions as it has aged. Cottonwood's fleet contains vehicles with and without after-treatment systems, a result of a gradual turnover rate, and fleet PM has decreased at a slower rate than at the Port of Los Angeles. The decrease in PM emissions is a result of more HDVs being newer model years as well as older model years being retrofit with DPFs. The complimentary fleets, studied over multiple years, have given the University of Denver

  17. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems ... in detail and recommendations for the choice of the design parameters are given. 2. ..... where q˙ζ denotes the noise intensity of ˙ζ(t) and δ(τ) is the Dirac distribution. Assuming.

  18. 2nd Road Vehicle Automation Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...

  19. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  20. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by State...

  1. [Dynamic road vehicle emission inventory simulation study based on real time traffic information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Juan; Chen, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Deng-Guo; Zhu, Jing-Yu; Huang, Wei-Ming; Chao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    The vehicle activity survey, including traffic flow distribution, driving condition, and vehicle technologies, were conducted in Shanghai. The databases of vehicle flow, VSP distribution and vehicle categories were established according to the surveyed data. Based on this, a dynamic vehicle emission inventory simulation method was designed by using the real time traffic information data, such as traffic flow and average speed. Some roads in Shanghai city were selected to conduct the hourly vehicle emission simulation as a case study. The survey results show that light duty passenger car and taxi are major vehicles on the roads of Shanghai city, accounting for 48% - 72% and 15% - 43% of the total flow in each hour, respectively. VSP distribution has a good relationship with the average speed. The peak of VSP distribution tends to move to high load section and become lower with the increase of average speed. Vehicles achieved Euro 2 and Euro 3 standards are majorities of current vehicle population in Shanghai. Based on the calibration of vehicle travel mileage data, the proportions of Euro 2 and Euro 3 standard vehicles take up 11% - 70% and 17% - 51% in the real-world situation, respectively. The emission simulation results indicate that the ratios of emission peak and valley for the pollutants of CO, VOC, NO(x) and PM are 3.7, 4.6, 9.6 and 19.8, respectively. CO and VOC emissions mainly come from light-duty passenger car and taxi, which has a good relationship with the traffic flow. NO(x) and PM emissions are mainly from heavy-duty bus and public buses and mainly concentrate in the morning and evening peak hours. The established dynamic vehicle emission simulation method can reflect the change of actual road emission and output high emission road sectors and hours in real time. The method can provide an important technical means and decision-making basis for transportation environment management.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  3. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  4. Experimental Verification of Discretely Variable Compression Braking Control for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Vahidi, Ardalan; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Farias, Phil; Tsao, Tsu Chin

    2003-01-01

    In this report a recursive least square scheme with multiple forgetting factors is proposed for on-line estimation of road grade and vehicle mass. The estimated mass and grade can be used to robustify many automatic controllers in conventional or automated heavy-duty vehicles. We demonstrate with measured test data from the July 26-27, 2002 test dates in San Diego, CA, that the proposed scheme estimates mass within 5% of its actual value and tracks grade with good accuracy. The experimental s...

  5. Improving Drive Files for Vehicle Road Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, John G.; Goktan, Ali; French, Mark; Gu, Yi; Jacob, Anil

    2001-09-01

    Shaker tables are commonly used in laboratories for automotive vehicle component testing to study durability and acoustics performance. An example is development testing of car seats. However, it is difficult to repeat the measured road data perfectly with the response of a shaker table as there are basic differences in dynamic characteristics between a flexible vehicle and substantially rigid shaker table. In addition, there are performance limits in the shaker table drive systems that can limit correlation. In practice, an optimal drive signal for the actuators is created iteratively. During each iteration, the error between the road data and the response data is minimised by an optimising algorithm which is generally a part of the feed back loop of the shake table controller. This study presents a systematic investigation to the errors in time and frequency domains as well as joint time-frequency domain and an evaluation of different digital signal processing techniques that have been used in previous work. In addition, we present an innovative approach that integrates the dynamic characteristics of car seats and the human body into the error-minimising iteration process. We found that the iteration process can be shortened and the error reduced by using a weighting function created by normalising the frequency response function of the car seat. Two road data test sets were used in the study.

  6. CFD analysis for road vehicles - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mihai NEGRUS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study on the influence of the lower part of road vehicles on the global drag characteristics. Reducing overall drag by redesigning the lower part of the road vehicles has a potential of almost 20% in the overall drag breakdown, mainly due to the viscous effects and the fluidic interaction of the flow under the car with the typical bluff body flow pattern behind the vehicle. A special parameterization is proposed for the global shape of the sedan car, with respect to the lower part of the body, taking into account most of the specificities of the system. For such a complex interaction, CFD analysis is probably the only efficient tool in order to assess specific design parameterization of a generic car shape. Building on the credibility of such instruments is one of the major goals of this paper. Also, with respect to a target sedan car configuration, examples of successful design strategies are presented. Based on the CFD results, possible strategies to be used in order to reduce viscous drag and global drag characteristics are proposed.

  7. ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Ward, J.

    2015-05-04

    The Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method estimate sales. Specifically, it estimates sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced. The sales feed into the ADOPT stock model. It captures key aspects for summing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions This includes capturing the change in vehicle miles traveled by vehicle age, the creation of new model options based on the success of existing vehicles, new vehicle option introduction rate limits, and survival rates by vehicle age. ADOPT has been extensively validated with historical sales data. It matches in key dimensions including sales by fuel economy, acceleration, price, vehicle size class, and powertrain across multiple years. A graphical user interface provides easy and efficient use. It manages the inputs, simulation, and results.

  8. Regional on-road vehicle running emissions modeling and evaluation for conventional and alternative vehicle technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhai, Haibo; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2009-11-01

    This study presents a methodology for estimating high-resolution, regional on-road vehicle emissions and the associated reductions in air pollutant emissions from vehicles that utilize alternative fuels or propulsion technologies. The fuels considered are gasoline, diesel, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, and electricity. The technologies considered are internal combustion or compression engines, hybrids, fuel cell, and electric. Road link-based emission models are developed using modal fuel use and emission rates applied to facility- and speed-specific driving cycles. For an urban case study, passenger cars were found to be the largest sources of HC, CO, and CO(2) emissions, whereas trucks contributed the largest share of NO(x) emissions. When alternative fuel and propulsion technologies were introduced in the fleet at a modest market penetration level of 27%, their emission reductions were found to be 3-14%. Emissions for all pollutants generally decreased with an increase in the market share of alternative vehicle technologies. Turnover of the light duty fleet to newer Tier 2 vehicles reduced emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) substantially. However, modest improvements in fuel economy may be offset by VMT growth and reductions in overall average speed.

  9. A Modelling Framework for estimating Road Segment Based On-Board Vehicle Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin-Jun, Yu; Ya-Lan, Liu; Yu-Huan, Ren; Zhong-Ren, Peng; Meng, Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Traditional traffic emission inventory models aim to provide overall emissions at regional level which cannot meet planners' demand for detailed and accurate traffic emissions information at the road segment level. Therefore, a road segment-based emission model for estimating light duty vehicle emissions is proposed, where floating car technology is used to collect information of traffic condition of roads. The employed analysis framework consists of three major modules: the Average Speed and the Average Acceleration Module (ASAAM), the Traffic Flow Estimation Module (TFEM) and the Traffic Emission Module (TEM). The ASAAM is used to obtain the average speed and the average acceleration of the fleet on each road segment using FCD. The TFEM is designed to estimate the traffic flow of each road segment in a given period, based on the speed-flow relationship and traffic flow spatial distribution. Finally, the TEM estimates emissions from each road segment, based on the results of previous two modules. Hourly on-road light-duty vehicle emissions for each road segment in Shenzhen's traffic network are obtained using this analysis framework. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the pollutant emissions of road segments are also summarized. The results show high emission road segments cluster in several important regions in Shenzhen. Also, road segments emit more emissions during rush hours than other periods. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed approach is feasible and easy-to-use to help planners make informed decisions by providing detailed road segment-based emission information

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  13. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This presentation provides information about NREL's real-world evaluations of commercial vehicle technologies, which compare the performance of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles to conventional vehicles. NREL conducts these customized evaluations in partnership with commercial and government fleets across the nation. Current fleet and industry partners include UPS, Workhorse, Parker Hannifin, Proterra, Foothill Transit, Long Beach Transit, BYD, Odyne, Duke Energy, Miami-Dade, TransPower, Eaton, Cummins, Bosch, and Clean Cities/National Clean Fleet Partnership. The presentation focuses on two particular vehicle evaluation projects -- hydraulic hybrid refuse haulers operated by Miami-Dade and electric transit buses operated by Foothill Transit.

  14. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  15. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  16. Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Unpaved Road Dust Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillies, J. A; Etyemezian, V; Kuhns, H; Nikolic, D; Gillette, D. A

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents PM10 fugitive dust emission factors for a range of vehicles types and examines the influence of vehicle and wake characteristics on the strength of emissions from an unpaved road...

  17. Research on Dynamic Optimization for Road-friendly Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heavy vehicle brings large dynamic loads to the road surface, which would reduce vehicle ride comfort and shorten road service life. The structure characteristic of heavy vehicle suspension has a significant impact on vehicle performance. Based on the D'Alembert principle, the dynamics models of independent and integral balanced suspension are proposed considering mass and inertia of balancing rod. The sprung mass acceleration and the tire dynamic force for two kinds of balanced suspension and the traditional quarter vehicle model are compared in frequency-domain and time-domain respectively. It is concluded that a quarter vehicle model simplified for balanced suspension could be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle well, but it has some limitations in assessing the vehicle road-friendliness. Then, the sprung mass acceleration and the road damage coefficients are also analyzed under different vehicle design and running parameters at detail. Some conclusions are obtained: low suspension stiffness, high suspension damping and low tire stiffness are all favorable to improve vehicle performance; there is a saturation range of suspension damping enhancing vehicle performance; improving the road surface roughness and avoiding the no-load running are two effective methods to accomplish the better ride comfort and road-friendliness. The suspension stiffness and damping parameters are chosen for optimal parameters matching of road friendliness based on the approximation optimization method.

  18. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  19. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  20. Cold Regions Issues for Off-Road Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    the operation of off-road autonomous vehicles . Low-temperature effects on lubricants, materials, and batteries can impair a robot’s ability to operate...demanding that off-road autonomous vehicles must be designed for and tested in cold regions if they are expected to operate there successfully.

  1. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  2. Issues of using Longer Heavier Vehicles on Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszkova, R.; Heczko, M.; Cepil, J.; Radimsky, M.

    2018-03-01

    Many logistics companies aim to save on freight costs. Recently, not only on Czech roads and on motorways, longer and heavier vehicles that exceed dimensions’ limits appeared. For these vehicles, it is necessary to apply for a special permit, which is, however, much more liberal than the permit for oversized and overweight load transport. This paper informs about checking routes of these vehicles by swept path analysis and finding locations on roads that can generate both safety risks and traffic fluency problems.

  3. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  4. Electrification Beyond Light Duty: Class 2b-3 Commercial Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated; Laughlin, Michael [Energetics Incorporated; Tartaglia, Katie [Energetics Incorporated; Price, Rebecca [Energetics Incorporated; Lim, Brandon [Energetics Incorporated; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    The class 2b-3 truck market covers a wide range of commercial truck applications across a half-million vehicle sales annually. This report collected public information and stakeholder input to assess the opportunity for electrification in this market. Although class 2b-3 pickup truck and van bodies are very similar to personal light vehicles, their functional requirements are quite different due to the demands of the commercial market. These demands vary by application and often vary from day to day for a single application. Fleet customers purchase these vehicles to perform a particular job for their business and are concerned about the overall cost of doing that job. Therefore, the vehicles must meet the job requirements cost effectively. Customers also are sensitive to initial cost. Electrification offers the potential to reduce vehicle operating costs and possibly improve vehicle functionality. However, the current market for class 2b-3 electrified trucks is very small, and the trucks are costly. Increased production volumes are key to cost reductions and may be assisted by sharing components with larger or smaller truck classes. Expanding demand is also crucial and stakeholders identified several niche markets with duty cycles that are likely well-suited to electrified class 2b-3 trucks. To expand beyond these niches, class 2b-3 electric solutions must be robust, flexible, and adaptable in order to cover a wide range of vocations, applications, and duty cycles.

  5. Particulate matter speciation profiles for light-duty gasoline vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Baldauf, Richard W; Yanca, Catherine A; Fulper, Carl R

    2014-05-01

    Representative profiles for particulate matter particles less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) are developed from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study for use in the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) vehicle emission model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and for inclusion in the EPA SPECIATE database for speciation profiles. The profiles are compatible with the inputs of current photochemical air quality models, including the Community Multiscale Air Quality Aerosol Module Version 6 (AE6). The composition of light-duty gasoline PM2.5 emissions differs significantly between cold start and hot stabilized running emissions, and between older and newer vehicles, reflecting both impacts of aging/deterioration and changes in vehicle technology. Fleet-average PM2.5 profiles are estimated for cold start and hot stabilized running emission processes. Fleet-average profiles are calculated to include emissions from deteriorated high-emitting vehicles that are expected to continue to contribute disproportionately to the fleet-wide PM2.5 emissions into the future. The profiles are calculated using a weighted average of the PM2.5 composition according to the contribution of PM2.5 emissions from each class of vehicles in the on-road gasoline fleet in the Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The paper introduces methods to exclude insignificant measurements, correct for organic carbon positive artifact, and control for contamination from the testing infrastructure in developing speciation profiles. The uncertainty of the PM2.5 species fraction in each profile is quantified using sampling survey analysis methods. The primary use of the profiles is to develop PM2.5 emissions inventories for the United States, but the profiles may also be used in source apportionment, atmospheric modeling, and exposure assessment, and as a basis for light-duty gasoline emission profiles for countries with limited data. PM2.5 speciation profiles were

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty natural gas, hybrid, and conventional diesel on-road trucks during freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C.; Smith, Jeremy; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-11-01

    Heavy-duty on-road vehicles account for 70% of all freight transport and 20% of transportation-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. This study measured three prevalent GHG emissions - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) - from seven heavy-duty vehicles, fueled by diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG), and compliant to the MY 2007 or 2010 U.S. EPA emission standards, while operated over six routes used for freight movement in California. Total combined (tractor, trailer, and payload) weights were 68,000 ± 1000 lbs. for the seven vehicles. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) radiative forcing values for a 100-year time horizon, N2O emissions accounted for 2.6-8.3% of total tailpipe CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2-eq) for diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, Diesel Particulate Filter, and Selective Catalytic Reduction system (DOC + DPF + SCR), and CH4 emissions accounted for 1.4-5.9% of CO2-eq emissions from the CNG-powered vehicle with a three-way catalyst (TWC). N2O emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with SCR (0.17-0.30 g/mi) were an order of magnitude higher than diesel vehicles without SCR (0.013-0.023 g/mi) during highway operation. For the vehicles selected in this test program, we measured 11-22% lower CO2-eq emissions from a hybrid compared to conventional diesel vehicles during transport over lower-speed routes of the freight transport system, but 20-27% higher CO2-eq emissions during higher-speed routes. Similarly, a CNG vehicle emitted up to 15% lower CO2-eq compared to conventional diesel vehicles over more neutral-grade highway routes, but emitted up to 12% greater CO2-eq emissions over routes with higher engine loads.

  7. PM₂.₅ emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Huo, Hong; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yingzhi; Liu, Huan; Ye, Yu

    2014-07-15

    As stricter standards for diesel vehicles are implemented in China, and the use of diesel trucks is forbidden in urban areas, determining the contribution of light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) to on-road PM2.5 emissions in cities is important. Additionally, in terms of particle number and size, particulates emitted from LDGVs have a greater health impact than particulates emitted from diesel vehicles. In this work, we measured PM2.5 emissions from 20 LDGVs in Beijing, using an improved combined on-board emission measurement system. We compared these measurements with those reported in previous studies, and estimated the contribution of LDGVs to on-road PM2.5 emissions in Beijing. The results show that the PM2.5 emission factors for LDGVs, complying with European Emission Standards Euro-0 through Euro-4 were: 117.4 ± 142, 24.1 ± 20.4, 4.85 ± 7.86, 0.99 ± 1.32, 0.17 ± 0.15 mg/km, respectively. Our results show a significant decline in emissions with improving vehicle technology. However, this trend is not reflected in recent emission inventory studies. The daytime contributions of LDGVs to PM2.5 emissions on highways, arterials, residential roads, and within urban areas of Beijing were 44%, 62%, 57%, and 57%, respectively. The contribution of LDGVs to PM2.5 emissions varied both for different road types and for different times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of vehicle characteristics on road accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, I S

    2016-01-01

    The Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Road Accidents investigates whether vehicle characteristics related to handling and stability contribute to road accidents. Using multiple regression analysis, this book addresses driver and vehicle effects separately in order to define both the magnitude of the handling/accident causation problem as well as the relative importance of the various performance measures. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with detailed studies of accidents to determine the circumstances which lead to loss of control or overturning of a car on the road, and which accidents are likely to be influenced by the handling and stability characteristics of cars. Accident rates for these types of accident are then examined for the more popular models of car. Measures of vehicle handling and stability related to accident rates are also discussed. This text will be a useful resource for motorists and road engineers as well as transportation officials.

  9. Self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport to address road safety, accelerated road deterioration and transport productivity in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle overloading and road safety continue to be major problems in South Africa notwithstanding efforts at more effective enforcement by the road and traffic authorities. Overloading causes premature road deterioration and, together...

  10. Properties of road unevenness inducing the kinematical excitation of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kúdelčíková Mária

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The submitted paper is devoted to the mapping of the surface road profile and to the mathematical description of unevenness in one vehicle track. Its statistical parameters are analyzed and the classification of the road into a category based on power spectral density of unevenness is made.

  11. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  12. On-board emission measurement of high-loaded light-duty vehicles in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A sample of eight private gasoline and diesel conventional light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in use with various ages, carrying a load of 460 kg, were tested on a representative trip in the traffic flow of the city of Blida to obtain emission factors representing the actual use conditions of Algerian LDVs. The gas sampling system (mini-constant volume sampling) as well as the analyzers are carried on-board the vehicle. Around 55 tests were conducted during 3 months covering more than 480 km under various real driving conditions. The mean speed downtown is about 16.1 km/hr with a rather low acceleration, an average of 0.60 m/sec2. For each test, kinematics are recorded as well as the analysis of the four emitted pollutants carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and total hydrocarbons. Emission factors were evaluated according to speed for each category of gasoline and diesel engines. The influence of some parameters such as cold/hot start, age of vehicle and its state of maintenance are discussed. Results are compared with the European database ARTEMIS for comparable vehicles. These measurements contribute to the development of unit emission of the vehicles used in Algeria, which are necessary for the calculation of emission inventory of pollutants and greenhouse gases from the road transportation sector. The unit emissions constitute a tool of decisionmaking aid regarding the conception of new regulations of vehicle control and inspection in Algeria and even in similar developing countries.

  13. Construction of Three-Dimensional Road Surface and Application on Interaction between Vehicle and Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative description is given to three-dimensional micro and macro self-similar characteristics of road surface from the perspective of fractal geometry using FBM stochastic midpoint displacement and diamond-square algorithm in conjunction with fractal characteristics and statistical characteristics of standard pavement determined by estimation method of box-counting dimension. The comparative analysis between reconstructed three-dimensional road surface spectrum and theoretical road surface spectrum and correlation coefficient demonstrate the high reconstruction accuracy of fractal reconstructed road spectrum. Furthermore, the bump zone is taken as an example to reconstruct a more arbitrary 3D road model through isomorphism of special road surface with stochastic road surface model. Measurement is taken to assume the tire footprint on road surface to be a rectangle, where the pressure distribution is expressed with mean stiffness, while the contact points in the contact area are replaced with a number of springs. Two-DOF vehicle is used as an example to analyze the difference between three-dimensional multipoint-and-plane contact and traditional point contact model. Three-dimensional road surface spectrum provides a more accurate description of the impact effect of tire on road surface, thereby laying a theoretical basis for studies on the dynamical process of interaction of vehicle-road surface and the road friendliness.

  14. Consistent haul road condition monitoring by means of vehicle response normalisation with Gaussian processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal haul road management policies such as routine, periodic and urgent maintenance may result in unnecessary cost, both to roads and vehicles. A recent idea is to continually access haul road condition based on measured vehicle response...

  15. In-vehicle nitrogen dioxide concentrations in road tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley N.; Boulter, Paul G.; Roddis, Damon; McDonough, Liza; Patterson, Michael; Rodriguez del Barco, Marina; Mattes, Andrew; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding in-vehicle concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during transit through road tunnels in urban environments. Furthermore, previous studies have tended to involve a single vehicle and the range of in-vehicle NO2 concentrations that vehicle occupants may be exposed to is not well defined. This study describes simultaneous measurements of in-vehicle and outside-vehicle NO2 concentrations on a route through Sydney, Australia that included several major tunnels, minor tunnels and busy surface roads. Tests were conducted on nine passenger vehicles to assess how vehicle characteristics and ventilation settings affected in-vehicle NO2 concentrations and the in-vehicle-to-outside vehicle (I/O) concentration ratio. NO2 was measured directly using a cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique that gave a high temporal and spatial resolution. In the major tunnels, transit-average in-vehicle NO2 concentrations were lower than outside-vehicle concentrations for all vehicles with cabin air recirculation either on or off. However, markedly lower I/O ratios were obtained with recirculation on (0.08-0.36), suggesting that vehicle occupants can significantly lower their exposure to NO2 in tunnels by switching recirculation on. The highest mean I/O ratios for NO2 were measured in older vehicles (0.35-0.36), which is attributed to older vehicles having higher air exchange rates. The results from this study can be used to inform the design and operation of future road tunnels and modelling of personal exposure to NO2.

  16. Bayesian Parameter Estimation for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric; Konan, Arnaud; Duran, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Accurate vehicle parameters are valuable for design, modeling, and reporting. Estimating vehicle parameters can be a very time-consuming process requiring tightly-controlled experimentation. This work describes a method to estimate vehicle parameters such as mass, coefficient of drag/frontal area, and rolling resistance using data logged during standard vehicle operation. The method uses Monte Carlo to generate parameter sets which is fed to a variant of the road load equation. Modeled road load is then compared to measured load to evaluate the probability of the parameter set. Acceptance of a proposed parameter set is determined using the probability ratio to the current state, so that the chain history will give a distribution of parameter sets. Compared to a single value, a distribution of possible values provides information on the quality of estimates and the range of possible parameter values. The method is demonstrated by estimating dynamometer parameters. Results confirm the method's ability to estimate reasonable parameter sets, and indicates an opportunity to increase the certainty of estimates through careful selection or generation of the test drive cycle.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  18. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  19. Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)

  20. 75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... 2060-AI23; 2060-AQ12 Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline.... The rulemaking also required oil refiners to limit the sulfur content of the gasoline they produce. Sulfur in gasoline has a detrimental impact on catalyst performance and the sulfur requirements have...

  1. Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Terramechanics Volume 47, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 97-111 Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation H.M. Ngwangwaa, P.S. Heynsa, , , F...

  2. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  3. Off-road vehicle dynamics analysis, modelling and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Taghavifar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the analysis of off-road vehicle dynamics from kinetics and kinematics perspectives and the performance of vehicle traversing over rough and irregular terrain. The authors consider the wheel performance, soil-tire interactions and their interface, tractive performance of the vehicle, ride comfort, stability over maneuvering, transient and steady state conditions of the vehicle traversing, modeling the aforementioned aspects and optimization from energetic and vehicle mobility perspectives. This book brings novel figures for the transient dynamics and original wheel terrain dynamics at on-the-go condition.

  4. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards for... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty... group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons...

  5. Analysis of pavement structure sensitivity to passage of oversized heavy duty vehicle in terms of bearing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Rys; Piotr, Jaskula

    2018-05-01

    Oversized heavy duty vehicles occur in traffic very rarely but they reach extremely high weights, even up to 800 tonne. The detrimental impact of these vehicles on pavement structure is much higher than in case of commercial vehicles that comprise typical traffic, thus it is necessary to assess the sensitivity of pavement structure to passage of oversized vehicles. The paper presents results of sample calculations of load equivalency factor of a heavy duty oversized vehicle with usage of mechanistic-empirical approach. The effects of pavement thickness, type of distress (cracking or rutting) and pavement condition (new or old with structural damage) were considered in the paper. Analysis revealed that a single pass of an 800 tonne oversized vehicle is equivalent to pass of up to 377 standard 100 kN axles. Load equivalency factor calculated for thin structures is almost 3 times lower than for thick structures, however, the damage effect caused by one pass of an oversized vehicle is higher in the case of thin structure. Bearing capacity of a pavement structure may be qualified as sufficient for passage of an oversized heavy duty vehicle when the measured deflection, for example in an FWD test, does not exceed the maximum deflections derived from mechanistic-empirical analysis. The paper presents sample calculation of maximum deflections which allow to consider passage of an oversized vehicle as safe over different pavement structures. The paper provides road administration with a practical tool which helps to decide whether to issue a permit of passage for a given oversized vehicle.

  6. Physiological demands of off-road vehicle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jamie F; Jamnik, Veronica K; Shaw, Jim A; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the physiological demands of recreational off-road vehicle riding under typical riding conditions using habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders (n = 128). Comparisons of the physical demands of off-road vehicle riding were made between vehicle types (all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and off-road motorcycle (ORM)) to the demands of common recreational activities. Habitual riders (ATV = 56, ORM = 72) performed strength assessments before and after a representative trail ride (48 +/- 24.2 min), and ambulatory oxygen consumption was measured during one lap (24.2 +/- 11.8 min) of the ride. The mean VO2 requirement (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) while riding an off-road vehicle was 12.1 +/- 4.9 for ATV and 21.3 +/- 7.1 for ORM (P = 0.002), which is comparable to the VO2 required of many common recreational activities. Temporal analysis of activity intensity revealed approximately 14% of an ATV ride and 38% of an ORM ride are within the intensity range (940% VO2 reserve) required to achieve changes in aerobic fitness. Riding on a representative course also led to muscular fatigue, particularly in the upper body. On the basis of the measured metabolic demands, evidence of muscular strength requirements, and the associated caloric expenditures with off-road vehicle riding, this alternative form of activity conforms to the recommended physical activity guidelines and can be effective for achieving beneficial changes in health and fitness.

  7. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  8. Using endemic road features to create self-explaining roads and reduce vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Mackie, Hamish W; Baas, Peter H; Hay, Karen; Menezes, Miguel; Dixon, Claire

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken to establish a self-explaining roads (SER) design programme on existing streets in an urban area. The methodology focussed on developing a process to identify functional road categories and designs based on endemic road characteristics taken from functional exemplars in the study area. The study area was divided into two sections, one to receive SER treatments designed to maximise visual differences between road categories, and a matched control area to remain untreated for purposes of comparison. The SER design for local roads included increased landscaping and community islands to limit forward visibility, and removal of road markings to create a visually distinct road environment. In comparison, roads categorised as collectors received increased delineation, addition of cycle lanes, and improved amenity for pedestrians. Speed data collected 3 months after implementation showed a significant reduction in vehicle speeds on local roads and increased homogeneity of speeds on both local and collector roads. The objective speed data, combined with residents' speed choice ratings, indicated that the project was successful in creating two discriminably different road categories. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of Road Friction Coefficient in Different Road Conditions Based on Vehicle Braking Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-Qun; Li, Hai-Qing; Lin, Fen; Wang, Jian; Ji, Xue-Wu

    2017-07-01

    The accurate estimation of road friction coefficient in the active safety control system has become increasingly prominent. Most previous studies on road friction estimation have only used vehicle longitudinal or lateral dynamics and often ignored the load transfer, which tends to cause inaccurate of the actual road friction coefficient. A novel method considering load transfer of front and rear axles is proposed to estimate road friction coefficient based on braking dynamic model of two-wheeled vehicle. Sliding mode control technique is used to build the ideal braking torque controller, which control target is to control the actual wheel slip ratio of front and rear wheels tracking the ideal wheel slip ratio. In order to eliminate the chattering problem of the sliding mode controller, integral switching surface is used to design the sliding mode surface. A second order linear extended state observer is designed to observe road friction coefficient based on wheel speed and braking torque of front and rear wheels. The proposed road friction coefficient estimation schemes are evaluated by simulation in ADAMS/Car. The results show that the estimated values can well agree with the actual values in different road conditions. The observer can estimate road friction coefficient exactly in real-time and resist external disturbance. The proposed research provides a novel method to estimate road friction coefficient with strong robustness and more accurate.

  10. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  11. Light duty vehicle transportation and global climate policy: The importance of electric drive vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Longden, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on the interaction between long-term climate targets and personal transport we review the electrification of light duty vehicles (LDVs) within a model that utilizes a learning-by-researching structure. By modeling the demand of vehicles, the use of fuels and emissions implied, the model solves for the optimum RD and D investments that decrease the cost of hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. A range of technology and climate policy scenarios provide long term projections of vehicle use that highlight the potential synergies between innovation in the transportation sector and the energy sector. We find that even when the capital cost of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) remains higher than that of traditional combustion engine alternatives, EDVs are likely to play a key role in the decarbonisation implied by stringent climate policy. Limited innovation in batteries results in notable increases in policy costs consistent with a two degree climate policy target. - Highlights: • Significant increase in vehicles across regions in the medium to long term future. • Climate policy costs are sensitive to a lack of electric drive vehicles (EDVs). • Achieving 450ppm with no change in battery costs has a policy cost that is 2.86 percentage points higher than the base 450ppm scenario. • Climate policy hastens the introduction of electrified vehicles, however EDVs do not become the dominant vehicle of choice before the middle of the century

  12. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-05 Section 86.1817-05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. (a) General. (1) Complete heavy-duty vehicles eligible for the NOX averaging, trading and banking program are described in the applicable...

  14. Observers for vehicle tyre/road forces estimation: experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumiati, M.; Victorino, A.; Lechner, D.; Baffet, G.; Charara, A.

    2010-11-01

    The motion of a vehicle is governed by the forces generated between the tyres and the road. Knowledge of these vehicle dynamic variables is important for vehicle control systems that aim to enhance vehicle stability and passenger safety. This study introduces a new estimation process for tyre/road forces. It presents many benefits over the existing state-of-art works, within the dynamic estimation framework. One of these major contributions consists of discussing in detail the vertical and lateral tyre forces at each tyre. The proposed method is based on the dynamic response of a vehicle instrumented with potentially integrated sensors. The estimation process is separated into two principal blocks. The role of the first block is to estimate vertical tyre forces, whereas in the second block two observers are proposed and compared for the estimation of lateral tyre/road forces. The different observers are based on a prediction/estimation Kalman filter. The performance of this concept is tested and compared with real experimental data using a laboratory car. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is a promising technique to provide accurate estimation. Thus, it can be considered as a practical low-cost solution for calculating vertical and lateral tyre/road forces.

  15. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  16. On-road vehicle emissions and their control in China: A review and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hu, Jingnan; Walsh, Michael P; Wallington, Timothy J; Zhang, K Max; Stevanovic, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    The large (26-fold over the past 25years) increase in the on-road vehicle fleet in China has raised sustainability concerns regarding air pollution prevention, energy conservation, and climate change mitigation. China has established integrated emission control policies and measures since the 1990s, including implementation of emission standards for new vehicles, inspection and maintenance programs for in-use vehicles, improvement in fuel quality, promotion of sustainable transportation and alternative fuel vehicles, and traffic management programs. As a result, emissions of major air pollutants from on-road vehicles in China have peaked and are now declining despite increasing vehicle population. As might be expected, progress in addressing vehicle emissions has not always been smooth and challenges such as the lack of low sulfur fuels, frauds over production conformity and in-use inspection tests, and unreliable retrofit programs have been encountered. Considering the high emission density from vehicles in East China, enhanced vehicle, fuel and transportation strategies will be required to address vehicle emissions in China. We project the total vehicle population in China to reach 400-500 million by 2030. Serious air pollution problems in many cities of China, in particular high ambient PM 2.5 concentration, have led to pressure to accelerate the progress on vehicle emission reduction. A notable example is the draft China 6 emission standard released in May 2016, which contains more stringent emission limits than those in the Euro 6 regulations, and adds a real world emission testing protocol and a 48-h evaporation testing procedure including diurnal and hot soak emissions. A scenario (PC[1]) considered in this study suggests that increasingly stringent standards for vehicle emissions could mitigate total vehicle emissions of HC, CO, NO X and PM 2.5 in 2030 by approximately 39%, 57%, 59% and 79%, respectively, compared with 2013 levels. With additional actions

  17. Vehicle Dynamic Prediction Systems with On-Line Identification of Vehicle Parameters and Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-Yuan; Chen, Tsung-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a vehicle dynamics prediction system, which consists of a sensor fusion system and a vehicle parameter identification system. This sensor fusion system can obtain the six degree-of-freedom vehicle dynamics and two road angles without using a vehicle model. The vehicle parameter identification system uses the vehicle dynamics from the sensor fusion system to identify ten vehicle parameters in real time, including vehicle mass, moment of inertial, and road friction coefficients. With above two systems, the future vehicle dynamics is predicted by using a vehicle dynamics model, obtained from the parameter identification system, to propagate with time the current vehicle state values, obtained from the sensor fusion system. Comparing with most existing literatures in this field, the proposed approach improves the prediction accuracy both by incorporating more vehicle dynamics to the prediction system and by on-line identification to minimize the vehicle modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed method successfully predicts the vehicle dynamics in a left-hand turn event and a rollover event. The prediction inaccuracy is 0.51% in a left-hand turn event and 27.3% in a rollover event. PMID:23202231

  18. Selected road condition, vehicle and freight considerations in pavement life cycle assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJ vdM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available road condition data from two corridors were collected and analyzed to determine the effect of the current road condition and potential changes in these road conditions on the economic and environmental impacts of the situation. Existing Vehicle...

