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Sample records for duty factor plasma

  1. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Kronberger, M; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, J-M; Küchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H(-) volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H(-) plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H(-) source operating at SNS.

  2. High duty factor Plasma Generator for CERN’s Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, JM; Kuchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN’s PS-Booster. Its ion source is a non-cesiated RF driven H- volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, it consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV Synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H- plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the...

  3. Ultraslow extraction with good duty factor

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, R; Steinbach, C

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of antiproton physics at CERN, a new Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) is being designed. In the basic mode, it will serve as a beam stretcher giving spill times in the region of an hour. The spill phi (t) must, of course, have a good duty factor ( phi )/sup 2//( phi /sup 2/). A method employing 'stochastic extraction' has been studied theoretically and tried out at the CERN PS ( approximately 9 s flat top) where an extremely good duty factor has been achieved, showing that much longer spill times will be practicable. The pulse length can be varied within wide limits given by the ripple, the momentum acceptance and the intermodulation distortion of the amplifier chain for the noise power. In addition, another method has been found effective which uses empty buckets. These methods need no servo system and both can easily be applied to other synchrotrons. (6 refs).

  4. Classification of Gait Types Based on the Duty-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with classification of human gait types based on the notion that different gait types are in fact different types of locomotion, i.e., running is not simply walking done faster. We present the duty-factor, which is a descriptor based on this notion. The duty-factor is independent...

  5. Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A

    2003-01-01

    Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.

  6. Invariant Gait Continuum Based on the Duty-Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to describe the continuum of human gait in an invariant manner. The gait description is based on the duty-factor which is adopted from the biomechanics literature. We generate a database of artificial silhouettes representing the three main types of gait, i.......e. walking, jogging, and running. By generating silhouettes from different camera angles we make the method invariant to camera viewpoint and to changing directions of movement. Silhouettes are extracted using the Code-book method and represented in a scale- and translation-invariant manner by using shape...... contexts and tangent orientations. Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. We define a classifier based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. This classification achieves an overall recognition rate of 87.1% on a diverse...

  7. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  8. Effect of the duty cycle on the spark-plug plasma synthetic jet actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising novel actuator called Spark-Plug Plasma Synthetic Jet (SPSJ has been developed in Atmospheric Plasma Research Laboratory at Niğde University. It generates electrothermally high synthetic jet velocity by using high voltage. SPSJ actuator can be utilized to be an active flow control device having some advantages such as no moving parts, low energy consumption and easy to integrate the system. This actuator consists of two main components: semi-surface spark plug (NGK BUHW as an anode electrode and a cap having an orifice as a cathode electrode. The cap, having a jet exit orifice diameter of 2 mm, has diameter of 4.4 mm and height of 4.65 mm. This study presents the characteristics of SPSJ actuator by using the hot wire anemometer in order to approximately determine jet velocity in quiescent air. Peak velocity as high as 180 m/s was obtained for fe= 100 and duty cycle 50%. The flow visualization indicated that the actuator’s jet velocity is enough to penetrate the developed boundary layer.

  9. Effects of duty cycle on microstructure and corrosion behavior of TiC coatings prepared by DC pulsed plasma CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanaghi, Ali, E-mail: alishanaghi@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza Sabour, E-mail: sabour01@modares.ac.ir [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangarani, Shahrokh, E-mail: sh.ahangarani@gmail.com [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research organization for science and technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Farahani, Taghi Shahrabi, E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Titanium carbide coatings are deposited on hot-work steel (H{sub 11}) by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) and the dependence of the corrosion behavior on fabrication parameters is investigated. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman and electrochemical tests are used to study the structure as well as corrosion behaviors. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction reveals the (2 0 0) plane implying that the TiC coatings are deposited via the kinetics-limited crystal growth mechanism and under thermodynamically stable conditions. The SEM results indicate that the formation of a homogeneous and uniform titanium carbide nanostructure coatings. Potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance tests performed in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.05 M NaCl show that the TiC coating produced using a 40% duty cycle possesses high corrosion resistance in both media. The R{sub p} values of the TiC coating (50% duty cycle) in 0.05 M NaCl and the other TiC coating (40% duty cycle) in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} are approximately four and sixteen orders of magnitude higher than that of the bare steel, respectively. Our results reveal that the duty cycles not only affect the structure and morphology of the coatings but also influence the electrochemical properties.

  10. Plasma factor XIII and platelet factor XIII in hyperlipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuianu, M P; Miloszewski, K; Porutiu, D; Losowsky, M S

    1976-12-31

    Plasma factor XIII activity measured by a quantitative assay was found to be significantly higher in hypertriglyceridaemic patients (type IV and combined hyperlipoproteinaemia), as compared to normolipaemic controls. No such elevation in plasma factor XIII activity was found in patients with type Ha hyperlipaemia. Plasma pseudocholinesterase was found to parallel the elevated factor XIII activity in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects. In contrast, platelet factor XIII activity was not raised in hyperlipaemic subjects, and plasma factor XIII was found to be normal in a normolipaemic subjects with thrombocythaemia. It was concluded that there is no significant contribution from platelets to plasma factor XIII activity, and that the observed increase in plasma factor XIII in hypertriglyceridaemia results from enhanced hepatic synthesis of the enzyme.

  11. Real-time black carbon emission factor measurements from light duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, Sara D; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D

    2013-11-19

    Eight light-duty gasoline low emission vehicles (LEV I) were tested on a Chassis dynamometer using the California Unified Cycle (UC) at the Haagen-Smit vehicle test facility at the California Air Resources Board in El Monte, CA during September 2011. The UC includes a cold start phase followed by a hot stabilized running phase. In addition, a light-duty gasoline LEV vehicle and ultralow emission vehicle (ULEV), and a light-duty diesel passenger vehicle and gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle were tested on a constant velocity driving cycle. A variety of instruments with response times ≥0.1 Hz were used to characterize how the emissions of the major particulate matter components varied for the LEVs during a typical driving cycle. This study focuses primarily on emissions of black carbon (BC). These measurements allowed for the determination of BC emission factors throughout the driving cycle, providing insights into the temporal variability of BC emission factors during different phases of a typical driving cycle.

  12. Effect of duty-cycles on the air plasma gas-phase of dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, R.; Biganzoli, I.; Dell'Orto, E. C.; Riccardi, C.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental investigation concerning the effects of a duty-cycle in the supply of a dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air has been performed. Electrical characteristics of the discharge have been measured, focusing mainly on the statistical properties of the current filaments and on dielectric surface charging, both affected by the frequent repetition of breakdown imposed by the duty-cycle. Information on the gas-phase composition was gathered too. In particular, a strong enhancement in the ozone formation rate is observed when suitable long pauses separate the active discharge phases. A simulation of the chemical kinetics in the gas-phase, based on a simplified discharge modeling, is briefly described in order to shed light on the observed increase in ozone production. The effect of a duty-cycle on surface modification of polymeric films in order to increase their wettability has been investigated too.

  13. Real-time emission factor measurements of isocyanic acid from light duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James M; Crisp, Timia A; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Forestieri, Sara D; Perraud, Véronique; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D; Bertram, Timothy H

    2014-10-07

    Exposure to gas-phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) has been previously shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis, cataracts and rheumatoid arthritis. As such, accurate emission inventories for HNCO are critical for modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of HNCO on a regional and global scale. To date, HNCO emission rates from light duty gasoline vehicles, operated under driving conditions, have not been determined. Here, we present the first measurements of real-time emission factors of isocyanic acid from a fleet of eight light duty gasoline-powered vehicles (LDGVs) tested on a chassis dynamometer using the Unified Driving Cycle (UC) at the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Haagen-Smit test facility, all of which were equipped with three-way catalytic converters. HNCO emissions were observed from all vehicles, in contrast to the idealized laboratory measurements. We report the tested fleet averaged HNCO emission factors, which depend strongly on the phase of the drive cycle; ranging from 0.46 ± 0.13 mg kg fuel(-1) during engine start to 1.70 ± 1.77 mg kg fuel(-1) during hard acceleration after the engine and catalytic converter were warm. The tested eight-car fleet average fuel based HNCO emission factor was 0.91 ± 0.58 mg kg fuel(-1), within the range previously estimated for light duty diesel-powered vehicles (0.21-3.96 mg kg fuel(-1)). Our results suggest that HNCO emissions from LDGVs represent a significant emission source in urban areas that should be accounted for in global and regional models.

  14. RF control at transient beamloading for high-duty-factor linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernogubovsky, M.A.; Sugimoto, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    An effective RF control with the transient beamloading is the major issue in the operation of the high-duty-factor linacs to suppress the undesirable beam loss. The RF control method is considered to obtain the control principle and the state equation, under the analysis of electrodynamical properties of the excitation in the resonator of the linac due to the transient beamloading. The concept of the directional selective coupling is applied for the RF system to define the main characteristics and to optimize the RF control parameters. (author)

  15. Genetics and Other Risk Factors for Past Concussions in Active-Duty Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah; Gardner, Andrew J; Panenka, William J; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-02-15

    Risk factors for concussion in active-duty military service members are poorly understood. The present study examined the association between self-reported concussion history and genetics (apolipoprotein E [APOE], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], and D2 dopamine receptor genes [DRD2]), trait personality measures (impulsive-sensation seeking and trait aggression-hostility), and current alcohol use. The sample included 458 soldiers who were preparing to deploy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. For those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype, 57.9% (11/19) had a history of one or more prior concussions, compared with 35.6% (154/432) of those with other BDNF genotypes (p = 0.049, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48). APOE and DRD2 genotypes were not associated with risk for past concussions. Those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype also reported greater aggression and hostility personality characteristics. When combined in a predictive model, prior military deployments, being male, and having the BDNF Met/Met genotype were independently associated with increased lifetime history of concussions in active-duty soldiers. Replication in larger independent samples is necessary to have more confidence in both the positive and negative genetic associations reported in this study.

  16. Effects of duty cycle and electrolyte concentration on the microstructure and biocompatibility of plasma electrolytic oxidation treatment on zirconium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shao-Fu [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lou, Bih-Show [Chemistry Division, Center for General Education, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yung-Chin [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, Pei-Shan [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Chung, Ren-Jei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei, E-mail: jefflee@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process has been widely studied and applied in the industrial setting due to its ability to create functional oxide layers on Al, Ti, Mg, and Zr alloys. In this work, a pulsed direct current (DC) power supply was adopted to grow the zirconia coating on pure Zr metal by PEO treatment. A fixed frequency of 1000 Hz and constant current of 2 A were used to fabricate all zirconia coatings. Duty cycle values of 25%, 75%, and 100% were used and 0.1 M K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} aqueous solution containing three different concentrations of KOH, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 M, was also used in fabrication. The plasma breakdown voltage decreased with increasing KOH concentration due to its higher electrolyte conductivity. The PEO oxide coating consisted of a thin continuous barrier layer and a thick porous outermost layer, which consisted of mainly monoclinic and minor tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phases. The PEO treatment of Zr metal provided excellent corrosion resistance in Hank's solution and good biocompatibility for 3T3 and MG63 cells. These results suggest that PEO coatings having potential applications in the biomedical field were confirmed in this study. - Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated coating consists of a continuous thin layer and a thick porous outermost layer. • The PEO coating thickness decreases with increasing content of KOH in electrolyte at duty cycles of 75% and 100%. • All PEO coatings provide good biocompatibility and no toxicity to both 3T3 and MG63 cells. • The PEO process greatly enhances the corrosion resistance of Zr metal to Hank's solution.

  17. Factors predicting health behaviors among Army Reserve, active duty Army, and civilian hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynd, Christine A; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A

    2004-12-01

    This study identified health-risk and health-promoting behaviors in military and civilian personnel employed in hospitals. Intrinsic self-motivation and extrinsic organizational workplace factors were examined as predictors of health behaviors. Because reservists represent a blend of military and civilian lifestyles, descriptive analyses focused on comparing Army Reserve personnel (n = 199) with active duty Army (n = 218) and civilian employees (n = 193), for a total sample of 610. Self-motivation and social support were significant factors contributing to the adoption of health-promoting behaviors; however, organizational workplace cultures were inconsistent predictors of health among the three groups. Only the active Army subgroup identified a hierarchical culture as having an influence on health promotion, possibly because of the Army's mandatory physical fitness and weight control standards. Social support and self-motivation are essential to promoting health among employees, thus hospital commanders and chief executive officers should encourage strategies that enhance and reward these behaviors.

  18. High-gradient high-duty-factor Rf photo-cathode electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, R. A.; Hartman, N.; Lidia, S. M.; Wang, S.

    2002-05-01

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure.

  19. Plasma Catalysis for NOx Reduction from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-15

    On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, we are pleased to introduce the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The mission of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable Americans to use less petroleum for their vehicles. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program supports this mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty highway vehicles that meet future Federal and state emissions regulations. The primary objective of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program is to improve the brake thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines from 30 to 45 percent for light-duty applications by 2010; and 40 to 55 percent for heavy-duty applications by 2012; while meeting cost, durability, and emissions constraints. R&D activities include work on combustion technologies that increase efficiency and minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions, as well as aftertreatment technologies that further reduce exhaust emissions. Work is also being conducted on ways to reduce parasitic and heat transfer losses through the development and application of thermoelectrics and turbochargers that include electricity generating capability, and conversion of mechanically driven engine components to be driven via electric motors. This introduction serves to outline the nature, current progress, and future directions of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The research activities of this Sub-Program are planned in conjunction with the FreedomCAR Partnership and the 21st Century Truck Partnership and are carried out in collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities. Because of the importance of clean fuels in achieving low

  20. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  1. Measurement of black carbon and particle number emission factors from individual heavy-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, George A; Lunden, Melissa M; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Harley, Robert A

    2009-03-01

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks driving through a 1-km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO2 concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for approximately 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg(-1) and maximum values of approximately 10 g kg(-1). Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10(15) and 4 x 10(16) # kg(-1). There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1sigma) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from +/- 43% for n=10 to +/- 8% for n=300, illustrating the importance of vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. When n=10, sample means are more likely to be biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in the future, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet will become more of a challenge.