  19. Road-Following Formation Control of Autonomous Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Droge, Greg; Grip, Havard; Toupet, Olivier; Scrapper, Chris; Rahmani, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel cooperative path planning for formation keeping robots traversing along a road with obstacles and possible narrow passages. A unique challenge in this problem is a requirement for spatial and temporal coordination between vehicles while ensuring collision and obstacle avoidance.

  20. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air...

  1. 25 years TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    Since the founding of the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute 25years ago, the institute has managed to develop a leading position in automotive research in several disciplines. A steady growth of the institute during the first 20 years has turned into a strong growth during the last 5 years. A

  2. Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F; De Vries, Jasper R

    2014-01-01

    Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, identify influencing factors, and draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention within the context of modern mechanized agriculture. To analyze developments in the appearance of accidents we use a subset of accidents with AVs involved on public roads in The Netherlands aggregated per year for 1987-2010. To identify and explore preventive measures we use an in-depth study of the Dutch Safety Board. With a study of international literature we put our findings in a wider context. During this time span, Dutch annual averages show 15 registered fatal accidents involving AVs, 93 with hospitalization and 137 with slight injuries. For nonfatal accidents, the numbers are decreasing over time. This decrease is proportionate to the reduction in the total number of traffic victims. For fatalities, however, the number is stable, increasing its proportion in all traffic fatalities from 1 in 1987 to 2 percent in 2010. Related to the number of inhabitants, this number is 2 times the value in the UK and 3 times the value in the United States. Influencing factors can be related to the 3 road system components (AV, driver, and infrastructure). Weak points for AVs are the view from the driver's seat, visibility at night, permitted vehicle width, and crash aggressivity (large kinetic energy of the AV) that is transferred to other road users in case of a collision. Important factors identified for the driver are poor risk perception and high risk acceptance, in combination with speeding, dysfunctional use such as the use of AVs as modes of transport to and from school, and driving on public roads without protecting or removing protruding and sharp components. For infrastructure, the focus is on road design and separation of AVs from other motor vehicles. Lessons to be learned follow from

  3. IRVIN - Intelligent Road and Vehicle test INfrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.T.; Hogema, J.A.; Huiskamp, W.; Papp, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Simulation, or rather virtual testing, is a good instrument for study and design of traffic management concepts, traffic safety, vehicle safety and ergonomics. Simulation facilitates the evaluation of the design at an early stage and reduces the costs of making prototypes. The Dutch research

  4. 78 FR 41852 - Hours of Service for Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... provided: 1. The driver is relieved of all duty and responsibility for the care and custody of the vehicle... Service for Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers; Regulatory Guidance Concerning Off-Duty Time AGENCY: Federal... motor vehicle (CMV) driver to record meal and other routine stops made during a work shift as off-duty...

  5. Scenarios for use of biogas for heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark and related GHG emissions impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Winther, Morten; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    of biogas is of concern. This study has analysed the potential biomass and biogas production from all Danish organic waste sources under different scenario assumptions for future scenario years. The analysis includes energy demand of the road transportation sector by means of transport and fuel types......, and potential use of the limited biogas resource taking into account alternative fuel options available for transportation (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels). Further, the total differences in fuel consumption and GHG emissions due to the replacement of diesel-powered heavy-duty vehicles by gas-powered heavy...

  6. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch eGiechaskiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories are used to quantify sources and identify trends in the emissions of air pollutants. They use vehicle-specific emission factors that are typically determined in the laboratory, through remote-sensing, vehicle chasing experiments and, more recently, on-board Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Although PEMS is widely applied to measure gaseous pollutants, their application to Solid Particle Number (SPN emissions is new. In this paper, we discuss the current status of determining SPN emission factors both on the chassis dynamometer and on-road using PEMS-SPN. First, we determine the influence of the measurement equipment, ambient temperature, driving style and cycle characteristics, and the extra mass of the PEMS equipment on the SPN emissions. Afterward, we present the SPN emissions under type-approval conditions as well as on the road of two heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF (one Euro VI, two light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF, one light-duty vehicle equipped with a Port Fuel Injection engine (PFI, and seven Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI passenger cars (two Euro 6. We find that cold-start and strong accelerations tend to substantially increase SPN emissions. The two heavy-duty vehicles showed emissions around 2×10^13 p/km (Euro V truck and 6×10^10 p/km (Euro VI truck, respectively. One of the DPF-equipped light-duty vehicles showed emissions of 8×10^11 p/km, while the other one had one order of magnitude lower emissions. The PFI car had SPN emissions slightly higher than 1×10^12 p/km. The emissions of GDI cars spanned approximately from 8×10^11 p/km to 8×10^12 p/km. For the cars without DPF, the SPN emissions remained within a factor of two of the laboratory results. This factor was on average around 0.8 for the Euro 6 and 1.6 for the Euro 5 GDIs. The DPF equipped vehicles showed a difference of almost one order of magnitude between laboratory and on-road tests

  7. VIRMS: A VEHICLE INFORMATION AND ROAD MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Arnéz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS are emerging technologies for building collaborative vehicular networks to increase road safety and to improve driver’s experience. Unfortunately these technologies require heavy infrastructure to be deployed inside and outside the vehicle that is difficult to extend. In this article we present VIRMS (Vehicle Information and Road Monitoring System, an ITS that is based on low-cost and small footprint client and server infrastructure that was designed to increase vehicular security and reduce accident rates along highways. The VIRMS remote client device is an on board vehicle electronic device that gathers data from sensors and processes the collected data that is sent to the VIRMS server in order to keep drivers informed with precise context information through the detection and identification of events (accidents, traffic jams, bad weather conditions, etc. along the roads. A prototype running tests on Bolivian highways show that VIRMS can give a technological answer to a real problem where road safety is one of the highest issues and cause of mortality.

  8. A survey of light-vehicle driver education curriculum on sharing the road with heavy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephanie; Schaudt, William A; Freed, J C; Toole, Laura

    2012-07-01

    Light-vehicle driver education programs that contain content about sharing the road with heavy vehicles may be helpful in reducing future light-vehicle/heavy-vehicle interactions. However, the extent of curricula in the United States including such content is unclear. Researchers developed an online survey targeted at instructors/administrators of state driver education programs to identify curricula addressing heavy vehicles and to determine perceived effectiveness. Ninety-one percent of respondents indicated that the light-vehicle driver education curriculum they teach/administer included a component covering how to safely share the road with heavy vehicles (82% perceived this component to be effective). Although a large proportion of these programs included a component on how to safely share the road with heavy vehicles, participants indicated there may be room for improvement. Participants recommended that future improvements to driver education programs include updated materials and student hands-on experience with heavy vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-world NOx emissions of Euro V and Euro VI heavy duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, R.; Dekker, H.; Vonk, W.

    2012-04-15

    TNO regularly performs measurements to determine the in-service performance and durability with respect to the pollutant emissions of heavy-duty vehicles under representative driving conditions. The 2011 measurement programme yields new insights regarding the emission performance of the upcoming Euro VI technology for heavy-duty vehicles, mandatory as of 31 December 2013 and, together with the results from earlier performed programmes, leads to conclusions on the emission performance of past and present generations of heavy-duty vehicles (Euro V, EEV)

  10. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle...

  11. Comparison of electric drives for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, C; Stephan, W [Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft m.b.H., Esslingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The low energy-storage capacity of the electrolytic energy-storage apparatus available at the moment limits the practical use of electric vehicles to meeting the requirements for restricted areas. But in this field of application, conversion from drive with internal combustion engine to electric drive can be considered only if a reduction of costs is achieved with electric drive. From the wide range of possible drive units the most suitable is found to be the dc squirrelcage motor the speed of which is controlled by field weakening. In the case of a motor with conventional design, the controllable drive range is limited to about 1 : 3, so that generally additional measures are required for extending the drive range. But if the motor is fitted with a compensation winding, field weakening to give a controlled speed range of 1 : 8 can be obtained. To evaluate the different drive units under consideration use is made of the acceleration when, according to the drive system, advantages are obtained from the point of view of energy consumption with disadvantages in acceleration time, and vice versa. By using vehicles proven in practice with different drive systems, either with hydrodynamic transducer and battery switchover, or else with changeover gear and mechanical clutch, the overall construction of the different control and protective arrangements are demonstrated. It is then found that the extra cost of regulation in the case of automatic drive operation is partly compensated by the additional protective devices which are required to limit the effects of any incorrect operations with a manually-operated drive.

  12. Trajectory generation for an on-road autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, John; Barbera, Anthony

    2006-05-01

    We describe an algorithm that generates a smooth trajectory (position, velocity, and acceleration at uniformly sampled instants of time) for a car-like vehicle autonomously navigating within the constraints of lanes in a road. The technique models both vehicle paths and lane segments as straight line segments and circular arcs for mathematical simplicity and elegance, which we contrast with cubic spline approaches. We develop the path in an idealized space, warp the path into real space and compute path length, generate a one-dimensional trajectory along the path length that achieves target speeds and positions, and finally, warp, translate, and rotate the one-dimensional trajectory points onto the path in real space. The algorithm moves a vehicle in lane safely and efficiently within speed and acceleration maximums. The algorithm functions in the context of other autonomous driving functions within a carefully designed vehicle control hierarchy.

  13. Experimental Autonomous Road Vehicle with Logical Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shadrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some technical issues regarding the adaptation of a production car to a platform for the development and testing of autonomous driving technologies. A universal approach to performing the reverse engineering of electric power steering (EPS for the purpose of external control is also presented. The primary objective of the related study was to solve the problem associated with the precise prediction of the dynamic trajectory of an autonomous vehicle. This was accomplished by deriving a new equation for determining the lateral tire forces and adjusting some of the vehicle parameters under road test conductions. A Mivar expert system was also integrated into the control system of the experimental autonomous vehicle. The expert system was made more flexible and effective for the present application by the introduction of hybrid artificial intelligence with logical reasoning. The innovation offers a solution to the major problem of liability in the event of an autonomous transport vehicle being involved in a collision.

  14. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  15. Numerical study of aerodynamic effects on road vehicles lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Mihail Victor; Cernat Bobonea, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance analysis of road vehicles depends on the study of engine intake and cooling flow, internal ventilation, tire cooling, and overall external flow as the motion of air around a moving vehicle affects all of its components in one form or another. Due to the complex geometry of these, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flow and lifting surface shapes. The present study, however focuses on the effects of external aerodynamics only, and in particular on the flow over the lifting surfaces of a common compact car, designed especially for this study.

  16. Modelling of NO{sub x} emission factors from heavy and light-duty vehicles equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L.M., E-mail: monalisa@unifor.br [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, C.M. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Moreno-Tost, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Farias, T.L. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Alternative SCR materials. {yields} Catalysts used in heavy-duty vehicles are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. {yields}Zeolites containing transition metal ions as catalysts for urea SCR has increased. {yields} FeZSM5 catalyst can be a possible candidate as far as pollutants regulation is considered. {yields} Regarding N{sub 2}O emissions mordenite based SCR do not emit this pollutant. - Abstract: NO{sub x} emission standards are becoming stringiest over the world especially for heavy-duty vehicles. To comply with current and future regulations some vehicle manufacturers are adopting exhaust aftertreatment systems known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The catalysts are based on Vanadium (Va) and the reductant agent based on ammonia. However, Va is listed on the California Proposition 65 List as potentially causing cancer and alternatives are being studied. This paper presents a model based on neural networks that integrated with a road vehicle simulator allows to estimate NO{sub x} emission factors for different powertrain configurations, along different driving conditions, and covering commercial, zeolite and mordenite alternatives as the base monolith for SCR. The research included the experimental study of copper based and iron based zeolites (ZSM5 and Cuban natural mordenite). The response of NO{sub x} conversion efficiency was monitored in a laboratory for varying space velocity, oxygen, sulfur, water, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emulating the conditions of a Diesel engine exhaust along a trip. The experimental data was used for training neural networks and obtaining a mathematical correlation between the outputs and inputs of the SCR system. The developed correlation was integrated with ADVISOR road vehicle simulator to obtain NO{sub x} emission factors and to test each SCR system installed on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles for standardized driving cycles and real measured driving cycles. Despite having lower NO

  17. Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, Jalel; Apte, Joshua S; Lemoine, Derek M; Kammen, Daniel M, E-mail: jalel.sager@berkeley.edu, E-mail: japte@berkeley.edu, E-mail: dlemoine@berkeley.edu, E-mail: daniel.kammen@gmail.com [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Strong policies to constrain increasing global use of light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks) should complement fuel efficiency and carbon intensity improvements in order to meet international greenhouse gas emission and climate targets for the year 2050.

  18. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  19. Euro VI technologies and costs for Heavy Duty vehicles: the expert panels summary of stakeholders responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gense, N.L.J.; Riemersma, I.J.; Such, C.l; Ntziachristos, L.

    2006-01-01

    This report is the result of the work carried out under on the Europeans Commission’s call for tender regarding “Technical support for the Commission DG Environment on the development of Euro 5 standards for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI standards for heavy-duty vehicles” (Reference:

  20. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  1. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  2. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  3. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  4. 78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-IMR-LAMR-10224; 2310-0091-422] Off-Road... Service (NPS) is releasing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Off- Road Vehicle... impacts of four alternatives that address off-road vehicle (ORV) management in the national recreation...

  5. 36 CFR 9.50 - Use of roads by commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of roads by commercial... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.50 Use of roads by commercial vehicles. (a) After January 8, 1978, no commercial vehicle shall use roads administered by the National Park Service...

  6. 36 CFR 9.15 - Use of roads by commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of roads by commercial... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.15 Use of roads by commercial vehicles. (a) After January 26, 1977, no commercial vehicle shall use roads administered by the National Park Service without...

  7. Characterization of in-use light-duty gasoline vehicle emissions by remote sensing in Beijing: impact of recent control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Cheng, Linglin

    2007-09-01

    China's national government and Beijing city authorities have adopted additional control measures to reduce the negative impact of vehicle emissions on Beijing's air quality. An evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures may provide guidance for future vehicle emission control strategy development. In-use emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) were investigated at five sites in Beijing with remote sensing instrumentation. Distance-based mass emission factors were derived with fuel consumption modeled on real world data. The results show that the recently implemented aggressive control strategies are significantly reducing the emissions of on-road vehicles. Older vehicles are contributing substantially to the total fleet emissions. An earlier program to retrofit pre-Euro cars with three-way catalysts produced little emission reduction. The impact of model year and driving conditions on the average mass emission factors indicates that the durability of vehicles emission controls may be inadequate in Beijing.

  8. Estimation of light duty vehicle emissions in Islamabad and climate co-benefits of improved emission standards implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Izhar Hussain; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) hold a major share in Islamabad's vehicle fleet and their contribution towards air pollution has not been analyzed previously. Emissions for the base year (2014) and two optimistic 'what-if' scenarios were estimated by using the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model. Considering the recent implementation of Euro II as emission standard in Pakistan, scenario 1 assumed entire LDV fleet meeting at least Euro II standards while scenario 2 assumed all LDVs meeting Euro IV standards except motorcycles which would be meeting Euro III emission standards. Higher average age for all vehicles and lower share of Euro compliant vehicles was found in the base case. Low engine stress mode (lower speeds with frequent decelerations) was observed for all vehicles especially on arterials and residential roads. Highest overall emissions (59%) were observed on arterials, followed by residential roads (24%) and highways (17%) with higher emissions observed during morning (8-10 am) and evening (4-6 pm) rush hours. Composite emission factors were also calculated. Results reveal that 1094, 147, 11.1, 0.2 and 0.4 kt of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively were emitted in 2014 by LDVs. Compared with the base year, scenario 1 showed a reduction of 9%, 69%, 73%, 13% and 31%, while scenario 2 exhibited a reduction of 5%, 92%, 90%, 92% and 81% for CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively. As compared to the base year, a 20 year CO2-equivalent Global Warming Potential (GWP) reduced by 55% and 64% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively, while a 100 year GWP reduced by 40% and 44% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively. Our results demonstrated significant co-benefits that could be achieved in emission reduction and air quality improvement in the city by vehicle technology implementation.

  9. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  10. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models.

  11. Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated VOC Emissions from Modern GDI Light-Duty Vehicles 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, speciated VOC emissions were characterized from three modern GDI light-duty vehicles. The vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer housed in a climate-controlled chamber at two temperatures (20 and 72 °F) using the EPA Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and a portio...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., trading, and banking program. 86.1817-08 Section 86.1817-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program. Section 86.1817-08 includes text that.... (1) Manufacturers of Otto-cycle vehicles may participate in an NMHC averaging, banking and trading...

  13. Characterizing information propagation through inter-vehicle communication on a simple network of two parallel roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    In this report, we study information propagation via inter-vehicle communication along two parallel : roads. By identifying an inherent Bernoulli process, we are able to derive the mean and variance of : propagation distance. A road separation distan...

  14. On Electrohydraulic Pressure Control for Power Steering Applications : Active Steering for Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Electrohydraulic Power Steering system for road vehicles, using electronic pressure control valves. With an ever increasing demand for safer vehicles and fewer traffic accidents, steering-related active safety functions are becoming more common in modern vehicles. Future road vehicles will also evolve towards autonomous vehicles, with several safety, environmental and financial benefits. A key component in realising such solutions is active steering. The power steer...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1708-99 - Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1708-99 Exhaust emission standards for 1999 and... are incorporated by reference (see § 86.1). (v) Hybrid electric vehicle requirements. Deterioration factors for hybrid electric vehicles shall be based on the emissions and mileage accumulation of the...

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  17. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  18. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  19. Evolution of on-road vehicle exhaust emissions in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Guttikunda, Sarath K.

    2015-03-01

    For a 40-year horizon (1990-2030), on-road vehicle exhaust emissions were evaluated, retrospectively and prospectively, for the largest urban agglomeration in India - the Greater Delhi region with a combined population of 22 million in 2011 (Delhi along with Ghaziabad, Noida, Greater Noida, Faridabad and Gurgaon). Emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reached their peak during late 1990s through early 2000s after which they reduced significantly through year 2012. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide show an increasing trend. The most reduction in emissions between 1998 and 2012 occurred as a result of implementation of four sets of vehicular emission standards, removal of lead, reduction of sulfur content, mandatory retirement of older commercial vehicles, and conversion of diesel and petrol run public transport vehicles to compressed natural gas. In addition, changes in the vehicular technology have also contributed to controlling emissions especially in case of auto-rickshaws and motorized two-wheelers, which changed from two-stroke to four-stroke. The rising trend of NOx along with the presence of VOCs indicates increasing tendency to form ground-level ozone and as a result, smog in the region. We predict that the current regime of vehicle technology, fuel standards, and high growth rate of private vehicles, is likely to nullify all the past emission reductions by the end of 2020s.

  20. Sodium-sulphur batteries for electric road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, M.F. (Chloride Silent Power Ltd., Runcorn (UK))

    1989-04-01

    The sodium sulphur couple is, in principle, very well behaved and has operational characteristics which make it ideal for electric vehicle use. Design of the battery system for road use requires that a number of practical considerations are addressed. In particular, the battery operates at 350 deg C and requires a thermal enclosure with thermal management. The cell interconnection network must address the consequences of end-of-life failure and the voltages across the individual cells should be limited, both in charge and discharge. (author).

  1. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi V; Chen, Fu-Lin; Xue, Jianping

    2017-12-15

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR) models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD), All-Traffic Density (ATD) and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD) which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT), and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT) in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC), a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS). The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with -0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m) that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM) analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses indicate that

  2. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi V. Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD, All-Traffic Density (ATD and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT, and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC, a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS. The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with −0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses

  3. [Investigation of emission characteristics for light duty vehicles with a portable emission measurement system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Kun; Fu, Li-Xin; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Xin; Chen, Ai-Zhong; Ge, Wei-hu; Du, Xuan

    2008-10-01

    Emission from 7 typical light-duty vehicles under actual driving conditions was monitored using a portable emission measurement system to gather data for characterization of the real world vehicle emission in Shenzhen, including the effects of driving modes on vehicle emission, comparison of fuel consumption based emission factors (g x L(-1) with mileage based emission factors (g x km(-1)), and the average emission factors of the monitored vehicles. The acceleration and deceleration modes accounted for 66.7% of total travel time, 80.3% of traveling distance and 74.6%-79.2% of vehicle emission; the acceleration mode contributed more than other driving modes. The fuel based emission factors were less dependent on the driving speed; they may be utilized in building macro-scale vehicle emission inventory with smaller sensitivity to the vehicle driving conditions. The effect of vehicle technology on vehicle emission was significant; the emission factors of CO, HC and NO(x) of carbureted vehicles were 19.9-20.5, 5.6-26.1 and 1.8-2.0 times the more advanced vehicles of Euro II, respectively. Using the ECE + EUDC driving cycle would not produce the desired real-world emission rates of light duty vehicles in a typical Chinese city.

  4. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later...

  5. Disturbance of beach sediment by off-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Fred J.; Leatherman, Stephen P.

    1987-10-01

    A three-year investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on the beach at Fire Island, New York. Within the National Seashore over 45,000 vehicle trips per year are concentrated in the zone seaward of the dune toe. The experimental approach was adopted in order to assess the environmental effects of ORVs. Specially developed instrumentation was used to measure the direct displacement of sand by vehicles traversing the beach. Direct displacement data were reduced graphically and analyzed by stepwise linear regression. The results of 89 field experiments (788 cases) showed that slope, sand compaction, and number of vehicle passes in the same track were the principal factors controlling the measured net seaward displacement of sand. The data suggest that ORV use levels within the National Seashore could be contributing to the overall erosion rate by delivering large quantities of sand to the swash zone (max. of 119,300 m3/yr). However, with proper management downslope movement of sand could be reduced by an order of magnitude. While vehicular passage over the open beach displaces sand seaward, it is not known if such activity actually increases the amount of erosion, measured as net loss to the beach face.

  6. Automated driving and autonomous functions on road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T. J.; Lidberg, M.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, road vehicle automation has become an important and popular topic for research and development in both academic and industrial spheres. New developments have received extensive coverage in the popular press, and it may be said that the topic has captured the public imagination. Indeed, the topic has generated interest across a wide range of academic, industry and governmental communities, well beyond vehicle engineering; these include computer science, transportation, urban planning, legal, social science and psychology. While this follows a similar surge of interest - and subsequent hiatus - of Automated Highway Systems in the 1990s, the current level of interest is substantially greater, and current expectations are high. It is common to frame the new technologies under the banner of 'self-driving cars' - robotic systems potentially taking over the entire role of the human driver, a capability that does not fully exist at present. However, this single vision leads one to ignore the existing range of automated systems that are both feasible and useful. Recent developments are underpinned by substantial and long-term trends in 'computerisation' of the automobile, with developments in sensors, actuators and control technologies to spur the new developments in both industry and academia. In this paper, we review the evolution of the intelligent vehicle and the supporting technologies with a focus on the progress and key challenges for vehicle system dynamics. A number of relevant themes around driving automation are explored in this article, with special focus on those most relevant to the underlying vehicle system dynamics. One conclusion is that increased precision is needed in sensing and controlling vehicle motions, a trend that can mimic that of the aerospace industry, and similarly benefit from increased use of redundant by-wire actuators.

  7. Modeling an impact of road geometric design on vehicle energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luin, Blaž; Petelin, Stojan; Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2017-11-01

    Some roads connect traffic origins and destinations directly, some use winding, indirect routes. Indirect connections result in longer distances driven and increased fuel consumption. A similar effect is observed on congested roads and mountain roads with many changes in altitude. Therefore a framework to assess road networks based on energy consumption is proposed. It has been shown that road geometry has significant impact on overall traffic energy consumption and emissions. The methodology presented in the paper analyzes impact of traffic volume, shares of vehicle classes, road network configuration on the energy used by the vehicles. It can be used to optimize energy consumption with efficient traffic management and to choose optimum new road in the design phase. This is especially important as the energy consumed by the vehicles shortly after construction supersedes the energy spent for the road construction.

  8. Evaluating Alternative Fuel Vehicles from Technical, Environmental and Economic Perspectives: Case of Light-Duty Vehicles in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Aryanpur; Ehsan Shafiei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and technoeconomic evaluation of light duty vehicles in Iran. A comprehensive well-to-wheel (WTW) analysis is applied to compare different automotive fuel chains, conventional internal combustion engines and innovative vehicle powertrains. The study examines the competitiveness of 15 various pathways in terms of energy efficiencies, GHG emissions, and levelized cost of different energy carriers. The results indicate that electric vehic...

  9. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, T.D.; Norbeck, J.M.; Smith, M.R.; Truex, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  10. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 20 USE OF PRIVATE VEHICLES FOR OFFICIAL DUTY - INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division - Tel. 73634

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 20 on the use of private vehicles for official duty is shortly to be revised with a view to making certain procedures more flexible. CERN no longer requires members of the personnel to take out optional private insurances (insurance for official journeys, legal assistance insurance) in the case of duty travel for the Organization, since the associated risks are covered by CERN's own insurance. Pending the above mentioned revision, members of the personnel may continue to use their private vehicles for official duty in accordance with the others provisions laid down in the Circular Reminder: Owners of private vehicles must of course be insured by the normal compulsory car insurance required by the laws of the Host States when driving on and off the CERN sites.

  11. Road simulation for four-wheel vehicle whole input power spectral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangbo; Qiang, Baomin

    2017-05-01

    As the vibration of running vehicle mainly comes from road and influence vehicle ride performance. So the road roughness power spectral density simulation has great significance to analyze automobile suspension vibration system parameters and evaluate ride comfort. Firstly, this paper based on the mathematical model of road roughness power spectral density, established the integral white noise road random method. Then in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, according to the research method of automobile suspension frame from simple two degree of freedom single-wheel vehicle model to complex multiple degrees of freedom vehicle model, this paper built the simple single incentive input simulation model. Finally the spectrum matrix was used to build whole vehicle incentive input simulation model. This simulation method based on reliable and accurate mathematical theory and can be applied to the random road simulation of any specified spectral which provides pavement incentive model and foundation to vehicle ride performance research and vibration simulation.

  12. RDE-based assessment of a factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašić, Davor; Rodman Oprešnik, Samuel; Seljak, Tine; Vihar, Rok; Baškovič, Urban Žvar; Wechtersbach, Tomaž; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2017-10-01

    On-road exhaust emissions of a Euro 5 factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle equipped with the TWC were assessed considering the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) guidelines. The vehicle was equipped with a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) that enabled the measurement of THC, CO, NOx, CO2, and CH4. With respect to the characteristics of the vehicle, the appropriate Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) were selected and based on the requirements of the RDE legislation a suitable route was conceived. In addition to the moderate RDE-based route, an extended RDE-based route was also determined. The vehicle was driven along each defined route twice, once with each individual fuel option and with a fully warm vehicle. RDE routes feature a multitude of new driving patterns that are significantly different to those encountered in the NEDC. However, as these driving patterns can greatly influence the cumulative emissions an insight in to local time trace phenomena is crucial to understand, reason and to possibly reduce the cumulative emissions. Original contributions of this paper comprise analyses of the RDE-LDV local time resolved driving emissions phenomena of a CNG-powered vehicle that are benchmarked against the ones measured under the use of gasoline in the same vehicle and under similar operating conditions to reason emission trends through driving patterns and powertrain parameters and exposing the strong cold-start independent interference of CO and N2O infrared absorption bands in the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. The paper provides experimental evidence on this interference, which significantly influences on the readings of CO emissions. The paper further provides hypotheses why CO and N2O interference is more pronounced when using CNG in LDVs and supports these hypotheses by PEMS tests. The study reveals that the vehicle's NOx real-world emission values of both conceived RDE-based routes when using both fuels are

  13. Multi-year remote-sensing measurements of gasoline light-duty vehicle emissions on a freeway ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, A.; Andreasson, K.

    2000-01-01

    On-road optical remote-sensing measurements of gasoline light-duty vehicle (LDV) emissions - CO, HC, NO - were conducted on a freeway ramp in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1991, 1995 and 1998. Based on almost 30,000 emission measurements, the results show that both catalyst cars and non-catalyst cars emissions deteriorate over time, but also that the emission performance of new TWC-cars has improved significantly in recent years. Furthermore, it was found that fleet age rather than model year determines the rate of emission deterioration for TWC-cars for both CO and NO. The study demonstrates that remote sensing may constitute a powerful tool to evaluate real-world LDV emissions; however, daily field calibration procedures need to be developed in order to assure that the evolution in fleet average emissions can be accurately measured. (author)

  14. Runoff and windblown vehicle spray from road surfaces, risks and measures for soil and water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, P.N.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Vergouwen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and surface water along roads are exposed to pollution from motorways. The main pollutants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil, heavy metals and salt. These pollutants originate from vehicles (fuel, wires, leakage), wear and degradation of road surfaces and road furniture

  15. 36 CFR 293.6 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial enterprises, roads..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.6 Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles... National Forest Wilderness no commercial enterprises; no temporary or permanent roads; no aircraft landing...

  16. 50 CFR 35.5 - Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial enterprises, roads, motor... Rules § 35.5 Commercial enterprises, roads, motor vehicles, motorized equipment, motorboats, aircraft... private rights, there shall be no commercial enterprise and no permanent road within a wilderness unit...

  17. 36 CFR 261.56 - Use of vehicles off National Forest System roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Forest System roads. 261.56 Section 261.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... National Forest System roads. When provided by an order, it is prohibited to possess or use a vehicle off National Forest System roads. [42 FR 2957, Jan. 14, 1977, as amended at 66 FR 3218, Jan. 12, 2001] ...

  18. All-terrain vehicle fatalities on paved roads, unpaved roads, and off-road: Evidence for informed roadway safety warnings and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene M; Jennissen, Charles A

    2016-05-18

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are designed for off-highway use only, and many of their features create increased risk with roadway travel. Over half of all ATV-related fatalities occur on roadways, and nonfatal roadway crashes result in more serious injuries than those off the road. A number of jurisdictions have passed or have considered legislation allowing ATVs on public roadways, sometimes limiting them to those unpaved, arguing that they are safe for ATVs. However, no studies have determined the epidemiology of ATV-related fatalities on different road surface types. The objective of the study was to compare ATV-related deaths on paved versus unpaved roads and to contrast them with off-road fatalities. Retrospective descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed using U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission fatality data from 1982 through 2012. After 1998, ATV-related deaths increased at twice the rate on paved versus unpaved roads. Still, 42% of all roadway deaths during the study period occurred on unpaved surfaces. States varied considerably, ranging from 18% to 79% of their ATV-related roadway deaths occurring on unpaved roads. Paved road crashes were more likely than those on unpaved surfaces to involve males, adolescents and younger adults, passengers, and collisions with other vehicles. Both the pattern of other vehicles involved in collisions and which vehicle hit the other were different for the 2 road types. Alcohol use was higher, helmet use was lower, and head injuries were more likely in paved versus unpaved roadway crashes. However, head injuries still occurred in 76% of fatalities on unpaved roads. Helmets were associated with lower proportions of head injuries among riders, regardless of road surface type. Relative to off-road crashes, both paved and unpaved roads were more likely to involve collisions with another vehicle. The vast majority of roadway crashes, however, did not involve a traffic collision on either paved or unpaved roads

  19. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Xi to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Light-Duty Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Light-Duty Vehicles XI Appendix XI to Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Enforcement Auditing of Light-Duty Vehicles 40% AQL Table 1—Sampling Plan Code Letter Annual sales of...

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel...

  2. 75 FR 38168 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2011 Light Duty Truck Lines Subject to the Requirements of... light-duty truck lines subject to the requirements of the Federal motor vehicle theft prevention... exemption from the parts marking requirements of the Theft Prevention Standard for the Jaguar XJ vehicle...

  3. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  4. Real-time black carbon emission factor measurements from light duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, Sara D; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D

    2013-11-19

    Eight light-duty gasoline low emission vehicles (LEV I) were tested on a Chassis dynamometer using the California Unified Cycle (UC) at the Haagen-Smit vehicle test facility at the California Air Resources Board in El Monte, CA during September 2011. The UC includes a cold start phase followed by a hot stabilized running phase. In addition, a light-duty gasoline LEV vehicle and ultralow emission vehicle (ULEV), and a light-duty diesel passenger vehicle and gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle were tested on a constant velocity driving cycle. A variety of instruments with response times ≥0.1 Hz were used to characterize how the emissions of the major particulate matter components varied for the LEVs during a typical driving cycle. This study focuses primarily on emissions of black carbon (BC). These measurements allowed for the determination of BC emission factors throughout the driving cycle, providing insights into the temporal variability of BC emission factors during different phases of a typical driving cycle.

  5. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EE-33, 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20585, or to such other... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. 490.203 Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM...

  6. Design of power steering systems for heavy-duty long-haul vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Backx, E.A.; Hofman, T.; Voets, H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, all auxiliaries present in a heavy-duty vehicle (e.g., power-steering pump, air-conditioning compressor) are engine-driven systems, which put high constraints on their performance. Outputs (e.g., speed, temperature) and energy consumption are dictated by engine speed, while most

  7. 77 FR 34149 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... selective catalytic reduction technologies. Third, EPA is proposing to offer short-term relief for nonroad..., Attention Docket No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-1032. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket's normal..., especially given some emergency vehicles' extreme duty cycles. By this action, EPA intends to help our nation...

  8. 10 CFR 490.304 - Which new light duty motor vehicles are covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 490.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM...) Exception. If a covered person has more than one affiliate, division, or other business unit, then section 490.302 of this part only applies to light duty motor vehicles newly acquired by an affiliate...

  9. Study on Reverse Reconstruction Method of Vehicle Group Situation in Urban Road Network Based on Driver-Vehicle Feature Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle group situation is the status and situation of dynamic permutation which is composed of target vehicle and neighboring traffic entities. It is a concept which is frequently involved in the research of traffic flow theory, especially the active vehicle security. Studying vehicle group situation in depth is of great significance for traffic safety. Three-lane condition was taken as an example; the characteristics of target vehicle and its neighboring vehicles were synthetically considered to restructure the vehicle group situation in this paper. The Gamma distribution theory was used to identify the vehicle group situation when target vehicle arrived at the end of the study area. From the perspective of driver-vehicle feature evolution, the reverse reconstruction method of vehicle group situation in the urban road network was proposed. Results of actual driving, virtual driving, and simulation experiments showed that the model established in this paper was reasonable and feasible.

  10. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

  11. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Feng Wang; Ming-Ming Dong; Liang Gu; Jagat-Jyoti Rath; Ye-Chen Qin; Bin Bai

    2017-01-01

    Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steer...

  12. Dynamics of a motor vehicle taking into consideration the interaction of wheels and road pavement surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prentkovskis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this article focus on the simulation of the motor vehicle on a certain road and propose their specific solution of this problem. A mathematical model of the system “motor vehicle – road” is presented. The motor vehicle is simulated by concentrated masses interconnected by elastic and dissipative links. The presented model of the motor vehicle evaluates the movement of the motor vehicle body in space; the movement and turning of front and rear suspensions with respect to the body; the interaction of the wheel with the road pavement surface; the blocking of the wheel; the changing cohesive forces which influence the motor vehicle. The investigated road pavement surface is simulated by triangular finite elements, the certain height of road pavement surface roughness and the cohesion coefficients of road pavement surface and the motor vehicle wheel in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the wheel are selected in each finite element nodal point. The presented results illustrate: the motor vehicle movement trajectories braking at various initial conditions and on a certain pavement surface of the road section under investigation and the motor vehicle driving on the speed reduction bump (“sleeping policeman”.

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  14. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Dr Janet L [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Greene, David [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gibson, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  15. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  16. Studying the Effect of Roughness of Wet Road on Critical speed of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is one the most dangerous phenomena which effect on the safety of driving cars on wet roads, then, the critical speed of slipping cars is an important parameter in the hydroplaning ,and depends on the properties of  the following three  parameters: tires, water layer and  road surface. The road texture is the main property of road specifications which affect directly on the critical speed of the vehicle. In the present work, the properties of road roughness and influence of surface texture on critical speed of vehicle are studied with variation of the following parameters: thickness and dynamic viscosity of water on the road surface and the vehicle load. The results showed that increasing the road surface roughness and the vehicle load both has a appositive influence on the critical speed (increaseof the vehicle, while increasing the dynamic viscosity and thickness of the water layer on the road surface has a negative influence on the critical speed (decrease of the vehicle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.24

  17. Use of fatal real-life crashes to analyze a safe road transport system model, including the road user, the vehicle, and the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are

  18. Vehicle operation characteristic under different ramp entrance conditions in underground road: Analysis, simulation and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiming; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    An experimental design was used to study the vehicle operation characteristics of different ramp entrance conditions in underground road. With driving simulator, the experimental scenarios include left or right ramp with first, second and third service level, respectively, to collect vehicle speed, acceleration, lateral displacement and location information at the ramp entrance section. By using paired t-test and ANOVA, the influence factors of vehicle operating characteristics are studied. The result shows that effects of ramp layout and mainline traffic environment on vehicle operation characteristics are significant. The regression model of vehicle traveling distance on acceleration lane is established. Suggestions are made for ramp entrance design of underground road.

  19. Road vehicle emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2) from a tunnel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Juergens, Niklas; Steinbacher, Martin; Reimann, Stefan; Weilenmann, Martin; Buchmann, Brigitte

    Motor vehicle combustion emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were measured during a 6-week period from November 2004 to January 2005 in Gubrist Tunnel, Switzerland, to determine vehicle emission factors for these trace gases and the ratios of the concentration growths ΔH2/ΔCO and ΔH2/ΔCO2 in the tunnel under real-world highway driving conditions. For H 2, molar mixing ratios at the tunnel exit were found to be 7-10 ppm (parts-per-million, 10-6) during rush hours. Mean emission factors of E=49.7(±16.5)mgkm-1, ECO=1.46(±0.54)gkm-1, and E=266(±69)gkm-1 were calculated. E was largest during weekday rush-hour traffic, a consequence of the more frequent accelerations in congested traffic when fuel combustion is not optimal. E was smaller for heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) compared to light-duty vehicles (LDV), a finding which was attributed to the diesel vs. gasoline engine technology. The mean ΔH2/ΔCO molecular ratio was 0.48±0.12. This ratio increased to ˜0.6 during rush hours, suggesting that H 2 yield is favored relative to CO under fuel-rich conditions, presumably a consequence of an increasing contribution of the water-gas-shift reaction. The mean ΔH2/ΔCO2 molecular ratio was 4.4×10-3 but reduced to 2.5×10-3 when the relative HDV abundance was at maximum. Using three different approaches, road traffic H 2 emissions were estimated for 2004 for Switzerland at 5.0-6.6 Gg and globally at 4.2-8.1 Tg. Despite projections of increasing traffic, Swiss H 2 emissions are not expected to change significantly in the near future, and global emissions are likely to decrease due to improved exhaust gas clean-up technologies.

  20. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  1. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  2. Policy Pathways: Improving the Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles - A policy package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately one-fifth of global final energy consumption and will account for nearly all future growth in oil use, particularly for road vehicles. The right policy mix can allow countries to improve the fuel economy of road vehicles, which in turn can enhance energy security and reduce CO2 emissions. Improving the Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles highlights lessons learned and examples of good practices from countries with experience in implementing fuel economy policies for vehicles. The report, part of the IEA’s Policy Pathway series, outlines key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. It complements the IEA Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy for Road Vehicles, which outlines technical options, potentials, and costs towards improvement in the near, medium and long term.

  3. Robust Road Condition Detection System Using In-Vehicle Standard Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System, Stability Control System, etc., represents a major evolution in road safety. In the automotive sector, the term vehicle active safety systems refers to those whose goal is to help avoid a crash or to reduce the risk of having an accident. These systems safeguard us, being in continuous evolution and incorporating new capabilities continuously. In order for these systems and vehicles to work adequately, they need to know some fundamental information: the road condition on which the vehicle is circulating. This early road detection is intended to allow vehicle control systems to act faster and more suitably, thus obtaining a substantial advantage. In this work, we try to detect the road condition the vehicle is being driven on, using the standard sensors installed in commercial vehicles. Vehicle models were programmed in on-board systems to perform real-time estimations of the forces of contact between the wheel and road and the speed of the vehicle. Subsequently, a fuzzy logic block is used to obtain an index representing the road condition. Finally, an artificial neural network was used to provide the optimal slip for each surface. Simulations and experiments verified the proposed method.

  4. Robust Road Condition Detection System Using In-Vehicle Standard Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Carabias Acosta, Enrique

    2015-12-19

    The appearance of active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System, Stability Control System, etc., represents a major evolution in road safety. In the automotive sector, the term vehicle active safety systems refers to those whose goal is to help avoid a crash or to reduce the risk of having an accident. These systems safeguard us, being in continuous evolution and incorporating new capabilities continuously. In order for these systems and vehicles to work adequately, they need to know some fundamental information: the road condition on which the vehicle is circulating. This early road detection is intended to allow vehicle control systems to act faster and more suitably, thus obtaining a substantial advantage. In this work, we try to detect the road condition the vehicle is being driven on, using the standard sensors installed in commercial vehicles. Vehicle models were programmed in on-board systems to perform real-time estimations of the forces of contact between the wheel and road and the speed of the vehicle. Subsequently, a fuzzy logic block is used to obtain an index representing the road condition. Finally, an artificial neural network was used to provide the optimal slip for each surface. Simulations and experiments verified the proposed method.

  5. Vehicle Velocity and Roll Angle Estimation with Road and Friction Adaptation for Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle velocity and roll angle are important information for active safety control systems of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. In order to obtain robustness estimation of vehicle velocity and roll angle, a novel method is proposed based on vehicle dynamics and the measurement information provided by the sensors equipped in modern cars. The method is robust with respect to different road and friction conditions. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle are analyzed, and a four-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic model of vehicle and a tire longitudinal dynamic equation are established. The relationship between the longitudinal and lateral friction forces is derived based on Dugoff tire model. The unknown input reconstruction technique of sliding mode observer is used to achieve longitudinal tire friction force estimation. A simple observer is designed for the estimation of the roll angle of the vehicle. And then using the relationship, the estimated longitudinal friction forces and roll angle, a sliding mode observer for vehicle velocity estimation is provided, which does not need to know the tire-road friction coefficient and road angles. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated experimentally under a variety of maneuvers and road conditions.

  6. Recent evidence concerning higher NO x emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Beevers, Sean D.; Tate, James E.; Westmoreland, Emily J.; Williams, Martin L.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient trends in nitrogen oxides (NO x) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) for many air pollution monitoring sites in European cities have stabilised in recent years. The lack of a decrease in the concentration of NO x and in particular NO 2 is of concern given European air quality standards are set in law. The lack of decrease in the concentration of NO x and NO 2 is also in clear disagreement with emission inventory estimates and projections. This work undertakes a comprehensive analysis of recent vehicle emissions remote sensing data from seven urban locations across the UK. The large sample size of 84,269 vehicles was carefully cross-referenced to a detailed and comprehensive database of vehicle information. We find that there are significant discrepancies between current UK/European estimates of NO x emissions and those derived from the remote sensing data for several important classes of vehicle. In the case of light duty diesel vehicles it is found that NO x emissions have changed little over 20 years or so over a period when the proportion of directly emitted NO 2 has increased substantially. For diesel cars it is found that absolute emissions of NO x are higher across all legislative classes than suggested by UK and other European emission inventories. Moreover, the analysis shows that more recent technology diesel cars (Euro 3-5) have clear increasing NO x emissions as a function of Vehicle Specific Power, which is absent for older technology vehicles. Under higher engine loads, these newer model diesel cars have a NO x/CO 2 ratio twice that of older model cars, which may be related to the increased use of turbo-charging. Current emissions of NO x from early technology catalyst-equipped petrol cars (Euro 1/2) were also found to be higher than emission inventory estimates - and comparable with NO x emissions from diesel cars. For heavy duty vehicles, it is found that NO x emissions were relatively stable until the introduction of Euro IV technology when

  7. Parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs for conventional and electric light-duty vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, Garrett E.; Reichmuth, David; Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn K.; Guzman, Katherine D.; Edwards, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    A parametric analysis is used to examine the supply demand interactions between the US light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources through 2050. The analysis emphasizes competition between conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, including hybrids, and electric vehicles (EVs), represented by both plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. We find that EV market penetration could double relative to our baseline case with policies to extend consumers' effective payback period to 7 years. EVs can also reduce per vehicle petroleum consumption by up to 5% with opportunities to increase that fraction at higher adoption rates. However, EVs have limited ability to reduce LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the current energy source mix. Alone, EVs cannot drive compliance with the most aggressive GHG emission reduction targets, even if the electricity grid shifts towards natural gas powered sources. Since ICEs will dominate the LDV fleet for up to 40 years, conventional vehicle efficiency improvements have the greatest potential for reductions in LDV GHG emissions and petroleum consumption over this time. Specifically, achieving fleet average efficiencies of 72 mpg or greater can reduce average GHG emissions by 70% and average petroleum consumption by 81%. - Highlights: ► Parametric analysis of the light duty vehicle fleet, its fuels, and energy sources. ► Conventional vehicles will dominate the fleet for up to 40 years. ► Improving gasoline powertrain efficiency is essential for GHG and oil use reduction. ► Electric vehicles have limited leverage over GHG emissions with the current grid mix. ► Consumer payback period extensions can double electric vehicle market share.

  8. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang; Deng, Wei; Lü, Sujun; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Boguang

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 ) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH 3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH 3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH 3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L −1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km −1 . These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L −1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km −1 ) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH 3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH 3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States. (letter)

  9. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Boguang; Ding, Xiang; Deng, Wei; Lü, Sujun; Zhang, Yanli

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L-1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km-1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L-1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km-1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States.

  10. Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010 - 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohlke, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2018-01-25

    This report examines the sales of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the United States from 2010 to 2017, exploring vehicle sales, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and battery production, among other factors. Over 750,000 PEVs have been sold, driving nearly 16 billion miles on electricity, thereby reducing gasoline consumption by 0.1% in 2016 and 600 million gallons cumulatively through 2017, while using over 5 terawatt-hours of electricity. Over 23 gigawatt-hours of battery capacity has been placed in vehicles, and 98% of this is still on the road, assuming typical scrappage rates.

  11. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-position three-way electromagnetic valve with double coil as actuator. The system could keep the vehicle parking brake status or parking release status for a long time without power supply. The function modules of the system are planned, and the control strategies of automatic parking brake and parking release are made. The experiment is performed on a medium-sized commercial vehicle which is experimentally modified. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system and the automatic parking function are proved through real vehicle tests.

  12. 76 FR 48758 - 2017-2025 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards: Supplemental Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... definitions of mild and strong HEV pickup trucks, but expect to include stop/start, regenerative braking... (light-duty vehicles) built in those model years. Together, these vehicle categories, which include... provides the opportunity to begin to transform the most challenging category of vehicles in terms of the...

  13. Vehicle infrastructure integration (VII) based road-condition warning system for highway collision prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    As a major ITS initiative, the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program is to revolutionize : transportation by creating an enabling communication infrastructure that will open up a wide range of : safety applications. The road-condition warn...

  14. Perceptions of autonomous vehicles: Relationships with road users, risk, gender and age

    OpenAIRE

    Hulse, Lynn M.; Xie, Hui; Galea, Edwin R.

    2018-01-01

    Fully automated self-driving cars, with expected benefits including improved road safety, are closer to becoming a reality. Thus, attention has turned to gauging public perceptions of these autonomous vehicles. To date, surveys have focused on the public as potential passengers of autonomous cars, overlooking other road users who would interact with them. Comparisons with perceptions of other existing vehicles are also lacking. This study surveyed almost 1000 participants on their perceptions...

  15. Road Transport Management System (RTMS): a self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the heavy vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities...

  16. Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai-Lin Litzke; James Wegrzyn

    2001-01-01

    In addition to their significant environmental impacts, medium-duty and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles are high volume fuel users. Development of such vehicles, which include transit buses, refuse trucks, and HD Class 6-8 trucks, that are fueled with natural gas is strategic to market introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV). Over the past five years the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) has funded technological developments in NGV systems to support the growth of this sector in the highly competitive transportation market. The goals are to minimize emissions associated with NGV use, to improve on the economies of scale, and to continue supporting the testing and safety assessments of all new systems. This paper provides an overview of the status of major projects under a program supported by DOE/OHVT and managed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The discussion focuses on the program's technical strategy in meeting specific goals proposed by the N GV industry and the government. Relevant projects include the development of low-cost fuel storage, fueling infrastructure, and HD vehicle applications

  17. Evaluation of particulate filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.

    2009-10-01

    In the light of the currently running subsidy programme for particulate filters in the Netherlands, the Dutch ministry of spatial planning and environment (VROM) asked TNO to execute a desk study to evaluate the particulates filtration efficiency of retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles (passenger cars and vans). The typical retrofit particulate filters for light duty vehicles are also called 'open' or 'half-open' filters, because a part of the exhaust gas can pass through the particulate filter unfiltered. From design point they are very different from the majority of the factory installed particulate filters, which are also called wall-flow or 'closed' particulate filters. Due to these differences there is a large difference in filtration efficiency. Whereas the 'dosed' particulate filters show a filtration efficiency of larger than 90%, the filtration efficiency of 'open' particulate filters is generally lower (type approval minimum 30%), and strongly dependent on the conditions of use. The objective of the current project was to assess the average filtration efficiency of retrofit (open) particulate fillters on light duty vehicles in real world day to day driving, based on available literature data. Also, the reasons of a possible deviation with the type approval test results (minimum filtration efficiency of 30%) was investigated.

  18. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  19. A Noise-Insensitive Semi-Active Air Suspension for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with an Integrated Fuzzy-Wheelbase Preview Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-active air suspension is increasingly used on heavy-duty vehicles due to its capabilities of consuming less power and low cost and providing better ride quality. In this study, a new low cost but effective approach, fuzzy-wheelbase preview controller with wavelet denoising filter (FPW, is developed for semi-active air suspension system. A semi-active suspension system with a rolling lobe air spring is firstly modeled and a novel front axle vertical acceleration-based road prediction model is constructed. By adopting a sensor on the front axle, the road prediction model can predict more reliable road information for the rear wheel. After filtering useless signal noise, the proposed FPW can generate a noise-insensitive control damping force. Simulation results show that the ride quality, the road holding, the handling capability, the road friendliness, and the comprehensive performance of the semi-active air suspension with FPW outperform those with the traditional active suspension with PID-wheelbase preview controller (APP. It can also be seen that, with the addition of the wavelet filter, the impact of sensor noise on the suspension performance can be minimized.

  20. Comparison of real-world and certification emission rates for light duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanzila; Frey, H Christopher

    2018-05-01

    U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative. A systematic comparison of the real-world emission rates of U.S. light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) versus CL, and emission standards has not been previously reported. The purpose of this work is to compare regulatory limits (both CLs and emission standards) and the real-world emissions of LDGVs. The sensitivity of the comparisons to cold start emission was assessed. Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) were used to measure hot stabilized exhaust emissions of 122 LDGVs on a specified 110 mile test route. Cold start emissions were measured with PEMS for a selected vehicle sample of 32 vehicles. Emissions were measured for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). For each vehicle, a Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) modal emission rate model was developed. The VSP modal rates were weighted by the standard driving cycles and real-world driving cycles to estimate the respective cycle average emission rates (CAERs). Measured vehicles were matched with certification test vehicles for comparison. For systematic trends in comparison, vehicles were classified into four groups based on the Tier 1 and Tier 2 emission regulation, and the vehicle type such as passenger car and passenger truck. Depending on the cycle-pollutant and the vehicle groups, hot stabilized CAERs are on average either statistically

  1. Advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigell, Annika Stensson; Rothhämel, Malte; Pauwelussen, Joop; Kural, Karel

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents state-of-the art within advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety. The most common accidents with heavy trucks involved are truck against passenger cars. Safety critical situations are for example loss of control (such as rollover and lateral stability) and a majority of these occur during speed when cornering. Other critical situations are avoidance manoeuvre and road edge recovery. The dynamic behaviour of heavy trucks have significant differences compared to passenger cars and as a consequence, successful application of vehicle dynamic functions for enhanced safety of trucks might differ from the functions in passenger cars. Here, the differences between vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks and passenger cars are clarified. Advanced vehicle dynamics solutions with the perspective of road safety of trucks are presented, beginning with the topic vehicle stability, followed by the steering system, the braking system and driver assistance systems that differ in some way from that of passenger cars as well.

  2. Accidents involving off-road motor vehicles in a northern community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, P; Wilding, H R

    1987-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents associated with off-road motor vehicles used for recreational purposes prompted this prospective study. During 1985 the records of victims of all motor vehicle accidents who were seen at the Hudson Bay Union Hospital, Hudson Bay, Sask., were studied; patients involved in on-road vehicle accidents were included for comparison. Emphasis was placed on age, vehicle type, mechanism of accident, injury severity and the use of safety features. Almost half of the victims of off-road vehicle accidents were under 16 years of age. The poor adherence to government legislation and manufacturer recommendations was evident in the number of people who did not wear helmets or use headlights. PMID:3651929

  3. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF DRIVING CONDITIONS AND ON-ROAD EMISSIONS TRENDS FOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad H. Al-rifai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of road grade, vehicle speed, nu mber of vehicles and vehicle type on vehicle emissions. ANOVA analyses were conducte d among different driving conditions and vehicle emissions to discover the signif icant effects of driving conditions on measured emission rates. This study is intended t o improve the understanding of vehicle emission levels in Jordan. Gas emissio ns in real-world driving conditions were measured by a por table emissions measurement un it over six sections of an urban road. The road grade, speed, type and number of veh icles were found to have a significant influence on the rate of gas emissions. Road grade and diesel-fueled vehicles were positively correlate d with average emission rates . The average emission rates were higher at speeds ranging between 60–69 km/h than at three other speed ranges. The results of ANOVA showed a strong and consistent reg ression between rates of emissions measured and grade, speed and diesel vehicle parameters. The grade parameter contributed the most to the rate of emissions compare d to other parameters. Gasoline vehicles contributed the least.

  4. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  5. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  6. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  7. Research on Correlation between Vehicle Cycle and Engine Cycle in Heavy-duty commercial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    lin, Chen; Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Liu

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the correlation between vehicle cycle and engine cycle in heavy commercial vehicles, the conversion model of vehicle cycle to engine cycle is constructed based on the vehicle power system theory and shift strategy, which considers the verification on diesel truck. The results show that the model has high rationality and reliability in engine operation. In the acceleration process of high speed, the difference of model gear selection leads to the actual deviation. Compared with the drum test, the engine speed distribution obtained by the model deviates to right, which fits to the lower grade. The grade selection has high influence on the model.

  8. [Real world instantaneous emission simulation for light-duty diesel vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Dai, Pu; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Cheng, Zhen; Jia, Ji-Hong

    2008-10-01

    Core architecture and input parameters of CMEM model were introduced to simulation the second by second vehicle emission rate on real world by taking a light-duty diesel car as a case. On-board test data by a portable emission measurement system were then used to validate the simulation results. Test emission factors of CO, THC, NO(x) and CO2 were respectively 0.81, 0.61, 2.09, and 193 g x km(-1), while calculated emission factors were 0.75, 0.47, 2.47, and 212 g x km(-1). The correlation coefficients reached 0.69, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.72. Simulated instantaneous emissions of the light duty diesel vehicle by CMEM model were strongly coherent with the transient driving cycle. By analysis, CO, THC, NO(x), and CO2 emissions would be reduced by 50%, 47%, 45%, and 44% after improving the traffic situation at the intersection. The result indicated that it is necessary and feasible to simulate the instantaneous emissions of mixed vehicle fleet in some typical traffic areas by the micro-scale vehicle emission model.

  9. Environmentally friendly traffic management system using integrated road-vehicle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.M.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Local habitability is coming under increasing pressure from harmful traffic emissions. This emission is strongly correlated to the characteristics and dynamics of traffic: type of vehicle, speed, acceleration and deceleration. This paper investigates the use of integrated road-vehicle systems for

  10. Road Vehicle Monitoring System Based on Intelligent Visual Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the rapid development of video surveillance infrastructure, more and more intelligent surveillance systems have employed computer vision and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper, we present a novel intelligent surveillance system used for the management of road vehicles based on Intelligent Visual Internet of Things (IVIoT. The system has the ability to extract the vehicle visual tags on the urban roads; in other words, it can label any vehicle by means of computer vision and therefore can easily recognize vehicles with visual tags. The nodes designed in the system can be installed not only on the urban roads for providing basic information but also on the mobile sensing vehicles for providing mobility support and improving sensing coverage. Visual tags mentioned in this paper consist of license plate number, vehicle color, and vehicle type and have several additional properties, such as passing spot and passing moment. Moreover, we present a fast and efficient image haze removal method to deal with haze weather condition. The experiment results show that the designed road vehicle monitoring system achieves an average real-time tracking accuracy of 85.80% under different conditions.

  11. Impact of the Road Profile on Vehicle Deceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Žuraulis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the impact of the longitudinal road profile on the efficiency of car braking estimated applying deceleration value. Different formulas are used for theoretical calculations, and therefore experimental brakes in different road slopes were performed to obtain the most accurate results. Deceleration, as one of the most important safety parameters, depends on the technical condition of the braking system, road conditions and structural and dynamic properties of the other car. Road alignments can significantly affect car manageability, because of weight transfer and extra track resistance, which may change the overall balance of the car and affect the nature of dynamic characteristics that may vary from certain critical values. The results of corrections to deceleration dependence on the road profile can be used for investigating traffic accidents, optimizing traffic control arrangements and implementing advanced systems for automotive active safety.

  12. Incorporating Road Crossing Data into Vehicle Collision Risk Models for Moose (Alces americanus) in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Katherine A; Wattles, David W; DeStefano, Stephen

    2018-05-09

    Wildlife-vehicle collisions are a human safety issue and may negatively impact wildlife populations. Most wildlife-vehicle collision studies predict high-risk road segments using only collision data. However, these data lack biologically relevant information such as wildlife population densities and successful road-crossing locations. We overcome this shortcoming with a new method that combines successful road crossings with vehicle collision data, to identify road segments that have both high biological relevance and high risk. We used moose (Alces americanus) road-crossing locations from 20 moose collared with Global Positioning Systems as well as moose-vehicle collision (MVC) data in the state of Massachusetts, USA, to create multi-scale resource selection functions. We predicted the probability of moose road crossings and MVCs across the road network and combined these surfaces to identify road segments that met the dual criteria of having high biological relevance and high risk for MVCs. These road segments occurred mostly on larger roadways in natural areas and were surrounded by forests, wetlands, and a heterogenous mix of land cover types. We found MVCs resulted in the mortality of 3% of the moose population in Massachusetts annually. Although there have been only three human fatalities related to MVCs in Massachusetts since 2003, the human fatality rate was one of the highest reported in the literature. The rate of MVCs relative to the size of the moose population and the risk to human safety suggest a need for road mitigation measures, such as fencing, animal detection systems, and large mammal-crossing structures on roadways in Massachusetts.

  13. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  14. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James M; Crisp, Timia A; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Forestieri, Sara D; Perraud, Véronique; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2014-10-07

    Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission rates from light duty gasoline vehicles, operated under driving conditions, have not been determined. Here, we present the first measurements of real-time emission factors of isocyanic acid from a fleet of eight light duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGVs) tested on a chassis dynamometer using the Unified Driving Cycle (UC) at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Haagen-Smit test facility, all of which were equipped with three-way catalytic converters. HNCO emissions were observed from all vehicles, in contrast to the idealized laboratory measurements. We report the tested fleet averaged HNCO emission factors, which depend strongly on the phase of the drive cycle; ranging from 0.46 ± 0.13 mg kg fuel(-1) during engine start to 1.70 ± 1.77 mg kg fuel(-1) during hard acceleration after the engine and catalytic converter were warm. The tested eight-car fleet average fuel based HNCO emission factor was 0.91 ± 0.58 mg kg fuel(-1), within the range previously estimated for light duty diesel-powered vehicles (0.21-3.96 mg kg fuel(-1)). Our results suggest that HNCO emissions from LDGVs represent a significant emission source in urban areas that should be accounted for in global and regional models.

  15. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluder, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO(sub 2)-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles

  16. Slip Control of Electric Vehicle Based on Tire-Road Friction Coefficient Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojian Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time change of tire-road friction coefficient is one of the important factors that influence vehicle safety performance. Besides, the vehicle wheels’ locking up has become an important issue. In order to solve these problems, this paper comes up with a novel slip control of electric vehicle (EV based on tire-road friction coefficient estimation. First and foremost, a novel method is proposed to estimate the tire-road friction coefficient, and then the reference slip ratio is determined based on the estimation results. Finally, with the reference slip ratio, a slip control based on model predictive control (MPC is designed to prevent the vehicle wheels from locking up. In this regard, the proposed controller guarantees the optimal braking torque on each wheel by individually controlling the slip ratio of each tire within the stable zone. Theoretical analyses and simulation show that the proposed controller is effective for better braking performance.

  17. Study on Emission Measurement of Vehicle on Road Based on Binomial Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Sumarni Hamid; Selintung, Mary; Ramli, Muhammad Isran; Sumi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to evaluate emission measurement of on road vehicle. In this regard, the research develops failure probability model of vehicle emission test for passenger car which utilize binomial logit model. The model focuses on failure of CO and HC emission test for gasoline cars category and Opacity emission test for diesel-fuel cars category as dependent variables, while vehicle age, engine size, brand and type of the cars as independent variables. In order to imp...

  18. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road User Safety Scenarios Involving Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Michieli, Umberto; Badia, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between pedestrians, bikers, and human-driven vehicles have been a major concern in traffic safety over the years. The upcoming age of autonomous vehicles will further raise major problems on whether self-driving cars can accurately avoid accidents; on the other hand, usability issues arise on whether human-driven cars and pedestrian can dominate the road at the expense of the autonomous vehicles which will be programmed to avoid accidents. This paper proposes some game theoretic...

  19. Measuring Algorithm for the Distance to a Preceding Vehicle on Curve Road Using On-Board Monocular Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guizhen; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Yunpeng; Wun, Xinkai; Wang, Pengcheng

    2015-12-01

    Due to more severe challenges of traffic safety problems, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) has received widespread attention. Measuring the distance to a preceding vehicle is important for ADAS. However, the existing algorithm focuses more on straight road sections than on curve measurements. In this paper, we present a novel measuring algorithm for the distance to a preceding vehicle on a curve road using on-board monocular camera. Firstly, the characteristics of driving on the curve road is analyzed and the recognition of the preceding vehicle road area is proposed. Then, the vehicle detection and distance measuring algorithms are investigated. We have verified these algorithms on real road driving. The experimental results show that this method proposed in the paper can detect the preceding vehicle on curve roads and accurately calculate the longitudinal distance and horizontal distance to the preceding vehicle.

  20. Influence of tyre-road contact model on vehicle vibration response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múčka, Peter; Gagnon, Louis

    2015-09-01

    The influence of the tyre-road contact model on the simulated vertical vibration response was analysed. Three contact models were compared: tyre-road point contact model, moving averaged profile and tyre-enveloping model. In total, 1600 real asphalt concrete and Portland cement concrete longitudinal road profiles were processed. The linear planar model of automobile with 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) was used. Five vibration responses as the measures of ride comfort, ride safety and dynamic load of cargo were investigated. The results were calculated as a function of vibration response, vehicle velocity, road quality and road surface type. The marked differences in the dynamic tyre forces and the negligible differences in the ride comfort quantities were observed among the tyre-road contact models. The seat acceleration response for three contact models and 331 DOF multibody model of the truck semi-trailer was compared with the measured response for a known profile of test section.

  1. Electric Vehicle Careers: On the Road to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations related to electric vehicles are similar to those that help to make and maintain all types of automobiles. But the industry is also adding some nontraditional jobs, and workers' skill sets must evolve to keep up. This article describes careers related to electric vehicles. The first section is about the electric vehicle industry…

  2. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  3. On-board measurements of emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in three mega-cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Yingzhi; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Yan; He, Kebin

    2012-03-01

    This paper is the second in a series of three papers aimed at understanding the emissions of vehicles in China by conducting on-board emission measurements. This paper focuses on light-duty gasoline vehicles. In this study, we measured 57 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) in three Chinese mega-cites (Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen), covering Euro 0 through Euro IV technologies, and generated CO, HC, and NOx emission factors and deterioration rates for each vehicle technology. The results show that the vehicle emission standards have played a significant role in reducing vehicle emission levels in China. The vehicle emission factors are reduced by 47-81%, 53-64%, 46-71%, and 78-82% for each phase from Euro I to Euro IV. Euro 0 vehicles have a considerably high emission level, which is hundreds of times larger than that of Euro IV vehicles. Three old taxis and four other Euro I and Euro II LDGVs are also identified as super emitters with equivalent emission levels to Euro 0 vehicles. Of the measured fleet, 23% super emitters were estimated to contribute 50-80% to total emissions. Besides vehicle emission standards, measures for restricting super emitters are equally important to reduce vehicle emissions. This study is intended to improve the understanding of the vehicle emission levels in China, but some key issues such as emission deterioration rates are yet to be addressed with the presence of a sufficient amount of vehicle emission measurements.