  2. Pulsed nanocrystalline plasma electrolytic boriding as a novel method for corrosion protection of CP-Ti (Part 1: Different frequency and duty cycle)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kh Aliev; A Saboor

    2007-12-01

    Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to test borided CP-Ti, treated by a relatively new method called pulsed plasma electrolytic boriding. The results show excellent corrosion resistance for modified CP-Ti. The effect of frequency and duty cycle of pulsed current was investigated. It was found that pulse frequency and duty cycle affect the size and porosity of nanocrystalline borides and by controlling these effective parameters, surface modification can render the CP-Ti material extremely corrosion resistant as a biomaterial.

  3. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 30-hour duty period requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Christopher G; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny; Bale, James F; Ying, Jian; Greene, Tom; Srivastava, Rajendu

    2012-07-13

    In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Retrospective review of interns' performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the duty hour regulations.

  4. Suicide Among Regular-Duty Military Personnel: A Retrospective Case-Control Study of Occupation-Specific Risk Factors for Workplace Suicide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahon, Martin J; Tobin, John P; Cusack, Denis A; Kelleher, Cecily; Malone, Kevin M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiology, phenomenology, and occupation-specific risk factors for suicide among regular-duty military personnel as a model for other professions...

  5. Duty factor variation possibility from 1% to 100% with PKU microwave driven Cs-free volume H{sup −} sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhang, T.; Ren, H. T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, J. F.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, A. L. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Microwave driven cesium-free volume H{sup −} sources, that have the ability to deliver tens of mA H{sup −} at 35 keV both in CW and 10% duty factor (100 Hz/1 ms), were developed at Peking University (PKU) [S. X. Peng et al., in Proceeding of IPAC 2015, WEPWA027, Richmond, Virginia, USA, 3–8 May 2015]. Recently, special efforts were paid on the investigation of duty factor variation possibility from 1% to 100% with them. Most of the experiments were carried out with a pulsed length (τ) of 1 ms and different intervals of 99 ms, 49 ms, 39 ms, 29 ms, 19 ms, 9 ms, 4 ms, 2 ms, 1 ms, 0.5 ms, and 0 ms, respectively. Other experiments were focused on CW operation and fixed duty factor of 1%. Experimental results prove that PKU H{sup −} sources can deliver tens of mA H{sup −} at duty factor from 1% to 100%. The RF power efficiency increases steadily with the increasing of duty factor from 1% to CW at a fixed pulsed length. Under a given duty factor and pulsed length, RF power efficiency keeps constant and the H{sup −} current increases with RF power linearly. Details will be presented in the paper.

  6. Plasma rich in growth factors in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Glavina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF has wider use in many fields of dentistry due to its endogenous biocompatible regenerative potential i.e., their potential to stimulate and accelerate tissue healing and bone regeneration. Aims This review shows the increasing use of PRGF technology in various fields of dentistry. Methods In the last nine years PubMed has been searched in order to find out published articles upon PRGF in dentistry and 36 papers have been included. Results PRGF technology has many advantages with positive clinical and biological outcomes in tissue healing and bone regeneration. Conclusion In order to determine the most effective therapeutic value for patients, further research is required.

  7. Modelling of NO{sub x} emission factors from heavy and light-duty vehicles equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.L.M., E-mail: monalisa@unifor.br [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, C.M. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Moreno-Tost, R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Farias, T.L. [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Jimenez-Lopez, Antonio [IDMEC - Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Unidad Asociada al Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Universidad de Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Alternative SCR materials. {yields} Catalysts used in heavy-duty vehicles are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}. {yields}Zeolites containing transition metal ions as catalysts for urea SCR has increased. {yields} FeZSM5 catalyst can be a possible candidate as far as pollutants regulation is considered. {yields} Regarding N{sub 2}O emissions mordenite based SCR do not emit this pollutant. - Abstract: NO{sub x} emission standards are becoming stringiest over the world especially for heavy-duty vehicles. To comply with current and future regulations some vehicle manufacturers are adopting exhaust aftertreatment systems known as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The catalysts are based on Vanadium (Va) and the reductant agent based on ammonia. However, Va is listed on the California Proposition 65 List as potentially causing cancer and alternatives are being studied. This paper presents a model based on neural networks that integrated with a road vehicle simulator allows to estimate NO{sub x} emission factors for different powertrain configurations, along different driving conditions, and covering commercial, zeolite and mordenite alternatives as the base monolith for SCR. The research included the experimental study of copper based and iron based zeolites (ZSM5 and Cuban natural mordenite). The response of NO{sub x} conversion efficiency was monitored in a laboratory for varying space velocity, oxygen, sulfur, water, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emulating the conditions of a Diesel engine exhaust along a trip. The experimental data was used for training neural networks and obtaining a mathematical correlation between the outputs and inputs of the SCR system. The developed correlation was integrated with ADVISOR road vehicle simulator to obtain NO{sub x} emission factors and to test each SCR system installed on light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles for standardized driving cycles and real measured driving cycles. Despite having lower NO

  8. The effects of deterioration and technological levels on pollutant emission factors for gasoline light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Fan, Juwang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bixin; Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Jiaoyu; Wang, Jingling; Zhou, Chunyao; Chen, Xuan

    2017-07-01

    Vehicle deterioration and technological change influence emission factors (EFs). In this study, the impacts of vehicle deterioration and emission standards on EFs of regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], and nitrogen oxides [NOx]) for gasoline light-duty trucks (LDTs) were investigated according to the inspection and maintenance (I/M) data using a chassis dynamometer method. Pollutant EFs for LDTs markedly varied with accumulated mileages and emission standards, and the trends of EFs are associated with accumulated mileages. In addition, the study also found that in most cases, the median EFs of CO, HC, and NOx are higher than those of basic EFs in the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model; therefore, the present study provides correction factors for the IVE model relative to the corresponding emission standards and mileages. Currently, vehicle emissions are great contributors to air pollution in cities, especially in developing countries. Emission factors play a key role in creating emission inventory and estimating emissions. Deterioration represented by vehicle age and accumulated mileage and changes of emission standards markedly influence emission factors. In addition, the results provide collection factors for implication in the IVE model in the region levels.

  9. Development of emission factors and emission inventories for motorcycles and light duty vehicles in the urban region in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, H D; Tong, H Y; Hung, W T; Anh, N T N

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports on a 2-year emissions monitoring program launched by the Centre for Environmental Monitoring of the Vietnam Environment Administration which aimed at determining emission factors and emission inventories for two typical types of vehicle in Hanoi, Vietnam. The program involves four major activities. A database for motorcycles and light duty vehicles (LDV) in Hanoi was first compiled through a questionnaire survey. Then, two typical driving cycles were developed for the first time for motorcycles and LDVs in Hanoi. Based on this database and the developed driving cycles for Hanoi, a sample of 12 representative test vehicles were selected to determine vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission factors (CO, HC, NOx and CO(2)). This set of emission factors were developed for the first time in Hanoi with due considerations of local driving characteristics. In particular, it was found that the emission factors derived from Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles and adopted in some previous studies were generally overestimated. Eventually, emission inventories for motorcycles and LDVs were derived by combining the vehicle population data, the developed vehicle specific emission factors and vehicle kilometre travelled (VKT) information from the survey. The inventory suggested that motorcycles contributed most to CO, HC and NOx emissions while LDVs appeared to be more fuel consuming.

  10. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  11. Plasma Viscosity : A Risk Factor In Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puniyani R. R

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrheological study on hypertension was done at Indian Institute of Technology Hospital, Bombay. Male population in the age groups of 35 to 60 years was screened for hypertension from February 1986 to February 1987. Out of 340 subjects examined, 44 hypertensive cases were found, who were investigated for blood viscosity profile and were compared with 45 controls. The parameters studied were plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity, red cell aggregation, red cell deformability and haematocrit W.H.O. criteria of hypertension (HT was strictly adhered to (B.P. above 160/95 mm of Hg. When compared to control group, plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity were elevated in freshly detected and uncontrolled hypertensives. Red cell aggregation and deformability were significantly altered in chronic hypertensives than in normal, but haematocrit was not affected in any group.

  12. Isolation and characterization of bovine plasma prekallikrein (Fletcher factor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimark, R L; Davie, E W

    1979-12-11

    Prekallikrein (Fletcher factor) has been purified from bovine plasma approximately 25 000-fold with an overall yield of 14%. Purification steps included ammonium sulfate fractionation and column chromatography on heparin-agarose, DEAE-Sephadex, CM-Sephadex, benzamidine-agarose, and arginine methyl ester-agarose. The purified protein was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and amino-terminal sequence analysis. Bovine plasma prekallikrein is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 82 000 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation. It contains 12.9% carbohydrate, including 6.2% hexose, 4.5% N-acetylglucosamine, and 2.2% N-acetylneuraminic acid. Prekallikrein is a single polypeptide chain with an amino-terminal sequence of Gly-Cys-Leu-Thr-Gln-Leu-Tyr-His-Asn-Ile-Phe-Phe-Arg-Gly-Gly. This sequence is homologous to the amino-terminal sequence of human factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent). Both prekallikrein and kallikrein require kaolin to correct Fletcher factor deficient plasma. Kallikrein, however, has a specific activity 3.5 times greater than prekallikrein. Prekallikrein does not correct plasma deficient in factor XII (Hageman factor), factor XI, or high molecular weight kininogen (Fitzgerald factor).

  13. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma.

  14. An Analysis of the Role of Service Specific Risk Factors in Active Duty Navy Suicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    manic-depressives, and consumers of alcohol . They draw no independent associations between military service characteristics and suicide risk (LeardMann...factors for suicide: depression, past psychiatric treatment, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and guilty/shameful disposition. They execute a Poisson model to...risk among teenagers and older adults); furthermore, the age bracket results coincide with the crude suicide numbers in the dataset (the 17–19 age

  15. Secondary failure of plasma therapy in factor H deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Sylvie; Ulinski, Tim; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges

    2006-11-01

    We report a patient with homozygous factor H deficiency leading to permanent alternate complement activation and early onset of the hemolytic uremic syndrome. He was successfully treated with weekly infusions of fresh frozen plasma over 4 years, displaying normal blood pressure while only treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, a steady level of haptoglobin, low-range proteinuria and normal creatinine clearance. By the end of the fourth year of treatment, he dramatically developed a relapse of hemolytic and uremic syndrome, displaying undetectable haptoglobin, nephrotic range proteinuria and progressive renal failure. Despite a ten-fold increase in the dosage of plasma infusion through daily plasma exchange, haptoglobin remained undetectable while circulating antigenic factor H levels reached 22-24% (normal values 65-140%). Three months following the biological onset of the relapse, a bilateral nephrectomy was performed owing to uncontrolled hypertension and rapidly progressive renal failure. The molecular mechanism of plasma resistance remained unclear while antifactor H antibodies were not detected in the plasma. We suggest that protracted administration of exogenous factor H might not be a long-term strategy in homozygous factor H deficiency.

  16. [An investigation of the CH4 and N2O emission factors of light-duty gasoline vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-qiang; Song, Jing-hao; Hu, Jing-nan; Xie, Shu-xia; Zu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    In China, most of the studies of vehicular greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been focused on CO2 emissions. The investigation of non-CO2 GHGs, e.g. CH4 and N2O, are mainly carried out based on models developed in Europe and the US, and there are few vehicle emission tests for CH4 and N2O. In this study, 22 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) were selected for tailpipe CH4 and N2O tests using chassis dynamometer, and their emission factors were obtained based on the NEDC driving cycle. The results showed that the CH4 emission factors of China I to China IV LDGVs were 0.048 g x km(-1), 0.048 g x km(-1), 0.038 g x km(-1) and 0.028 g x km(-1), respectively. For N2O, the emission factors of China I to China IV were 0.045 g x km(-1), 0.039 g x km(-1), 0.026 g x km(-1) and 0.021 g x km(-1), respectively. In the GHGs emissions (in terms of CO2 Eq.) per LDGV, the percentage of CH4 and N2O emissions decreased gradually with tightening of emission standards. The contribution of CH4 emissions was lower than 0.5% in the total emissions, and N2O share rate was between 3.03% and 6.35%. Therefore, tightening emission standards can effectively reduce the CH4 and N2O emissions, to mitigate the greenhouse effects caused by vehicle emissions.

  17. Diurnal variation of von Willebrand factor in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Annette; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in plasma is a central element in assessing von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF activity is known to vary, which has partly been ascribed to biological and preanalytical variation. However, a possible diurnal expression of VWF has not been tho...