  4. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  5. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  6. Deriving fuel-based emission factor thresholds to interpret heavy-duty vehicle roadside plume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C; Smith, Jeremy D; Ham, Walter A; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Hu, Shaohua

    2018-04-13

    Remote sensing devices have been used for decades to measure gaseous emissions from individual vehicles at the roadside. Systems have also been developed that entrain diluted exhaust and can also measure particulate matter (PM) emissions. In 2015, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 8% of in-field diesel particulate filters (DPF) on heavy-duty (HD) vehicles were malfunctioning and emitted about 70% of total diesel PM emissions from the DPF-equipped fleet. A new high-emitter problem in the heavy-duty vehicle fleet had emerged. Roadside exhaust plume measurements reflect a snapshot of real-world operation, typically lasting several seconds. In order to relate roadside plume measurements to laboratory emission tests, we analyzed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), and PM emissions collected from four HD vehicles during several driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. We examined the fuel-based emission factors corresponding to possible exceedances of emission standards as a function of vehicle power. Our analysis suggests that a typical HD vehicle will exceed the model year (MY) 2010 emission standards (of 0.2 g NO X /bhp-hr and 0.01 g PM/bhp-hr) by three times when fuel-based emission factors are 9.3 g NO X /kg fuel and 0.11 g PM/kg using the roadside plume measurement approach. Reported limits correspond to 99% confidence levels, which were calculated using the detection uncertainty of emissions analyzers, accuracy of vehicle power calculations, and actual emissions variability of fixed operational parameters. The PM threshold was determined for acceleration events between 0.47 and 1.4 mph/sec only, and the NO X threshold was derived from measurements where aftertreatment temperature was above 200°C. Anticipating a growing interest in real-world driving emissions, widespread implementation of roadside exhaust plume measurements as a compliment to in-use vehicle programs may benefit from expanding this analysis to a larger

  7. Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Sjöbergh, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012-31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.-04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.-10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark-daylight, dark-twilight, and twilight-daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their

  8. Chassis dynamometer study of emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanowitz, J.; Graboski, M.S.; Ryan, L.B.A.; Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles were measured on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer via three driving cycles using a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and PM sulfate fraction were measured. For hot start tests, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 7.43 g/mi (mean 1.96) for PM; 4.15--54.0 g/mi (mean 23.3) for NO x ; 2.09--86.2 g/mi (mean 19.5) for CO; and 0.25--8.25 g/mi (mean 1.70) for THC. When emissions are converted to a g/gal basis, the effect of driving cycle is eliminated for NO x and largely eliminated for PM. Sulfate comprised less than 1% of the emitted PM for all vehicles and test cycles. A strong correlation is observed between emissions of CO and PM. Cold starting at 77 F produced an 11% increase in PM emissions. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that in-use PM emissions have decreased at a slower rate than anticipated based on the stricter engine certification test standards put into effect since 1985. NO x emissions do not decrease with model year for the vehicles tested here. Smoke opacity measurements are not well correlated with mass emissions of regulated pollutants

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicle emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Li, Wang; Sheng-Ao, Jing; Sheng-Rong, Lou; Qing-Yao, Hu; Li, Li; Shi-Kang, Tao; Cheng, Huang; Li-Ping, Qiao; Chang-Hong, Chen

    2017-12-31

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) source profiles of on-road vehicles were widely studied as their critical roles in VOCs source apportionment and abatement measures in megacities. Studies of VOCs source profiles from on-road motor vehicles from 2001 to 2016 were summarized in this study, with a focus on the comparisons among different studies and the potential impact of different factors. Generally, non-methane hydrocarbons dominated the source profile of on-road vehicle emissions. Carbonyls, potential important components of vehicle emission, were seldom considered in VOCs emissions of vehicles in the past and should be paid more attention to in further study. VOCs source profiles showed some variations among different studies, and 6 factors were extracted and studied due to their impact to VOCs source profile of on-road vehicles. Vehicle types, being dependent on engine types, and fuel types were two dominant factors impacting VOCs sources profiles of vehicles. In comparison, impacts of ignitions, driving conditions and accumulated mileage were mainly due to their influence on the combustion efficiency. An opening and interactive database of VOCs from vehicle emissions was critically essential in future, and mechanisms of sharing and inputting relative research results should be formed to encourage researchers join the database establishment. Correspondingly, detailed quality assurance and quality control procedures were also very important, which included the information of test vehicles and test methods as detailed as possible. Based on the community above, a better uncertainty analysis could be carried out for the VOCs emissions profiles, which was critically important to understand the VOCs emission characteristics of the vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep-related vehicle crashes on low speed roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits. Police reports of all crashes occurring on low and high speed roads over a ten year period between 2000 and 2009 were examined for Queensland, Australia. Attending police officers identified all crash attributes, including 'fatigue/fell asleep', which indicates that the police believe the crash to have a causal factor relating to falling asleep, sleepiness due to sleep loss, time of day, or fatigue. Driver or rider involvement in crashes was classified as SR or not-SR. All crash-associated variables were compared using Chi-square tests (Cramer's V=effect size). A series of logistic regression was performed, with driver and crash characteristics as predictors of crash category. A conservative alpha level of 0.001 determined statistical significance. There were 440,855 drivers or riders involved in a crash during this time; 6923 (1.6%) were attributed as SR. SR crashes on low speed roads have similar characteristics to those on high speed roads with young (16-24y) males consistently over represented. SR crashes on low speed roads are noticeably different to not-SR crashes in the same speed zone in that male and young novice drivers are over represented and outcomes are more severe. Of all the SR crashes identified, 41% occurred on low speed roads. SR crashes are not confined to high speed roads. Low speed SR crashes warrant specific investigation because they occur in densely populated areas, exposing a greater number of people to risk and have more severe outcomes than not-SR crashes

  11. Total dynamic response of a PSS vehicle negotiating asymmetric road excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2012-12-01

    A planar suspension system (PSS) is a novel automobile suspension system in which an individual spring-damper strut is implemented in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, respectively. The wheels in a vehicle with such a suspension system can move back and forth relative to the chassis. When a PSS vehicle experiences asymmetric road excitations, the relative longitudinal motion of wheels with respect to the chassis in two sides of the same axle are not identical, and thus the two wheels at one axle will not be aligned in the same axis. The total dynamic responses, including those of the bounce, pitch and the roll of the PSS vehicle, to the asymmetric road excitation may exhibit different characteristics from those of a conventional vehicle. This paper presents an investigation into the comprehensive dynamic behaviour of a vehicle with the PSS, in such a road condition, on both the straight and curved roads. The study was carried out using an 18 DOF full-car model incorporating a radial-spring tyre-ground contact model and a 2D tyre-ground dynamic friction model. Results demonstrate that the total dynamic behaviour of a PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of the conventional vehicle, while PSS exhibits significant improvement in absorbing the impact forces along the longitudinal direction when compared to the conventional suspension system. The PSS vehicle is found to be more stable than the conventional vehicle in terms of the directional performance against the disturbance of the road potholes on a straight line manoeuvre, while exhibiting a very similar handling performance on a curved line.

  12. Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) for Road Condition Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    McCullouch, Bob G.; Leung, Michelle; Kang, Wonjin

    2009-01-01

    This project developed an AVL system for INDOT that utilized the statewide wireless network, SAFE-T. This option was chosen after doing a cost analysis of commercial AVL systems that use cellular data communications. The system developed provides real time information collected during snow and ice removal. Information includes weather and road conditions, truck speed, amount of chemicals spread, time, location, plow position, and road temperature. This information is displayed on INDOT GIS ma...

  13. Impact of freeway weaving segment design on light-duty vehicle exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Shuyan; Li, Tiezhu

    2018-06-01

    In the United States, 26% of greenhouse gas emissions is emitted from the transportation sector; these emisssions meanwhile are accompanied by enormous toxic emissions to humans, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and hydrocarbon (HC), approximately 2.5% and 2.44% of a total exhaust emissions for a petrol and a diesel engine, respectively. These exhaust emissions are typically subject to vehicles' intermittent operations, such as hard acceleration and hard braking. In practice, drivers are inclined to operate intermittently while driving through a weaving segment, due to complex vehicle maneuvering for weaving. As a result, the exhaust emissions within a weaving segment ought to vary from those on a basic segment. However, existing emission models usually rely on vehicle operation information, and compute a generalized emission result, regardless of road configuration. This research proposes to explore the impacts of weaving segment configuration on vehicle emissions, identify important predictors for emission estimations, and develop a nonlinear normalized emission factor (NEF) model for weaving segments. An on-board emission test was conducted on 12 subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. Vehicles' activity information, road conditions, and real-time exhaust emissions were collected by on-board diagnosis (OBD), a smartphone-based roughness app, and a portable emission measurement system (PEMS), respectively. Five feature selection algorithms were used to identify the important predictors for the response of NEF and the modeling algorithm. The predictive power of four algorithm-based emission models was tested by 10-fold cross-validation. Results showed that emissions are also susceptible to the type and length of a weaving segment. Bagged decision tree algorithm was chosen to develop a 50-grown-tree NEF model, which provided a validation error of 0.0051. The estimated NEFs are highly correlated with the observed NEFs in the training

  14. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  15. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-10-06

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  16. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  17. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection of... Otto-cycle HDE. (d) Every manufacturer of new motor vehicle engines subject to the standards prescribed... production of heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle engines for model year 2008, except as explicitly allowed...

  18. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions.

  19. Motor vehicle and pedestrian collisions: burden of severe injury on major versus neighborhood roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Slater, Morgan; Meaney, Christopher; Howard, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether the severity of injuries sustained by pedestrians involved in motor vehicle collisions varies by road type and age. All police-reported pedestrian motor vehicle collisions in the city of Toronto, Canada, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005, were analyzed. Geographic Information Systems software was used to determine whether the collisions occurred on major or neighborhood roads. Age-specific estimates of the burden of pedestrian collisions are presented. Odds ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated to examine age-specific relationships between injury severity and road type. A second analysis comparing the distribution of severe injury location between age groups was also performed. The majority of collisions involved adults (68%), although elderly pedestrians were overrepresented in fatal collisions (49%). Severe and fatal collisions involving working-age and elderly adult pedestrians were more likely on major roads. Odds of severe injury occurring on a major road were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.17-1.57) times higher for adults ages 18 to 64, and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.22-1.99) times higher for elderly aged 65+. By contrast, severe injuries among children were more common on neighborhood roads, with odds of severe injury on a major road of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.37-1.1) for children aged 5 to 9. Among children under 9, 64-67 percent of hospitalized or fatal injuries occurred on neighborhood roads, a marked difference from the distribution of such injuries in adults or the elderly, for whom only 29-30 percent of hospitalized or fatal injuries occurred on neighborhood roads (chi-square = 52.6, p roads alone will not make child pedestrians safer. Pedestrian interventions specific to children and focused on neighborhood roads must be considered in urban centers like Toronto.

  20. Increasing Road Infrastructure Capacity Through the Use of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    considerably in recent years. In many urban areas, individuals have foregone purchasing vehicles and have instead joined car - sharing programs like...lots throughout the metropolitan area.107 Car sharing has expanded to include bike-sharing programs like Capital Bikeshare in Washington, DC.108...vehicles could also enhance ride-sharing and car - sharing services, in which a user could request a vehicle via a mobile device to drive directly to the

  1. Dual extended Kalman filter for combined estimation of vehicle state and road friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Changfu; Hu, Dan; Zheng, Hongyu

    2013-03-01

    Vehicle state and tire-road adhesion are of great use and importance to vehicle active safety control systems. However, it is always not easy to obtain the information with high accuracy and low expense. Recently, many estimation methods have been put forward to solve such problems, in which Kalman filter becomes one of the most popular techniques. Nevertheless, the use of complicated model always leads to poor real-time estimation while the role of road friction coefficient is often ignored. For the purpose of enhancing the real time performance of the algorithm and pursuing precise estimation of vehicle states, a model-based estimator is proposed to conduct combined estimation of vehicle states and road friction coefficients. The estimator is designed based on a three-DOF vehicle model coupled with the Highway Safety Research Institute(HSRI) tire model; the dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF) technique is employed, which can be regarded as two extended Kalman filters operating and communicating simultaneously. Effectiveness of the estimation is firstly examined by comparing the outputs of the estimator with the responses of the vehicle model in CarSim under three typical road adhesion conditions(high-friction, low-friction, and joint-friction). On this basis, driving simulator experiments are carried out to further investigate the practical application of the estimator. Numerical results from CarSim and driving simulator both demonstrate that the estimator designed is capable of estimating the vehicle states and road friction coefficient with reasonable accuracy. The DEKF-based estimator proposed provides the essential information for the vehicle active control system with low expense and decent precision, and offers the possibility of real car application in future.

  2. Particulate emissions from new heavy duty vehicles (Euro IV and V); Partikeludslip fra nye tunge koeretoejer (Euronorm IV og V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal-Joergensen, J.; Ohm, A.; Willumsen, E. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2008-07-01

    The new Danish act on environmental zones allows local authorities to define zones where EURO III or older heavy duty vehicles should be equipped with a particulate filter. The introduction of EURO IV and V has reduced particulate emissions from heavy duty vehicles by approximately 80 % based on the mass of particles. There is, however, substantial uncertainty about the impact on the number of ultrafine particles, since they are not covered by Euronorm standards. When passing the bill, the Danish Minister for the Environment of the time stated that all relevant knowledge about particle emission from heavy duty vehicles needed to be collected for subsequent publication. To this end, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned a literature survey. The purpose of the survey is to provide an overview of the latest knowledge in the field of particle emissions from heavy duty vehicles, with special focus on the average size of the particle emissions. Another objective of the study is to analyse the direct emissions of NO{sub 2} from heavy duty vehicles classified under EURO IV and V. (au)

  3. GM's road to hydrogen powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauling, D. [General Motors, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    General Motor's (GM) long term vision is to remove the automobile from environmental and energy debates. Auto emissions comprise of smog (volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides and particulates) and greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide). In the 1970s, GM introduced the catalytic converter to reduce smog forming emissions by more than 99 per cent. This presentation included a pie chart depicting the Canadian contribution to smog forming emissions by sector in 2005. New vehicles were shown to contribute 0.1 per cent. The author stated that the auto sector is the only sector that is significantly reducing smog in Canada and cautioned that the size of vehicle and volume of fuel consumed does not correlate to smog forming emissions. The Car Heaven Program was launched in July 2000 as a partnership between the Clean Air Foundation and various corporate partners including GM Canada. The objective of the program was to accelerate the retirement of older, highly polluting vehicles and switching consumers to more fuel efficient vehicles which will reduce GHG emissions. The program has been conducted in lower mainland British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Quebec and Atlantic Canada. In terms of GHG contribution by sector, new vehicles were shown to contribute 1 per cent. GM's advanced propulsion technology strategy was also presented with reference to hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells, battery electric vehicles, internal combustion engines and E-Flex systems. It was noted that GM has a broad portfolio of fuel efficient vehicles. The company's total vehicle approach to advanced technology vehicles and fuel efficiency was outlined, including it's ethanol capable vehicle technology, hybrid strategy, and fuel cell propulsion system. tabs., figs.

  4. Plasma Catalysis for NOx Reduction from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-15

    On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, we are pleased to introduce the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The mission of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable Americans to use less petroleum for their vehicles. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program supports this mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty highway vehicles that meet future Federal and state emissions regulations. The primary objective of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program is to improve the brake thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines from 30 to 45 percent for light-duty applications by 2010; and 40 to 55 percent for heavy-duty applications by 2012; while meeting cost, durability, and emissions constraints. R&D activities include work on combustion technologies that increase efficiency and minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions, as well as aftertreatment technologies that further reduce exhaust emissions. Work is also being conducted on ways to reduce parasitic and heat transfer losses through the development and application of thermoelectrics and turbochargers that include electricity generating capability, and conversion of mechanically driven engine components to be driven via electric motors. This introduction serves to outline the nature, current progress, and future directions of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The research activities of this Sub-Program are planned in conjunction with the FreedomCAR Partnership and the 21st Century Truck Partnership and are carried out in collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities. Because of the importance of clean fuels in achieving low

  5. Modeling light-duty plug-in electric vehicles for national energy and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Di; Aliprantis, Dionysios C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets forth a family of models of light-duty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) fleets, appropriate for conducting long-term national-level planning studies of the energy and transportation sectors in an integrated manner. Using one of the proposed models, three case studies on the evolution of the U.S. energy and transportation infrastructures are performed, where portfolios of optimum investments over a 40-year horizon are identified, and interdependencies between the two sectors are highlighted. The results indicate that with a gradual but aggressive introduction of PEVs coupled with investments in renewable energy, the total cost from the energy and transportation systems can be reduced by 5%, and that overall emissions from electricity generation and light-duty vehicle (LDV) tailpipes can be reduced by 10% over the 40-year horizon. The annual gasoline consumption from LDVs can be reduced by 66% by the end of the planning horizon, but an additional 800 TWh of annual electricity demand will be introduced. In addition, various scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions are investigated. It is found that GHG emissions can be significantly reduced with only a marginal cost increment, by shifting electricity generation from coal to renewable sources. - Highlights: • We model plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for long-term national planning studies. • Realistic travel patterns are used to estimate the vehicles' energy consumption. • National energy and transportation system interdependencies are considered. • Case studies illustrate optimum investments in energy and transportation sectors. • PEVs synergistically with renewable energy can aggressively reduce GHG emissions

  6. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burnham, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hang, Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  7. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  8. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  9. Real-world emissions of in-use off-road vehicles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Prato, Daniel; Jazcilevich, Aron; Aguilar, Andrés; Balam, Marco; Misra, Chandan; Molina, Luisa T

    2017-09-01

    Off-road vehicles used in construction and agricultural activities can contribute substantially to emissions of gaseous pollutants and can be a major source of submicrometer carbonaceous particles in many parts of the world. However, there have been relatively few efforts in quantifying the emission factors (EFs) and for estimating the potential emission reduction benefits using emission control technologies for these vehicles. This study characterized the black carbon (BC) component of particulate matter and NOx, CO, and CO 2 EFs of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using on-board portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS). The vehicles sampled included two backhoes, one tractor, a crane, an excavator, two front loaders, two bulldozers, an air compressor, and a power generator used in the construction and agricultural activities. For a selected number of these vehicles the emissions were further characterized with wall-flow diesel particle filters (DPFs) and partial-flow DPFs (p-DPFs) installed. Fuel-based EFs presented less variability than time-based emission rates, particularly for the BC. Average baseline EFs in working conditions for BC, NOx, and CO ranged from 0.04 to 5.7, from 12.6 to 81.8, and from 7.9 to 285.7 g/kg-fuel, respectively, and a high dependency by operation mode and by vehicle type was observed. Measurement-base frequency distributions of EFs by operation mode are proposed as an alternative method for characterizing the variability of off-road vehicles emissions under real-world conditions. Mass-based reductions for black carbon EFs were substantially large (above 99%) when DPFs were installed and the vehicles were idling, and the reductions were moderate (in the 20-60% range) for p-DPFs in working operating conditions. The observed high variability in measured EFs also indicates the need for detailed vehicle operation data for accurately estimating emissions from off-road

  10. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  11. [Road safety in Italy: epidemiology of two-wheeled motor vehicles accidents. National statistics 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anna; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Marinoni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    to describe road accidents occurred in Italy focusing, in particular, on two-wheeled motor vehicles. Analysis of road accidents based on current data referring to year 2000. Italy. In Italy, 67,127 two-wheeled motor vehicle accidents occurred in 2000. Two crash types account for 75% of the accidents: side impact and front-side impact. Per one million kilometres travelled 0.4 cars and 1.3 two-wheeled vehicles are involved (0.7 motorcycles and 2.2 mopeds). In 2000 there were 1,229 deaths and 69,543 injured riders. Males up to forty years old are the most represented. The masculinity ratio presents a decreasing trend from motorcycles to mopeds and to cars both for killed people and for injured people. The lethality rate increases with age for all types of vehicles but for mopeds this trend is much more evident. Most of the accident occur in urban road while most of the deaths happen in extra-urban road. Mopeds and motorcycles, which are a small subset of all motor vehicles (approximately 20%), are greatly overrepresented in crashes. Considering the kilometres travelled, the risk to be involved in a crash for mopeds is estimated to be 32.6 times higher than the comparable risk for cars and for motorcycles it is 17 times higher. The risk of death for riders is two times the risk for cars.

  12. Bridge Expansion Joint in Road Transition Curve: Effects Assessment on Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Mascio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Properly-designed road surfaces provide a durable surface on which traffic can pass smoothly and safely. In fact, the main causes that determine the structural decay of the pavement and its parts are the traffic loads. These repeated actions can create undesirable unevennesses on the road surface, which induce vertical accelerations on vehicles, up to hindering contact between pavement and tire, with dangerous consequences on traffic safety. The dynamic actions transmitted by the vehicles depend on these irregularities: often, a bridge expansion joint (BEJ, introducing a necessary discontinuity between different materials, determines from the beginning a geometric irregularity in the running surface. Besides, some structural conditions could emphasize the problem (e.g., local cracking due to the settlement of the subgrade near the abutment or the discontinuity of stiffness due to the presence of different materials. When the BEJ is located in a transition curve, an inevitable vertical irregularity between road and joint can reach values of some centimeters, with serious consequences for the road safety. This paper deals with the analysis of a case study of a BEJ. Several test surveys were performed in order to fully characterize the effects on both vehicles and pavement. The three-dimensional representation of the pavement surface and the acceleration measurements on a heavy test vehicle were performed to analyze the joint behavior under traffic. Finally, a finite element model was implemented to evaluate the stress contribution on vehicle components induced by the vertical irregularities.

  13. Eco-driving : strategic, tactical, and operational decisions of the driver that improve vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "This report presents information about the effects of decisions that a driver can make to : influence on-road fuel economy of light-duty vehicles. These include strategic decisions : (vehicle selection and maintenance), tactical decisions (route sel...

  14. Near-roadway monitoring of vehicle emissions as a function of mode of operation for light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dongqi; Zhai, Wenjuan; Xiang, Sheng; Hu, Zhice; Wei, Tongchuan; Noll, Kenneth E

    2017-11-01

    Determination of the effect of vehicle emissions on air quality near roadways is important because vehicles are a major source of air pollution. A near-roadway monitoring program was undertaken in Chicago between August 4 and October 30, 2014, to measure ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, traffic volume and speed, and wind direction and speed. The objective of this study was to develop a method to relate short-term changes in traffic mode of operation to air quality near roadways using data averaged over 5-min intervals to provide a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution concentrations near roadways. Three different types of data analysis are provided to demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained from a near-roadway sampling program based on 5-min measurements: (1) development of vehicle emission factors (EFs) for ultrafine particles as a function of vehicle mode of operation, (2) comparison of measured and modeled CO 2 concentrations, and (3) application of dispersion models to determine concentrations near roadways. EFs for ultrafine particles are developed that are a function of traffic volume and mode of operation (free flow and congestion) for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) under real-world conditions. Two air quality models-CALINE4 (California Line Source Dispersion Model, version 4) and AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model)-are used to predict the ultrafine particulate concentrations near roadways for comparison with measured concentrations. When using CALINE4 to predict air quality levels in the mixing cell, changes in surface roughness and stability class have no effect on the predicted concentrations. However, when using AERMOD to predict air quality in the mixing cell, changes in surface roughness have a significant impact on the predicted concentrations. The paper provides emission factors (EFs) that are a function of traffic volume and mode of

  15. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wheel-Based Ice Sensors for Road Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong H.; Carl, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Wheel-based sensors for detection of ice on roads and approximate measurement of the thickness of the ice are under development. These sensors could be used to alert drivers to hazardous local icing conditions in real time. In addition, local ice-thickness measurements by these sensors could serve as guidance for the minimum amount of sand and salt required to be dispensed locally onto road surfaces to ensure safety, thereby helping road crews to utilize their total supplies of sand and salt more efficiently. Like some aircraft wing-surface ice sensors described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the wheelbased ice sensors are based, variously, on measurements of changes in capacitance and/or in radio-frequency impedance as affected by ice on surfaces. In the case of ice on road surfaces, the measurable changes in capacitance and/or impedance are attributable to differences among the electric permittivities of air, ice, water, concrete, and soil. In addition, a related phenomenon that can be useful for distinguishing between ice and water is a specific transition in the permittivity of ice at a temperature- dependent frequency. This feature also provides a continuous calibration of the sensor to allow for changing road conditions. Several configurations of wheel-based ice sensors are under consideration. For example, in a simple two-electrode capacitor configuration, one of the electrodes would be a circumferential electrode within a tire, and the ground would be used as the second electrode. Optionally, the steel belts that are already standard parts of many tires could be used as the circumferential electrodes. In another example (see figure), multiple electrodes would be embedded in rubber between the steel belt and the outer tire surface. These electrodes would be excited in alternating polarities at one or more suitable audio or radio frequencies to provide nearly continuous monitoring of the road surface under the tire. In still another

  17. A Method for Extracting Road Boundary Information from Crowdsourcing Vehicle GPS Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ai, Tinghua; Lu, Wei

    2018-04-19

    Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT). First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS) traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge. Then, the road boundary detection model is established integrating the boundary descriptors and trajectory movement features (e.g., direction) by DT. Third, using the boundary detection model to detect road boundary from the DT constructed by trajectory lines, and a regional growing method based on seed polygons is proposed to extract the road boundary. Experiments were conducted using the GPS traces of taxis in Beijing, China, and the results show that the proposed method is suitable for extracting the road boundary from low-frequency GPS traces, multi-type road structures, and different time intervals. Compared with two existing methods, the automatically extracted boundary information was proved to be of higher quality.

  18. A Method for Extracting Road Boundary Information from Crowdsourcing Vehicle GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT. First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge. Then, the road boundary detection model is established integrating the boundary descriptors and trajectory movement features (e.g., direction by DT. Third, using the boundary detection model to detect road boundary from the DT constructed by trajectory lines, and a regional growing method based on seed polygons is proposed to extract the road boundary. Experiments were conducted using the GPS traces of taxis in Beijing, China, and the results show that the proposed method is suitable for extracting the road boundary from low-frequency GPS traces, multi-type road structures, and different time intervals. Compared with two existing methods, the automatically extracted boundary information was proved to be of higher quality.

  19. Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1772-99 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. 86.1772-99 Section 86.1772-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1772-99 Road load power, test weight, and inertia...

  1. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of..., exhaust emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines fueled with either gasoline or liquefied petroleum gas, and intended...

  2. Electric drive choices for light, medium, and heavy duty vehicles to reduce their climate change impact in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of electric drive technologies from 1988, at the 9 th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS 9) in Toronto, to 2007 at EVS 23 in Anaheim, is described. Total hybridization of Canada's fleet of light, medium and heavy duty vehicles would result in greenhouse reductions savings of 30 Mt of CO 2 E per year, similar to the saving from a 25% reduction in vehicle weight. Further savings in greenhouse reductions from plug-in hybrids require a battery cost similar to that needed for electric vehicles. Further development of both ultracapacitors and batteries is needed as is work on other parts of the electric drive supply chain. (author)

  3. Application of IC Card License for Road Transportation in Commercial Vehicles Supervision and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IC card electronic license for road transport includes the IC card commercial vehicle’s certificate and IC card practitioner’s qualification certificate. In China, the IC card electronic license for road transport is the electronic ID card which must be carried by each commercial vehicles and practitioners. This paper briefly introduces the basic situation, data format and security keys architecture of IC card electronic license for road transportation of China. In order to strengthen the supervision and service of commercial vehicles, this paper puts forward the overall application framework of IC card electronic license for road transport. The application examples of IC card license in the supervision of passenger station, dangerous goods transport management, governance overload and logistics park and port area management are discussed. The practical application results show that the application of IC card electronic license for road transport is an important technical means to improve the supervision ability and service quality of the road transportation industry.

  4. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV):Tables with external costs of air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011).

  5. Impact of a Newly Constructed Motor Vehicle Road on Altitude Illness in the Nepal Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Jonathan; Deonarain, Dinesh; Basnyat, Buddha

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the impact that motor vehicle travel along a newly constructed road has on altitude illness (including acute mountain sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema, and high-altitude pulmonary edema). The new road from Besisahar (760 m) to Manang (3540 m) in Nepal was completed in December 2014. We enrolled all patients diagnosed with altitude illness at the Himalayan Rescue Association Manang clinic in fall 2016. Phi coefficients were calculated to test for an association between Nepali ethnicity and rapid ascent by motor vehicle. A retrospective review looked at all patients with altitude illness from fall (September-November) 2010 to spring (February-May) 2016. In fall 2016, more than half (54%) of patients with altitude illness traveled to Manang by motor vehicle, and one-third (33%) reached Manang from low altitude (Besisahar) in less than 48 hours. Nepali nationality had a significant association with motor vehicle travel (phi +0.69, P road (P constructed road from Besisahar to Manang appears to be related to a significant increase in the number of patients with all forms of altitude illness, especially among Nepalis. The authors believe that educational interventions emphasizing prevention are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of chemical soil additives to stabilize off-road vehicle trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.N. Davis; J.E. Baier; J.P. Fulton; D.A. Brown; T.P. McDonald

    2007-01-01

    Off‐road vehicle (ORV) use is an increasingly popular form of outdoor recreation throughout the United States. This form of motorized recreation, however, can sometimes lead to serious erosion of trail running surfaces, with resulting export of sediment into forested ecosystems causing environmental degradation. This project was conducted to determine the...

  7. AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE IN 3D FOR VEHICLE SIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Orlický

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of testing new systems and interfaces in vehicles is testing in a vehicle simulator. Providing quality models of virtual scenes is one of tasks for driver-car interaction interface simulation. Nowadays, there exist many programs for creating 3D models of road infrastructures, but most of these programs are very expensive or canÂtt export models for the following use. Therefore, a plug-in has been developed at the Faculty of Transportation Sciences in Prague. It can generate road infrastructure by Czech standard for designing roads (CSN 73 6101. The uniqueness of this plug-in is that it is the first tool for generating road infrastructure in NURBS representation. This type of representation brings more exact models and allows to optimize transfer for creating quality models for vehicle simulators. The scenes created by this plug-in were tested on vehicle simulators. The results have shown that with newly created scenes drivers had a much better feeling in comparison to previous scenes.

  8. GNSS-based Road Charging Systems - Assessment of Vehicle Location Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabic, Martina

    the collected data from the experiment, in its original for, as it would be used as input for the automated charge calculation process in a road charging system. Furthermore, new methodologies are developed for assessing the performance of the vehicle location determination function in terms of data reliability...

  9. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  10. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  11. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tamburello, David A. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2018-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed a vehicle Framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to Technical Targets established by DOE for four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be estimated easily. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates system parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, the design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the Framework model. These models will be explained and exercised with the representative hydrogen storage materials exothermic ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and endothermic alane (AlH3).

  12. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  13. A Few Large Roads or Many Small Ones? How to Accommodate Growth in Vehicle Numbers to Minimise Impacts on Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  14. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Rhodes

    Full Text Available Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1 increasing the number of roads, and (2 increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  15. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  16. Long-term implications of alternative light-duty vehicle technologies for global greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Page; Kim, Son H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses global light-duty vehicle (LDV) transport in the upcoming century, and the implications of vehicle technology advancement and fuel-switching on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demands. Five different vehicle technology scenarios are analyzed with and without a CO 2 emissions mitigation policy using the GCAM integrated assessment model: a reference internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, an advanced internal combustion engine vehicle scenario, and three alternative fuel vehicle scenarios in which all LDVs are switched to natural gas, electricity, or hydrogen by 2050. The emissions mitigation policy is a global CO 2 emissions price pathway that achieves 450 ppmv CO 2 at the end of the century with reference vehicle technologies. The scenarios demonstrate considerable emissions mitigation potential from LDV technology; with and without emissions pricing, global CO 2 concentrations in 2095 are reduced about 10 ppmv by advanced ICEV technologies and natural gas vehicles, and 25 ppmv by electric or hydrogen vehicles. All technological advances in vehicles are important for reducing the oil demands of LDV transport and their corresponding CO 2 emissions. Among advanced and alternative vehicle technologies, electricity- and hydrogen-powered vehicles are especially valuable for reducing whole-system emissions and total primary energy. - Highlights: → Alternative-fuel LDVs reduce whole-system CO 2 emissions, even without carbon pricing. → Alternative-fuel LDVs enhance the CO 2 mitigation capacity of the transportation sector. → Electric and hydrogen vehicles reduce whole-system primary energy supporting LDV transport.

  17. Marine spark-ignition engine and off-road recreational vehicle emission regulations : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    In February 2001, the Minister of Environment Canada outlined a series of measures to reduce emissions from vehicles and engines, including off-road engines. This report describes proposed regulations to control emissions form outboard engines, personal watercraft engines, snowmobiles, off-highway motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles and utility vehicles. Since most marine engines and recreational vehicles sold in Canada are imported, the agenda includes the development of new regulations under Division 5 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) to align Canada's emission standards for off-road vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A harmonized approach on emissions standards is expected to result in fewer transition and implementation problems. This report describes which vehicles and engines will be subjected to the planned regulations along with those that will be exempted. Planned emission standard swill apply to vehicles and engines of the 2007 and later model years. Persons affected by the planned regulations were also identified. tabs., figs

  18. Wireless Magnetic Sensor Network for Road Traffic Monitoring and Vehicle Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljevic Vladan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of transportation of people and goods is playing a vital role in economic growth. A key component for enabling effective planning of transportation networks is the deployment and operation of autonomous monitoring and traffic analysis tools. For that reason, such systems have been developed to register and classify road traffic usage. In this paper, we propose a novel system for road traffic monitoring and classification based on highly energy efficient wireless magnetic sensor networks. We develop novel algorithms for vehicle speed and length estimation and vehicle classification that use multiple magnetic sensors. We also demonstrate that, using such a low-cost system with simplified installation and maintenance compared to current solutions, it is possible to achieve highly accurate estimation and a high rate of positive vehicle classification.

  19. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National Forest...

  20. Off-road vehicles affect nesting behaviour and reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Tracy E.; Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    As human populations and associated development increase, interactions between humans and wildlife are occurring with greater frequency. The effects of these interactions, particularly on species whose populations are declining, are of great interest to ecologists, conservationists, land managers and natural resource policy-makers. The American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus, a species of conservation concern in the USA, nests on coastal beaches subject to various forms of anthropogenic disturbance, including aircraft overflights, off-road vehicles and pedestrians. This study assessed the effects of these human disturbances on the incubation behaviour and reproductive success of nesting American Oystercatchers at Cape Lookout National Seashore, on the Atlantic coast of the USA. We expanded on-going monitoring of Oystercatchers at Cape Lookout National Seashore by supplementing periodic visual observations with continuous 24-h video and audio recording at nests. Aircraft overflights were not associated with changes in Oystercatcher incubation behaviour, and we found no evidence that aircraft overflights influenced Oystercatcher reproductive success. However, Oystercatchers were on their nests significantly less often during off-road vehicle and pedestrian events than they were during control periods before the events, and an increase in the number of off-road vehicles passing a nest during incubation was consistently associated with significant reductions in daily nest survival (6% decrease in daily nest survival for a one-vehicle increase in the average number of vehicles passing a nest each day; odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 0.98) and hatching success (12% decrease in hatching success for a one-vehicle increase in the average number of vehicles passing a nest each day; odds ratio = 0.88; 95% CI 0.76, 0.97). Management of vehicles and pedestrians in areas of Oystercatcher breeding is important for the conservation of American

  1. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  2. Characteristics of black carbon emissions from in-use light-duty passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhang, K Max; Wu, Xian; Li, Zhenhua; Hao, Jiming

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating black carbon (BC) emissions from various combustion sources has been considered an urgent policy issue to address the challenges of climate change, air pollution and health risks. Vehicles contribute considerably to total anthropogenic BC emissions and urban BC concentrations. Compared with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, there is much larger uncertainty in BC emission factors for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPVs), in particular for gasoline LDPVs, which warrants further studies. In this study, we employed the dynamometer and the Aethalometer (AE-51) to measure second-by-second BC emissions from eight LDPVs by engine technology and driving cycle. The average BC emission factors under transient cycles (e.g., ECE-15, New European Driving Cycle, NEDC, Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle, WLTC) are 3.6-91.5 mg/km, 7.6 mg/km and 0.13-0.58 mg/km, respectively, for diesel (N = 3), gasoline direct injection (GDI) (N = 1) and gasoline port-fuel injection (PFI) engine categories (N = 4). For gasoline PFI LDPVs, the instantaneous emission profiles show a strong association of peak BC emissions with cold-start and high-speed aggressive driving. Such impacts lead to considerable BC emission contributions in cold-start periods (e.g., the first 47 s-94 s) over the entire cycle (e.g., 18-76% of the NEDC and 13-36% of the WLTC) and increased BC emission factors by 80-440% under the WLTC compared to the NEDC. For diesel BC emissions, the size distribution exhibits a typical unimodal pattern with one single peak appearing approximately from 120 to 150 nm, which is largely consistent with previous studies. Nevertheless, the average mass ratios of BC to particle mass (PM) range from 0.38 to 0.54 for three diesel samples, representing substantial impacts from both driving and engine conditions. The significant discrepancy between gasoline BC emission factors obtained from tailpipe exhaust versus ambient conditions suggest that more comparative

  3. Experimental Autonomous Road Vehicle with Logical Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Sergeevich Shadrin; Oleg Olegovich Varlamov; Andrey Mikhailovich Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    This article describes some technical issues regarding the adaptation of a production car to a platform for the development and testing of autonomous driving technologies. A universal approach to performing the reverse engineering of electric power steering (EPS) for the purpose of external control is also presented. The primary objective of the related study was to solve the problem associated with the precise prediction of the dynamic trajectory of an autonomous vehicle. This was accomplish...

  4. Search and Pursuit with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    landmark tracking, Andersen and Taylor [7] show that with a planar ground assumption, a homography-based visual odometry algorithm can be combined with...7] Evan D. Andersen and Clark N. Taylor. Improving MAV pose estimation using visual information. In IEEE International Conference on Intelligent...patrol and surveillance missions using multiple unmanned air vehicles. In IEEE Confer- ence on Decision and Control, 2004. [53] Arthur S. Goldstein

  5. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... for the current CARB categories of heavy-duty vehicles are within-the-scope of the previously granted...) (Diesel) and 53 FR 7022 (March 4, 1988) (Otto-cycle). \\3\\ 69 FR 59920 (October 6, 2004). CARB's current... threshold test of materiality and * * * thereafter assess such material evidence against a standard of proof...

  6. 75 FR 62739 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent AGENCIES: Environmental... fuel economy (CAFE) standards in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as... FR 49454, 49460 (September 28, 2009). The NHTSA CAFE standards are only based on technologies that...

  7. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles(HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and createsstrong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to totalparticle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used toestimate t...

  8. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9173-5] Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Employing Selective Catalyst Reduction Technology... engine manufacturers have recently begun utilizing a NO X emission control technology called selective...

  9. Reduction of particle emissions from light duty vehicles and from taxies; Reduktion af partikelelemissioner fra varebiler og taxier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Johan; Henriques, M.; Weibel, T.G. [TetraPlan A/S (Denmark)

    2006-11-03

    This project, 'Reduction of particle emissions from light duty vehicles and from taxies', analyses different strategies to reduce the particle emission, their effect for particle emissions, and the resulting cost for the society and for the companies. The project describes the EU regulation of emissions, the possibilities of reducing the emissions via special requirements in environmental zones and the Danish taxation of light duty vehicles. Further, the project includes interviews with owners of light duty vehicles and taxies and also with Danish producers of particle filters. The strategies analysed in the scenarios include: 1) Promotion of particle filters; 2) Shift from diesel to gasoline and; 3) Downsizing. The effects for particle emissions and for mortality are described. Further, the costs and benefits for the society and the cost for the companies are evaluated. The effects of the scenarios are analysed, both for initiatives implemented at a national level and for implementation in an environmental zone in the municipality of Copenhagen. The main results are that the socioeconomic benefits in the year 2012 are greater than the costs, if taxis and light duty vehicles have filters installed and if they are driving in the Copenhagen area. For light duty vehicles it is only profitable, if the prices of the filters fall to the price level that is expected in the future in the study. Further, the analysis shows that for light duty vehicles and taxies driving all over the country, the socioeconomic benefits achieved by installing particle filters are too small to cover the costs. The analysis shows that it is also profitable socio-economically to change from diesel to petrol for light duty vehicles and for taxies (except taxies driving nationally). The analysis is based on the producer prices including the general net tax level, while the specific taxes are not included. From the point of view of the companies it is not profitable to change to petrol

  10. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  11. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  12. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of the Fixed Timing Fishhook steering and grade B road excitation. The results show that the electromagnetic force has a certain effect on the load transfer and can reduce the antirollover performance of the vehicle. Therefore, the effect of the electromagnetic force on the rollover characteristic should be considered in the vehicle design. To this end, extensive analysis was conducted on the effect of the road level, vehicle speed, and the road adhesion coefficient on the vehicle rollover stability. The results indicate that vehicle rollover stability worsens when the above-mentioned factors increase, the most influential factor being the road adhesion coefficient followed by vehicle speed and road level. This paper can offer certain theory basis for the design of the in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles.

  13. Secondary organic aerosol formation from road vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Simone M.; Platt, Stephen M.; El Haddad, Imad; Zardini, Alessandro A.; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Drinovec, Luca; Mocnik, Grisa; Baltensperger, Urs; Astorga, Covadogna; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol particles (OA) are a major fraction of the submicron particulate matter. OA consists of directly emitted primary (POA) and secondary OA (SOA). SOA is formed in-situ in the atmosphere via the reaction of volatile organic precursors. The partitioning of SOA species depends not only on the exposure to oxidants, but for instance also on temperature, relative humidity (RH), and the absorptive mass chemical composition (presence of inorganics) and concentration. Vehicle exhaust is a known source of POA and likely contributes to SOA formation in urban areas [1;2]. This has recently been estimated by (i) analyzing ambient data from urban areas combined with fuel consumption data [3], (ii) by examining the chemical composition of raw fuels [4], or (iii) smog chamber studies [5, 6]. Contradictory and thus somewhat controversial results in the relative quantity of SOA from diesel vs. gasoline vehicle exhaust were observed. In order to elucidate the impact of variable ambient conditions on the potential SOA formation of vehicle exhaust, and its relation to the emitted gas phase species, we studied SOA formed from the exhaust of passenger cars and trucks as a function of fuel and engine type (gasoline, diesel) at different temperatures (T 22 vs. -7oC) and RH (40 vs. 90%), as well as with different levels of inorganic salt concentrations. The exhaust was sampled at the tailpipe during regulatory driving cycles on chassis dynamometers, diluted (200 - 400x) and introduced into the PSI mobile smog chamber [6], where the emissions were subjected to simulated atmospheric ageing. Particle phase instruments (HR-ToF-AMS, aethalometers, CPC, SMPS) and gas phase instruments (PTR-TOF-MS, CO, CO2, CH4, THC, NH3 and other gases) were used online during the experiments. We found that gasoline emissions, because of cold starts, were generally larger than diesel, especially during cold temperatures driving cycles. Gasoline vehicles also showed the highest SOA formation

  14. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...... by combining different strands of this literature....

  15. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  16. Wheel arch aerodynamics of a modern road vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, S.; Aroussi, A.

    2003-01-01

    A geometrically faithful model of the Aston Martin V12 Vanquish was formed in 3D CAD and used to perform an extensive CFD study into the airflow in and around the wheel arch of the vehicle. Parameters such as spin ratio, ground clearance, vertical and horizontal insertion into the wheel arch and the yaw angles experienced during cornering, were all under investigation. The additional aim of the research was to validate or refute the use of CFD as a tool in this complex area of fluid flow. This research serves to highlight a number of problems and potential solutions in the use of CFD. Meshing problems can be eliminated with increased computational power and suggestions have been made to improve the modeling of rotating boundaries that include radial features such as wheel spokes. Much of the CFD data ties well with previously conducted experimental work, if not numerically then in trend. Without additional physical validation however, it is difficult to ascertain the overall accuracy and usefulness of the remaining results, which have not yet been conducted in physical reality. Despite its limitations, the use of CFD permitted an extensive analysis in a comparatively short length of time and served to highlight potential areas for increased scrutiny. As an example, results from the final yaw angle case drew attention to a potential concern for aerodynamic destabilisation of the vehicle during cornering, generating lift on the front arch of the car that is already lifted due to cornering forces and body roll. (author)

  17. Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: a road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D Nageswara

    2013-11-01

    The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines.

  18. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  19. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    price of the hybrid vehicle. Many consumers will view the idea of paying more initially to save on gasoline costs down the road as not worthwhile...braking and electricity generation from an ICE. Similar to the HEV, upon purchase of a PHEV, the consumer may take advantage of the green vehicle tax ... electric cards and Hybrids? (2015, November 3). Retrieved from Plug’n Drive website: https://www.plugndrive.ca/whats- the-difference-between- electric - cars

  20. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  1. Repeatability of road pavement condition assessment based on three-dimensional analysis of linear accelerations of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniek, Marcin

    2018-05-01

    The article provides a discussion concerning a tool used for road pavement condition assessment based on signals of linear accelerations recorded with high sampling frequency for typical vehicles traversing the road network under real-life road traffic conditions. Specific relationships have been established for the sake of road pavement condition assessment, including identification of road sections of poor technical condition. The data thus acquired have been verified with regard to repeatability of estimated road pavement assessment indices. The data make it possible to describe the road network status against an area in which users of the system being developed move. What proves to be crucial in the assessment process is the scope of the data set based on multiple transfers within the road network.

  2. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS). PMID:28662053

  3. Embedded and real-time vehicle detection system for challenging on-road scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qin; Yang, Jianyu; Kong, Lingjiang; Yan, Wei Qi; Klette, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle detection is an important topic for advanced driver-assistance systems. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for an embedded system by focusing on monocular vehicle detection in real time, also aiming at being accurate under challenging conditions. Scene classification is accomplished by using a simplified convolution neural network with hypothesis generation by SoftMax regression. The output is consequently taken into account to optimize detection parameters for hypothesis generation and testing. Thus, we offer a sample-reorganization mechanism to improve the performance of vehicle hypothesis verification. A hypothesis leap mechanism is in use to improve the operating efficiency of the on-board system. A practical on-road test is employed to verify vehicle detection (i.e., accuracy) and also the performance of the designed on-board system regarding speed.

  4. Functional safety for road vehicles new challenges and solutions for e-mobility and automated driving

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Hans-Leo

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the current challenges for engineers involved in product development and the associated changes in procedure they make necessary. Methods for systematically analyzing the requirements for safety and security mechanisms are described using examples of how they are implemented in software and hardware, and how their effectiveness can be demonstrated in terms of functional and design safety are discussed. Given today’s new E-mobility and automated driving approaches, new challenges are arising and further issues concerning “Road Vehicle Safety” and “Road Traffic Safety” have to be resolved. To address the growing complexity of vehicle functions, as well as the increasing need to accommodate interdisciplinary project teams, previous development approaches now have to be reconsidered, and system engineering approaches and proven management systems need to be supplemented or wholly redefined. The book presents a continuous system development process, starting with the basic requiremen...

  5. Estimation of Road Vehicle Speed Using Two Omnidirectional Microphones: A Maximum Likelihood Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Valcarce Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of estimating the speed of a road vehicle from its acoustic signature, recorded by a pair of omnidirectional microphones located next to the road. This choice of sensors is motivated by their nonintrusive nature as well as low installation and maintenance costs. A novel estimation technique is proposed, which is based on the maximum likelihood principle. It directly estimates car speed without any assumptions on the acoustic signal emitted by the vehicle. This has the advantages of bypassing troublesome intermediate delay estimation steps as well as eliminating the need for an accurate yet general enough acoustic traffic model. An analysis of the estimate for narrowband and broadband sources is provided and verified with computer simulations. The estimation algorithm uses a bank of modified crosscorrelators and therefore it is well suited to DSP implementation, performing well with preliminary field data.

  6. A tank-to-wheel analysis tool for energy and emissions studies in road vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M.; Goncalves, G.A.; Farias, T.L.; Mendes-Lopes, J.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, oil based fuels are the primary energy source of road transport. The growing need for oil independence and CO 2 mitigation has led to the increasing importance of alternative fuel usage. CO 2 is produced not only as the fuel is used in the vehicle (tank-to-wheel contribution), but also upstream, from the fuel extraction to the refueling station (well-to-tank contribution), and the life cycle of the fuel production (well-to-wheel contribution) must be considered in order to analyse the global impact of the fuel utilization. A road vehicle tank-to-wheel analysis tool that may be integrated with well-to-tank models was developed in the present study. The integration in a demonstration case study allowed to perform a life cycle assessment concerning the utilization of diesel and natural gas fuels in a specific network line of a bus transit company operating in the city of Porto, Portugal. (author)

  7. The science of vehicle dynamics handling, braking, and ride of road and race cars

    CERN Document Server

    Guiggiani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics is often perceived as a quite intuitive subject. As a matter of fact, lots of people are able to drive a car. Nevertheless, without a rigorous mathematical formulation it is very difficult to truly understand the physical phenomena involved in the motion of a road vehicle. In this book, mathematical models of vehicles are developed, always paying attention to state the relevant assumptions and to provide explanations for each step. This approach allows for a deep, yet simple, analysis of the dynamics of vehicles, without having to resort to foggy concepts. The reader will soon achieve a clear understanding of the subject, which will be of great help both in dealing with the challenges of designing and testing new vehicles and in tackling new research topics. The book covers handling and performance of both road and race cars. A new approach, called MAP (Map of Achievable Performance), is presented and thoroughly discussed. It provides a global and intuitive picture of the handling features of...

  8. Evaluation of emission factors for light-duty gasoline vehicles based on chassis dynamometer and tunnel studies in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Tao, Shikang; Lou, Shengrong; Hu, Qingyao; Wang, Hongli; Wang, Qian; Li, Li; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jian'gang; Quan, Yifeng; Zhou, Lanlan

    2017-11-01

    CO, THC, NOx, and PM emission factors of 51 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) spanning the emission standards from Euro 2 to Euro 5 were measured by a chassis dynamometer. High frequencies of high-emitting vehicles were observed in Euro 2 and Euro 3 LDGV fleet. 56% and 33% of high-emitting vehicles contributed 81%-92% and 82%-85% of the emissions in Euro 2 and Euro 3 test fleet, respectively. Malfunctions of catalytic convertors after high strength use are the main cause of the high emissions. Continuous monitoring of a gasoline vehicle dominated tunnel in Shanghai, China was conducted to evaluate the average emission factors of vehicles in real-world. The results indicated that the emission factors of LDGVs were considerably underestimated in EI guidebook in China. The overlook of high-emitting vehicles in older vehicle fleet is the main reason for this underestimation. Enhancing the supervision of high emission vehicles and strengthening the compliance tests of in-use vehicles are essential measures to control the emissions of in-use gasoline vehicles at the present stage in China.

  9. An Energy-Efficient Cluster-Based Vehicle Detection on Road Network Using Intention Numeration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Devasenapathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic in the road network is progressively increasing at a greater extent. Good knowledge of network traffic can minimize congestions using information pertaining to road network obtained with the aid of communal callers, pavement detectors, and so on. Using these methods, low featured information is generated with respect to the user in the road network. Although the existing schemes obtain urban traffic information, they fail to calculate the energy drain rate of nodes and to locate equilibrium between the overhead and quality of the routing protocol that renders a great challenge. Thus, an energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection in road network using the intention numeration method (CVDRN-IN is developed. Initially, sensor nodes that detect a vehicle are grouped into separate clusters. Further, we approximate the strength of the node drain rate for a cluster using polynomial regression function. In addition, the total node energy is estimated by taking the integral over the area. Finally, enhanced data aggregation is performed to reduce the amount of data transmission using digital signature tree. The experimental performance is evaluated with Dodgers loop sensor data set from UCI repository and the performance evaluation outperforms existing work on energy consumption, clustering efficiency, and node drain rate.

  10. An energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection on road network using intention numeration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Deepa; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-01-01

    The traffic in the road network is progressively increasing at a greater extent. Good knowledge of network traffic can minimize congestions using information pertaining to road network obtained with the aid of communal callers, pavement detectors, and so on. Using these methods, low featured information is generated with respect to the user in the road network. Although the existing schemes obtain urban traffic information, they fail to calculate the energy drain rate of nodes and to locate equilibrium between the overhead and quality of the routing protocol that renders a great challenge. Thus, an energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection in road network using the intention numeration method (CVDRN-IN) is developed. Initially, sensor nodes that detect a vehicle are grouped into separate clusters. Further, we approximate the strength of the node drain rate for a cluster using polynomial regression function. In addition, the total node energy is estimated by taking the integral over the area. Finally, enhanced data aggregation is performed to reduce the amount of data transmission using digital signature tree. The experimental performance is evaluated with Dodgers loop sensor data set from UCI repository and the performance evaluation outperforms existing work on energy consumption, clustering efficiency, and node drain rate.

  11. Improving heavy vehicle safety and road transport efficiency: a Performance-Based Standards approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available practical experience in the PBS approach and to quantify and evaluate the potential infrastructure preservation, safety and productivity benefits for road freight transport. To date, 450 permits for PBS demonstration vehicles (including 200 car...

  12. Induced motor vehicle travel from improved fuel efficiency and road expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Qing, E-mail: suq1@nku.edu [Department of Marketing, Economics and Sports Business, Northern Kentucky University, AST Center, Office 338, Nunn Drive, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This paper investigates the impact of improved fuel efficiency and road network expansion on motor vehicle travel using a system dynamic panel data estimator and panel data at the state level for the 2001-2008 period. Our model accounts for endogenous changes in fuel efficiency, congestion, fuel cost per mile, and vehicle stock. Our regression results suggest that the short run rebound effect is 0.0276 while the long run rebound effect is 0.11. The short run effect of road capacity per capita is 0.066 while the long run effect is 0.26. - Highlights: > We estimate two effects: the rebound effect and induced travel effect at the state level. > System dynamic panel data approach is used to address endogeneity issue. > In the period of 2001-2008, the rebound effect is 0.0276 in the short run and 0.11 in the long run. > Increase in road capacity induces motor vehicle travel. > Induced travel effect is 0. 0.066 in the short run and 0.26 in the long run.

  13. Induced motor vehicle travel from improved fuel efficiency and road expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qing

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of improved fuel efficiency and road network expansion on motor vehicle travel using a system dynamic panel data estimator and panel data at the state level for the 2001-2008 period. Our model accounts for endogenous changes in fuel efficiency, congestion, fuel cost per mile, and vehicle stock. Our regression results suggest that the short run rebound effect is 0.0276 while the long run rebound effect is 0.11. The short run effect of road capacity per capita is 0.066 while the long run effect is 0.26. - Highlights: → We estimate two effects: the rebound effect and induced travel effect at the state level. → System dynamic panel data approach is used to address endogeneity issue. → In the period of 2001-2008, the rebound effect is 0.0276 in the short run and 0.11 in the long run. → Increase in road capacity induces motor vehicle travel. → Induced travel effect is 0. 0.066 in the short run and 0.26 in the long run.

  14. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2004-08-23

    Diesel and hybrid technologies each have the potential to increase light-duty vehicle fuel economy by a third or more without loss of performance, yet these technologies have typically been excluded from technical assessments of fuel economy potential on the grounds that hybrids are too expensive and diesels cannot meet Tier 2 emissions standards. Recently, hybrid costs have come down and the few hybrid makes available are selling well. Diesels have made great strides in reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, and are likely though not certain to meet future standards. In light of these developments, this study takes a detailed look at the market potential of these two powertrain technologies and their possible impacts on light-duty vehicle fuel economy. A nested multinomial logit model of vehicle choice was calibrated to 2002 model year sales of 930 makes, models and engine-transmission configurations. Based on an assessment of the status and outlook for the two technologies, market shares were predicted for 2008, 2012 and beyond, assuming no additional increase in fuel economy standards or other new policy initiatives. Current tax incentives for hybrids are assumed to be phased out by 2008. Given announced and likely introductions by 2008, hybrids could capture 4-7% and diesels 2-4% of the light-duty market. Based on our best guesses for further introductions, these shares could increase to 10-15% for hybrids and 4-7% for diesels by 2012. The resulting impacts on fleet average fuel economy would be about +2% in 2008 and +4% in 2012. If diesels and hybrids were widely available across vehicle classes, makes, and models, they could capture 40% or more of the light-duty vehicle market.

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Nonlinear Seat Suspension for Off-Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Bing; Li, Xuefei; Wang, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency vibrations (0.5–5 Hz) that harm drivers occur in off-road vehicles. Thus, researchers have focused on finding methods to effectively isolate or control low-frequency vibrations. A novel nonlinear seat suspension structure for off-road vehicles is designed, whose static characteristics and seat-human system dynamic response are modeled and analyzed, and experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical solutions. Results show that the stiffness of this nonlinear seat suspension...

  16. Improved Road-Network-Flow Control Strategy Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams and Queuing Length in Connected-Vehicle Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.

  17. Investigation on dynamical interaction between a heavy vehicle and road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua; Lu, Yongjie

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a model for three-dimensional, heavy vehicle-pavement-foundation coupled system, which is modelled as a seven-DOF vehicle moving along a simply supported double-layer rectangular thin plate on a linear viscoelastic foundation. The vertical tyre force is described by a single point-contact model, while the pavement-foundation is modelled as a double-layer plate on a linear viscoelastic foundation. Using the Galerkin method and quick direct integral method, the dynamical behaviour of the vehicle-pavement-foundation coupled system is investigated numerically and compared with that of traditional vehicle system and pavement system. The effects of coupling action on vehicle body vertical acceleration, suspension deformations, tyre forces and pavement displacements are also obtained. The investigation shows that the coupling action could not be neglected even on a smooth road surface, such as highway. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of vehicle and pavement simultaneously based on the vehicle-pavement-foundation coupled system.

  18. Characteristics of On-road Diesel Vehicles: Black Carbon Emissions in Chinese Cities Based on Portable Emissions Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Huan; Song, Shaojie; Li, Zhenhua; Fan, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-17

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) are rarely continuously measured using portable emission measurement systems (PEMSs). In this study, we utilize a PEMS to obtain real-world BC emission profiles for 25 HDDVs in China. The average fuel-based BC emissions of HDDVs certified according to Euro II, III, IV, and V standards are 2224 ± 251, 612 ± 740, 453 ± 584, and 152 ± 3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Notably, HDDVs adopting mechanical pump engines had significantly higher BC emissions than those equipped with electronic injection engines. Applying the useful features of PEMSs, we can relate instantaneous BC emissions to driving conditions using an operating mode binning methodology, and the average emission rates for Euro II to Euro IV diesel trucks can be constructed. From a macroscopic perspective, we observe that average speed is a significant factor affecting BC emissions and is well correlated with distance-based emissions (R(2) = 0.71). Therefore, the average fuel-based and distance-based BC emissions on congested roads are 40 and 125% higher than those on freeways. These results should be taken into consideration in future emission inventory studies.

  19. Efficient determination of vehicle emission factors by fuel use category using on-road measurements: downward trends on Los Angeles freight corridor I-710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hudda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the success of vehicle emissions regulations, trends in both fleet-wide average emissions as well as high-emitter emissions are needed, but it is challenging to capture the full spread of vehicle emission factors (EFs with chassis dynamometer or tunnel studies, and remote sensing studies cannot evaluate particulate compounds. We developed an alternative method that links real-time on-road pollutant measurements from a mobile platform with real-time traffic data, and allows efficient calculation of both the average and the spread of EFs for light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDG and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDD. This is the first study in California to report EFs under a full range of real-world driving conditions on multiple freeways. Fleet average LDG EFs were in agreement with most recent studies and an order of magnitude lower than observed HDD EFs. HDD EFs reflected the relatively rapid decreases in diesel emissions that have recently occurred in Los Angeles/California, and on I-710, a primary route used for goods movement and a focus of additional truck fleet turnover incentives, HDD EFs were often lower than on other freeways. When freeway emission rates (ER were quantified as the product of EF and vehicle miles traveled (VMT per time per mile of freeway, despite a two- to three-fold difference in HDD fractions between freeways, ERs were found to be generally similar in magnitude. Higher LDG VMT on low HDD fraction freeways largely offset the difference. Therefore, the conventional assumption that freeways with the highest HDD fractions are significantly worse sources of total emissions in Los Angeles may no longer be~true.

  20. Efficient determination of vehicle emission factors by fuel use category using on-road measurements: downward trends on Los Angeles freight corridor I-710.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, N; Fruin, S; Delfino, R J; Sioutas, C

    2013-01-11

    To evaluate the success of vehicle emissions regulations, trends in both fleet-wide average emissions as well as high-emitter emissions are needed, but it is challenging to capture the full spread of vehicle emission factors (EFs) with chassis dynamometer or tunnel studies, and remote sensing studies cannot evaluate particulate compounds. We developed an alternative method that links real-time on-road pollutant measurements from a mobile platform with real-time traffic data, and allows efficient calculation of both the average and the spread of EFs for light-duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDG) and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDD). This is the first study in California to report EFs under a full range of real-world driving conditions on multiple freeways. Fleet average LDG EFs were in agreement with most recent studies and an order of magnitude lower than observed HDD EFs. HDD EFs reflected the relatively rapid decreases in diesel emissions that have recently occurred in Los Angeles/California, and on I-710, a primary route used for goods movement and a focus of additional truck fleet turnover incentives, HDD EFs were often lower than on other freeways. When freeway emission rates (ER) were quantified as the product of EF and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per time per mile of freeway, despite a twoto three-fold difference in HDD fractions between freeways, ERs were found to be generally similar in magnitude. Higher LDG VMT on low HDD fraction freeways largely offset the difference. Therefore, the conventional assumption that free ways with the highest HDD fractions are significantly worse sources of total emissions in Los Angeles may no longer be true.

  1. Mode Shift Control for a Hybrid Heavy-Duty Vehicle with Power-Split Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that power-split transmission (PST is considered to be a major powertrain technology for hybrid heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, the development and application of PST in the HDVs make mode shift control an essential aspect of powertrain system design. This paper presents a shift schedule design and torque control strategy for a hybrid HDV with PST during mode shift, intended to reduce the output torque variation and improve the shift quality (SQ. Firstly, detailed dynamic models of the hybrid HDV are developed to analyze the mode shift characteristics. Then, a gear shift schedule calculation method including a dynamic shift schedule and an economic shift schedule is provided. Based on the dynamic models and the designed shift schedule, a mode shift performance simulator is built using MATLAB/Simulink, and simulations are carried out. Through analysis of the dynamic equations, it is seen that the inertia torques of the motor–generator lead to the occurrence of transition torque. To avoid the unwanted transition torque, we use a mode shift control strategy that coordinates the motor–generator torque to compensate for the transition torque. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the output torque variation during mode shift is effectively reduced by the proposed control strategy, thereby improving the SQ.

  2. Compact methanol reformer test for fuel-cell powered light-duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emonts, B; Hoehlein, B; Peters, R [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik (IEV); Hansen, J B; Joergensen, S L [Haldor Topsoe A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1998-03-15

    On-board production of hydrogen from methanol based on a steam reformer in connection with the use of low-temperature fuel-cells (PEMFC) is an attractive option as energy conversion unit for light-duty vehicles. A steam reforming process at higher pressures with an external burner offers advantages in comparison to a steam reformer with integrated partial oxidation in terms of total efficiency for electricity production. The main aim of a common project carried out by the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), Haldor Topsoee A/S (HTAS) and Siemens AG is to design, to construct and to test a steam reformer reactor concept (HTAS) with external catalytic burner (FZJ) as heat source as well as catalysts for heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen production (HTAS), concepts for gas treatment (HTAS, FZJ) and a low-temperature fuel cell (Siemens). Based on the experimental results obtained so far concerning methanol reformers, catalytic burners and gas conditioning units, our report describes the total system, a test unit and preliminary test results related to a hydrogen production capacity of 50 kW (LHV) and dynamic operating conditions. This hydrogen production system is aimed at reducing the specific weight (<2 kg/kW{sub th} or 4 kg/kW{sub el}) combined with high efficiency for net electricity generation from methanol (about 50%) and low specific emissions. The application of Pd-membranes as gas cleaning unit fulfill the requirements with high hydrogen permeability and low cost of the noble metal. (orig.)

  3. Sizing Dynamic Wireless Charging for Light-Duty Electric Vehicles in Roadway Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Andrew P [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic wireless charging is a possible cure for the range limitations seen in electric vehicles (EVs) once implemented in highways or city streets. The contribution of this paper is the use of experimental data to show that the expected energy gain from a dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) system is largely a function of average speed, which allows the power level and number of coils per mile of a dynamic WPT system to be sized for the sustained operation of an EV. First, data from dynamometer testing is used to determine the instantaneous energy requirements of a light-duty EV. Then, experimental data is applied to determine the theoretical energy gained by passing over a coil as a function of velocity and power level. Related simulations are performed to explore possible methods of placing WPT coils within roadways with comparisons to the constant velocity case. Analyses with these cases demonstrate what system ratings are needed to meet the energy requirements of the EV. The simulations are also used to determine onboard energy storage requirements for each driving cycle.

  4. Determining the frequency of asbestos use in automotive brakes from a fleet of on-road California vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Joseph; Wall, Stephen; Wagner, Jeff; Wang, Zhong-Min; Rao, Leela E

    2012-02-07

    Asbestos is a known human carcinogen, and recent regulation in California limits asbestiform fibers in brakes to trace levels beginning in 2014, although there is no corresponding federal requirement. In order to gauge the current prevalence of asbestos use in automotive brake applications, the California Air Resources Board tested brake linings from 137 light- and medium-duty vehicles and 54 heavy-duty vehicles. Only about 3% of the light- and medium-duty vehicle brake linings contained chrysotile asbestos. All of those brake linings were drum-type shoes, which are generally being phased out. No asbestos was found in low mileage vehicles presumed to have their original stock linings from the vehicle manufacturer. Additionally, no asbestos was found in the heavy-duty vehicle brake shoe linings sampled. Given the small percentage of vehicle brake linings with asbestos observed, it appears that the prior federal ban that was subsequently overturned, in combination with a threat of litigation, has reduced asbestos use in brake linings. However, our study was limited in scope and without a national ban, the current and future prevalence of asbestos in brakes is uncertain, suggesting the need for continued monitoring of materials released as toxic air contaminants in normal braking operations.

  5. A method for measuring particle number emissions from vehicles driving on the road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J P; Harrison, R M; Evans, D E; Alam, A; Barnes, C; Carter, G

    2002-01-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that the conditions of dilution of engine exhaust gases profoundly influence the size distribution and total number of particles emitted. Since real world dilution conditions are variable and therefore difficult to simulate, this research has sought to develop and validate a method for measuring particle number emissions from vehicles driving past on a road. This has been achieved successfully using carbon dioxide as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. By subsequent adjustment of data to a constant dilution factor, it is possible to compare emissions from different vehicles using different technologies and fuels based upon real world emission data. Whilst further optimisation of the technique, especially in terms of matching the instrument response times is desirable, the measurements offer useful insights into emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles, and the substantial proportion of particles emitted in the 3-7 nanometre size range.

  6. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  8. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  9. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM(sub 2.5)). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO(sub x) and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles

  10. Detectability Analysis of Road Vehicles in Radarsat-2 Fully Polarimetric SAR Images for Traffic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By acquiring information over a wide area regardless of weather conditions and solar illumination, space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR has the potential to be a promising application for traffic monitoring. However, the backscatter character of a vehicle in a SAR image is unstable and varies with image parameters, such as aspect and incidence angle. To investigate vehicle detectability in SAR images for traffic monitoring applications, images of four common types of vehicles in China were acquired using the fully polarimetric (FP SAR of Radarsat-2 in our experiments. Methods for measuring a vehicle’s aspect angle and backscatter intensity are introduced. The experimental FP SAR images are used to analyze the detectability, which is affected by factors such as vehicle size, vehicle shape, and aspect angle. Moreover, a new metric to improve vehicle detectability in FP SAR images is proposed and compared with the well-known intensity metric. The experimental results show that shape is a crucial factor in affecting the backscatter intensity of vehicles, which also oscillates with varying aspect angle. If the size of a vehicle is smaller than the SAR image resolution, using the intensity metric would result in low detectability. However, it could be improved in an FP SAR image by using the proposed metric. Compared with the intensity metric, the overall detectability is improved from 72% to 90% in our experiments. Therefore, this study indicates that FP SAR images have the ability to detect stationary vehicles on the road and are meaningful for traffic monitoring.

  11. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2003-2010 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office funds research on development of technologies to improve the fuel economy of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles, including advanced combustion systems, improved batteries and electric drive systems, and new lightweight materials. Of these approaches to increase fuel economy and reduce fuel consumption, reducing vehicle mass through more extensive use of strong lightweight materials is perhaps the easiest and least expensive method; however, there is a concern that reducing vehicle mass may lead to more fatalities. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted several analyses to better understand the relationship between vehicle mass, size and safety, in order to ameliorate concerns that down-weighting vehicles will inherently lead to more fatalities. These analyses include recreating the regression analyses conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that estimate the relationship between mass reduction and U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile of travel (VMT), while holding vehicle size (i.e. footprint, wheelbase times track width) constant; these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 1 analysis. In addition, LBNL has conducted additional analysis of the relationship between mass and the two components of risk per VMT, crash frequency (crashes per VMT) and risk once a crash has occurred (risk per crash); these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 2 analysis.

  12. A hybrid life cycle assessment of the vehicle-to-grid application in light duty commercial fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The vehicle-to-grid system is an approach utilizing the idle battery capacity of electric vehicles while they are parked to provide supplementary energy to the power grid. As electrification continues in light duty vehicle fleets, the application of vehicle-to-grid systems for commercial delivery truck fleets can provide extra revenue for fleet owners, and also has significant potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity generation sector. In this study, an economic input–output based hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to analyze the potential greenhouse gas emissions emission savings from the use of the vehicle-to-grid system, as well as the possible emission impacts caused by battery degradation. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to address the uncertainties that lie in the electricity exchange amount of the vehicle-to-grid service as well as the battery life of the electric vehicles. The results of this study showed that extended range electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles are both viable regulation service providers for saving greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation if the battery wear-out from regulation services is assumed to be minimal, but the vehicle-to-grid system becomes less attractive at higher battery degradation levels. - Highlights: • The commercial delivery trucks are studied as vehicle-to-grid service providers. • Hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to evaluate emission mitigation. • Battery degradation level and corresponding emissions and cost are evaluated. • Vehicle-to-grid service is shown to have significant emission saving effect.