  18. Factors associated with intern noncompliance with the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s 30-hour duty period requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education mandated work hour restrictions. Violations can results in a residency program being cited or placed on probation. Recurrent violations could results in loss of accreditation. We wanted to determine specific intern and workload factors associated with violation of a specific mandate, the 30-hour duty period requirement. Methods Retrospective review of interns’ performance against the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations at a pediatric residency program between June 24, 2008 and June 23, 2009. The analytical plan included both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Twenty of the 26 (77%) interns had 80 self-reported episodes of continuous work hours greater than 30 hours. In multivariable analysis, noncompliance was inversely associated with the number of prior inpatient rotations (odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (0.38, 0.64) per rotation) but directly associated with the total number of patients (odds ratio: 1.30 (1.10, 1.53) per additional patient). The number of admissions on-call, number of admissions after midnight and number of discharges post-call were not significantly associated with noncompliance. The level of noncompliance also varied significantly between interns after accounting for intern experience and workload factors. Subject to limitations in statistical power, we were unable to identify specific intern characteristics, such as demographic variables or examination scores, which account for the variation in noncompliance between interns. Conclusions Both intern and workload factors were associated with pediatric intern noncompliance with the 30-hour duty period requirement during inpatient ward rotations. Residency programs must develop information systems to understand the individual and experience factors associated with noncompliance and implement appropriate interventions to ensure compliance with the

  19. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    Full Text Available Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  20. Occupational driving as a risk factor for low back pain in active-duty military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeffrey B; Orchowski, Joseph R; Scher, Danielle L; Owens, Brett D; Burks, Robert; Belmont, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Although occupational driving has been associated with low back pain, little has been reported on the incidence rates for this disorder. To determine the incidence rate and demographic risk factors of low back pain in an ethnically diverse and physically active population of US military vehicle operators. Retrospective database analysis. All active-duty military service members between 1998 and 2006. Low back pain requiring visit to a health-care provider. A query was performed using the US Defense Medical Epidemiology Database for the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for low back pain (724.20). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the rate of low back pain among military vehicle operators and control subjects per 1,000 person-years, while controlling for sex, race, rank, service, age, and marital status. A total of 8,447,167 person-years of data were investigated. The overall unadjusted low back pain incidence rate for military members whose occupation is vehicle operator was 54.2 per 1,000 person-years. Compared with service members with other occupations, motor vehicle operators had a significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for low back pain of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.17). Female motor vehicle operators, compared with males, had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain of 1.45 (95% CI 1.39-1.52). With senior enlisted as the referent category, the junior enlisted rank group of motor vehicle operators had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain: 1.60 (95% CI 1.52-1.70). Compared with Marine service members, those motor vehicle operators in both the Army, 2.74 (95% CI 2.60-2.89), and the Air Force, 1.98 (95% CI 1.84-2.14), had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain. The adjusted IRRs for the less than 20-year and more than 40-year age groups, compared with the 30- to 39-year age group, were 1.24 (1

  1. Temporal reliability of cytokines and growth factors in EDTA plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrangoni Adele M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines are involved in the development of chronic diseases, including cancer. It is important to evaluate the temporal reproducibility of cytokines in plasma prior to conducting epidemiologic studies utilizing these markers. Findings We assessed the temporal reliability of CRP, 22 cytokines and their soluble receptors (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, sIL-6R, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, TNFα, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, IFNα, IFNγ and eight growth factors (GM-CSF, EGF, bFGF, G-CSF, HGF, VEGF, EGFR, ErbB2 in repeated EDTA plasma samples collected an average of two years apart from 18 healthy women (age range: 42-62 enrolled in a prospective cohort study. We also estimated the correlation between serum and plasma biomarker levels using 18 paired clinical samples from postmenopausal women (age range: 75-86. Twenty-six assays were able to detect their analytes in at least 70% of samples. Of those 26 assays, we observed moderate to high intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs(ranging from 0.53-0.89 for 22 assays, and low ICCs (0-0.47 for four assays. Serum and plasma levels were highly correlated (r > 0.6 for most markers, except for seven assays (r Conclusions For 22 of the 31 biomarkers, a single plasma measurement is a reliable estimate of a woman's average level over a two-year period.

  2. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  3. Development of real-world driving cycles and estimation of emission factors for in-use light-duty gasoline vehicles in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Mei-Yin; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2014-07-01

    This investigation adopts vehicle tracking manner to establish real-world driving patterns and estimates emission factors with dynamometers with 23 traffic-driving variables for 384 in-use light-duty passenger vehicles during non-rush hour. Adequate numbers of driving variables were decided with factor analysis and cluster analysis. The dynamometer tests were performed on FTP75 cycle and five local driving cycles derived from real-world speed profiles. Results presented that local driving cycles and FTP75 cycle were completely different in driving characteristic parameters of typical driving cycles and emission factors. The highest values of emission factor ratios of local driving cycle and FTP75 cycle for CO, NMHC, NO x , CH4, and CO2 were 1.38, 1.65, 1.58, 1.39, and 1.14, respectively.

  4. Searching for preventive measures of cardiovascular events in aged Japanese taxi drivers--the daily rhythm of cardiovascular risk factors during a night duty day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, M; Azami, Y

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that Japanese taxi drivers are exposed to more risk factors and have a higher mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease than other occupational groups. We investigated the effect of night taxi driving with a view to preventing acute events of cardiovascular disease among aged taxi drivers. Twenty-nine taxi drivers (41-67 years old) were examined for urine normetanephrine/creatinine, von Willebrand factor, anti-thrombin III, t-plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-complex, hematocrit, blood glucose and blood pressure in the morning and at midnight during a duty day and in the following morning. At the same time, the blood pressure and blood glucose of 46 taxi drivers (43-67 years old) in the morning after a night duty with little sleep and in the morning after daytime work and subsequent night sleep were compared. The results obtained indicate that the aggravation of sympathetic nervous system functions with disturbed circadian rhythms, increased blood coagulation and blood concentration, endothelial injury and the elevation of blood glucose at midnight or the next morning were induced by their night work. These conditions are supposed to favour acute vascular events in aged taxi drivers. Preventive measures considered include social support for anticoagulant food and water intake, short exercise and walking as well as taking a rest and a nap during night work.

  5. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  6. ADAMTS13 content in plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier M; Valsecchi, Carla; Pontiggia, Silvia; Farina, Claudio; Retzios, Anastassios D

    2013-10-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathy syndrome caused by a congenital or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) and thus prevents the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in the microcirculation. TTP can be fatal if not appropriately and timely treated with the infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or exchange plasmapheresis, that reverse the process of microangiopathy by removing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies and replacing functional ADAMTS13. The treatment of TTP with FFP is not free from risks and must be administered in hospitals or clinics, owing to the substantial amount of plasma volume infused or exchanged and the frequent need of catheter application. Moreover, most FFPs are not subjected to treatments to remove or inactivate blood-borne infectious agents. A number of recent reports indicate that certain plasma-derived VWF-factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates are clinically effective in the treatment of congenital TTP. In this study, we measured ADAMTS13 levels in various plasma-derived VWF-FVIII concentrates, showing that Koate(®) -DVI (Grifols), contained relatively high amounts of ADAMTS13 and that Alphanate(®) (Grifols) was the closest other product in terms of protease content. Koate(®) -DVI contains, on average (five lots tested), 0.091 ± 0.007 Units of ADAMTS13 activity per IU of FVIII. On the basis of this analysis and other reports of VWF-FVIII concentrate utilization in congenital TTP, potential dosing, and future clinical developments are discussed.

  7. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies.

  8. On-road measurements of NMVOCs and NOx: Determination of light-duty vehicles emission factors from tunnel studies in Brussels city center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Beeldens, A.; Boonen, E.; Borbon, A.; Boréave, A.; Cazaunau, M.; Chen, H.; Daële, V.; Dupart, Y.; Gaimoz, C.; Gallus, M.; George, C.; Grand, N.; Grosselin, B.; Herrmann, H.; Ifang, S.; Kurtenbach, R.; Maille, M.; Marjanovic, I.; Mellouki, A.; Miet, K.; Mothes, F.; Poulain, L.; Rabe, R.; Zapf, P.; Kleffmann, J.; Doussin, J.-F.

    2015-12-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of pollutants emitted by light-duty vehicles (LDV) were investigated in the Leopold II tunnel in Brussels city center (Belgium), in September 2011 and in January 2013, respectively. Two sampling sites were housing the instruments for the measurements of a large range of air pollutants, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The NMVOCs and NOx traffic EFs for LDV were determined from their correlation with CO2 using a single point analysis method. The emission factor of NOx is (544 ± 199) mg vehicle-1 km-1; NMVOCs emission factors vary from (0.26 ± 0.09) mg vehicle-1 km-1 for cis-but-2-ene to (8.11 ± 2.71) mg vehicle-1 km-1 for toluene. Good agreement is observed between the EFs determined in the Leopold II tunnel and the most recent EFs determined in another European roadway tunnel in 2004, with only a slight decrease of the EFs during the last decade. An historical perspective is provided and the observed trend in the NMVOCs emission factors reflect changes in the car fleet composition, the fuels and/or the engine technology that have occurred within the last three decades in Europe.

  9. Variability in Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emission Factors from Trip-Based Real-World Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Frey, H Christopher

    2015-10-20

    Using data obtained with portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS) on multiple routes for 100 gasoline vehicles, including passenger cars (PCs), passenger trucks (PTs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), variability in tailpipe emission rates was evaluated. Tier 2 emission standards are shown to be effective in lowering NOx, CO, and HC emission rates. Although PTs are larger, heavier vehicles that consume more fuel and produce more CO2 emissions, they do not necessarily produce more emissions of regulated pollutants compared to PCs. HEVs have very low emission rates compared to tier 2 vehicles under real-world driving. Emission factors vary with cycle average speed and road type, reflecting the combined impact of traffic control and traffic congestion. Compared to the slowest average speed and most congested cycles, optimal emission rates could be 50% lower for CO2, as much as 70% lower for NOx, 40% lower for CO, and 50% lower for HC. There is very high correlation among vehicles when comparing driving cycles. This has implications for how many cycles are needed to conduct comparisons between vehicles, such as when comparing fuels or technologies. Concordance between empirical and predicted emission rates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES model was also assessed.

  10. Time-dependent release of growth factors from implant surfaces treated with plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ilárduya, María Belén; Trouche, Elodie; Tejero, Ricardo; Orive, Gorka; Reviakine, Ilya; Anitua, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs) technology is an autologous platelet-rich plasma approach that provides a pool of growth factors and cytokines that have been shown to increase tissue regeneration and accelerate dental implant osseointegration. In this framework, the spatiotemporal release of growth factors and the establishment of a provisional fibrin matrix are likely to be key aspects governing the stimulation of the early phases of tissue regeneration around implants. We investigated the kinetics of growth factor release at implant surfaces functionalized either with PRGFs or platelet-poor plasma and correlated the results obtained with the morphology of the resulting interfaces. Our main finding is that activation and clot formation favors longer residence times of the growth factors at the interfaces studied, probably due to their retention in the adsorbed fibrin matrix. The concentration of the platelet-derived growth factors above the interfaces becomes negligible after 2-4 days and is significantly higher in the case of activated interfaces than in the case of nonactivated ones, whereas that of the plasmatic hepatocyte growth factor is independent of platelet concentration and activation, and remains significant for up to 9 days. Platelet-rich plasma preparations should be activated to permit growth factor release and thereby facilitate implant surface osseointegration.

  11. Duty and Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Binder (C.); C. Heilmann (Conrad)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractEver since the publication of Peter Singer’s article ‘‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality’’ has the question of whether the (geographical) distance to people in need affects our moral duties towards them been a hotly debated issue. Does geographical distance affect our moral duties?

  12. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  13. 影响轻型汽车排放测试结果因素分析及对策研究%Factors Analysis of Affecting Light Duty Vehicle Emission Test Results and Countermeasures Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志辉

    2014-01-01

    Analyze the factors which influence the exhaust gas emission measurement results accuracy of light duty vehicle and study the corresponding countermeasures. Analyze mainly these fac-tors in terms of testing environment, light duty vehicle, testing sys-tem airtightness, chassis dynamometer, cooling fan and ultra-low emission testing system and point out solid solution.%对影响轻型汽车排放测试结果的因素进行了分析,并研究了相关应对策略。主要从测试环境,车辆,测试系统密封性,测功机,冷却风机及超低排放测试系统方面进行了研究分析,并给出了具体的解决方法。

  14. Fibulin-1 purification from human plasma using affinity chromatography on Factor H-Sepharose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiScipio, Richard G; Liddington, Robert C; Schraufstatter, Ingrid U

    2016-05-01

    A method is reported to purify Fibulin-1 from human plasma resulting in a 36% recovery. The steps involve removal of the cryoglobulin and the vitamin K dependent proteins followed by polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitations, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography and finally Factor H-Sepharose affinity purification. The procedure is designed to be integrated into an overall scheme for the isolation of over 30 plasma proteins from a single batch of human plasma. Results from mass spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting indicate that human plasma Fibulin-1 is a single chain of the largest isotype. Functional binding assays demonstrated calcium ion dependent interaction of Fibulin-1 for fibrinogen, fibronectin, and Factor H. The procedure described is the first to our knowledge that enables a large scale purification of Fibulin-1 from human plasma.

  15. Platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factors and simvastatin in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Monsalve, Francisco; Salas, Juan; Morán, Andrea; Suazo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Platelet preparations promote bone regeneration by inducing cell migration, proliferation and differentiation in the area of the injury, which are essential processes for regeneration. In addition, several studies have indicated that simvastatin (SIMV), widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, stimulates osteogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with either platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in combination with SIMV in the regeneration and repair of alveolar bone. The jaws of Sprague Dawley rats (n=18) were subjected to rotary instrument-induced bone damage (BD). Animals were divided into six groups: BD/H2O (n=3), distilled water without the drug and alveolar bone damage; BD/H2O/PRP (n=3), BD and PRP; BD/H2O/PRGF (n=3), BD and PRGF; BD/SIMV (n=3), BD and water with SIMV; BD/SIMV/PRP (n=3), BD, PRP and SIMV; and BD/SIMV/PRGF (n=3), BD, PRGF and SIMV. Conventional histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin staining) revealed that the BD/SIMV group showed indicators for mature bone tissue, while the BD/SIMV/PRP and BD/SIMV/PRGF groups showed the coexistence of indicators for mature and immature bone tissue, with no statistical differences between the platelet preparations. Simvastatin did not improve the effect of platelet-rich plasma and plasma rich in growth factors. It was not possible to determine which platelet preparation produced superior effects.