  13. Energy efficient non-road hybrid electric vehicles advanced modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Johannes; Jakubek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications, which work in continuous high dynamic operation, this book gives practical insight in to how to maximize the energetic efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. The book addresses an energy management control structure, which considers all constraints of the physical powertrain and uses novel methodologies for the prediction of the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of an entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short term loads as well as for an entire load cycle by means of a cycle detection. A maximization of the energetic efficiency can so be achieved, which is simultaneously a reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Readers will gain a deep insight into the necessary topics to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles and that only a combinatio...

  14. Man, road and vehicle: risk factors associated with the severity of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Bezerra Filho, José Gomes; Braga, José Ueleres; Magalhães, Francismeire Brasileiro; Macedo, Marinila Calderaro Munguba; Silva, Kellyanne Abreu

    2013-08-01

    To describe the main characteristics of victims, roads and vehicles involved in traffic accidents and the risk factors involved in accidents resulting in death. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study of traffic accidents in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in the period from January 2004 to December 2008. Data from the Fortaleza Traffic Accidents Information System, the Mortality Information System, the Hospital Information System and the State Traffic Department Driving Licenses and Vehicle database. Deterministic and probabilistic relationship techniques were used to integrate the databases. First, descriptive analysis of data relating to people, roads, vehicles and weather was carried out. In the investigation of risk factors for death by traffic accident, generalized linear models were used. The fit of the model was verified by likelihood ratio and ROC analysis. RESULTS There were 118,830 accidents recorded in the period. The most common types of accidents were crashes/collisions (78.1%), running over pedestrians (11.9%), colliding with a fixed obstacle (3.9%), and with motorcycles (18.1%). Deaths occurred in 1.4% of accidents. The factors that were independently associated with death by traffic accident in the final model were bicycles (OR = 21.2, 95%CI 16.1;27.8), running over pedestrians OR = 5.9 (95%CI 3.7;9.2), collision with a fixed obstacle (OR = 5.7, 95%CI 3.1;10.5) and accidents involving motorcyclists (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 2.6;4.6). The main contributing factors were a single person being involved (OR = 6.6, 95%CI 4.1;10.73), presence of unskilled drivers (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.9;5.5) a single vehicle (OR = 3.9, 95%CI 2,3;6,4), male (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.9;3.3), traffic on roads under federal jurisdiction (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.7), early morning hours (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.0), and Sundays (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3;2.2), adjusted according to the log-binomial model. CONCLUSIONS Activities promoting the prevention of traffic accidents should primarily focus on

  15. Energy intensity in road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrés, Lidia; Padilla, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that have influenced the energy intensity trend of the Spanish road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles over the period 1996–2012. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of these factors and to inform the design of measures to improve energy efficiency in road freight transport. The paper uses both annual single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition analysis. The results suggest that the decrease in the energy intensity of Spanish road freight in the period is explained by the change in the real energy intensity index (lower energy consumption per tonne-kilometre transported), which is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index (greater share in freight transport of those commodities the transportation of which is more energy intensive). The change in energy intensity is analysed in more depth by quantifying the contribution of each commodity through the attribution of changes in Divisia indices. -- Highlights: •We examine energy intensity of Spanish road freight transport over 1996–2012. •We employ single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition. •Energy intensity reduction is explained by the change in real energy intensity index. •This is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index. •The attribution of Divisia indices changes gives the contribution of each commodity

  16. NOx removal from vehicle emissions by functionality surface of asphalt road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meng; Liu Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    This paper reported the potential of heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technology for NO x removal from vehicle emissions by using TiO 2 as a photocatalyst immobilized on the surface of asphalt road. Based on asphalt road material porous characteristic, we utilized permeability technology to make asphalt nano-TiO 2 to be environmental protection materials. And then using scanning electron microscope, we observed the penetrating effect of TiO 2 . The effect of surface friction, humidity and light intensity on NO x removal had been systematically investigated by the use of TiO 2 immobilized on the surface of asphalt road as photocatalytic environmental protection materials. In addition, the decontaminating effect was tested by contrast test in TiO 2 spraying section with non-spraying section, while the productions were used in road environment. Results of experiment revealed that decontaminating rate of the productions ranged from 6% to 12% this kind of photochemical catalysis environmental protection material has good environment purification function.

  17. Electric and hydrogen consumption analysis in plug-in road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribau, Joao P.; Silva, Carla M.; Faria, Tiago L. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 Pav. Mecanica I, 2 andar, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of the present study is to analyze some of the capabilities and behavior of two types of plug-in cars: battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric, facing different driving styles, different road gradients, different occupation rates, different electrical loads, and different battery's initial state of charge. In order to do that, four vehicles with different power/weight (kW/kg) ratio (0.044 to 0.150) were simulated in the software ADVISOR, which gives predictions of energy consumption, and behavior of vehicle's power train components (including energy regeneration) along specified driving cycles. The required energy, electricity and/or hydrogen, to overcome the specified driving schedules, allowed to estimate fuel life cycle's CO2 emissions and primary energy. A vehicle with higher power/weight ratio (kW/kg) demonstrated to be less affected in operation and in variation of the energy consumption, facing the different case studies, however may have higher consumptions in some cases. The autonomy, besides depending on the fuel consumption, is directly associated with the type and capacity (kWh) of the chosen battery, plus the stored hydrogen (if fuel cell vehicles are considered, PHEV-FC). The PHEV-FC showed to have higher autonomy than the battery vehicles, but higher energy consumption which is extremely dependent on the type and ratio of energy used, hydrogen or electricity. An aggressive driving style, higher road gradient and increase of weight, required more energy and power to the vehicle and presented consumption increases near to 77%, 621%, 19% respectively. Higher electrical load and battery's initial state of charge, didn't affect directly vehicle's dynamic. The first one drained energy directly from the battery plus demanded a fraction of its power, with energy consumption maximum increasing near 71%. The second one restricted the autonomy without influence directly the energy consumption per

  18. Plug-in vehicles and the future of road infrastructure funding in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Kent, Matthew W.; Payton, Seth B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, road infrastructure funding is declining due to an increase in fuel efficiency and the non-adjustment of fuel taxes to inflation. Legislation to tax plug-in vehicles has been proposed or implemented in several states. Those propositions are contrary to policies to promote fuel efficient vehicles. This paper assesses (1) the magnitude of the decline in federal fuel tax revenue caused by plug-in vehicles and (2) quantifies the revenue that could be generated from a federal plug-in vehicle registration fee. We find that the contribution of plug-in vehicles to the decline of the federal fuel tax revenue is at most 1.6% and the majority of the shortfall can be attributed to the non-adjustment of the fuel tax rate and the increase in vehicle fuel efficiency by 2040. An additional tax of $50–$200 per plug-in vehicle per year in the reference case would generate $188–$745 million in 2040 which represents an increase of 1.69–6.71% in federal fuel tax revenue compared to no tax. The lesson for policy makers is that plug-in vehicles do not contribute significantly to the funding shortfall in the short- and medium-run and a supplemental tax would generate a small percentage of additional revenue. - Highlights: •Fees on plug-in cars are proposed or implemented to collect foregone fuel taxes. •Plug-in cars are responsible for a very small percentage of declining tax revenue. •An additional tax on plug-in cars does not stop the decline in fuel tax revenue. •Adjusting fuel taxes to inflation is a more effective tool to increase tax revenue.

  19. Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Lähde, Tero; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle technology development and upcoming particle emission limits have increased the need for detailed analyses of particle emissions of vehicles using gasoline direct injection (GDI) techniques. In this paper the particle emission characteristics of modern GDI passenger cars were studied in a laboratory and on the road, with the focus on exhaust particle number emissions, size distributions, volatility and morphology. Both during acceleration and steady conditions the number size distribution of nonvolatile exhaust particles consisted of two modes, one with mean particle size below 30 nm and the other with mean particle size approximately 70 nm. Results indicate that both of these particles modes consisted of soot but with different morphologies. Both in laboratory and on the road, significant emissions of exhaust particles were observed also during decelerations conducted by engine braking. These particles are most likely originating from lubricant oil ash components. The semivolatile nucleation particles were observed in the laboratory experiments at high engine load conditions. Thus, in general, the study indicates that a modern gasoline vehicle can emit four distinctive types of exhaust particles. The differences in particle characteristics and formation should be taken into account in the development of emission control strategies and technologies and, on the other hand, in the assessment of the impact of particle emissions on environment and human health.

  20. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  1. Road-surface properties affecting rates of energy dissipation from vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igwe, E.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5080, Rivers State (Nigeria); Ayotamuno, M.J.; Okparanma, R.N. [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5080, Rivers State (Nigeria); Ogaji, S.O.T.; Probert, S.D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire Mk43 OAL (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The rates of energy that moving vehicles dissipate to road surfaces as well as noise emissions and their propensities for pitting (and hence their repair costs per year) all depend upon the structural properties of these surfaces. Thus, to increase the strength of bituminous concrete (i.e. a typical flexible road-surface) has been one of the major recent aims in highway engineering. The present study explored techniques that will increase these strength properties by modifying the material, using rubber latex, through rubberization and hence, improve the strength of the flexible trafficked surface when in contact with vehicles. At the optimal design asphalt (i.e. bitumen) content of 4.68%, the successive addition of various percentages of the rubber latex produced a design value of 1.65% rubber content, which increased the stability of the roadway from 1595 to 2639 N (i.e. an 65.5% increase) and the density from 2447 to 2520.8 kg/m{sup 3} (i.e. a 3.02% increase). This shows that the addition of rubber latex to bituminous concrete (a flexible road-surface) increased sustainability and the strength (in terms of stability and density). Similarly, the air voids and voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA) were reduced by introducing latex from 4.22% to 3.45% (i.e. a 17.06% reduction) and 16.25% to 13.43% (i.e. an 17.4% reduction), respectively. Whereas, the reduction in voidage volume added strength to the bituminous concrete by increasing its stability and density, the reduction in VMA had no positive impact on the strength properties of the flexible road-surface. (author)

  2. Estimation of Road Loads and Vibration Transmissibility of Torsion Bar Suspension System in a Tracked Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneza, G. P. S.; Chandramohan, Sujatha

    2018-05-01

    Designing the suspension system of a tracked combat vehicle (CV) is really challenging as it has to satisfy conflicting requirements of good ride comfort, vehicle handling and stability characteristics. Many studies in this field have been reported in literature and it has been found that torsion bars satisfy the designer's conflicting requirements of good ride and handling and thus have reserved a place for themselves as the most widely used suspension system for military track vehicles. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness of the torsion bar under dynamic conditions of undulating terrain and validating the same by correlating it with computer simulation results. Thus in the present work, the dynamic simulation of a 2N + 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) mathematical model has been carried out using MATLAB Simulink and the vibration levels were also measured experimentally on a 12 wheel stationed high mobility military tracked infantry combat vehicle (ICV BMP-II) traversing different terrain, that is, Aberdeen proving ground (APG) and Sinusoidal, at a constant vehicle speed. The dynamic force transmitted to the hull CG through the 12 torsion bar suspension systems was computed to be around 26,700 N and found to match the measured values. The vibration isolation of the torsion bar in bounce was found to be effective, with a transmissibility from the road wheel to the hull of about 0.6.

  3. Classification Of Road Accidents From The Perspective Of Vehicle Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirovský Václav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.

  4. The influence of battery degradation level on the selected traction parameters of a light-duty electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Z.; Noga, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes results of an analysis of the impact of degradation level of battery made in lead-acid technology on selected traction parameters of an electric light duty vehicle. Lead-acid batteries are still used in these types of vehicles. They do not require complex systems of performance management and monitoring and are easy to maintaining. Despite the basic disadvantage, which is the low value of energy density, low price is a decisive factor for their use in low-speed electric vehicles. The process of aging of the battery related with an increase in internal resistance of the cells and the loss of electric capacity of the battery was considered. A simplified model of cooperation of the DC electric motor with the battery assuming increased internal resistance was presented. In the paper the results of comparative traction research of the light-duty vehicle equipped with a set of new batteries and set of batteries having a significant degradation level were showed. The analysis of obtained results showed that the correct exploitation of the battery can slow down the processes of degradation and, thus, extend battery life cycle.

  5. Natural gas application in light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Brazil: panorama, technological routes and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos, Cordeiro de Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante; Leao, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Iaccarino, Fernando Aniello; Figueiredo Moreira, Marcia

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian CNG light-duty vehicle fleet has currently reached more than 1,300,000 units. This growth increased in the late 1990's, when CNG was approved for use in passenger cars. In 2001, the IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources), concerned with this uncontrolled growth, published CONAMA (National Environmental Council, controlled by IBAMA) resolution 291, which establishes rules for CNG conversion kit environmental certification.This paper discusses the technological challenges for CNG-converted vehicles to comply with PROCONVE (Brazilian Program for Automotive Air Pollution Control) emission limits. In the 1980's, because of the oil crisis, Natural Gas (NG) emerged as a fuel with great potential to replace Diesel in heavy-duty vehicles. Some experiences were conducted for partial conversions from Diesel to NG (Diesel-gas). Other experiences using NG Otto Cycle buses were conducted in some cities, but have not expanded. Another technological route called 'Ottolization' (Diesel to Otto cycle convertion) appeared recently. Population increase and the great growth in vehicle fleet promote a constant concern with automotive emissions. More restrictive emission limits, high international oil prices, and the strategic interest in replacing Diesel imports, altogether form an interesting scenario for CNG propagation to public transportation in the main Brazilian metropolises.

  6. Remote sensing of on-road vehicle emissions: Mechanism, applications and a case study from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Organ, Bruce; Zhou, John L.; Surawski, Nic C.; Hong, Guang; Chan, Edward F. C.; Yam, Yat Shing

    2018-06-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major contributor to air pollution in cities and have serious health impacts to their inhabitants. On-road remote sensing is an effective and economic tool to monitor and control vehicle emissions. In this review, the mechanism, accuracy, advantages and limitations of remote sensing were introduced. Then the applications and major findings of remote sensing were critically reviewed. It was revealed that the emission distribution of on-road vehicles was highly skewed so that the dirtiest 10% vehicles accounted for over half of the total fleet emissions. Such findings highlighted the importance and effectiveness of using remote sensing for in situ identification of high-emitting vehicles for further inspection and maintenance programs. However, the accuracy and number of vehicles affected by screening programs were greatly dependent on the screening criteria. Remote sensing studies showed that the emissions of gasoline and diesel vehicles were significantly reduced in recent years, with the exception of NOx emissions of diesel vehicles in spite of greatly tightened automotive emission regulations. Thirdly, the experience and issues of using remote sensing for identifying high-emitting vehicles in Hong Kong (where remote sensing is a legislative instrument for enforcement purposes) were reported. That was followed by the first time ever identification and discussion of the issue of frequent false detection of diesel high-emitters using remote sensing. Finally, the challenges and future research directions of on-road remote sensing were elaborated.

  7. Dynamic simulation of road vehicle door window regulator mechanism of cross arm type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklos, I. Zs; Miklos, C.; Alic, C.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents issues related to the dynamic simulation of a motor-drive operating mechanism of cross arm type, for the manipulation of road vehicle door windows, using Autodesk Inventor Professional software. The dynamic simulation of the mechanism involves a 3D modelling, kinematic coupling, drive motion parameters and external loads, as well as the graphically view of the kinematic and kinetostatic results for the various elements and kinematic couplings of the mechanism, under real operating conditions. Also, based on the results, the analysis of the mechanism components has been carried out using the finite element method.

  8. Evaluation of On-Road Vehicle Emission Trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, R. A.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC). These emissions lead to a variety of environmental problems including air pollution and climate change. At present, national and state-level mobile source emission inventories are developed using statistical models to predict emissions from large and diverse populations of vehicles. Activity is measured by total vehicle-km traveled, and pollutant emission factors are predicted based on laboratory testing of individual vehicles. Despite efforts to improve mobile source emission inventories, they continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods, such as the fuel-based approach used here, are needed to evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and to help reduce uncertainties. In this study we quantify U.S. national emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, and BC from on-road diesel and gasoline vehicles for the years 1990-2010, including effects of a weakened national economy on fuel sales and vehicle travel from 2008-10. Pollutant emissions are estimated by multiplying total amounts of fuel consumed with emission factors expressed per unit of fuel burned. Fuel consumption is used as a measure of vehicle activity, and is based on records of taxable fuel sales. Pollutant emission factors are derived from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing measurements, and individual vehicle exhaust plume capture experiments. Emission factors are updated with new results from a summer 2010 field study conducted at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  9. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-02

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required.

  10. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks.

  11. Measurement and modelling of noise emission of road vehicles for use in prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonasson, H.G.

    2000-07-01

    The road vehicle as sound source has been studied within a wide frequency range. Well defined measurements have been carried out on moving and stationary vehicles. Measurement results have been checked against theoretical simulations. A Nordtest measurement method to obtain input data for prediction methods has been proposed and tested in four different countries. The effective sound source of a car has its centre close to the nearest wheels. For trucks this centre seems to be closer to the centre of the car. The vehicle as sound source is directional both in the vertical and the horizontal plane. The difference between SEL and L{sub pFmax} during a pass-by varies with frequency. At low frequencies interference effects between correlated sources may be the problem. At high frequencies the directivity of tyre/road noise affects the result. The time when L{sub pFmax} is obtained varies with frequency. Thus traditional maximum measurements are not suitable for frequency band applications. The measurements support the fact that the tyre/road noise source is very low. Measurements on a stationary vehicle indicate that the engine source is also very low. Engine noise is screened by the body of the car. The ground attenuation, also at short distances, will be significant whenever we use low microphone positions and have some 'soft' ground in between. Unless all measurements are restricted to propagation over 'hard' surfaces only it is necessary to use rather high microphone positions. The Nordtest method proposed will yield a reproducibility standard deviation of 1-3 dB depending on frequency. High frequencies are more accurate. In order to get accurate results at low frequencies large numbers of vehicles are required. To determine the sound power level from pass-by measurement requires a proper source and propagation model. As these models may change it is recommended to measure and report both SEL and L{sub pFmax} normalized to a specified distance.

  12. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  13. Energy Impacts of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors in U.S. Light-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua A; Riddle, Matthew E; Graziano, Diane J; Das, Sujit; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Masanet, Eric; Cresko, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of silicon carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015-2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2-20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics.

  14. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized. PMID:25763384

  15. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environments to Realize Road Traffic Flow Surveillance Using an Infrared Thermal Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Iwasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires’ thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  16. Robust vehicle detection under various environments to realize road traffic flow surveillance using an infrared thermal camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Misumi, Masato; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    To realize road traffic flow surveillance under various environments which contain poor visibility conditions, we have already proposed two vehicle detection methods using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. The first method uses pattern recognition for the windshields and their surroundings to detect vehicles. However, the first method decreases the vehicle detection accuracy in winter season. To maintain high vehicle detection accuracy in all seasons, we developed the second method. The second method uses tires' thermal energy reflection areas on a road as the detection targets. The second method did not achieve high detection accuracy for vehicles on left-hand and right-hand lanes except for two center-lanes. Therefore, we have developed a new method based on the second method to increase the vehicle detection accuracy. This paper proposes the new method and shows that the detection accuracy for vehicles on all lanes is 92.1%. Therefore, by combining the first method and the new method, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environments, and road traffic flow surveillance can be realized.

  17. A QUESTIONNAIRE-BASED SURVEY ON ROAD VEHICLE TRAVEL HABITS OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn FALKMER

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research concerning the transport situation for children with disabilities has shown a lack of reliable data on their travel habits, although such data are essential for producing rules, regulations and guidelines for safe transportation of the target group. The results from the present questionnaire study, which was carried out among 1,060 parents of children with disabilities, showed that the target group travelled frequently in the family vehicle. Most of their journeys occupied a substantial amount of time. Less than a third of all family vehicles were adapted for transporting children with disabilities. There was a large proportion of safety belt users in the family vehicle. Lack of tiedown and safety restraint system procedures meant that journeys by school transportation and Special Transport Systems were a very hazardous means of transport for children with disabilities. The results suggest that school transportation systems must be compelled to use safety belts for children with disabilities, preferably for all children, since children seated in technical aids face an even greater risk in the event of an impact than other children. Tiedown systems must be made compulsory for road vehicle transportation with technical aids used as seating systems.

  18. Automated vehicle guidance using discrete reference markers. [road surface steering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Assefi, T.; Lai, J. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for providing steering control for an automated vehicle using discrete reference markers fixed to the road surface are investigated analytically. Either optical or magnetic approaches can be used for the sensor, which generates a measurement of the lateral offset of the vehicle path at each marker to form the basic data for steering control. Possible mechanizations of sensor and controller are outlined. Techniques for handling certain anomalous conditions, such as a missing marker, or loss of acquisition, and special maneuvers, such as u-turns and switching, are briefly discussed. A general analysis of the vehicle dynamics and the discrete control system is presented using the state variable formulation. Noise in both the sensor measurement and in the steering servo are accounted for. An optimal controller is simulated on a general purpose computer, and the resulting plots of vehicle path are presented. Parameters representing a small multipassenger tram were selected, and the simulation runs show response to an erroneous sensor measurement and acquisition following large initial path errors.

  19. Autonomous Path Planning for Road Vehicles in Narrow Environments: An Efficient Continuous Curvature Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domokos Kiss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a novel method for obtaining good quality paths for autonomous road vehicles (e.g., cars or buses in narrow environments. There are many traffic situations in urban scenarios where nontrivial maneuvering in narrow places is necessary. Navigating in cluttered parking lots or having to avoid obstacles blocking the way and finding a detour even in narrow streets are challenging, especially if the vehicle has large dimensions like a bus. We present a combined approximation-based approach to solve the path planning problem in such situations. Our approach consists of a global planner which generates a preliminary path consisting of straight and turning-in-place primitives and a local planner which is used to make the preliminary path feasible to car-like vehicles. The approximation methodology is well known in the literature; however, both components proposed in this paper differ from existing similar planning methods. The approximation process with the proposed local planner is proven to be convergent for any preliminary global paths. The resulting path has continuous curvature which renders our method well suited for application on real vehicles. Simulation experiments show that the proposed method outperforms similar approaches in terms of path quality in complicated planning tasks.

  20. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers' public vehicles using willingness to pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2015-01-01

    To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others.

  1. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... to Otto-cycle engines used in such MDPVs, except as specified in subpart S of this part. The term... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later...

  2. REPRESENTING ROAD RELATED LASERSCANNED DATA IN CURVED REGULAR GRID: A SUPPORT TO AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Potó

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial and mobile laser scanning has become nowadays a mature technology applied in several technical and non-technical applications. The transportation infrastructure can be surveyed by these technologies in an excellent way, then 3D maps, fly-through videos and road furniture inventories can be derived among many other applications. The very detailed measurement and the realistic feature enable even to be used in games or simulators. This advantage was to be analyzed in vehicular simulation environment; the primary goal of the paper was to demonstrate a potential workflow and use case for such laser scanning data. The selected simulation package was the OpenCRG, which is being a component of OpenDRIVE-OpenCRG-OpenSCENARIO system, where it has been developed for microscopic simulations, e.g. vibrations, tire models or vehicle suspension systems. Because of the realistic visualization of CRG models it is very popular in the design and development of autonomous vehicles. The paper presents two different paved pilot sites surveyed by these technologies, then the raw data preparation is described and the details of the CRG model building is shown. The results of the experiments bring an overview, how the captured field data can be represented and interpreted in road surface context. The diagrams illustrate the potential of the very high resolution (1 cm model, which allows to identify each separate cobble stone or to study surface roughness.

  3. Long-term greenhouse gas emission and petroleum reduction goals: Evolutionary pathways for the light-duty vehicle sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromer, Matthew A.; Bandivadekar, Anup; Evans, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    To meet long-term environmental and energy security goals, the United States must reduce petroleum use in the light-duty vehicle fleet by 70% and greenhouse gas emissions by a factor of ten compared to business-as-usual growth projections for the year 2050. A wedge-based approach was used to quantify the scope of the problem in real terms, and to develop options for meeting mid-century targets. Four mitigation mechanisms were considered: (1) improvements in near-term vehicle technologies; (2) emphasis on low-carbon biofuels; (3) de-carbonization of the electric grid; and (4) demand-side travel-reduction initiatives. Projections from previous studies were used to characterize the potential of individual mitigation mechanisms, which were then integrated into a light-duty vehicle fleet model; particular emphasis was given to systemic constraints on scale and rates of change. Based on these projections, two different greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation implementation plans were considered ('evolutionary' and 'aggressive'). Fleet model projections indicate that both the evolutionary and aggressive approaches can effectively end US dependence on foreign oil, but achieving an 80% GHG reduction requires changes that extend significantly beyond even the aggressive case, which was projected to achieve a 65% reduction.

  4. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askin, Amanda C.; Barter, Garrett E.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. The model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives. -- Highlights: •We present a parametric analysis of factors U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. •Conventional diesels will be more than 70% of U.S. heavy-duty vehicles through 2050. •CNG trucks are well suited to large, urban fleets with private refueling. •Ultra-efficient long haul diesel trucks are preferred over LNG at current fuel prices

  5. COMPARISON OF THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EXHAUST USING A DILUTION TAIL-PIPE SAMPLER AND IN-PLUME SAMPLER DURING ON-ROAD OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper compares the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tail-pipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation. EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentat...

  6. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  7. Experimental analysis on the performance of lithium based batteries for road full electric and hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, Clemente; Veneri, Ottorino

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance analysis for lithium storage technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries. • Actual capacity of lithium technologies analyzed almost close to their nominal capacity also for high discharging current. • The charging efficiency for Li[NiCoMn]O 2 positively affects the regenerative breaking and fast recharging operations. • The analyzed battery packs follow dynamic power requirements on performed road driving cycles. • Experimental results demonstrate driving range is much higher when battery packs are based on lithium technology. - Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental evaluation regarding the real performance of lithium based energy storage systems for automotive applications. In particular real working operations of different lithium based storage system technologies, such as Li[NiCoMn]O 2 and LiFePO 4 batteries, are compared in this work from the point of view of their application in supplying full electric and hybrid vehicles, taking as a reference the well-known behavior of lead acid batteries. For this purpose, the experimental tests carried out in laboratory are firstly performed on single storage modules in stationary conditions. In this case the related results are obtained by means of a bidirectional cycle tester based on the IGBT technology, and consent to evaluate, compare and contrast charge/discharge characteristics and efficiency at constant values of current/voltage/power for each storage technology analyzed. Then, lithium battery packs are tested in supplying a 1.8 kW electric power train using a laboratory test bench, based on a 48 V DC bus and specifically configured to simulate working operations of electric vehicles on the road. For this other experimentation the test bench is equipped with an electric brake and acquisition/control system, able to represent in laboratory the real vehicle conditions and road characteristics on predefined driving cycles at different slopes. The obtained

  8. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-06-01

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards. Solid particle number and black carbon were suggested in place of PM mass for the California LEV III 1-mg/mile FTP standard. Their equivalence, proportionality, and emission variability in comparison to PM mass, based on a large light-duty vehicle fleet examined, are dependent on engine

  9. A parametric study of light-duty natural gas vehicle competitiveness in the United States through 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Meghan B.; Barter, Garrett E.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NGVs are economical, but limited by infrastructure and OEM model availability. • NGVs compete more with EVs than conventional vehicles. • By displacing EVs, NGVs offer little or negative GHG reduction benefits. • Public refueling infrastructure is a better investment than home CNG compressors. • Bi-fuel vehicles can be a bridge technology until infrastructure build-out. - Abstract: We modeled and conducted a parametric analysis of the US light-duty vehicle (LDV) stock to examine the impact of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) as they compete with electric vehicles, hybrids, and conventional powertrains. We find that low natural gas prices and sufficient public refueling infrastructure are the key drivers to NGV adoption when matched with availability of compressed natural gas powertrains from automakers. Due to the time and investment required for the build out of infrastructure and the introduction of vehicles by original equipment manufacturers, home natural gas compressor sales and bi-fuel NGVs serve as bridge technologies through 2030. By 2050, however, NGVs could comprise as much as 20% of annual vehicle sales and 10% of the LDV stock fraction. We also find that NGVs may displace electric vehicles, rather than conventional powertrains, as they both compete for consumers that drive enough miles such that fuel cost savings offset higher purchase costs. Due to this dynamic, NGVs in our LDV stock model offer little to no greenhouse gas emissions reduction as they displace lower emission powertrains. This finding is subject to the uncertainty in efficiency technology progression and the set of powertains and fuels considered

  10. Electrifying Australian transport: Hybrid life cycle analysis of a transition to electric light-duty vehicles and renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, Paul; Wiedmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This research assesses life-cycle carbon impacts of different powertrains. •We illustrate a transition to low-carbon vehicles in a hybrid IO-LCA model. •Different electricity and transport scenarios are integrated in the model. •With Australia’s current grid-mix, electric vehicles offer no mitigation potential. •Using renewable energy, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66%. -- Abstract: Recent life cycle assessments confirmed the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of renewable electricity and electric vehicle technologies. However, each technology is usually assessed separately and not within a consistent macro-economic, multi-sectoral framework. Here we present a multi-regional input-output based hybrid approach with integrated scenarios to facilitate the carbon footprint assessment of all direct and indirect effects of a transition to low-emission transportation and electricity generation technologies in Australia. The work takes into account on-road energy consumption values that are more realistic than official drive-cycle energy consumption figures used in previous work. Accounting for these factors as well as for Australia’s grid electricity, which heavily relies on coal power, electric vehicles are found to have a higher carbon footprint than conventional vehicles, whereas hybrid electric vehicles have the lowest. This means that – from a carbon footprint perspective – powertrain electrification is beneficial only to a certain degree at the current stage. This situation can be changed by increasing shares of renewable electricity in the grid. In our best-case scenario, where renewable energy accounts for 96% of the electricity mix in 2050, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66% by 2050 relative to 2009. In the business-as-usual scenario (36% renewable electricity share by 2050), electric vehicles can reach a 56% reduction if fossil fuel power plants significantly increase their efficiencies

  11. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  12. Variability in Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emission Factors from Trip-Based Real-World Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Frey, H Christopher

    2015-10-20

    Using data obtained with portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS) on multiple routes for 100 gasoline vehicles, including passenger cars (PCs), passenger trucks (PTs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), variability in tailpipe emission rates was evaluated. Tier 2 emission standards are shown to be effective in lowering NOx, CO, and HC emission rates. Although PTs are larger, heavier vehicles that consume more fuel and produce more CO2 emissions, they do not necessarily produce more emissions of regulated pollutants compared to PCs. HEVs have very low emission rates compared to tier 2 vehicles under real-world driving. Emission factors vary with cycle average speed and road type, reflecting the combined impact of traffic control and traffic congestion. Compared to the slowest average speed and most congested cycles, optimal emission rates could be 50% lower for CO2, as much as 70% lower for NOx, 40% lower for CO, and 50% lower for HC. There is very high correlation among vehicles when comparing driving cycles. This has implications for how many cycles are needed to conduct comparisons between vehicles, such as when comparing fuels or technologies. Concordance between empirical and predicted emission rates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES model was also assessed.

  13. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Risk for environment-induced diseases due to air pollution from motor vehicles in road-patrol officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlichenko, K Iu; Kas'ianenko, A A; Shchelkunova, I G; Grechko, A V

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes risk factors for environment-induced diseases in road-patrol (RP) officers under the existing working conditions: noise and chemical ambient air pollution from motor vehicles. There is evidence for a significant increase in the incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous system, sense organs, digestive and endocrine metabolic systems in the State Road Safety Inspectorate officers who are directly engaged in traffic management. Potential and real risks from motor transport to the health of RP roads have been estimated. Recommendations on optimizing the working conditions are given.

  15. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9219-4; NHTSA 2010-0079] RIN 2060-AP61; RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on...

  16. Hydrogen-powered road vehicles. Positive and negative health effects of new fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Because of the political, social and environmental problems associated with dependency on fossil fuels, there is considerable interest in alternative energy sources. Hydrogen is regarded as a promising option, particularly as a fuel for road vehicles. The Dutch Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) recently published a vision of the future, in which it suggested that by 2050 more than half of all cars in the Netherlands could be running on hydrogen. Assuming that the hydrogen is produced from renewable energy sources, migration to hydrogen-powered vehicles would also curb carbon dioxide emissions. In the United States, Japan and Europe, considerable public and private investment is therefore being made with a view to developing the technologies needed to make the creation of a hydrogen-based economy possible within a few decades. A switch to using hydrogen as the primary energy source for road vehicles would have far-reaching social consequences. As with all technological developments, opportunities would be created, but drawbacks would inevitably be encountered as well. Some of the disadvantages associated with hydrogen are already known, and are to some degree manageable. It is likely, however, that other drawbacks would come to light only once hydrogen-powered cars were actually in use With that thought in mind, and in view of the social significance of a possible transition to hydrogen, it was decided that the Health Council should assess the positive and negative effects that hydrogen use could have on public health. It is particularly important to make such an assessment at the present early stage in the development of hydrogen technologies, so that gaps in existing scientific knowledge may be identified and appropriate strategies may be developed for addressing such gaps. This report has been produced by the Health and Environment Surveillance Committee, which has special responsibility for the identification of important correlations between

  17. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K; Harada, M; Harada, H [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  18. The influence of age, seat belt, time of day, and type of vehicles on road accidents in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2009-04-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle road accidents of southeastern Iran. This study used data obtained from Kerman police force reports on incidents of road traffic accidents (RTAs). We analyzed the police reports of total road accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007. The involvement in fatal and non-fatal accidents was determined for females than among males. The analysis of the data indicated that the female drivers have a much better road safety record than male drivers, especially with regards to their involvement in severe traffic accidents. Forty-nine percent of accidents involve passenger cars, which is higher than other type of vehicles. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers who did not use seat belts had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. Time of day analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility but a consequence of the way drivers use the roads at night. A number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety in southeastern Iran are suggested.