  16. The transcription factors IRF8 and PU.1 negatively regulate plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotta, Sebastian; Willis, Simon N; Hasbold, Jhagvaral; Inouye, Michael; Pang, Swee Heng Milon; Emslie, Dianne; Light, Amanda; Chopin, Michael; Shi, Wei; Wang, Hongsheng; Morse, Herbert C; Tarlinton, David M; Corcoran, Lynn M; Hodgkin, Philip D; Nutt, Stephen L

    2014-10-20

    Activated B cells undergo immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The distinct transcriptomes of B cells and plasma cells are maintained by the antagonistic influences of two groups of transcription factors: those that maintain the B cell program, including BCL6 and PAX5, and plasma cell-promoting factors, such as IRF4 and BLIMP-1. We show that the complex of IRF8 and PU.1 controls the propensity of B cells to undergo CSR and plasma cell differentiation by concurrently promoting the expression of BCL6 and PAX5 and repressing AID and BLIMP-1. As the PU.1-IRF8 complex functions in a reciprocal manner to IRF4, we propose that concentration-dependent competition between these factors controls B cell terminal differentiation.

  17. [Detection of alloantibodies against Factor VIII in plasma of patients with hemophilia A and its relationship with Factor VIIIC domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Lu; Yu, Zi-Qiang; Wan, Chu-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zheng-Hua; Ruan, Chang-Geng

    2013-10-01

    This study was purposed to detect the alloantibodies against Factor VIII (FVIII) by ELISA for estimating the incidence of the alloantibodies against Factor VIII (FVIII) in patients with hemophilia A, and to investigate the relationship between factor VIIIC domain and alloantibodies. Total of 140 patients with hemophilia A and 80 normal controls were enrolled in this study, among them plasma FVIII level of 84 patients was less than 1%, plasma FVIII level of 34 patients was between 1% and 5%, and plasma FVIII level of 22 patients was more than 5%. All patients were treated with plasma-derived FVIII concentrate or plasma before. The ELISA plate was coated with McAb (SZ-132) against FVIII prepared in our laboratory, then human recombinant FVIII concentrates were applied. After incubation in room temperature for 2 hours, diluted plasma samples and HRP-conjugated goat anti-human IgG were added successively, finally A490 was recorded. The threshold of alloantibody of patient plasma was set as mean value>3 SD more than control. The plate was coated with antibody against His, then human recombinant FVIII-C1C2 prepared in our laboratory was added. After incubation in room temperature for 2 hours, diluted plasma samples and HRP-conjugated goat anti-human IgG were added successively, finally A490 were recorded. The threshold was set as the mean value>3 SD more than control. The results showed that the alloantibodies against FVIII were found in 56 patients (40%) by ELISA, and 82.1% (46/56) of this kind of alloantibody could interact with the C domain of FVIII. It is concluded that C domain of FVIII is one of the primary binding sites for the alloantibodies against FVIII in Chinese patients with hemophilia A.

  18. The Synergistic Effect between Electrical and Chemical Factors in Plasma Gene/Molecule-Transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    This study has been done to know what kind of factors in plasma and processes on cells promote plasma gene/molecule transfection. We have discovered a new plasma source using a microcapillary electrode which enables high transfection efficiency and high cell survivability simultaneously. However, the mechanism of the transfection by plasma was not clear. To clarify the transfection mechanisms by micro plasma, we focused on the effects of electrical (current, charge, field, etc.) and chemical (radicals, RONS, etc.) factors generated by the micro plasma and evaluated the contribution weight of three groups of the effects and processes, i.e. electrical, chemical and biochemical ones. At first, the necessity of the electrical factors was estimated by the laser produced plasma (LPP). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cell was cultured on a 96-well plate or 12-well micro slide chamber. Plasmids pCX-EGFP in Tris-EDTA buffer was dropped on the cells and they were exposed to the capillary discharge plasma (CDP) or the LPP. In the case of the CDP, the plasma was generated between the tip of the capillary electrode and the cells so that both electrical and chemical factors were supplied to the cells. In this setup, about 20% of average transfection efficiency was obtained. In the case of the LPP, the plasma was generated apart from the cells so that electrical factors were not supplied to the cells. In this setup, no transfection was observed. These results show that the electrical factors are necessary for the plasma gene transfection. Next, the necessity of the chemical factors was estimated the effect of catalase to remove H2O2 in CDP. The transfection efficiency decreased to 0.4 by scavenging H2O2 with catalase. However, only the solution of H2O2 caused no gene transfection in cells. These results shows that H2O2 is important species to cause gene/molecule transfection but still needs a synergistic effect with electrical or other chemical factors. This work was partly supported by

  19. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  20. DIFFERENCES IN ERYTHROCYTE SODIUM-TRANSPORT BETWEEN HUMAN PLASMA AND ARTIFICIAL MEDIUM - THE ROLE AND CHARACTER OF SODIUM-EFFLUX AND INFLUX STIMULATING PLASMA FACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TEPPER, T; JILDERDA, JF; HUISMAN, RM; VANDERHEM, GK; DEZEEUW, D

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to further characterize the plasma factor(s) which stimulate sodium efflux from erythrocytes, which we reported previously. Dialysis of plasma against an artificial medium using membranes with varying molecular mass cut-off points revealed relative molecular

  1. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ...Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  2. Role of hormonal factors in plasma K alterations in acute respiratory and metabolic alkalosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Hishida, A; Ohishi, K; Kimura, M; Honda, N

    1990-02-01

    Studies were performed on previously nephrectomized dogs to examine roles of hormonal factors in plasma potassium alterations in acute alkalosis. Respiratory and metabolic alkalosis were induced by hyperventilation and intravenous NaHCO3 or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) infusion, respectively. Respiratory and NaHCO3-induced alkalosis provoked decreases in plasma potassium from the control value of 5.12 +/- 0.68 (SE) to 4.21 +/- 0.55 meq/l (P less than 0.01) and from 4.65 +/- 0.26 to 3.91 +/- 0.16 meq/l (P less than 0.01) within 180 min, respectively. In contrast, Tris-induced alkalosis elicited an increase in plasma potassium from the control value of 4.56 +/- 0.30 to 5.31 +/- 0.30 meq/l (P less than 0.01). Hypokalemia in respiratory alkalosis was associated with a decrease in the plasma norepinephrine concentration from the control level of 377 +/- 104 to 155 +/- 41 pg/ml (P less than 0.05) but not with changes in plasma levels of epinephrine, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and aldosterone. However, this hypokalemia was not affected by phentolamine. Also, somatostatin did not modify the hypokalemic response. NaHCO3-induced hypokalemia was associated with a decline in the plasma aldosterone and norepinephrine concentrations. The decline in plasma norepinephrine in NaHCO3-induced alkalosis followed the decrease in plasma potassium. In Tris-induced alkalosis, plasma insulin increased but norepinephrine decreased. The findings do not suggest fundamental roles of the hormonal factors in the plasma potassium alterations in bilaterally nephrectomized dogs with acute alkalosis.

  3. Plasma prekallikrein as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Karolina; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Domański, Leszek; Myślak, Marek; Róźański, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that in diabetes there is an increased activation of coagulation system leading in consequence to diabetic retinopathy. Thirty three healthy subjects (controls, 16 males and 17 females) and 35 patients with diabetes type 1 (15 males and 20 females) were examined. We monitored plasma prekallikrein (PPK), glycemia, fructosamine, glycosylated hemoglobin, activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT), INR, fibrinolysis in euglobulins time (FET), level of antithrombin III (AT III), fibrinogen (Fb) and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP). In diabetic patients without retinopathy, PKK concentration was 16% higher (p PKK concentration was 50% higher (p <0.001) than in controls. In the subgroup of patients with proliferative retinopathy PTT was significantly shorter (p <0.001), and FET was significantly longer (p <0.001) than in control. In patients with diabetes higher FDP concentrations were found than in controls (p <0.05). Significant correlations were found between PPK and fructosamine levels in all diabetic patients (R(S)=+0.57 p <0.001), in diabetic patients without retinopathy (R(S)=+0.61, p <0.05), and in diabetic patients with retinopathy (R(S)=+0.62, p <0.005). We found negative correlation between PPK concentration and PTT (R(S)=-0.43, p <0.001) and positive correlation between PPK concentration and FET (R(S)=+0.59, p <0.00001) in the entire study group. The occurrence of diabetic retinopathy is connected with higher levels of plasma prekallikrein.

  4. Minimal change-like glomerular alterations induced by a human plasma factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Klok, PA; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    Circulating factors, including the plasma protease (100KF) described previously, have been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of minimal change disease (MCD) for several decades. This factor was able to induce MCD-like alterations in kidney tissue in vitro, i.e. impairment of glomerular po

  5. Oxygen-dependent injury by a human plasma factor associated with minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism by which a human plasma factor associated with proteinuria is able to cause experimental glomerular albumin leakage is unknown. This factor (called 100KF) is able to induce glomerular alterations in the rat kidney, similar to those seen in minimal change disease, including loss of glom

  6. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  7. [Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and epidermal growth factor blood plasma content in simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dznelashvili, N; Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Mariamidze, A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to concurrently determine the prognostic significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression in endometrium and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) blood content in simple and complex hyperplasia. In order to detect EGFR expression, immunohistochemical examination of endometrial scarp from 35 patients was done along with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) method, for measuring EGF blood plasma content. The numerical data obtained were processed statistically using computer program SPSS-12. According to the results: 1. A significant/marked increase in EGF blood plasma level together with pronounced EGFR expression in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) suggests that simple hyperplasia is likely to transform into complex form, while unchanged level of EGF against the background of mild EGFR expression is probably indicative of not very bad prognosis. 2. Normal indices of EGF blood plasma level in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia), accompanied by mild EGFR expression is suggestive of good prognosis. 3. A sharp or extremely sharp increase in EGF blood plasma level with pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. However, unchanged EGF blood plasma level against the background of mild EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to point to not very bad prognosis. 4. A marked increase in EGF blood plasma level with a pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. Because it is evident that drastic increase in EGF blood plasma level is not necessary, other factor should be suspected to play the major role, i.e the substance that will (or will not) withstand neoplasia.

  8. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared......PURPOSE: Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer...... with the immunohistochemical expression of TFF and chromogranin A in 30 prostate cancer tissue samples. RESULTS: Patients with advanced prostate cancer had significantly higher plasma concentrations of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 (P

  9. Finite size effects in the static structure factor of dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davletov, A. E., E-mail: askar@physics.kz; Yerimbetova, L. T.; Mukhametkarimov, Ye. S.; Ospanova, A. K. [Department of Physics and Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Al-Farabi av. 71, 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-15

    Based on the previously developed pseudopotential model of the dust particles interaction, which takes into account both the finite size and screening effects, the equilibrium distribution functions are investigated in a broad range of plasma parameters. The treatment stems entirely from the renormalization theory of plasma particles interactions which leads to the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In particular, an analytical expression for the static structure factor of the dust particles is proposed and its non-monotonic behavior in the hyper-netted chain approximation is found in a specified domain of plasma parameters to indicate the formation of short- or even long-range order in the system.

  10. Repetitive tabletop plasma focus to produce a tunable damage factor on materials for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Inestrosa-Izurieta, Maria Jose; Moreno, Jose; Davis, Sergio; Bora, Biswajit; Avaria, Gonzalo; Jain, Jalaj; Altamirano, Luis; Panizo, Miguel; Gonzalez, Raquel; Rivera, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Future thermonuclear reactors, both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches, need materials capable of withstanding the extreme radiation and heat loads expected from high repetition rate plasma. A damage factor (F = qτ1/2) in the order of 104 (W/cm2) s1/2 is expected. The axial plasma dynamics after the pinch in a tabletop plasma focus of hundred joules, PF-400J, was characterized by means of pulsed optical refractive diagnostics. The energy, interaction time and power flux of the plasma burst interacting with targets was obtained. Results show a high dependence of the damage factor with the distance from the anode top where the sample is located. A tunable damage factor in the range 10- 105(W/cm2) s1/2 can be obtained. At present the PF-400J operating at 0.077 Hz is being used to study the effects of fusion-relevant pulses on material target, including nanostructured materials. A new tabletop device to be operated up to 1Hz including tunable damage factor has been designed and is being constructed, thus thousand cumulative shots on materials could be obtained in few minutes. The scaling of the damage factor for plasma foci operating at different energies is discussed. Supported by CONICYT: PIA ACT-1115, PAI 79130026.

  11. Evaluation of factors important in modeling plasma concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride administered in water in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Plasma transforming growth factor beta levels in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P; Barten, AD; Van Waarde, MAWH; Vujaskovic, Z; Van Tienhoven, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether the concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) yields diagnostic value in breast cancer. Blood was collected from twenty stage I and II breast cancer patients both prior to treatment and after surgical excision of the tumour. Both latent and activ

  13. Plasma zinc's alter ego is a low-molecular-weight humoral factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ou; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Urgast, Dagmar; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Campbell, Gill; Feldmann, Jörg; Nixon, Graeme F; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H

    2013-09-01

    Mild dietary zinc deprivation in humans and rodents has little effect on blood plasma zinc levels, and yet cellular consequences of zinc depletion can be detected in vascular and other tissues. We proposed that a zinc-regulated humoral factor might mediate the effects of zinc deprivation. Using a novel approach, primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with plasma from zinc-deficient (2500 genes, compared to incubation of cells with zinc-adequate rat plasma. We demonstrated that this effect was caused by a low-molecular-weight (∼2-kDa) zinc-regulated humoral factor but that changes in gene expression were mostly reversed by adding zinc back to zinc-deficient plasma. Strongly regulated genes were overrepresented in pathways associated with immune function and development. We conclude that zinc deficiency induces the production of a low-molecular-weight humoral factor whose influence on VSMC gene expression is blocked by plasma zinc. This factor is therefore under dual control by zinc.

  14. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS......: Participants in 3 trials with IL-6 measured at baseline were included (N = 9864). Factors associated with IL-6 were identified by linear regression. Demographic and HIV variables (nadir/entry CD4(+) cell count, HIV RNA level, antiretroviral therapy regimen) were investigated in all 3 trials. In the SMART...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  15. Modelling plasma response to RMP fields in ASDEX Upgrade with varying edge safety factor and triangularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Kirk, A.; Wang, N.; Liang, Y.; Ryan, D.; Suttrop, W.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, J. C.; Kurzan, B.; Piovesan, P.; Willensdorfer, M.; Zhong, F. C.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-12-01

    Toroidal computations are performed using the MARS-F code (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681), in order to understand correlations between the plasma response and the observed mitigation of the edge localized modes (ELM) using resonant magnetic perturbation fields in ASDEX Upgrade. In particular, systematic numerical scans of the edge safety factor reveal that the amplitude of the resonant poloidal harmonic of the response radial magnetic field near the plasma edge, as well as the plasma radial displacement near the X-point, can serve as good indicators for predicting the optimal toroidal phasing between the upper and lower rows of coils in ASDEX Upgrade. The optimal coil phasing scales roughly linearly with the edge safety factor {{q}95} , for various choices of the toroidal mode number n  =  1-4 of the coil configuration. The optimal coil phasing is also predicted to vary with the upper triangularity of the plasma shape in ASDEX Upgrade. Furthermore, multiple resonance effects of the plasma response, with continuously varying {{q}95} , are computationally observed and investigated.

  16. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  17. Anemia as a factor that elevates plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mika; Tsujino, Takeshi; Naito, Yoshiro; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-09-01

    Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely used as a biomarker of heart failure (HF); however, its concentration is often found to be high even in apparently healthy subjects and little is known about which factors contribute to physiological change in plasma BNP concentration in subjects without HF. We examined the effects of gender, age, and anemia on plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 1036 healthy subjects who underwent an annual health examination at their company in 2005. There were 874 women, ranging in age from 30 to 63 years (mean, 41 years). Plasma BNP concentration was abnormal (> 18.4 pg/mL) in 292 subjects. The incidence was significantly higher in women than in men (31% versus 14%, P < 0.01). Mean plasma BNP concentration was higher in women than in men. The difference in plasma BNP concentration was associated with the difference in blood hemoglobin and age. Logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated inversely with blood hemoglobin (r = -0.30, P < 0.01 for all; r = -0.21, P < 0.01 for women; r = -0.20, P < 0.01 for men). By multiple regression analysis, logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated with hemoglobin, age, and gender. In conclusion, anemia is likely a critical determinant that elevates plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

  18. The Relationship between Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor and Pneumonia of Tibetan Neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cuojie; DEJI Meiduo; ZHAO Min

    2002-01-01

    This study was to discuss the changing characteristics of plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in Tibetan neonates with pneumonia. Radioimmunoassay was applied to determine the plasma level of TNF in 48 tibetan neonates with pneumonia and 20 healthy term newborns. The results showed that the plasma level of TNF in severe group with pneumonia( 16.075 ± 13. 1603ug/mt) was higher than that in mild group(14.705 ± 13.0162), P < 0.001. The TNF level of these two groups were significantly higher than that of healthy control group(7. 8650 ± 2. 5173ug/mt), P < 0. 001. So, the plasma level of TNF was closely related with the severity of pneumonia. Severer pneumonia was, higher TNF level was.It suggested that TNF was involved in the regulating process in pneumonia.

  19. Ionization-potential depression and dynamical structure factor in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich; Reinholz, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    The properties of a bound electron system immersed in a plasma environment are strongly modified by the surrounding plasma. The modification of an essential quantity, the ionization energy, is described by the electronic and ionic self-energies, including dynamical screening within the framework of the quantum statistical theory. Introducing the ionic dynamical structure factor as the indicator for the ionic microfield, we demonstrate that ionic correlations and fluctuations play a critical role in determining the ionization potential depression. This is, in particular, true for mixtures of different ions with large mass and charge asymmetry. The ionization potential depression is calculated for dense aluminum plasmas as well as for a CH plasma and compared to the experimental data and more phenomenological approaches used so far.

  20. Dimensionless factors for an alternating-current non-thermal arc plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Song; Liu, Jin-Bao; Liu, Jing-Lin; Li, He-Ping; Zhu, Ai-Min

    2016-12-01

    A gliding arc discharge, as a source of warm plasma combining advantages of both thermal and cold plasmas, would have promising application prospects in the fields of fuel conversion, combustion enhancement, material synthesis, surface modifications, pollution control, etc. In order to gain insight into the features of an alternating-current gliding arc discharge plasma, three dimensionless factors, i.e., the extinction span (ψ), current lag (δ), and heating lag (χ) factors are proposed in this letter based on the measured waveforms of the discharge voltage and current in an AC gliding arc discharge plasma. The influences of the driving frequency of the power supply (f) on these three dimensionless parameters are investigated experimentally with the explanations on the physical meanings of these factors. The experimental results show that a higher value of f would lead to the lower values of ψ and δ, as well as a higher value of χ. These experimental phenomena indicate a lower threshold ignition voltage of the discharges, a lower current-growth inertia of the gliding arcs and a larger relative thermal inertia of the plasmas with increase the driving frequency of the power supply in the operating parameter range studied in this letter.

  1. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. METHODS: The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1:9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. RESULTS: When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1:16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment.

  2. Negative interference by rheumatoid factor of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen; Xu, Lei; Xie, Liangcai; Yang, Decai; Liu, Xuezheng; Zhang, Jiajun; Li, Yirong; Yi, Cunjian

    2014-01-01

    The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP. The estimation of BNP recovery was carried out by diluting high-concentration BNP samples with RF-positive or RF-negative plasma at a ratio of 1:9. The diluted samples were then tested using the ARCHITECT i2000 System and ARCHITECT BNP Reagent Kits and the recovery was then calculated. When the RF level ranged from 48 to 1420 IU/mL, the average recovery of BNP was 79.29% and 91.61% in the RF-positive and RF-negative plasma samples, respectively, and was thus significantly lower in the group of RF-positive plasma samples than in the group of RF-negative plasma samples. At a dilution of 1:16, the measured BNP level increased by >36% in six of the seven RF-positive plasma samples. The recovery of BNP increased significantly in the RF-positive plasma samples after pretreatment with IgG-sensitive latex particles. In addition, The BNP recovery was not significantly related to the plasma RF at concentrations ranging from 48 to 2720 IU/mL. Measurement of BNP by CMIA is susceptible to interference from RF leading to predominantly (but not exclusively) lower results. Pretreatment of samples with blocking reagents is advisable prior to the initiation of denying patient's necessary treatment.

  3. [Ethics, power and duty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gândara, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    Nursing care is a humane action which bears with it an ethical dimension which is revealed by the focus of the care provided. Among the different options for action, a nurse will choose that which contributes to the care of a patient without harming that patient. The care choice made is the result of a conscientious, deliberate decision-making process which presupposes a recognition of what one plans to do, what one is capable of doing and what can accomplish. Freedom to choose which care option is applied imposes on a nurse the duty to act according to principles and duties which rule the profession; a nurse's power to act transforms to a power of the duty to provide treatment.

  4. Impairment of endothelial and subendothelial sites by a circulating plasma factor associated with minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of albuminuria in minimal change disease (MCD) is unknown. A human plasma factor (denoted as 100KF) is able to induce minimal change-like glomerular alterations, i.e. loss of glomerular sialoglycoproteins and decreased expression of glomerular ecto-ATPase, following in v

  5. Effect of GFR on plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, K.G.; Abrahams, A.C.; Peters, H.P.E.; Nguyen, T.Q.; Koeners, M.P.; Hoedt, C.H. den; Dendooven, A.; Dorpel, M.A. van den; Blankestijn, P.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Joles, J.A.; Goldschmeding, R.; Kok, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has a key role in the pathogenesis of renal and cardiac fibrosis. Its amino-terminal fragment (N-CTGF), the predominant form of CTGF detected in plasma, has a molecular weight in the middle molecular range (18 kDa). However, it is unknown whether N-

  6. Elevated plasma phospholipase A2 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Denizot

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical study reports that blood levels of the pro-inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF did not change in colorectal cancer patients. In contrast, plasma levels of two enzymatic activities, one implicated in PAF production (i.e. phospholipase A2 and one in PAF degradation (i.e. PAF acetylhydrolase activity were significantly elevated.

  7. FACTOR-XII FRAGMENT AND KALLIKREIN GENERATION IN PLASMA DURING INCUBATION WITH BIOMATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKAMP, KWHJ; VANOEVEREN, W

    Blood biocompatibility of medical devices is in many ways dependent on surface characteristics and biochemical blood material interactions. In this study, the contact system, in which the activation of factor XII and plasma kallikrein is included, is highlighted. This article describes a simple

  8. Impairment of endothelial and subendothelial sites by a circulating plasma factor associated with minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of albuminuria in minimal change disease (MCD) is unknown. A human plasma factor (denoted as 100KF) is able to induce minimal change-like glomerular alterations, i.e. loss of glomerular sialoglycoproteins and decreased expression of glomerular ecto-ATPase, following in

  9. Impairment of endothelial and subendothelial sites by a circulating plasma factor associated with minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of albuminuria in minimal change disease (MCD) is unknown. A human plasma factor (denoted as 100KF) is able to induce minimal change-like glomerular alterations, i.e. loss of glomerular sialoglycoproteins and decreased expression of glomerular ecto-ATPase, following in v

  10. Binding of von Willebrand factor and plasma proteins to the eggshell of Schistosoma mansoni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewalick, Saskia; Hensbergen, Paul J; Bexkens, Michiel L; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; Hokke, Cornelis H; Deelder, André M; de Groot, Philip G; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Hellemond, Jaap J

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni eggs have to cross the endothelium and intestinal wall to leave the host and continue the life cycle. Mechanisms involved in this essential step are largely unknown. Here we describe direct binding to the S. mansoni eggshell of von Willebrand factor and other plasma proteins invo

  11. Binding of von Willebrand factor and plasma proteins to the eggshell of Schistosoma mansoni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewalick, Saskia; Hensbergen, Paul J; Bexkens, Michiel L; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; Hokke, Cornelis H; Deelder, André M; de Groot, Philip G; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Hellemond, Jaap J

    Schistosoma mansoni eggs have to cross the endothelium and intestinal wall to leave the host and continue the life cycle. Mechanisms involved in this essential step are largely unknown. Here we describe direct binding to the S. mansoni eggshell of von Willebrand factor and other plasma proteins

  12. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  13. Expression of B-nerve growth factor in rabbit male tract and seminal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    García García, R. M.; Masdeu, M.; A. Sánchez Rodríguez; Bautista, J. M.; Arias Álvarez, María; LORENZO, P. L.; Garcia Rebollar, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been recently identified as an ovulation inductor factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma (SP) (Ratto et al. PNAS 2012; 109:15042-7). The presence of OIF in rabbit has been suggested but this protein has not yet been identified. Our aim was to study the mRNA expression in the rabbit male reproductive tract and to identify the protein β-NGF in the SP.

  14. DOES SINGLE INTRAMUSCULAR APPLICATION OF AUTOLOGOUS CONDITIONED PLASMA INFLUENCE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATING GROWTH FACTORS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Schippinger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been employed to treat sports injuries to possibly accelerate healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential, especially for athletes. Growth factors are generally prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency with exception to PRP which may induce adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate any systemic increase of growth factors such as Insulin Like Growth Factor-1, Endothelial Growth Factors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factors, Fibroblast Growth Factors, Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factors after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young, healthy male subjects keeping in mind adverse treatment effects. Enriched plasma from centrifuged blood samples was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. Growth factors were analyzed using ELISA test kits. No significant systemic increase of growth factor levels was found after PRP injection except TGF-ß2. For that reason the PRP method may be applied for muscle injury treatment in elite athletes although further studies are necessary to clarify the response to the unspecific increased TGF-ß2 blood levels, which could increase the risk for local fibrosis

  15. Effects of molecular size and chemical factor on plasma gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Motomura, Hideki; Kido, Yugo; Satoh, Susumu; Jinno, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of plasma gene transfection, the relationship between transfection efficiency and transferred molecular size was investigated. Molecules with low molecular mass (less than 50 kDa; dye or dye-labeled oligonucleotide) and high molecular mass (more than 1 MDa; plasmid DNA or fragment of plasmid DNA) were transferred to L-929 cells. It was found that the transfection efficiency decreases with increasing in transferred molecular size and also depends on the tertiary structure of transferred molecules. Moreover, it was suggested the transfection mechanism is different between the molecules with low (less than 50 kDa) and high molecular mass (higher than 1 MDa). For the amount of gene transfection after plasma irradiation, which is comparable to that during plasma irradiation, it is shown that H2O2 molecules are the main contributor. The transfection efficiency decreased to 0.40 ± 0.22 upon scavenging the H2O2 generated by plasma irradiation using the catalase. On the other hand, when the H2O2 solution is dropped into the cell suspension without plasma irradiation, the transfection efficiency is almost 0%. In these results, it is also suggested that there is a synergetic effect of H2O2 with electrical factors or other reactive species generated by plasma irradiation.