  19. 16 CFR 455.1 - General duties of a used vehicle dealer; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (1) To misrepresent the mechanical condition of a used vehicle; (2) To misrepresent the terms of any... terms of any written warranty offered in connection with the sale of a used vehicle. (c) The Commission... provided at no extra charge beyond the price of the used vehicle. (6) Implied warranty means an implied...

  20. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : heavy goods vehicles and buses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are defined as goods vehicles of over 3,5 tons maximum permissible gross vehicle weight. Road traffic accidents involving HGVs tend to be more severe than other accidents because of the great size and mass of these vehicles. Buses and coaches are included in this Basic

  1. Road transport management system: a self regulation initiative to promote load optimisation, vehicle maintenance and driver wellness in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available with inadequate vehicle maintenance, driver fatigue and poor driver health, contributes significantly to South Africa’s poor road safety record. This paper describes the most recent developments of an initiative to introduce meaningful self-regulation in the heavy...

  2. Statistical analysis of road-vehicle-driver interaction as an enabler to designing behavioural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, T; Chowdhury, A; Ghose, A; Bhaumik, C; Balamuralidhar, P

    2014-01-01

    Telematics form an important technology enabler for intelligent transportation systems. By deploying on-board diagnostic devices, the signatures of vehicle vibration along with its location and time are recorded. Detailed analyses of the collected signatures offer deep insights into the state of the objects under study. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying telematics device in one of the office bus that ferries employees to office and back. Data is being collected from 3-axis accelerometer, GPS, speed and the time for all the journeys. In this paper, we present initial results of the above exercise by applying statistical methods to derive information through systematic analysis of the data collected over four months. It is demonstrated that the higher order derivative of the measured Z axis acceleration samples display the properties Weibull distribution when the time axis is replaced by the amplitude of such processed acceleration data. Such an observation offers us a method to predict future behaviour where deviations from prediction are classified as context-based aberrations or progressive degradation of the system. In addition we capture the relationship between speed of the vehicle and median of the jerk energy samples using regression analysis. Such results offer an opportunity to develop a robust method to model road-vehicle interaction thereby enabling us to predict such like driving behaviour and condition based maintenance etc

  3. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles underestimated? Insights from near and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, John; Gordon, Mark; Smallwood, Gregory; Li, Shao-Meng; Stroud, Craig; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Lee, Patrick; Taylor, Brett; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) with a high-sensitivity laser-induced incandescence (HS-LII) instrument and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) were conducted upwind, downwind, and while driving on a highway dominated by gasoline vehicles. The results are used with concurrent CO(2) measurements to derive fuel-based BC emission factors for real-world average fleet and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. The derived emission factors from both instruments are compared, and a low SP2 bias (relative to the HS-LII) is found to be caused by a BC mass mode diameter less than 75 nm, that is most prominent with the gasoline fleet but is not present in the heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust on the highway. Results from both the LII and the SP2 demonstrate that the BC emission factors from gasoline vehicles are at least a factor of 2 higher than previous North American measurements, and a factor of 9 higher than currently used emission inventories in Canada, derived with the MOBILE 6.2C model. Conversely, the measured BC emission factor for heavy-duty diesel vehicles is in reasonable agreement with previous measurements. The results suggest that greater attention must be paid to black carbon from gasoline engines to obtain a full understanding of the impact of black carbon on air quality and climate and to devise appropriate mitigation strategies. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as...

  5. Modeling vehicle operating speed on urban roads in Montreal: a panel mixed ordered probit fractional split model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Chakour, Vincent; Chamberlain, Morgan; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2013-10-01

    Vehicle operating speed measured on roadways is a critical component for a host of analysis in the transportation field including transportation safety, traffic flow modeling, roadway geometric design, vehicle emissions modeling, and road user route decisions. The current research effort contributes to the literature on examining vehicle speed on urban roads methodologically and substantively. In terms of methodology, we formulate a new econometric model framework for examining speed profiles. The proposed model is an ordered response formulation of a fractional split model. The ordered nature of the speed variable allows us to propose an ordered variant of the fractional split model in the literature. The proposed formulation allows us to model the proportion of vehicles traveling in each speed interval for the entire segment of roadway. We extend the model to allow the influence of exogenous variables to vary across the population. Further, we develop a panel mixed version of the fractional split model to account for the influence of site-specific unobserved effects. The paper contributes substantively by estimating the proposed model using a unique dataset from Montreal consisting of weekly speed data (collected in hourly intervals) for about 50 local roads and 70 arterial roads. We estimate separate models for local roads and arterial roads. The model estimation exercise considers a whole host of variables including geometric design attributes, roadway attributes, traffic characteristics and environmental factors. The model results highlight the role of various street characteristics including number of lanes, presence of parking, presence of sidewalks, vertical grade, and bicycle route on vehicle speed proportions. The results also highlight the presence of site-specific unobserved effects influencing the speed distribution. The parameters from the modeling exercise are validated using a hold-out sample not considered for model estimation. The results indicate

  6. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  7. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  8. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  9. Analysis of application of alternative drive systems for international heavy-duty transport on Wroclaw-Dresden-Prague routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Sroka, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The depletion of the fossil fuels resources, significant increase of the air pollution caused by the use of internal combustion engines, and emission of carbon dioxide which is responsible for the greenhouse effect escalates the development of vehicle's alternative drive systems. Generally, the emphasis is given to the alternative fuels (natural gas CNG, mixture of propane-butane gases LPG, hydrogen, alcohol fuels, biofuels) and hybrid or electric vehicles. Roads between large industrial and commercial centres, i.e. Wroclaw - Dresden - Prague, are used mainly by heavy-duty vehicles. Consequently, the contribution of the road transport to the ecological threat in this realm is significant. The objectives of this research were the assessment of the traffic volume and emission rate of exhaust gases caused by heavy-duty vehicles on the analysed roads and evaluation of the possibility of using existing and alternative drive systems in vehicles driving on the roads in the analysed region.

  10. Metrological approach to the force exerted by the axle of a road vehicle in motion carrying liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruolo, Luciano Bruno; Pinto, Fernando Augusto de Noronha Castro

    2016-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are used for identifying the dynamic force exerted on the ground by axles of a vehicle. These systems are important for monitoring the gross vehicle weight and the vehicle axle load. Overweighted trucks on the roads increase pavement damage and traffic accidents. Knowing the accuracy of WIM systems is necessary. In the case of liquid transport the ‘sloshing effect’ affects this accuracy. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic measurement of the axle forces in vehicles carrying liquid during WIM up to 6 km h −1 . Laboratory experiments using one vehicle with six axles and liquid loads on different levels in weighing instruments are presented. A non-linear computational multi-mass-springs model was developed and laboratory experiments were carried out to show the acceleration influences on axle forces of vehicles with six axles and with and without baffles to vary the ‘sloshing effect’. (paper)

  11. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  12. Modeling Travel Time Reliability of Road Network Considering Connected Vehicle Guidance Characteristics Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time reliability (TTR is one of the important indexes for effectively evaluating the performance of road network, and TTR can effectively be improved using the real-time traffic guidance information. Compared with traditional traffic guidance, connected vehicle (CV guidance can provide travelers with more timely and accurate travel information, which can further improve the travel efficiency of road network. Five CV characteristics indexes are selected as explanatory variables including the Congestion Level (CL, Penetration Rate (PR, Compliance Rate (CR, release Delay Time (DT, and Following Rate (FR. Based on the five explanatory variables, a TTR model is proposed using the multilogistic regression method, and the prediction accuracy and the impact of characteristics indexes on TTR are analyzed using a CV guidance scenario. The simulation results indicate that 80% of the RMSE is concentrated within the interval of 0 to 0.0412. The correlation analysis of characteristics indexes shows that the influence of CL, PR, CR, and DT on the TTR is significant. PR and CR have a positive effect on TTR, and the average improvement rate is about 77.03% and 73.20% with the increase of PR and CR, respectively, while CL and DT have a negative effect on TTR, and TTR decreases by 31.21% with the increase of DT from 0 to 180 s.

  13. Improving the road wear performance of heavy vehicles in South Africa using a performance-based standards approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available of the world to achieve regional harmonisation and effective road use have had limited success. Another approach is to consider performance-based standards (PBS); in this case standards specify the performance required from the operation of a vehicle on a...

  14. 75 FR 71730 - General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... management under alternative B would be to enable visitor participation in a wide variety of outdoor... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2031-A046-409] General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Big Cypress National...

  15. Impact of organic Rankine cycle system installation on light duty vehicle considering both positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Yang, Youngmin; Park, Byung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positive and negative effects of waste heat recovery unit on vehicle were studied. • Organic Rankine cycle based power system for waste heat recovery. • Relationship of ORC unit weight and power was developed. • Impact of added weight, Part load operation and back pressure are presented. • Power enhancement of 5.82% of engine when positive & negative effects considered. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system. Both the positive and negative effects of ORC system installation on a light duty vehicle were evaluated. Engine exhaust data for a light duty vehicle was used to design an ORC based system. Optimum cycle design suggests that ORC system installation is feasible. Results presented that for the vehicle operation at 100 km/h, engine power can be enhanced by 10.88% which is 5.92 kW of additional power and at the lower speed of 23.5 km/h, the engine power enhancement was 2.34%. ORC component weight data from manufacturers were used to estimate the weight of the designed system. The performance decline due to added weight is calculated. Effects of added back pressure and performance decline due to the part-load operation of ORC unit were also calculated and an overall effect of waste heat recovery system was evaluated. The results then suggested that maximum power enhancement is 5.82% at the vehicle speed of 100 km/h instead of previously mentioned 10.88% can be achieved if negative effects are also considered. Furthermore, it was concluded that at speeds lower than 48 km/h the waste heat recovery system was not beneficial at all and low-speed operation was in fact not preferable as it results in additional power demand from the engine by 6.39% at 23.5 km/h. The vehicles for city driving cycles are not recommended for ORC installation. Another finding revealed that if exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger is designed for maximum heat recovery, at part load operation, the

  16. Technology status of hydrogen road vehicles. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement of the production and utilization of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, T.A.

    1998-01-31

    The report was commissioned under the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and examines the state of the art in the evolving field of hydrogen-fueled vehicles for road transport. The first phase surveys and analyzes developments since 1989, when a comprehensive review was last published. The report emphasizes the following: problems, especially backfiring, with internal combustion engines (ICEs); operational safety; hydrogen handling and on-board storage; and ongoing demonstration projects. Hydrogen vehicles are receiving much attention, especially at the research and development level. However, there has been a steady move during the past 5 years toward integral demonstrations of operable vehicles intended for public roads. Because they emit few, or no greenhouse gases, hydrogen vehicles are beginning to be taken seriously as a promising solution to the problems of urban air quality. Since the time the first draft of the report was prepared (mid-19 96), the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference took place in Stuttgart, Germany. This biennial conference can be regarded as a valid updating of the state of the art; therefore, the 1996 results are included in the current version. Sections of the report include: hydrogen production and distribution to urban users; on-board storage and refilling; vehicle power units and drives, and four appendices titled: 'Safety questions of hydrogen storage and use in vehicles', 'Performance of hydrogen fuel in internal production engines for road vehicles, 'Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles', and 'Summaries of papers on hydrogen vehicles'. (refs., tabs.)

  17. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers’ public vehicles using willingness to pay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Results: Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Conclusion: Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others. PMID:26157655

  18. Acoustic Data for Hybrid and Electric Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Electric Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 requires NHTSA to conduct a rulemaking to establish a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard requiring an alert sound for pedestrians to be emitted by all types of motor vehicles that are electric o...

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.203-1 - Obtaining motor vehicles while on temporary duty (TDY) travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining motor vehicles...

  20. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  1. A LQR-Based Controller with Estimation of Road Bank for Improving Vehicle Lateral and Rollover Stability via Active Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrio, Andres; Sanz, Susana; Boada, Maria Jesus L; Boada, Beatriz L

    2017-10-13

    In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) lateral stability and rollover controller has been developed including as the main novelty taking into account the road bank angle and using exclusively active suspension for both lateral stability and rollover control. The main problem regarding the road bank is that it cannot be measured by means of on-board sensors. The solution proposed in this article is performing an estimation of this variable using a Kalman filter. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between the road disturbance component and the vehicle's roll angle. The controller's effectiveness has been tested by means of simulations carried out in TruckSim, using an experimentally-validated vehicle model. Lateral load transfer, roll angle, yaw rate and sideslip angle have been analyzed in order to quantify the improvements achieved on the behavior of the vehicle. For that purpose, these variables have been compared with the results obtained from both a vehicle that uses passive suspension and a vehicle using a fuzzy logic controller.

  2. Roads and bats: a meta-analysis and review of the evidence on vehicle collisions and barrier effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensome, Amy Grace; Mathews, Fiona

    2016-10-01

    Roads are a potential threat to bat conservation. In addition to the direct risk of collision of bats with vehicles, roads could pose a threat to bat populations as a result of habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, and could act as barriers to movements of bats between habitats.We performed a systematic review of the literature and conducted meta-analyses to assess the threat posed by roads to bats as a result of 1) collisions between bats and vehicles and 2) roads acting as barriers to movements of bats.Based on collated records of 1207 bat road casualties in Europe, we found that low-flying species are more prone to collisions than high-flying species, and that juveniles are more vulnerable to collisions than adults. In addition, meta-analysis identified a significant bias towards male casualties. Casualties included rare species such as Barbastella barbastellus and geographically restricted species such as Rhinolophus species.The bias towards male casualties could be indicative of greater natal philopatry or lower dispersal among females, or of sexual segregation in habitats of varying quality, i.e. females may occupy better quality habitats than males, and road density may be lower in better quality habitats.Whether or not roads act as barriers to the movement of bats depends on a complex interplay of habitat and species-specific behaviour. For example, the presence of favourable habitat for bats - notably woodland - was found in this review to be linked with significantly reduced barrier effects but a heightened risk of collision.Our data suggest that roads do pose a threat to bats. Future research should assess the contribution of traffic noise and street lighting to the barrier effect of roads. Where new road schemes are monitored by ecological practitioners, it is vital that consistent protocols are employed to ensure that bat activity can be compared before and after the road is built. Evidence from such research should be used to minimize the risks

  3. The estimated effect of mass or footprint reduction in recent light-duty vehicles on U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently updated its 2003 and 2010 logistic regression analyses of the effect of a reduction in light-duty vehicle mass on US societal fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane, 2012). Societal fatality risk includes the risk to both the occupants of the case vehicle as well as any crash partner or pedestrians. The current analysis is the most thorough investigation of this issue to date. This paper replicates the Kahane analysis and extends it by testing the sensitivity of his results to changes in the definition of risk, and the data and control variables used in the regression models. An assessment by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) indicates that the estimated effect of mass reduction on risk is smaller than in Kahane's previous studies, and is statistically non-significant for all but the lightest cars (Wenzel, 2012a). The estimated effects of a reduction in mass or footprint (i.e. wheelbase times track width) are small relative to other vehicle, driver, and crash variables used in the regression models. The recent historical correlation between mass and footprint is not so large to prohibit including both variables in the same regression model; excluding footprint from the model, i.e. allowing footprint to decrease with mass, increases the estimated detrimental effect of mass reduction on risk in cars and crossover utility vehicles (CUVs)/minivans, but has virtually no effect on light trucks. Analysis by footprint deciles indicates that risk does not consistently increase with reduced mass for vehicles of similar footprint. Finally, the estimated effects of mass and footprint reduction are sensitive to the measure of exposure used (fatalities per induced exposure crash, rather than per VMT), as well as other changes in the data or control variables used. It appears that the safety penalty from lower mass can be mitigated with careful vehicle design, and that manufacturers can

  4. An estimation of vehicle kilometer traveled and on-road emissions using the traffic volume and travel speed on road links in Incheon City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Kim, Jounghwa; Kim, Jeongsoo; Hong, Dahee; Park, Dongjoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) and on-road emissions using the traffic volume in urban. We estimated two VKT; one is based on registered vehicles and the other is based on traffic volumes. VKT for registered vehicles was 2.11 times greater than that of the applied traffic volumes because each VKT estimation method is different. Therefore, we had to define the inner VKT is moved VKT inner in urban to compare two values. Also, we focused on freight modes because these are discharged much air pollutant emissions. From analysis results, we found middle and large trucks registered in other regions traveled to target city in order to carry freight, target city has included many industrial and logistics areas. Freight is transferred through the harbors, large logistics centers, or via locations before being moved to the final destination. During this process, most freight is moved by middle and large trucks, and trailers rather than small trucks for freight import and export. Therefore, these trucks from other areas are inflow more than registered vehicles. Most emissions from diesel trucks had been overestimated in comparison to VKT from applied traffic volumes in target city. From these findings, VKT is essential based on traffic volume and travel speed on road links in order to estimate accurately the emissions of diesel trucks in target city. Our findings support the estimation of the effect of on-road emissions on urban air quality in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...

  6. Particle number and particulate mass emissions of heavy duty vehicles in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the issue of PM emissions from HDV vehicles. The theoretical part discusses the problem of emission of this toxic compound in terms of particle structure taking into account the mass and dimensions of PM. Next, the methodology of the research and the results of the measurements performed under the conditions of actual operation were presented. The test drive routes were chosen in accordance with the operational purpose of the selected test vehicles. Two heavy vehicles were used for the study: a tractor with trailer and an eighteen meter long city bus. The test vehicles complied with the Euro V standard, with the second vehicle additionally complying with the EEV standard and being equipped with a DPF. The analysis of the research results was performed in the aspect of determining the operating time densities of vehicles and their drive systems as well as defining their emission characteristics and ecological indicators. PM and PN emissions were measured in the tests and particle size distribution was determined. It was shown that the exhaust gas after treatment system used in the city bus had a positive influence on the ecological indicators and had contributed to the reduction of PN emissions for heavier particles.

  7. 40 CFR 86.096-8 - Emission standards for 1996 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.08 Natural Gas 0.25 3.4 0.4 0.08 LPG 0.41 0.25 3.4 0.4 0.08 Table A96-2—Full Useful Life Standards....31 4.2 1.25 0.10 Methanol 0.31 4.2 0.6 0.10 Natural Gas 0.31 4.2 0.6 0.10 LPG 0.31 4.2 0.6 0.10 (ii... Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86...

  8. A LQR-Based Controller with Estimation of Road Bank for Improving Vehicle Lateral and Rollover Stability via Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Riofrio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR lateral stability and rollover controller has been developed including as the main novelty taking into account the road bank angle and using exclusively active suspension for both lateral stability and rollover control. The main problem regarding the road bank is that it cannot be measured by means of on-board sensors. The solution proposed in this article is performing an estimation of this variable using a Kalman filter. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between the road disturbance component and the vehicle’s roll angle. The controller’s effectiveness has been tested by means of simulations carried out in TruckSim, using an experimentally-validated vehicle model. Lateral load transfer, roll angle, yaw rate and sideslip angle have been analyzed in order to quantify the improvements achieved on the behavior of the vehicle. For that purpose, these variables have been compared with the results obtained from both a vehicle that uses passive suspension and a vehicle using a fuzzy logic controller.

  9. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Task 1 Report Technology Evaluation of Hydrogen Light Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Rousseau, Aymeric

    2007-12-01

    This task analyzes the candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles for near-term use in the Southeastern U.S. The purpose of this work is to assess their potential in terms of efficiency and performance. This report compares conventional, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with gasoline and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) as well as fuel cell and fuel cell hybrids from a technology as well as fuel economy point of view. All the vehicles have been simulated using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). First, some background information is provided on recent American automotive market trends and consequences. Moreover, available options are presented for introducing cleaner and more economical vehicles in the market in the future. In this study, analysis of various candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles is performed using PSAT and, thus, a brief description of PSAT features and capabilities are provided. Detailed information on the simulation analysis performed is also offered, including methodology assumptions, fuel economic results, and conclusions from the findings.

  10. Review and analysis of potential safety impacts of and regulatory barriers to fuel efficiency technologies and alternative fuels in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a safety analysis of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MD/HDVs) equipped with fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and/or using alternative fuels (natural gas-CNG and LNG, propane, biodiesel and power train electrification). The st...

  11. NRC committee on assessment of technologies for improving fuel economy of light-duty vehicles: Meeting with DOT Volpe Center staff - February 27, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    On February 27, 2013 National Research Council's Committee on Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles, Phase 2 held a meeting at the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center on the Volpe Model and Other CAFE Issues. The meeting objectives wer...

  12. Self-tuning control algorithm design for vehicle adaptive cruise control system through real-time estimation of vehicle parameters and road grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Tahbaz-zadeh Moghaddam, Iman

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design a self-tuning control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that can adapt its behaviour to variations of vehicle dynamics and uncertain road grade. To this aim, short-time linear quadratic form (STLQF) estimation technique is developed so as to track simultaneously the trend of the time-varying parameters of vehicle longitudinal dynamics with a small delay. These parameters are vehicle mass, road grade and aerodynamic drag-area coefficient. Next, the values of estimated parameters are used to tune the throttle and brake control inputs and to regulate the throttle/brake switching logic that governs the throttle and brake switching. The performance of the designed STLQF-based self-tuning control (STLQF-STC) algorithm for ACC system is compared with the conventional method based on fixed control structure regarding the speed/distance tracking control modes. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm improves the performance of throttle and brake controllers, providing more comfort while travelling, enhancing driving safety and giving a satisfactory performance in the presence of different payloads and road grade variations.

  13. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntziachristos, L.; Papadimitriou, G.; Ligterink, N.; Hausberger, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro

  14. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J.; Chauhan, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO 2 equivalent emission rate. Both CO 2 and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO 2 was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO 2 ). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO 2 from fuel consumption

  15. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chauhan, H. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1992-08-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO{sub 2} equivalent emission rate. Both CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO{sub 2} was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO{sub 2}). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO{sub 2} from fuel consumption.

  16. Reduction in global warming due to fuel economy improvements and emissions control of criteria pollutants: New US light-duty vehicles (1968--1991)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitstick, M.E.; Santini, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Chauhan, H. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of US emission controls and fuel economy improvements on the global warming potential (GWP) of new light-duty vehicles. Fuel economy improvements have reduced the GWP of both passenger cars and light-duty trucks by lowering the per mile emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Further GWP reductions have been achieved by emission standards for criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The GWP of a criteria pollutant was calculated by multiplying the emission rate by a relative global warming factor to obtain a CO{sub 2} equivalent emission rate. Both CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutant emission rates per vehicle have decreased substantially for new light-duty vehicles over the period from 1968 to 1991. Over that period, the GWP from CO{sub 2} was reduced by almost 50% in new vehicles by improving fuel economy. In that same time period, the GWP from criteria pollutants from new vehicles was reduced with emission controls by from 80% to 90% depending on the global warming time frame of interest. Consequently, total reductions in the GWP of new passenger cars and light-duty trucks have been on the order of 55 to 75 percent compared to precontrol (before 1968) new vehicles. However, the reduction in GWP caused by emission control of criteria pollutants has been larger than the reduction caused by improved fuel economy (i.e., reduced CO{sub 2}). The contribution of criteria pollutants to the GWP of precontrol new vehicles was substantial, but their contribution has been reduced significantly due to US emission controls. As a result, the contribution of criteria pollutants to global warming is now much less than the contribution of CO{sub 2} from fuel consumption.

  17. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is among the many environmental and public health concerns associated with increased ethanol use in vehicles. Jacobson [2007] showed for the U.S. market that full conversion to e85 ([85% ethanol, 15% gasoline]—the maximum standard blend used in modern dual fuel veh...

  18. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  19. Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption Displacement Potential up to 2045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moawad, Ayman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rousseau, Aymeric [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) is developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leapfrog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment.

  20. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  1. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  2. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa.

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO x and SO x emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future

  3. Development of Hot Exhaust Emission Factors for Iranian-Made Euro-2 Certified Light-Duty Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitalebi, Ehsan; Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-01-05

    Emission factors (EFs) are fundamental, necessary data for air pollution research and scenario implementation. With the vision of generating national EFs of the Iranian transportation system, a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to develop the basic EFs for a statistically significant sample of Iranian gasoline-fueled privately owned light duty vehicles (LDVs) operated in Tehran. A smaller sample size of the same fleet was examined by chassis dynamometer (CD) bag emission measurement tests to quantify the systematic differences between the PEMS and CD methods. The selected fleet was tested over four different routes of uphill highways, flat highways, uphill urban streets, and flat urban streets. Real driving emissions (RDEs) and fuel consumption (FC) rates were calculated by weighted averaging of the results from each route. The activity of the fleet over each route type was assumed as a weighting factor. The activity data were obtained from a Tehran traffic model. The RDEs of the selected fleet were considerably higher than the certified emission levels of all vehicles. Differences between Tehran real driving cycles and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was attributed to the lower loading of NEDC. A table of EFs based on RDEs was developed for the sample fleet.

  4. A novel integrated approach for path following and directional stability control of road vehicles after a tire blow-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Hong; Guo, Konghui; Cao, Dongpu

    2017-09-01

    The path following and directional stability are two crucial problems when a road vehicle experiences a tire blow-out or sudden tire failure. Considering the requirement of rapid road vehicle motion control during a tire blow-out, this article proposes a novel linearized decoupling control procedure with three design steps for a class of second order multi-input-multi-output non-affine system. The evaluating indicators for controller performance are presented and a performance related control parameter distribution map is obtained based on the stochastic algorithm which is an innovation for non-blind parameter adjustment in engineering implementation. The analysis on the robustness of the proposed integrated controller is also performed. The simulation studies for a range of driving conditions are conducted, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  5. Design Optimization of Steering Mechanisms for Articulated Off-Road Vehicles Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two cylinders arranged symmetrically on a frame have become a major form of steering mechanism for articulated off-road vehicles (AORVs. However, the differences of stroke and arm lead to pressure fluctuation, vibration noise, and a waste of torque. In this paper, the differences of stroke and arm are reduced based on a genetic algorithm (GA. First, the mathematical model of the steering mechanism is put forward. Then, the difference of stroke and arm are optimized using a GA. Finally, a FW50GLwheel loader is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed GA-based optimization method, and its effectiveness is verified by means of automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS. The stroke difference of the steering hydraulic cylinders was reduced by 92% and the arm difference reached a decrease of 78% through GA optimization, in comparison with unoptimized structures. The simulation result shows that the steering mechanism optimized by GA behaved better than by previous methods.

  6. Vehicle-specific emissions modeling based upon on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Zhang, Kaishan; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2010-05-01

    Vehicle-specific microscale fuel use and emissions rate models are developed based upon real-world hot-stabilized tailpipe measurements made using a portable emissions measurement system. Consecutive averaging periods of one to three multiples of the response time are used to compare two semiempirical physically based modeling schemes. One scheme is based on internally observable variables (IOVs), such as engine speed and manifold absolute pressure, while the other is based on externally observable variables (EOVs), such as speed, acceleration, and road grade. For NO, HC, and CO emission rates, the average R(2) ranged from 0.41 to 0.66 for the former and from 0.17 to 0.30 for the latter. The EOV models have R(2) for CO(2) of 0.43 to 0.79 versus 0.99 for the IOV models. The models are sensitive to episodic events in driving cycles such as high acceleration. Intervehicle and fleet average modeling approaches are compared; the former account for microscale variations that might be useful for some types of assessments. EOV-based models have practical value for traffic management or simulation applications since IOVs usually are not available or not used for emission estimation.

  7. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-12-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  8. Robust control of drag and lateral dynamic response for road vehicles exposed to cross-wind gusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens; King, Rudibert

    2018-03-01

    A robust closed-loop active flow control strategy for road vehicles under unsteady cross-wind conditions is presented. It is designed based on black-box models identified from experimental data for a 3D bluff body equipped with Coanda actuators along the rear edges. The controller adjusts the blowing rates of the actuators individually, achieving a drag reduction of about 15% while simultaneously improving cross-wind sensitivity. Hereby, the lateral vehicle dynamics and driver behavior are taken into account and replicated in the wind tunnel via a novel model support system. The effectiveness of the control strategy is demonstrated via cross-wind gust experiments.

  9. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Lin Chen; Chao-Wei Yu; Zi-Jie Chien; Chin-Hsuan Liu; Hsin-Han Chiang

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides...

  10. Emissions of CO2, CO, NOx, HC, PM, HFC-134a, N2O and CH4 from the global light duty vehicle fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Wallington

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, hydrocarbons (HC, particulate matter (PM, hydrofluorocarbon 134a (HFC-134a, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. An understanding of these emissions is needed in discussions of climate change and local air pollution issues. To facilitate such discussions an overview of past, present, and likely future emissions from light duty vehicles is presented. Emission control technologies have reduced the emissions of CO, VOCs, PM, HFC-134a, CH4, and N2O from modern vehicles to very low levels.

  11. Vehicle non-exhaust emissions from the tyre-road interface - effect of stud properties, traction sanding and resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.; Pirjola, Liisa

    2011-08-01

    In Northern cities respirable street dust emission levels (PM 10) are especially high during spring. The spring time dust has been observed to cause health effects as well as discomfort among citizens. Major sources of the dust are the abrasion products from the pavement and traction sand aggregates that are formed due to the motion of the tyre. We studied the formation of respirable abrasion particles in the tyre-road interface due to tyre studs and traction sanding by a mobile laboratory vehicle Sniffer. The measurements were preformed on a test track, where the influence of varying stud weight and stud number per tyre on PM 10 emissions was studied. Studded tyres resulted in higher emission levels than studless tyres especially with speeds 50 km h -1 and higher; however, by using light weight studs, which approximately halves the weight of studs, or by reducing the number of studs per tyre to half, the emission levels decreased by approximately half. Additionally measurements were done with and without traction sand coverage on the pavement of a public road. After traction sanding the emission levels were not affected by tyre type but by formation and suspension of traction sand related dust from the road surface. The emissions after traction sanding decreased as a function of time as passing vehicles' motion shifted the sand grains away from the areas with most tyre-road contact.

  12. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  13. Current and Future United States Light-Duty Vehicle Pathways: Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Gohlke, David; Lindauer, Alicia; Ramsden, Todd; Biddy, Mary; Alexander, Mark; Barnhart, Steven; Sutherland, Ian; Verduzco, Laura; Wallington, Timothy J

    2018-02-20

    This article presents a cradle-to-grave (C2G) assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs for current (2015) and future (2025-2030) light-duty vehicles. The analysis addressed both fuel cycle and vehicle manufacturing cycle for the following vehicle types: gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flex fuel vehicles, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Gasoline ICEVs using current technology have C2G emissions of ∼450 gCO 2 e/mi (grams of carbon dioxide equivalents per mile), while C2G emissions from HEVs, PHEVs, H 2 FCEVs, and BEVs range from 300-350 gCO 2 e/mi. Future vehicle efficiency gains are expected to reduce emissions to ∼350 gCO 2 /mi for ICEVs and ∼250 gCO 2e /mi for HEVs, PHEVs, FCEVs, and BEVs. Utilizing low-carbon fuel pathways yields GHG reductions more than double those achieved by vehicle efficiency gains alone. Levelized costs of driving (LCDs) are in the range $0.25-$1.00/mi depending on time frame and vehicle-fuel technology. In all cases, vehicle cost represents the major (60-90%) contribution to LCDs. Currently, HEV and PHEV petroleum-fueled vehicles provide the most attractive cost in terms of avoided carbon emissions, although they offer lower potential GHG reductions. The ranges of LCD and cost of avoided carbon are narrower for the future technology pathways, reflecting the expected economic competitiveness of these alternative vehicles and fuels.

  14. Current and Future United States Light-Duty Vehicle Pathways: Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Ward, Jacob [United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585, United States; Joseck, Fred [United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585, United States; Gohlke, David [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Lindauer, Alicia [United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585, United States; Ramsden, Todd [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Alexander, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo; Barnhart, Steven [FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, Michigan 48326, United States; Sutherland, Ian [General Motors, Pontiac, Michigan 48340, United States; Verduzco, Laura [Chevron Corporation, Richmond, California 94802, United States; Wallington, Timothy J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan 48121, United States

    2018-01-30

    This article presents a cradle-to-grave (C2G) assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs for current (2015) and future (2025-2030) light-duty vehicles. The analysis addressed both fuel cycle and vehicle manufacturing cycle for the following vehicle types: gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flex fuel vehicles, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Gasoline ICEVs using current technology have C2G emissions of ~450 gCO2e/mi (grams of carbon dioxide equivalents per mile), while C2G emissions from HEVs, PHEVs, H2 FCEVs, and BEVs range from 300-350 gCO2e/mi. Future vehicle efficiency gains are expected to reduce emissions to ~350 gCO2/mi for ICEVs and ~250 gCO2e/mi for HEVs, PHEVs, FCEVs, and BEVs. Utilizing low-carbon fuel pathways yields GHG reductions more than double those achieved by vehicle efficiency gains alone. Levelized costs of driving (LCDs) are in the range $0.25-$1.00/mi depending on time frame and vehicle-fuel technology. In all cases, vehicle cost represents the major (60-90%) contribution to LCDs. Currently, HEV and PHEV petroleum-fueled vehicles provide the most attractive cost in terms of avoided carbon emissions, although they offer lower potential GHG reductions. The ranges of LCD and cost of avoided carbon are narrower for the future technology pathways, reflecting the expected economic competitiveness of these alternative vehicles and fuels.