  16. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  17. A key inactivation factor of HeLa cell viability by a plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Mayo [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    Recently, a plasma flow has been applied to medical treatment using effects of various kinds of stimuli such as chemical species, charged particles, heat, light, shock wave and electric fields. Among them, the chemical species are known to cause an inactivation of cell viability. However, the mechanisms and key factors of this event are not yet clear. In this study, we focused on the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in plasma-treated culture medium because it is generated in the culture medium and it is also chemically stable compared with free radicals generated by the plasma flow. To elucidate the significance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we assessed the differences in the effects of plasma-treated medium and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium against inactivation of HeLa cell viability. These two media showed comparable effects on HeLa cells in terms of the survival ratios, morphological features of damage processes, permeations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into the cells, response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition by catalase and comprehensive gene expression. The results supported that among chemical species generated in a plasma-treated culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the main factors responsible for inactivation of HeLa cell viability. (fast track communication)

  18. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. The effect of different methods of leucoreduction on plasma coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul Enein, Azza A; Abdel Rahman, Hala A; Abdel Maged, Mohamed M M; El Sissy, Maha H

    2017-03-01

    Removal of leucocytes from blood products, namely leucoreduction, improves the safety of blood transfusion by reducing adverse events associated with the incidental transfusion of leucocytes. Coagulation factors might be compromised during leucoreduction because of exposure of plasma to a variety of filter materials. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of different methods of prestorage leucofiltration (apheresis and whole blood filters) on prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time and factors V and VIII. There was a significant prolongation of prothrombin time as well as elevation of international normalized ratio in plasma after leucoreduction (14.5 ± 0.7 s vs. 13.9 ± 0.7 s, P = 0.008 and 1.14 ± 0.07 vs. 1.09 ± 0.07, P = 0.005, respectively). Also, there was a statistically significant prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time in nonleucoreduced plasma (55.6 ± 9.9 s vs. 43.2 ± 12.8 s, P = 0.001). There was no significant filtration effect on factors V and VIII levels. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in factors V and VIII levels between plasma filtered by inline whole blood filters and apheresis machine. Leucodepleted plasma originating from both inline whole blood filter and apheresis machine maintained satisfactory levels of factors V and VIII.

  20. Anticoagulants and other preanalytical factors interfere in plasma nitrate/nitrite quantification by the Griess method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricart-Jané, D; Llobera, M; López-Tejero, M D

    2002-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signal molecule with functions such as neurotransmission, local vascular relaxation, and anti-inflammation in many physiological and pathological processes. Various factors regulate its intracellular lifetime. Due to its high reactivity in biological systems, it is transformed in the bloodstream into nitrates (NO(-)(3)) by oxyhemoglobin. The Griess reaction is a technically simple method (spectrophotometric, 540 nm) for the analysis of nitrites (NO(-)(2)) in aqueous solutions. We studied the interference of common anticoagulants in the quantification of nitrate and nitrite in plasma samples by the Griess method. We obtained rat plasma using heparin or sodium EDTA as anticoagulants, then added, or otherwise, known NO(-)(3) amounts in order to calculate their recovery. We also studied the effect of ultra-filtration performed before Griess reaction on plasma and aqueous solutions of various anticoagulants (heparin, EDTA, and also sodium citrate) to compare the recoveries of added NO(-)(3) or NO(-)(2). We used standards of NO(-)(3) or NO(-)(2) for quantification. We conclude that: (i) The bacterial nitrate reductase used to reduce NO(-)(3) to NO(-)(2) is unstable in certain storage conditions and interferes with different volumes of plasma used. (ii) The ultrafiltration (which is sometimes performed before the Griess reaction) of plasma obtained with EDTA or citrate is not recommended because it leads to overestimation of NO(minus sign)(3). In contrast, ultrafiltration is necessary when heparin is used. (iii) The absorbance at 540 nm attributed to plasma itself (basal value or background) interferes in final quantification, especially when ultrafiltration is not performed. For the quantification of plasma NO(-)(3) we recommend: sodium EDTA as anticoagulant, no ultrafiltration of plasma, and measurement of the absorbance background of each sample.

  1. Biochemical isolation and purification of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in seminal plasma of llamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierson Roger A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to isolate and purify the protein fraction(s of llama seminal plasma responsible for the ovulation-inducing effect of the ejaculate. Methods Semen collected from male llamas by artificial vagina was centrifuged and the seminal plasma was harvested and stored frozen. Seminal plasma was thawed and loaded onto a Type 1 macro-prep ceramic hydroxylapatite column and elution was carried out using a lineal gradient with 350 mM sodium phosphate. Three protein fractions were identified clearly (Fractions A, B, and C, where a prominent protein band with a mass of 14 kDa was identified in Fraction C. Fraction C was loaded into a sephacryl gel filtration column for further purification using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC. Isocratic elution resulted in 2 distinct protein fractions (Fractions C1 and C2. An in vivo bioassay (n = 10 to 11 llamas per group was used to determine the ovarian effect of each fraction involving treatment with saline (negative control, whole seminal plasma (positive control, or seminal plasma Fractions A, B or C2. Ultrasonography was done to detect ovulation and CL formation, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma progesterone and LH concentrations. Results Ovulation and CL formation was detected in 0/10, 10/11, 0/10, 2/11, and 10/11 llamas treated with saline, whole seminal plasma, Fractions A, B and C2 respectively (P Conclusion Ovulation-inducing factor was isolated from llama seminal plasma as a 14 kDa protein molecule that elicits a preovulatory LH surge followed by ovulation and CL formation in llamas, suggesting an endocrine effect at the level of the hypothalamus (release of GnRH or the pituitary (gonadotrophs.

  2. Development of a microplate coagulation assay for Factor V in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samis John A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor V (FV in its activated form, FVa, is a critical regulator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation. There is a need of a simple, fast, and inexpensive microplate-based coagulation assay to measure the functional activity of FV in human plasma. The objective of this study was to develop a microplate-based assay that measures FV coagulation activity during clot formation in human plasma, which is currently not available. Methods The FV assay requires a kinetic microplate reader to measure the change in absorbance at 405nm during fibrin formation in human plasma. The FV assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation in human plasma. Results The FV microplate assay is simple, fast, economical, sensitive to approx 24-80pM, and multiple samples may be analyzed simultaneously. All the required materials are commercially available. Standard curves of time or initial rate of fibrin clot formation vs FV activity in the 1-stage assay (Without activation by thrombin may be used to measure FV activity in samples of human plasma. The assay was used to demonstrate that in nine patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, the FV 1-stage, 2-stage (With activation by thrombin, and total (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity activities were decreased, on average, by approximately 54%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, from prolonged clot times when compared to normal pooled human reference plasma (NHP. The results indicate that the FV in the DIC patient plasmas supported both a delayed and slower rate of fibrin clot formation compared with NHP; however, the extent of fibrin clot formation in the DIC patients remained largely unchanged from that observed with NHP. Conclusions The FV microplate assay may be easily adapted to measure the activity of any coagulation factor using the appropriate factor-deficient plasma and clot initiating reagent. The microplate assay will find use in

  3. Refreezing previously thawed fresh-frozen plasma. Stability of coagulation factors V and VIII:C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, W H; Riibner, M A; Linehan, S K

    1989-09-01

    With the growth in autologous blood programs and the increased scrutiny of the indications for transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), an increase has been seen in the number of occasions on which FFP was requested and thawed but then not transfused. The coagulation properties of FFP units that were refrozen and then rethawed were therefore studied. Fifty-eight units of plasma were studied, with each experimental unit of FFP paired with an identical control unit. Experimental units were frozen, stored at -65 degrees C, thawed, stored at 1 to 6 degrees C for various periods of time up to 24 hours, and then refrozen, stored at -65 degrees C, rethawed, and stored again in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Control units were frozen once at the time the experimental units were first frozen and thawed once at the time of the second thaw of the experimental units. Aliquots of plasma were sampled periodically and were later batch-tested for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and factor V and VIII:C activity. The results of coagulation testing of the twice-frozen plasmas were always within the normal range. There was a slight but statistically valid prolongation of the PT and aPTT and a decrease in the factor V and VIII:C levels for twice-frozen plasma compared with control plasma. The greatest decline occurred in the level of factor VIII:C. The measured deterioration in coagulation of twice-frozen FFP is unlikely to be of clinical importance. Refreezing FFP may eventually prove useful for rare donor, autologous, and massive transfusion programs.

  4. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  5. Duty and Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Binder (C.); C. Heilmann (Conrad)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractEver since the publication of Peter Singer’s article ‘‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality’’ has the question of whether the (geographical) distance to people in need affects our moral duties towards them been a hotly debated issue. Does geographical distance affect our moral

  6. Edge safety factor at the onset of plasma disruption during VDEs in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Lukash, Victor; Khayrutdinov, Rustam; Neyatani, Yuzuru

    2004-10-01

    Detailed examinations of the value of the edge safety factor (qa) at the onset of thermal quench (TQ) during intentional vertical displacement event (VDE) experiments in JT-60U are carried out using two different reconstruction methods, FBI/FBEQU and DINA. The results from the two methods are very similar and show that the TQ occurs when the qa value is in the range between 1.5 and 2. This result suggests that the predictive simulations for VDEs should be performed within this range of q to examine the subsequent differences in the halo currents, plasma movement and other plasma behaviour during the current quench.

  7. Resolving conflicts of duty in fiduciary relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laby, Arthur B

    2004-01-01

    While duties of loyalty generally do not conflict with other duties of loyalty, and while conflicting duties of care typically only raise issues of competing resources, the fiduciary's duty of loyalty...

  8. Characterization of the gene for the a subunit of human factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase), a blood coagulation factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, A.; Davie, E.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer (a{sub 2}b{sub 2}) consisting of two a and two b subunits. The primary structures of the a and b subunits of human factor XIII have been reported by a combination of cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence analysis. To establish the gene structure of the a subunit for factor XIII, several human genomic libraries were screened by using the cDNA encoding the a subunit as a probe. Among {approx}5 {times} 10{sup 7} recombinant phage, 121 have been shown to contain an insert encoding a portion of the a subunit. Twenty-five unique clones were than characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. Overlapping clones encoding the a subunit of factor XIII span >160 kilobases. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the activation peptide released by thrombin, the active site cysteine region, the two putative calcium-binding regions, and the thrombin cleavage site leading to inactivation are encoded by separate exons. This suggest that the introns may separate the a subunit into functional and structural domains. A comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the genomic DNA sequence with those deduced from cDNA or determined by amino acid sequence analysis of the plasma and placental proteins revealed apparent amino acid polymorphisms in six positions of the polypeptide chain of the a subunit.

  9. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Astrophysical Plasmas: The Absorption Coefficients and Gaunt Factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. A. Mihajlov; V. A. Srećković; N. M. Sakan

    2015-12-01

    The electron–ion inverse Bremsstrahlung is considered here as a factor of the influence on the opacity of the different stellar atmospheres and other astrophysical plasmas. It is shown that this process can be successfully described in the frames of cut-off Coulomb potential model within the regions of the electron densities and temperatures. The relevant quantum mechanical method of the calculation of the corresponding spectral coefficient processes is described and discussed. The results obtained for the plasmas with the electron densities from 1014 cm$^{-3}$ to 2 · 1019 cm$^{−3}$ and temperatures from 5 · 103 K to 3 · 104 K in the wavelength region 100 nm < < 3000 nm are presented. Also, these results can be of interest for different laboratory plasmas.

  10. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The AP-1 transcription factor Fra1 inhibits follicular B cell differentiation into plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grötsch, Bettina; Brachs, Sebastian; Lang, Christiane; Luther, Julia; Derer, Anja; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Bozec, Aline; Fillatreau, Simon; Berberich, Ingolf; Hobeika, Elias; Reth, Michael; Wagner, Erwin F; Schett, Georg; Mielenz, Dirk; David, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-20

    The cornerstone of humoral immunity is the differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. This process is tightly controlled by a regulatory gene network centered on the transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1). Proliferation of activated B cells is required to foster Blimp1 expression but needs to be terminated to avoid overshooting immune reactions. Activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors become quickly up-regulated upon B cell activation. We demonstrate that Fra1, a Fos member of AP-1, enhances activation-induced cell death upon induction in activated B cells. Moreover, mice with B cell-specific deletion of Fra1 show enhanced plasma cell differentiation and exacerbated antibody responses. In contrast, transgenic overexpression of Fra1 blocks plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production, which cannot be rescued by Bcl2. On the molecular level, Fra1 represses Blimp1 expression and interferes with binding of the activating AP-1 member c-Fos to the Blimp1 promoter. Conversely, overexpression of c-Fos in Fra1 transgenic B cells releases Blimp1 repression. As Fra1 lacks transcriptional transactivation domains, we propose that Fra1 inhibits Blimp1 expression and negatively controls plasma cell differentiation through binding to the Blimp1 promoter. In summary, we demonstrate that Fra1 negatively controls plasma cell differentiation by repressing Blimp1 expression.

  12. 19 CFR 151.65 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... revenue will be properly protected. Liquidated duties shall be based upon the port director's final... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duties. 151.65 Section 151.65 Customs Duties U.S...) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.65 Duties. Duties on wool or...

  13. Effect of Duty Cycle on the Characteristics of Pulse-Modulhted Radio-Frequency Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuechun; WANG Huan; DING Zhenfeng; WANG Younian

    2012-01-01

    Using a one-dimensional fluid model, the pulse-modulated radio-frequency dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is described. The influences of the pulse duty cycle on the discharge characteristics are studied. The numerical results show that the dependence of discharge characteristics on the duty cycle is sensitive in the region of around 40% duty cycle under the given simulation parameters. In the case of a larger duty cycle, the plasma density is higher, the discharge becomes more intense, but the power consumption is higher. When the duty cycle is lower, one can get a weaker discharge, lower plasma density and higher electron temperature in the bulk plasma. In practical applications, in order to get a higher plasma density and a lower power consumption, it is more important to choose a suitable duty cycle to modulate the RF power supply.

  14. Perbedaan Kadar Platelet Activating Factor Plasma antara Penderita Demam Berdarah Dengue dan Demam Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djatnika Setiabudi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection can manifest as dengue fever and, more severely, as dengue hemorrhagic fever. Their pathogenesis until now is not fully understood. One of the most favorable theories stated the presence of increasing titer of pro-inflammatory mediator in severe dengue. The aim of this study was to determine the difference of plasma platelet activating factor titer between dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue fever patients. This observational study with cross sectional design was conducted during January–February 2013. Subjects were dengue patients, 1 to 14 years old, hospitalized at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung District Hospital (Ujungberung, and Cimahi District Hospital (Cibabat. Dengue cases were confirmed based on nonstructural-1 antigen and/or immunoglobulin M and G rapid test. Blood samples from febrile, critical and recovery phase were drawn for the examination of platelet activating factor titer using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There were 26 dengue cases (14 as dengue fever and 12 as dengue hemorrhagic fever. Plasma platelet activating factor titer at the critical phase was significantly higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever patients [541.45 (239.30–2,449.00] pg/mL compared to dengue fever patients [289.55 (149.50–961.50] pg/mL; p=0.007. In conclusion, plasma platelet activating factor titer at the critical phase is higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever patients than in dengue fever patients.

  15. Euthanasia and physicians' moral duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Gary

    2005-10-01

    Opponents of euthanasia sometimes argue that it is incompatible with the purpose of medicine, since physicians have an unconditional duty never to intentionally cause death. But it is not clear how such a duty could ever actually be unconditional, if due consideration is given to the moral weight of countervailing duties equally fundamental to medicine. Whether physicians' moral duties are understood as correlative with patients' moral rights or construed noncorrelatively, a doctor's obligation to abstain from intentional killing cannot be more than a defeasible duty.

  16. Fibrinogen γ' increases the sensitivity to activated protein C in normal and factor V Leiden plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Farida; Uitte de Willige, Shirley; Simioni, Paolo; Ariëns, Robert A S; Bertina, Rogier M; Rosing, Jan; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2014-08-28

    Activated protein C (APC) resistance, often associated with the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation, is the most common risk factor for venous thrombosis. We observed increased APC resistance in carriers of fibrinogen γ gene (FGG) haplotype 2, which is associated with reduced levels of the alternatively spliced fibrinogen γ' chain. This finding prompted us to study the effects of fibrinogen and its γ' chain on APC resistance. Fibrinogen, and particularly the γA/γ' isoform, improved the response of plasma to added APC in the thrombin generation-based assay. Similarly, a synthetic peptide mimicking the C-terminus of the fibrinogen γ' chain, which binds thrombin and inhibits its activities, greatly increased the APC sensitivity of normal and FV Leiden plasma, likely due to its ability to inhibit thrombin-mediated activation of FV and FVIII. Although the fibrinogen γ' peptide also inhibited protein C activation by the thrombin/thrombomodulin complex, it still increased the sensitivity of plasma to endogenously formed APC when thrombin generation was measured in the presence of soluble thrombomodulin. We conclude that fibrinogen, and particularly fibrinogen γ', increases plasma APC sensitivity. The fibrinogen γ' peptide might form the basis for pharmacologic interventions to counteract APC resistance. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. A Comparison of Blood Factor XII Autoactivation in Buffer, Protein Cocktail, Serum, and Plasma Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika; Yeh, Chyi-Huey Josh; Pitakjakpipop, Harit; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. The only plausible explanation consistent with current understanding of coagulation-cascade biochemistry is that procoagulant stimulus arising from the activation complex of the intrinsic pathway is dependent on activator surface area. And yet, it is herein shown that activation of the blood zymogen factor XII (Hageman factor, FXII) dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not exhibit activator surface-area dependence. Instead, a highly-variable burst of procoagulant-enzyme yield is measured that exhibits no measurable kinetics, sensitivity to mixing, or solution-temperature dependence. Thus, FXII activation in both buffer and protein-containing solutions does not exhibit characteristics of a biochemical reaction but rather appears to be a “mechanochemical” reaction induced by FXII molecule interactions with hydrophilic activator particles that do not formally adsorb blood proteins from solution. Results of this study strongly suggest that activator surface-area dependence observed in contact activation of plasma coagulation does not solely arise at the FXII activation step of the intrinsic pathway. PMID:23117212

  18. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20µg (n=158), 30µg (n=284), 35µg (n=79) or 50µg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  19. High Complement Factor I Activity in the Plasma of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Momeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental and behavioural syndromes affecting social orientation, behaviour, and communication that can be classified as developmental disorders. ASD is also associated with immune system abnormality. Immune system abnormalities may be caused partly by complement system factor I deficiency. Complement factor I is a serine protease present in human plasma that is involved in the degradation of complement protein C3b, which is a major opsonin of the complement system. Deficiency in factor I activity is associated with an increased incidence of infections in humans. In this paper, we show that the mean level of factor I activity in the ASD group is significantly higher than in the control group of typically developed and healthy children, suggesting that high activity of complement factor I might have an impact on the development of ASD.

  20. Association between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Kunio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. Methods The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Results Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, FBG, and platelets than did subjects with higher adiponectin levels. In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.30, a daily diet rich in deep-yellow vegetables (OR = 0.25, 95% CI= 0.07–0.91, frequent eating out (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.19–5.08, and physical exercise two or more times a week (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.74. Conclusion Our findings show that adiponectin levels in general Japanese men are independently related to smoking, dietary factors, and physical exercise. We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful biomarker helping people to avoid developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by modifying their lifestyles.

  1. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Wolfgang

    2002-10-31

    Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting

  2. Change in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor after gamma knife radiosurgery for meningioma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the plasma level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of meningioma. Fourteen patients with meningiomas had peripheral venous blood collected at the time of GKRS and at 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 6 month visits. Plasma VEGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For controls, peripheral blood samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers. The mean plasma VEGF level (29.6 pg/mL) in patients with meningiomas before GKRS was significantly lower than that of the control group (62.4 pg/mL, p=0.019). At 1 week after GKRS, the mean plasma VEGF levels decreased to 23.4 pg/mL, and dropped to 13.9 pg/mL at 1 month, 14.8 pg/mL at 3 months, then increased to 27.7 pg/mL at 6 months. Two patients (14.3%) with peritumoral edema (PTE) showed a level of VEGF 6 months after GKRS higher than their preradiosurgical level. There was no significant association found in an analysis of correlation between PTE and tumor size, marginal dose, age, and sex. Our study is first in demonstrating changes of plasma VEGF after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for meningioma. This study may provide a stimulus for more work related to whether measurement of plasma level has a correlation with tumor response after SRS for meningioma.

  3. Induction of ovulation in rabbit does using purified nerve growth factor and camel seminal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Masdeu, M.; García García, R. M.; Cardinali, R.; Millán, P.; Arias Álvarez, M.; C. Castellini; LORENZO, P. L.; Garcia Rebollar, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma (SP) of several species with spontaneous and induced ovulation, including the rabbit, has been documented. Recent studies have demonstrated that the OIF in the SP of camels (SPCAM) is a nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The aim of this study was to determine if purified β-NGF from mouse submandibular glands or SPCAM could provoke ovulation induction in the rabbit doe. A total of 35 females were synchronized with 25 IU of equi...

  4. Plasma-derived versus recombinant factor concentrates in PUPs: a never ending debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Erik

    2017-01-31

    Inhibitor development in haemophilia is a serious complication to treatment with factor concentrates. Since the advent of more pure products, especially developed using recombinant DNA technology, some studies have shown an increased incidence of inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) receiving recombinant products whereas plasma-derived concentrates sometimes have been claimed to have a protective role, probably due to the content of von Willebrand factor (VWF). In fact, experiments indicate that the VWF may block uptake of factor VIII into macrophages for further processing to the immune system. Also, a competition between VWF and inhibitor binding to the C2 domain of factor VIII has been suggested. Recently, large cohort and surveillance studies have created a vigorous debate about the role of product class for inhibitor development as results have been conflicting. The only randomised prospective study, the SIPPET study, was published in 2016, and substantiated previous reports claiming that plasma derived concentrates give less inhibitors in patients with severe haemophilia A, previously not exposed to factor VIII. The debate will continue.

  5. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and response to ketamine in treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, C N; Murrough, J W; Iosifescu, D V; Chang, L C; Al Jurdi, R K; Foulkes, A; Iqbal, S; Mahoney, J J; De La Garza, R; Charney, D S; Newton, T F; Mathew, S J

    2014-02-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depression (TRD), but the magnitude of response varies considerably between individual patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated as a biomarker of treatment response in depression and has been implicated in the mechanism of action of ketamine. We evaluated plasma BDNF and associations with symptoms in 22 patients with TRD enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of ketamine compared to an anaesthetic control (midazolam). Ketamine significantly increased plasma BDNF levels in responders compared to non-responders 240 min post-infusion, and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were negatively correlated with BDNF (r=-0.701, p = 0.008). Plasma BDNF levels at 240 min post-infusion were highly negatively associated with MADRS scores at 240 min (r = -0.897, p=.002), 24 h (r = -0.791, p = 0.038), 48 h (r = -0.944, p = 0.001) and 72 h (r = -0.977, p = 0.010). No associations with BDNF were found for patients receiving midazolam. These data support plasma BDNF as a peripheral biomarker relevant to ketamine antidepressant response.

  6. Further evaluation of plasma sphingomyelin levels as a risk factor for coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner Karl J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingomyelin (SM is the major phospholipid in cell membranes and in lipoproteins. In human plasma, SM is mainly found in atherogenic lipoproteins; thus, high levels of SM may promote atherogenesis. Methods We investigated in a median follow up of 6.0 years the association of SM with the incidence of a combined endpoint (myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death in stable and unstable patients, and its relation to other marker of atherosclerosis in 1,102 patients with angiographically documented CAD and 444 healthy controls. Results and discussion Logistic regression analysis showed that SM categorized by median was associated with an elevated risk for CAD (HR 3.2, 95%CI 2.5–4.0, p Conclusion The results of our study reveal that 1 human plasma SM levels are a risk factor for CAD; 2 the pro-atherogenic property of plasma SM might be related to metabolism of apoB-containing or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; and 3 plasma SM levels are a predictor for outcome of patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  7. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik; Seo, Ju Tae

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality.

  8. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. Methods A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Results Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Conclusion Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality. PMID:27358827

  9. Association of Plasma Viscosity with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obesity: As an old marker, a new insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltem, Ercan; Dildar, Konukoglu; Tijen, Yeşim Erdem

    2007-04-01

    Although obesity is related with cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism of the relationship is not fully understood. We aim to examine the relationship between plasma viscosity and obesity as a cardiovascular disease risk factor in obese and non-obese groups. We recruited 75 obese subjects who were admitted to the Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. Plasma viscosity and lipid profile were measured and atherogenic index was calculated as atherogenic risk factors. Plasma viscosity, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels and atherogenic index were significantly increased in obese group compared to non-obese group for each. Plasma viscosity was weakly correlated with total cholesterol and atherogenic index only in the obese group. Plasma viscosity, an early atherosclerotic risk factor, might be helpful in the assessment of cardiovascular risk in obese subjects.

  10. Measurement of factor v activity in human plasma using a microplate coagulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Derek; Levit, Irina; Samis, John A

    2012-09-09

    In response to injury, blood coagulation is activated and results in generation of the clotting protease, thrombin. Thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to fibrin which forms an insoluble clot that stops hemorrhage. Factor V (FV) in its activated form, FVa, is a critical cofactor for the protease FXa and accelerator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation as part of prothrombinase (1, 2). Manual FV assays have been described (3, 4), but they are time consuming and subjective. Automated FV assays have been reported (5-7), but the analyzer and reagents are expensive and generally provide only the clot time, not the rate and extent of fibrin formation. The microplate platform is preferred for measuring enzyme-catalyzed events because of convenience, time, cost, small volume, continuous monitoring, and high-throughput (8, 9). Microplate assays have been reported for clot lysis (10), platelet aggregation (11), and coagulation Factors (12), but not for FV activity in human plasma. The goal of the method was to develop a microplate assay that measures FV activity during fibrin formation in human plasma. This novel microplate method outlines a simple, inexpensive, and rapid assay of FV activity in human plasma. The assay utilizes a kinetic microplate reader to monitor the absorbance change at 405 nm during fibrin formation in human plasma (Figure 1) (13). The assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation. It requires only μl quantities of plasma, is complete in 6 min, has high-throughput, is sensitive to 24-80 pM FV, and measures the amount of unintentionally activated (1-stage activity) and thrombin-activated FV (2-stage activity) to obtain a complete assessment of its total functional activity (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity). Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired coagulopathy that most often develops from pre-existing infections (14). DIC is associated with a poor prognosis and increases mortality

  11. Interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels of cord blood plasma in term neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ AIM: Umbilical cord blood plasma contain higher hematopoietic stimulatory activities than adult peripheral blood plasma. IL-3 is regarded as multilineage hematopoietic growth factor that acts on primitive pluripotential stem cells and progenitor cells of every lineage except T and B-lymphoid lineage.

  12. Study on the related risk factors with atherogenic index of plasma in male type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study related factors with atherogenic index of plasma in male type 2 diabetic patients. Methods 133 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into non-atherogenic phenom (N group) and atherogemic phenom(A group) according to the cutpoint of atherogenic index of plasma

  13. Human Plasma Lipidome Is Pleiotropically Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Manju; Kent, Jack W.; Wong, Gerard; Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Barlow, Christopher K.; Diego, Vincent; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D.; Göring, Harald H.H.; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Meikle, Peter J.; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in the United States and is associated with a high economic burden. Prevention of CVD focuses on controlling or improving the lipid profile of patients at risk. The human lipidome is made up of thousands of ubiquitous lipid species. By studying biologically simple canonical lipid species, we investigated whether the lipidome is genetically redundant and whether its genetic influences can provide clinically relevant clues of CVD risk. Methods and Results We performed a genetic study of the human lipidome in 1,212 individuals from 42 extended Mexican American families. High-throughput mass spectrometry enabled rapid capture of precise lipidomic profiles, providing 319 unique species. Using variance-component based heritability analyses and bivariate trait analyses, we detected significant genetic influences on each lipid assayed. Median heritability of the plasma lipid species was 0.37. Hierarchical clustering based on complex genetic correlation patterns identified 12 genetic clusters that characterized the plasma lipidome. These genetic clusters were differentially but consistently associated with risk factors of CVD, including central obesity, obesity, type 2 diabetes, raised serum triglycerides and metabolic syndrome. Also these clusters consistently predicted occurrence of cardiovascular deaths during follow-up. Conclusions The human plasma lipidome is heritable. Shared genetic influences reduce the dimensionality of the human lipidome into clusters that are associated with risk factors of CVD. PMID:25363705

  14. The Geometric Factor of Electrostatic Plasma Analyzers: A Case Study from the Fast Plasma Investigation for the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Glyn A.; Dorelli, John Charles; Avanov, Leon A.; Lewis, Gethyn R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pollock, Craig; Kataria, Dhiren O.; Bedington, Robert; Arridge, Chris S.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Gliese,Ulrik; Mariano, Al.; Barrie, Alexander C; Tucker, Corey; Owen, Christopher J.; Walsh, Andrew P.; Shappirio, Mark D.; Adrian, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    We report our findings comparing the geometric factor (GF) as determined from simulations and laboratory measurements of the new Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as part of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. Particle simulations are increasingly playing an essential role in the design and calibration of electrostatic analyzers, facilitating the identification and mitigation of the many sources of systematic error present in laboratory calibration. While equations for laboratory measurement of the Geometric Factpr (GF) have been described in the literature, these are not directly applicable to simulation since the two are carried out under substantially different assumptions and conditions, making direct comparison very challenging. Starting from first principles, we derive generalized expressions for the determination of the GF in simulation and laboratory, and discuss how we have estimated errors in both cases. Finally, we apply these equations to the new DES instrument and show that the results agree within errors. Thus we show that the techniques presented here will produce consistent results between laboratory and simulation, and present the first description of the performance of the new DES instrument in the literature.

  15. The geometric factor of electrostatic plasma analyzers: A case study from the Fast Plasma Investigation for the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, Glyn A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20071 (United States); Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Surrey (United Kingdom); Dorelli, John C.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pollock, Craig; Mariano, Al; Shappirio, Mark D.; Adrian, Mark L. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20071 (United States); Avanov, Levon A. [Innovim, 7501 Greenway Center Drive, Maryland Trade Center III, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States); Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20071 (United States); Lewis, Gethyn R.; Kataria, Dhiren O.; Bedington, Robert; Owen, Christopher J.; Walsh, Andrew P. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Surrey (United Kingdom); Arridge, Chris S. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Surrey (United Kingdom); The Centre for Planetary Sciences, UCL/Birkbeck (United Kingdom); Chornay, Dennis J. [University of Maryland, 7403 Hopkins Avenue, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20071 (United States); Gliese, Ulrik [SGT, Inc., 7515 Mission Drive, Suite 30, Lanham, Maryland 20706 (United States); Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20071 (United States); Barrie, Alexander C. [Millennium Engineering and Integration, 2231 Crystal Dr., Arlington, Virginia 22202 (United States); Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20071 (United States); Tucker, Corey [Global Science and Technology Inc., 7855 Walker Drive, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770 (United States); Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20071 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    We report our findings comparing the geometric factor (GF) as determined from simulations and laboratory measurements of the new Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as part of the Fast Plasma Investigation on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. Particle simulations are increasingly playing an essential role in the design and calibration of electrostatic analyzers, facilitating the identification and mitigation of the many sources of systematic error present in laboratory calibration. While equations for laboratory measurement of the GF have been described in the literature, these are not directly applicable to simulation since the two are carried out under substantially different assumptions and conditions, making direct comparison very challenging. Starting from first principles, we derive generalized expressions for the determination of the GF in simulation and laboratory, and discuss how we have estimated errors in both cases. Finally, we apply these equations to the new DES instrument and show that the results agree within errors. Thus we show that the techniques presented here will produce consistent results between laboratory and simulation, and present the first description of the performance of the new DES instrument in the literature.

  16. Quarantine versus pathogen-reduced plasma-coagulation factor content and rotational thromboelastometry coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theusinger, Oliver M; Goslings, David; Studt, Jan-Dirk; Brand-Staufer, Brigitte; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Frey, Beat M

    2017-03-01

    Different types of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) exist, and the concentrations of plasma proteins vary between individuals and blood groups. Furthermore, processing may also influence the content. Quarantine-stored plasma (qFFP) and plasma that was pathogen-reduced using blood-safety (Intercept) technology (piFFP) were analyzed regarding procoagulant and anticoagulant hemostasis proteins, including endogenous thrombin (thrombin-generation) potential (ETP). Thirty-five samples of each type of FFP were analyzed using only male Blood Group O donors. FFP units were stored frozen for comparable periods of time before plasma protein content was assessed. Once the units were thawed, all tests were completed within 4 hours. The results are presented as means ± standard deviations or as median (minimum; maximum) and were compared using independent-sample t tests (significance, p < 0.01). Significantly higher concentrations of adintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-13 motifs (ADAMTS13), fibrinogen, Factor (F)V, FVIII, FXIII, protein S, protein S activity, antithrombin, microvesicle (<900 nm), and α2 antiplasmin were observed in qFFP. The variability of factors was significantly lower in piFFP. Tissue factor (TF) at 1 picomolar (pM) exhibited significantly longer lag time, a lower peak, lower ETP, and a lower velocity index in qFFP compared with piFFP. In TF at 5 pM, significant differences in lag time (longer in qFFP), velocity index (lower in qFFP), and peak (lower in qFFP) were observed. Rotational thromboelastometry revealed a significantly longer (p = 0.002) clot-formation time with intrinsic thromboelastometry for piFFP and a significantly shorter clotting time (p = 0.004) with thromboelastometry fibrinogen testing for piFFP. Pathogen reduction reduces procoagulant and anticoagulant coagulation factors as well as variability. A thrombin-generation assay showed no reduced ETP and no supraphysiological thrombin generation. None of the

  17. Dynamic form factor of two-component plasmas beyond the static local field approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Daligault, J

    2003-01-01

    The spectrum of ion density fluctuations in a strongly coupled plasma is described both within the static G(k, 0) and high-frequency G(k, infinity) local field approximation. By a direct comparison with molecular dynamics data, we find that for large coupling, G(k, 0) is inadequate. Based on this result, we employ the Zwanzig-Mori memory function approach to model the Thomson scattering cross section, i.e. the electron dynamic form factor S sub e sub e (k, omega) of a dense two-component plasma. We show the sensitivity of S sub e sub e (k, omega) to three approximations for G(k, omega).

  18. An Experiment to Tame the Plasma Material Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, R J; Menard, J E; Allain, J P; Brooks, J N; Canik, J M; Doerner, R; Fu, G; Gates, D A; Gentile, C A; Harris, J H; Hassanein, A; Gorelenkov, N N; Kaita, R; Kaye, S M; Kotschenreuther, M; Kramer, G J; Kugel, H W; Maingi, R; Mahajan, S M; Majeski, R; Neumeyer, C L; Nygren, R E; Ono, M; Owen, L W; Ramakrishnan, S; Rognlien, T D; Ruzic, D N; Ryutov, D D; Sabbagh, S A; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V A; Stevenson, T N; Ulrickson, M A; Valanju, P M; Woolley, R D

    2009-01-08

    The plasma material interface in Demo will be more challenging than that in ITER, due to requirements for approximately four times higher heat flux from the plasma and approximately five times higher average duty factor. The scientific and technological solutions employed in ITER may not extrapolate to Demo. The key questions to be resolved for Demo and the resulting key requirements for an experiment to 'tame the plasma material interface' are analyzed. A possible design point for such an experiment is outlined.

  19. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  20. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  1. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Karine M; Alves, André F; Barbaro, Katia C; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2014-05-01

    Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering bleeding manifestations in severely-envenomed patients.

  2. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  3. Plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2016-08-01

    .Conclusion: In this study, we found that the plasma Hcy level in elderly patients with OPF is higher than that of nonosteoporotic patients. It is not correlated with BMD, but positively correlated with bone resorption markers. An increased Hcy level appears to be a risk factor for OPFs in elderly people. Keywords: elderly patient, osteoporosis, fracture, homocysteine, bone mineral density, bone turnover marker

  4. Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribulo, P; Bogle, O; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P

    2015-06-01

    To understand the role of ovulation-inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) (OIF [NGF]) in bovine seminal plasma, we (1) used an in vivo llama bioassay to test the hypothesis that bovine seminal plasma induces ovulation and CL development in llamas similar to that of llama seminal plasma when the dose of seminal plasma is adjusted to ovulation-inducing factor content (experiment 1) and (2) determined the effect of bovine seminal plasma on the interval to ovulation and luteal development in heifers (experiment 2). Within species, seminal plasma was pooled (n = 160 bulls, n = 4 llamas), and the volume of seminal plasma used for treatment was adjusted to a total dose of 250 μg of ovulation-inducing factor. In experiment 1, mature female llamas were assigned randomly to four groups and treated intramuscularly with either 10 mL of PBS (negative control, n = 5), 50-μg GnRH (positive control, n = 5), 6-mL of llama seminal plasma (n = 6), or 12 mL of bull seminal plasma (n = 6). Ovulation and CL development were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 2, beef heifers were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin followed by 25-mg porcine LH (pLH) 12 hours later to induce ovulation. Heifers were assigned randomly to three groups and given 12 mL bovine seminal plasma intramuscularly 12 hours after pLH treatment (n = 10), within 4 hours after ovulation (n = 9), or no treatment (control, n = 10). Ovulation was monitored by ultrasonography every 4 hours, and the CL development was monitored daily until the next ovulation. In experiment 1, ovulation was detected in 0/5, 4/5, 4/6, 4/6 llamas in the PBS, GnRH, llama seminal plasma, and bovine seminal plasma groups, respectively (P pLH. Plasma progesterone concentration tended to be higher in heifers given bovine seminal plasma within 4 hours after ovulation, suggesting that bovine ovulation-inducing factor is luteotrophic.

  5. Relevant factors of job burnout on female reserve duty soldiers in parade training%阅兵训练预备役女兵工作倦怠的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石蕊; 张家喜; 朱霞; 苗丹民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relevant factors for job burnout of female reserve duty soldiers in parade training.Methods Maslach burnout inventory-general survey(MBI-GS),Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ),coping pressure style questionnaire,self rating social adaptation and will power test were conducted in 380 female reserve duty soldiers in parade training.Results ①The results showed that the score of the job burnout in female reserve duty soldiers in parade training was in middle level.The scores was 12.83±5.28:5.86±3.90;23.28±6.18,respectively.②There were some relevant factors of job burnout and the significant correlation existed between job burnout of female reserve duty soldiers and coping pressure styles,personality,social adaptation and will power(P<0.01).③These factors could significantly predict job burnout(Standardized βwas 0.264,0.186;0.331,-0.161,-0.206,-0.144;0.391,0.179,0.199,-0.164).Conclusion To prevent the job burnout of female soldiers,it should be taken seriously about building up of their character,improving social adaptation and enhancing their will power.%目的 探讨阅兵训练预备役女兵工作倦怠的影响因素,为军人职业倦怠研究和预防提供理论依据.方法 采用工作倦怠问卷(MBI-GS)、艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)、压力应对方式问卷、社会适应性自评问卷和意志力测验对380名阅兵训练预备役女兵进行测验.结果 ①阅兵训练预备役女兵的工作倦怠处于中等水平,其中情绪衰竭[(12.83±5.28)分]、玩世不恭分数[(5.86±3.90)分]较低,职业效能分数较高[(23.28±6.18)分].②工作倦怠与人格特点、压力应对方式、社会适应性及意志力水平存在显著相关(P<0.01).③逃避型(β=0.264)和神经质(β=0.186)对情绪耗竭有正向预测作用;意志力(β=-0.161)、主动应对型(β=-0.206)、掩饰性(β=-0.144)对玩世不恭有显著负向预测作用,而逃避型(β=0.331)对玩世不恭有显著正向

  6. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 and Beta-Nerve Growth Factor Increase with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Soo Lee; Ji Hyung Chung; Kyung Hye Lee; Min-Jeong Shin; Byoung Hoon Oh; Soo Hyung Lee; Chang Hyung Hong

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated peripheral inflammatory indices, including plasma cytokines and related molecules according to subtypes of dementia, but not in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we used multiplex cytokine assay to assess the plasma levels of 22 cytokines in patients with MCI subtyped as amnestic and non-amnestic, according to cognitive features. When comparing the levels of plasma growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in these two groups, they were found to be significantly higher in amnestic MCI patients than in non-amnestic MCI patients, after adjusting for age and gender. This suggests that plasma MCP-3 and β-NGF may be useful in differentiating subtypes of MCI. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  7. Glycosaminoglycans affect the interaction of human plasma kallikrein with plasminogen, factor XII and inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozzo A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma kallikrein, a serine proteinase, plays a key role in intrinsic blood clotting, in the kallikrein-kinin system, and in fibrinolysis. The proteolytic enzymes involved in these processes are usually controlled by specific inhibitors and may be influenced by several factors including glycosaminoglycans, as recently demonstrated by our group. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycosaminoglycans (30 to 250 µg/ml on kallikrein activity on plasminogen and factor XII and on the inhibition of kallikrein by the plasma proteins C1-inhibitor and antithrombin. Almost all available glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced (1.2 to 3.0 times the catalytic efficiency of kallikrein (in a nanomolar range on the hydrolysis of plasminogen (0.3 to 1.8 µM and increased (1.9 to 7.7 times the enzyme efficiency in factor XII (0.1 to 10 µM activation. On the other hand, heparin, heparan sulfate, and bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate improved (1.2 to 3.4 times kallikrein inhibition by antithrombin (1.4 µM, while chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced it (1.3 times. Heparin and heparan sulfate increased (1.4 times the enzyme inhibition by the C1-inhibitor (150 nM.

  8. A simple 3D plasma instrument with an electrically adjustable geometric factor for space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, U.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Allegrini, F.; Scheer, J.; McComas, D.

    2012-02-01

    We report on the design and experimental verification of a novel charged particle detector and an energy spectrometer with variable geometric factor functionality. Charged particle populations in the inner heliosphere create fluxes that can vary over many orders of magnitude in flux intensity. Space missions that plan to observe plasma fluxes