  15. Current and Future United States Light-Duty Vehicle Pathways: Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Ward, Jacob [United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585, United States; Joseck, Fred [United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585, United States; Gohlke, David [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Lindauer, Alicia [United States Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585, United States; Ramsden, Todd [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Alexander, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo; Barnhart, Steven [FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, Michigan 48326, United States; Sutherland, Ian [General Motors, Pontiac, Michigan 48340, United States; Verduzco, Laura [Chevron Corporation, Richmond, California 94802, United States; Wallington, Timothy J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan 48121, United States

    2018-01-30

    This article presents a cradle-to-grave (C2G) assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs for current (2015) and future (2025–2030) light-duty vehicles. The analysis addressed both fuel cycle and vehicle manufacturing cycle for the following vehicle types: gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), flex fuel vehicles, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Gasoline ICEVs using current technology have C2G emissions of ~450 gCO2e/mi (grams of carbon dioxide equivalents per mile), while C2G emissions from HEVs, PHEVs, H2 FCEVs, and BEVs range from 300–350 gCO2e/mi. Future vehicle efficiency gains are expected to reduce emissions to ~350 gCO2/mi for ICEVs and ~250 gCO2e/mi for HEVs, PHEVs, FCEVs and BEVs. Utilizing low-carbon fuel pathways yields GHG reductions more than double those achieved by vehicle efficiency gains alone. Levelized costs of driving (LCDs) are in the range $0.25–$1.00/mi depending on timeframe and vehicle-fuel technology. In all cases, vehicle cost represents the major (60–90%) contribution to LCDs. Currently, HEV and PHEV petroleum-fueled vehicles provide the most attractive cost in terms of avoided carbon emissions, although they offer lower potential GHG reductions The ranges of LCD and cost of avoided carbon are narrower for the future technology pathways, reflecting the expected economic competitiveness of these alternative vehicles and fuels.

  16. Modeling transitions in the California light-duty vehicles sector to achieve deep reductions in transportation greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, Wayne; Ogden, Joan M.; Yang, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    California’s target for reducing economy-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We develop transition scenarios for meeting this goal in California’s transportation sector, with focus on light-duty vehicles (LDVs). We explore four questions: (1) what options are available to reduce transportation sector GHG emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050; (2) how rapidly would transitions in LDV markets, fuels, and travel behaviors need to occur over the next 40 years; (3) how do intermediate policy goals relate to different transition pathways; (4) how would rates of technological change and market adoption between 2010 and 2050 impact cumulative GHG emissions? We develop four LDV transition scenarios to meet the 80in50 target through a combination of travel demand reduction, fuel economy improvements, and low-carbon fuel supply, subject to restrictions on trajectories of technological change, potential market adoption of new vehicles and fuels, and resource availability. These scenarios exhibit several common themes: electrification of LDVs, rapid improvements in vehicle efficiency, and future fuels with less than half the carbon intensity of current gasoline and diesel. Availability of low-carbon biofuels and the level of travel demand reduction are “swing factors” that influence the degree of LDV electrification required. - Highlights: ► We model change in California LDVs for deep reduction in transportation GHG emissions. ► Reduced travel demand, improved fuel economy, and low-carbon fuels are all needed. ► Transitions must begin soon and occur quickly in order to achieve the 80in50 goal. ► Low-C biofuel supply and travel demand influence the need for rapid LDV electrification. ► Cumulative GHG emissions from LDVs can differ between strategies by up to 40%.

  17. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  18. Modeling real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions with high resolution for light-duty passenger vehicles in a traffic populated city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Un, Puikei; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Modeling fuel consumption of light-duty passenger vehicles has created substantial concerns due to the uncertainty from real-world operating conditions. Macao is world-renowned for its tourism industry and high population density. An empirical model is developed to estimate real-world fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions for gasoline-powered light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by considering local fleet configuration and operating conditions. Thanks to increasingly stringent fuel consumption limits in vehicle manufacturing countries, estimated type-approval fuel consumption for light-duty passenger vehicles in Macao by model year was reduced from 7.4 L/100 km in 1995 to 5.9 L/100 km in 2012, although a significant upsizing trend has considerably offset potential energy-saving benefit. However, lower driving speed and the air-conditioning usage tend to raise fleet-average fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission factors, which are estimated to be 10.1 L/100 km and 240 g/km in 2010. Fleet-total fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are modeled through registered vehicle population-based and link-level traffic demand approaches and the results satisfactorily coincide with the historical record of fuel sales in Macao. Temporal and spatial variations in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles further highlight the importance of effective traffic management in congested areas of Macao. - Highlights: • A fuel consumption model is developed for Macao's light-duty passenger cars. • Increased vehicle size partially offset energy benefit from tightened fuel consumption standard. • Lower speed and use of air-conditioning greatly increase fuel use of Macao light-duty passenger cars. • A high resolution inventory of fuel use and carbon dioxide emissions is built with link-level traffic data. • Policy suggestions are provided to mitigate fuel use in a traffic populated city.

  19. Adaptive Hybrid Control of Vehicle Semiactive Suspension Based on Road Profile Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yechen Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new road estimation based suspension hybrid control strategy is proposed. Its aim is to adaptively change control gains to improve both ride comfort and road handling with the constraint of rattle space. To achieve this, analytical expressions for ride comfort, road handling, and rattle space with respect to road input are derived based on the hybrid control, and the problem is transformed into a MOOP (Multiobjective Optimization Problem and has been solved by NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II. A new road estimation and classification method, which is based on ANFIS (Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System and wavelet transforms, is then presented as a means of detecting the road profile level, and a Kalman filter is designed for observing unknown states. The results of simulations conducted with random road excitation show that the efficiency of the proposed control strategy compares favourably to that of a passive system.

  20. The single-track road running parallel to the D884 dual carriageway in the Pays de Gex is now closed to motor vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, once the corresponding road signs have been installed, the single-track road running parallel to the dual carriageway culminating at Gate E will be closed to all motorised vehicle traffic, with the exception of agricultural plant, motorcycles, and service, emergency and police vehicles. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.chhttp://www.cern.ch/relations

  1. Lane-Level Road Information Mining from Vehicle GPS Trajectories Based on Naïve Bayesian Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luliang Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach for mining lane-level road network information from low-precision vehicle GPS trajectories (MLIT, which includes the number and turn rules of traffic lanes based on naïve Bayesian classification. First, the proposed method (MLIT uses an adaptive density optimization method to remove outliers from the raw GPS trajectories based on their space-time distribution and density clustering. Second, MLIT acquires the number of lanes in two steps. The first step establishes a naïve Bayesian classifier according to the trace features of the road plane and road profiles and the real number of lanes, as found in the training samples. The second step confirms the number of lanes using test samples in reference to the naïve Bayesian classifier using the known trace features of test sample. Third, MLIT infers the turn rules of each lane through tracking GPS trajectories. Experiments were conducted using the GPS trajectories of taxis in Wuhan, China. Compared with human-interpreted results, the automatically generated lane-level road network information was demonstrated to be of higher quality in terms of displaying detailed road networks with the number of lanes and turn rules of each lane.

  2. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides, this study also proposed monitoring machinery that can detect the brightness around the car to effectively determine whether this in-vehicle system is driven by the solar cells or by the vehicle battery. On sunny days, the in-vehicle system can be powered by solar cell in places without the vehicle battery. While in the evenings or on rainy days, the ambient solar brightness is insufficient, and the system is powered by the vehicle battery. The proposed system was tested under the conditions that the solar irradiance is 10 to 113 W/m2 and solar energy and brightness at 10 to 170. From the testing results, when the outside solar radiation is high, the brightness of the inside of the car is increased, and the eye detection accuracy can also increase as well. Therefore, this solar powered driver monitoring system can be efficiently applied to electric cars to save energy consumption and promote the driving safety.

  3. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  4. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (−50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period. PMID:22105388

  5. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (-50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period.

  6. Requirements towards an ecologically based heavy vehicle charge for road haulage; Anforderungen an eine umweltorientierte Schwerverkehrsabgabe fuer den Strassengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothengatter, W.; Doll, K.

    2001-10-01

    The report investigates the consequences of introducing a kilometre-based road user charge for heavy goods vehicles with a gross weight over 12 tons on the German inter-urban road network in 2003. Starting from the calculations of average road infrastructure costs presented by the Government Commission for Infrastructure Financing in September 2000, toll levels of 0.25 DM exclusively on the motorway network and 0.40 DM on the entire inter-urban road network are used for the scenario development. In the latter case an additional improvement of railway service supply is considered. In all pricing scenarios charges are differentiated by vehicle weight (12 t-18 t, >18 t) and by emission standard (Pre-Euro - Euro-5). The effects of the resulting three pricing scenarios investigated embrace the shift of traffic to the secondary road network, productivity increase within the transport sector, effects on the fleet structure and the reactions of shippers with respect to transport demand, modal choice and location choice. For these purpose, different models, data sources and current experiences, mainly from Switzerland, have been applied. The results are expressed in changes of the vehicle mileage and the development of an environmental cost indicator by mode, road type, vehicle weight and emission factor in 2010. The study concludes, that due to the application of efficiency measures, increased cost burdens of the hauliers can be partly compensated. Thus, the estimated shift of demand from road to rail is found to be rather modest. In case of a charge of 0.40 DM on the entire road network, combined with an improved rail supply the demand for rail transport is estimated to increase by 14%, while road traffic decreases by only 3.3%. In case only the motorways are priced, a shift of vehicle mileage of 4% to the secondary network is calculated. Very positive conclusions are drawn on the possibility of increasing the share of clean lorries by a differentiation of tariffs by

  7. Comparison between vertical acceleration data from acquired signals and multibody model for an off-road vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Padilha Fontoura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available SAE Mini Baja competitions require efforts in developing a reliable vehicle project that enables their teams to manage time and resources wisely. Vehicle simulations are one the best ways to deal with these conditions and prevent failure during a test. This work outlines the methodology that was carried out for validating the multibody dynamics model of a Mini Baja vehicle through vertical acceleration data acquisition. The data was acquired with the vehicle in different sets of obstacles, based on those seen in previously held competitions. Simulation was done through ADAMS/Car, with the vehicle’s multibody model being simulated in different three-dimensional roads, counterpart to those where data acquisition took place. Simulation data, when compared to acquired acceleration signals for most of the obstacles, exhibited equivalence. Additional data computation revealed that the spectra in the frequency domain presented most severe loads concentrated between 0 and 20 Hz, incoming mostly from road unevenness. Gathering such data, by the presented approach can assist future analyses and guide the Baja Team in defining an improved project by predicting its dynamic behavior.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions as an Indicator of Reduction of Negative Externalities Related to Road Motor Vehicle Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of carbon dioxide emissions generated by road motor vehicles in the Czech Republic and the European Union. We discuss the current need for the introduction of environmental features to the system of taxation of motor vehicles, aiming at the mitigation of harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere. The most harmful substance produced during the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by motor vehicles is CO2, whose emissions are subsequently used as an instrument for green tax reforms in the European Union member states. In this article we define the main EU legal standards regulating harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere as a result of road motor transport. We may cite for instance the Regulation (EC No. 443/2009 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars. The aim of the European Union is to reduce average emission values of new passenger cars sold in the EU to 130 g CO2/km by 2015 and to 95 g CO2/km by 2020. Assessment of tax on motor vehicles according to CO2 emissions shall help fulfil commitments from the Kyoto Protocol, aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. 40 CFR 86.099-17 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled... alternate fueled vehicles. For alternate fueled vehicles (e.g., natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas.... On vehicles with fuel tank capacity greater than 25 gallons, the Administrator may, following a...

  10. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  11. Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Soil analyses and measurements with the Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) were conducted on 16 soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed in ORV trails as well as on undisturbed terrain to investigate how ORV driving affects the vulnerability of a soil to emit PM10 (particlestrail affects those properties of the topsoil that determine its capability to emit PM10. Also, recommendations are given for adequate management of ORV-designed areas. The type of surface (sand, silt, gravel, drainage) is a key factor with respect to dust emission in an ORV trail. Trails in sand, defined in this study as the grain size fraction 63-2000microm, show higher deflation thresholds (the critical wind condition at which wind erosion starts) than the surrounding undisturbed soil. Trails in silt (2-63microm) and in drainages, on the other hand, have lower deflation thresholds than undisturbed soil. The increase in PM10 emission resulting from the creation of a new ORV trail is much higher for surfaces with silt than for surfaces with sand. Also, the creation of a new trail in silt decreases the supply limitation in the top layer: the capacity of the reservoir of emission-available PM10 increases. For sand the situation is reversed: the supply limitation increases, and the capacity of the PM10 reservoir decreases. Finally, ORV trails are characterized by a progressive coarsening of the top layer with time, but the speed of coarsening is much lower in trails in silt than in trails in sand or in drainages. The results of this study suggest that, to minimize emissions of PM10, new ORV fields should preferably be designed on sandy terrain rather than in silt areas or in drainages.

  12. Effectiveness of media awareness campaigns on the proportion of vehicles that give space to ambulances on roads: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Baig, Lubna A; Polkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    The findings of the Health Care in Danger project in Karachi suggests that there is presence of behavioral negligence among vehicle operators on roads in regards to giving way to ambulances. A mass media campaign was conducted to raise people's awareness on the importance of giving way to ambulances. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the campaign on increasing the proportion of vehicles that give way to ambulances. This was a quasi-experimental study that was based on before and after design. Three observation surveys were carried out in different areas of the city in Karachi, Pakistan before, during and after the campaign by trained observers who recorded their findings on a checklist. Each observation was carried out at three different times of the day for at least two days on each road. The relationship of the media campaign with regards to a vehicle giving space to an ambulance was calculated by means of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 245 observations were included in the analysis. Traffic congestion and negligence/resistance, by vehicles operators who were in front of the ambulance, were the two main reasons why ambulances were not given way. Other reasons include: sudden stops by minibuses and in the process causing obstruction, ambulances not rushing through to alert vehicle operators to give way and traffic interruption by VIP movement. After adjustment for site, time of day, type of ambulance and number of cars in front of the ambulance, vehicles during (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.22-3.71, p=0.007) and after the campaign (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.02-2.95, p=0.042) were significantly more likely give space to ambulances. Mass media campaigns can play a significant role in changing the negligent behavior of people, especially when the campaign conveys a humanitarian message such as: giving way to ambulances can save lives.

  13. Vehicle Impact Testing of Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    especially during warm weather when their high flotation tires al- low greater over-snow mobility. Table 2. Test vehicle information. Vehicle Vehicle...potential danger to the vehicle and pax 16 ERDC/CRREL TR-14-9 51 GO SLOWTI-U<OtJG-ISBTFOR YOLH?. SAFETY LANE C SCOTT BASE TRANSIT/ONTO SILVER

  14. Estimating road transport fuel consumption in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Jaime Cevallos

    2016-01-01

    Road transport is one of the sectors with highest energy consumptions in the planet, with large dependence of fossil fuels, and contribution for global greenhouse gas emissions. Although, Latin America is not a high-energy consumer, its share in global consumption is expected to grow, especially in the transportation sector. This make essential for developing countries the adoption of better policies to identify the vehicle groups with largest fuel demands. The present study describes the VKT technique to disaggregate road transport energy consumption by vehicle type, applied to the road transportation system of Ecuador. It also describes the procedures performed to estimate the variables required to run the model, and some of the practical applications that be used to create public policies. Results show as the biggest fuel consumers the heavy-duty freight cargo, followed by light duty vehicles. The estimation of greenhouse gas emissions evidence that road transport released 14.3 million tons of CO_2 in 2012. When fuel consumption is compared by it costs, it can be confirmed that Ecuadorean Government covered, through subsidies, for 68% of the annual fuel costs of national road transport, demonstrating the importance of restructuring these expenditures in order to achieve an efficient road transport system. - Highlights: •The vehicle-kilometers traveled has been estimated from local info. •The fuel economy has been calculated from national and international data. •The groups with higher fuel consumption has been located. •The fuel-type dependency has been estimated for each vehicle group. •Greenhouse gas emission, and fuel costs, has been estimated for local road transport.

  15. Development strategies to satisfy corporate average CO_2 emission regulations of light duty vehicles (LDVs) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we generated vehicle dynamic based light-duty vehicle (LDV) models and investigated some technical strategies in order to meet the corporate average CO_2 emission (CACE) regulations of Korea, which will be applied from 2016 to 2020. Seven types of LDV simulation models (including gasoline, diesel, and hybrid cars) were generated based on the AVL CRUISE program and the LDV sales ratio was used to estimate the CACE value of five companies in Korea. The prediction accuracy of the LDV models was validated using chassis dynamometer test data. Then, the effectiveness of the CACE reduction strategies was investigated based on the developed LDV simulation models. From the results of this study, it was revealed that all of the companies cannot satisfy the 2020 CACE regulation by just adopting a single strategy. In order to solve this problem, two types of CACE plans that combined several strategies (reducing the mass drag and fuel consumption rate, and adding a hybrid module, etc.) were proposed. After implementing the two types of CACE plan, it was predicted that five companies will be able to satisfy the 2020 CACE regulation. - Highlights: • Seven types of LDV models were generated to predict CO_2 emission. • Five companies were selected as the major car makers in Korea. • Diverse of strategies were considered to meet the future CO_2 standards in Korea. • All of the companies cannot satisfy the 2020 regulation by adopting a single item. • Two types of plans that combined several strategies were proposed.

  16. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  17. Electromagnetic-Thermal Integrated Design Optimization for Hypersonic Vehicle Short-Time Duty PM Brushless DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High reliability is required for the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PM-BLDCM in an electrical pump of hypersonic vehicle. The PM-BLDCM is a short-time duty motor with high-power-density. Since thermal equilibrium is not reached for the PM-BLDCM, the temperature distribution is not uniform and there is a risk of local overheating. The winding is a main heat source and its insulation is thermally sensitive, so reducing the winding temperature rise is the key to the improvement of the reliability. In order to reduce the winding temperature rise, an electromagnetic-thermal integrated design optimization method is proposed. The method is based on electromagnetic analysis and thermal transient analysis. The requirements and constraints of electromagnetic and thermal design are considered in this method. The split ratio and the maximum flux density in stator lamination, which are highly relevant to the windings temperature rise, are optimized analytically. The analytical results are verified by finite element analysis (FEA and experiments. The maximum error between the analytical and the FEA results is 4%. The errors between the analytical and measured windings temperature rise are less than 8%. It can be proved that the method can obtain the optimal design accurately to reduce the winding temperature rise.

  18. Lifecycle comparison of selected Li-ion battery chemistries under grid and electric vehicle duty cycle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alasdair J.; Huang, Qian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Reed, David M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon

    2018-03-01

    Li-ion batteries are expected to play a vital role in stabilizing the electrical grid as solar and wind generation capacity becomes increasingly integrated into the electric infrastructure. This article describes how two different commercial Li-ion batteries based on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiFePO4 (LFP) chemistries were tested under grid duty cycles recently developed for two specific grid services: (1) frequency regulation (FR) and (2) peak shaving (PS) with and without being subjected to electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles. The lifecycle comparison derived from the capacity, round-trip efficiency (RTE), resistance, charge/discharge energy, and total used energy of the two battery chemistries are discussed. The LFP chemistry shows better stability for the energy-intensive PS service, while the NCA chemistry is more conducive to the FR service under the operating regimes investigated. The results can be used as a guideline for selection, deployment, operation, and cost analyses of Li-ion batteries used for different applications.

  19. Effect of Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicles -- Final Report: Phase 3; July 28, 2008 - July 27, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.

    2014-05-01

    This report covers work the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Office of Automotive Engineering has conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in support of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct). Section 1506 of EPAct requires EPA to produce an updated fuel effects model representing the 2007 light - duty gasoline fleet, including determination of the emissions impacts of increased renewable fuel use. This report covers the exhaust emissions testing of 15 light-duty vehicles with 27 E0 through E20 test fuels, and 4 light-duty flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on an E85 fuel, as part of the EPAct Gasoline Light-Duty Exhaust Fuel Effects Test Program. This program will also be referred to as the EPAct/V2/E-89 Program based on the designations used for it by the EPA, NREL, and CRC, respectively. It is expected that this report will be an attachment or a chapter in the overall EPAct/V2/E-89 Program report prepared by EPA and NREL.

  20. Automated vehicle location, data recording, friction measurement and applicator control for winter road maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    The first part of this project conducted a detailed evaluation of the ability of a new friction measurement system to : provide an accurate measure of road conditions. A system that records friction coefficient as a function of road : location was de...

  1. Modeling and Parameterization of Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjung Oh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper suggests fuel consumption modeling for HDVs based on the code from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Two interpolation models (inversed distance weighted (IDW and Hermite and three types of fuel efficiency maps (coarse, medium, and dense were adopted to determine the most appropriate combination for further studies. Finally, sensitivity analysis studies were conducted to determine which parameters greatly impact the fuel efficiency prediction results for HDVs. While vitiating each parameter at specific percentages (±1%, ±3%, ±5%, ±10%, the change rate of the fuel efficiency results was analyzed, and the main factors affecting fuel efficiency were summarized. As a result, the Japanese transformation algorithm program showed good agreement with slightly increased prediction accuracy for the fuel efficiency test results when applying the Hermite interpolation method compared to IDW interpolation. The prediction accuracy of fuel efficiency remained unchanged regardless of the chosen fuel efficiency map data density. According to the sensitivity analysis study, three parameters (fuel consumption map data, driving force, and gross vehicle weight have the greatest impact on fuel efficiency (±5% to ±10% changes.

  2. Determining the potential benefits for the freight carriage by road in Spain facing an increase in vehicles gvm 40 to 44 tons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Reguero, A.H.; Campos Cacheda, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    A very significant percentage of the products shipped by road in Spain using heavy goods vehicles (HGV) make 40 tons GVM (gross vehicle mass). Any changes aimed at increasing productivity in that vehicles category would result in a very positive way in the road freight transport market, by lowering transport costs, decreasing environmental costs, rationalizing the sector and improving logistics market. Therefore it is discussed here the improvement derived from the transfer of HGV that currently have a limitation of 40 tons GVM to a new limit of 44 tons GVM, establishing the potential benefits that would be set after the change. (Author)

  3. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  4. DEVELOPING CONVENIENT MOTOR SELECTION ALGORITHM ACCORDING TO ROAD CONDITIONS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞER, EKREM; ALTUN, YUSUF

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, automotive industry is tending to electric vehicles due to reduction of fuel reserves in order to save energy, reduce air pollution and carbon emission. With the impact of technological advencements on battery and power electronics, the studies on electric vehicles have been gradually increased and many of automobile manifacturers have produced new electric vehicles. Different type of electric motors has been tried on electric vehicles until today. This motors have difference feautu...

  5. On-road NOx and CO2 investigations of Euro 5 Light commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    NOx emissions of vehicles contribute to the ambient NO2 concentration. To gain insight into those NOx emissions, TNO, commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, regularly performs real-world emission measurements on vehicles. The measurements mainly focus on vehicles

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photography: Exploring the Medieval City of Merv, on the Silk Roads of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ancient Merv Project is a collaboration between the Turkmenistan Ministry of Culture, the Ancient Merv State Park and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to research, protect and conserve the remains of one of the great historic cities of the Silk Roads. This paper explores a new survey of the Islamic city using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to take comprehensive and systematic vertical photographs to assist in the analysis of the medieval cityscape. The background to the research and the application of the technology are presented, together with our initial conclusions.

  7. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non‑Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, Keith [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); West, Brian H [ORNL; Clark, Wendy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Graves, Ronald L [ORNL; Orban, John [Battelle, Columbus; Przesmitzki, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2

  8. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  9. Impact of the CSIR heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) on the performance of the SA road network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available results in significant savings in road building and rehabilitation costs. Some of the most significant developments in the South African pavement design engineering field resulting from HVS related research are discussed in the poster....

  10. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  11. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  13. A probabilistic approach to examine the impacts of mitigation policies on future global PM emissions from on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.; Streets, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    There is deficiency in the determination of emission reduction potential in the future, especially with consideration of uncertainty. Mitigation measures for some economic sectors have been proposed, but few studies provide an evaluation of the amount of PM emission reduction that can be obtained in future years by different emission reduction strategies. We attribute the absence of helpful mitigation strategy analysis to limitations in the technical detail of future emission scenarios, which result in the inability to relate technological or regulatory intervention to emission changes. The purpose of this work is to provide a better understanding of the potential benefits of mitigation policies in addressing global and regional emissions. In this work, we introduce a probabilistic approach to explore the impacts of retrofit and scrappage on global PM emissions from on-road vehicles in the coming decades. This approach includes scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. A dynamic model of vehicle population linked to emission characteristics, SPEW-Trend, is used to estimate future emissions and make policy evaluations. Three basic questions will be answered in this work: (1) what contribution can these two programs make to improve global emissions in the future? (2) in which regions are such programs most and least effective in reducing emissions and what features of the vehicle fleet cause these results? (3) what is the level of confidence in the projected emission reductions, given uncertain parameters in describing the dynamic vehicle fleet?

  14. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  15. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  16. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Nonlinear Seat Suspension for Off-Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency vibrations (0.5–5 Hz that harm drivers occur in off-road vehicles. Thus, researchers have focused on finding methods to effectively isolate or control low-frequency vibrations. A novel nonlinear seat suspension structure for off-road vehicles is designed, whose static characteristics and seat-human system dynamic response are modeled and analyzed, and experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical solutions. Results show that the stiffness of this nonlinear seat suspension could achieve real zero stiffness through well-matched parameters, and precompression of the main spring could change the nonlinear seat suspension performance when a driver’s weight changes. The displacement transmissibility curve corresponds with the static characteristic curve of nonlinear suspension, where the middle part of the static characteristic curve is gentler and the resonance frequency of the displacement transmissibility curve and the isolation minimum frequency are lower. Damping should correspond with static characteristics, in which the corresponding suspension damping value should be smaller given a flatter static characteristic curve to prevent vibration isolation performance reduction.

  18. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  19. Concentration measurement in a road tunnel as a method to assess "real-world" vehicles exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, G.; Berico, M.; Monforti, F.; Vitali, L.; Zambonelli, S.; Chiavarini, S.; Georgiadis, T.; Nardino, M.

    An experiment aimed at comparing particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations produced in a road tunnel by buses is described. The experiment took place in 2001 in Bologna when a couple of buses belonging to the public transport fleet where driven backwards and forwards in a road tunnel closed to all other vehicles. Buses run in the tunnel for 8 h a day for 4 experiment days, each day using a different fuel: biodiesel, diesel-water emulsion, diesel-water emulsion with low sulphur content and commercial diesel. Average daily concentrations of PM of different sizes and of 12 PHAs were measured and comparison between different fuels was attempted in order to assess "real-world" exhaust emissions of different fuels. Due to heterogeneity of experimental conditions in different days and the relatively large measurement uncertainties, the effort was only partially successful, and it was not possible to state any firm conclusion on fuels reliability even if some indications in agreement with literature were found. Nevertheless, the experiment and the data analysis method developed could be of interest as a methodological approach for future experiments aimed at evaluating "real-world" exhaust emissions of single vehicles.

  20. 76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... agreement negotiated in 1995 between the Florida Biodiversity Project and several Federal agencies and... statutes, including the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the National Environmental Policy... public interest in connection with the performance of duties imposed on the Department of the Interior by...

  1. U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Air Conditioning Fuel Use and the Impact of Four Solar/Thermal Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Titov, Eugene V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-28

    The U.S. uses 7.6 billion gallons of fuel per year for vehicle air conditioning (A/C), equivalent to 5.7 percent of the total national light-duty vehicle (LDV) fuel use. This equates to 30 gallons/year per vehicle, or 23.5 grams (g) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per mile, for an average U.S. vehicle. A/C is a significant contribution to national fuel use; therefore, technologies that reduce A/C loads may reduce operational costs, A/C fuel use, and CO2 emissions. Since A/C is not operated during standard EPA fuel economy testing protocols, EPA provides off-cycle credits to encourage OEMs to implement advanced A/C technologies that reduce fuel use in the real world. NREL researchers assessed thermal/solar off-cycle credits available in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Final Rule for Model Year 2017 and Later Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy. Credits include glazings, solar reflective paint, and passive and active cabin ventilation. Implementing solar control glass reduced CO2 emissions by 2.0 g/mi, and solar reflective paint resulted in a reduction of 0.8 g/mi. Active and passive ventilation strategies only reduced emissions by 0.1 and 0.2 g/mi, respectively. The national-level analysis process is powerful and general; it can be used to determine the impact of a wide range of new vehicle thermal technologies on fuel use, EV range, and CO2 emissions.

  2. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  3. Using Probe Vehicle Data for Automatic Extraction of Road Traffic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Popescu Maria Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper the author aims to study and find solutions for automatic detection of traffic light position and for automatic calculation of the waiting time at traffic light. The first objective serves mainly the road transportation field, mainly because it removes the need for collaboration with local authorities to establish a national network of traffic lights. The second objective is important not only for companies which are providing navigation solutions, but especially for authorities, institutions, companies operating in road traffic management systems. Real-time dynamic determination of traffic queue length and of waiting time at traffic lights allow the creation of dynamic systems, intelligent and flexible, adapted to actual traffic conditions, and not to generic, theoretical models. Thus, cities can approach the Smart City concept by boosting, efficienting and greening the road transport, promoted in Europe through the Horizon 2020, Smart Cities, Urban Mobility initiative.

  4. 76 FR 20251 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2012 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... the incidence of motor vehicle theft by facilitating the tracing and recovery of parts from stolen vehicles. The standard seeks to facilitate such tracing by requiring that vehicle identification numbers... all exemptions on our Web site. However, we believe that re-publishing a list containing vehicle lines...

  5. 77 FR 32903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2013 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... the incidence of motor vehicle theft by facilitating the tracing and recovery of parts from stolen vehicles. The standard seeks to facilitate such tracing by requiring that vehicle identification numbers... exemptions on our Web site. However, we believe that republishing a list containing vehicle lines that have...

  6. Evaluation on Glare from Vehicle Lamps and Effectiveness of Road Components as Glare Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangkuto, R.A.; Paripurna, A.; Soelami, F.X.N.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle lamps are vital components which are required to ensure the driver’s safety, particularly at nighttime. However, vehicle lamps may cause glare which can reduce visibility and create discomfort. The objectives of this research are to evaluate glare from car headlamp and motorcycle lamps; and

  7. 77 FR 39253 - Final Environmental Impact Statement on the Denali Park Road Vehicle Management Plan, Denali...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... online at the NPS Planning, Environmental and Public Comment Web site at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/dena... served well as a way to manage vehicle use, while providing high quality visitor opportunities to see... framework for vehicle use based on indicators and standards for visitor experiences and resource protection...

  8. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: Evaporative and Refueling Emission Regulations for Gasolineand Methanol-Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Technical Amen

    Science.gov (United States)

    On March 24, 1993 EPA finalized a new test procedure to measure evaporative emissions from motor vehicles. The amendments modify several of the test procedure’s tolerances, equipment specifications, and procedural steps.

  9. Information, communication and control systems for vehicle, road and traffic management. Contribution OECD Seminar on Micro-electronics for Road and Traffic Management. Tokyo, October 29 - November 2, 1984, Session V, p. 236-241.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1984-01-01

    The application of micro-electronics for vehicle, road and traffic management has increased rapidly in the past 10 to 15 years. The approach, however, is very often rather isolated, resulting in problems regarding consistency, continuity, uniformity and compatibility. The whole field of possible

  10. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  11. PM 10 emission inventory of industrial and road transport vehicles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid development in industrial and road transportation sector in developing countries has contributing the environmental issue. Determining the estimated PM10 emission in Klang Valley, Malaysia is based on the best available resources. Emission of PM10 from both sources was estimated particularly from numbers of ...

  12. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  13. Emissions of hydrogen cyanide from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Samar G.; Leithead, Amy; Li, Shao-Meng; Chan, Tak W.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Stroud, Craig; Zhang, Junhua; Lee, Patrick; Lu, Gang; Brook, Jeffery R.; Hayden, Katherine; Narayan, Julie; Liggio, John

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is considered a marker for biomass burning emissions and is a component of vehicle exhaust. Despite its potential health impacts, vehicular HCN emissions estimates and their contribution to regional budgets are highly uncertain. In the current study, Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure HCN emission factors from the exhaust of individual diesel, biodiesel and gasoline vehicles. Laboratory emissions data as a function of fuel type and driving mode were combined with ambient measurement data and model predictions. The results indicate that gasoline vehicles have the highest emissions of HCN (relative to diesel fuel) and that biodiesel fuel has the potential to significantly reduce HCN emissions even at realistic 5% blend levels. The data further demonstrate that gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines emit more HCN than their port fuel injection (PFI) counterparts, suggesting that the expected full transition of vehicle fleets to GDI will increase HCN emissions. Ambient measurements of HCN in a traffic dominated area of Toronto, Canada were strongly correlated to vehicle emission markers and consistent with regional air quality model predictions of ambient air HCN, indicating that vehicle emissions of HCN are the dominant source of exposure in urban areas. The results further indicate that additional work is required to quantify HCN emissions from the modern vehicle fleet, particularly in light of continuously changing engine, fuel and after-treatment technologies.

  14. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535 [NHTSA 2010-0079; EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0162; FRL-9455-1] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty vehicles, responding to the...

  15. Aggregate strength for bituminous surfacings for low volume roads: a heavy vehicle simulator experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an investigation using the CSIR Transportek Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to determine the impact of using aggregates softer than specified in chip seals and to propose possible relaxations in the currently specified strength...

  16. A comparative analysis of several vehicle emission models for road freight transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demir, E.; Bektas, T.; Laporte, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in freight transportation requires using appropriate emission models in the planning process. This paper reviews and numerically compares several available freight transportation vehicle emission models and also considers their outputs in relations to field studies.

  17. Towards a detailed on-road vehicle emissions inventory: The use of a travel demand model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Mogesh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT) for every model grid cell. This has proven difficult in South Africa as well as internationally with methodologies ranging from generalized spatial surrogate application (leading to many assumptions being incorporated...

  18. Traffic Safety and Vehicle Choice: Quantifying the Effects of the "Arms Race" on American Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun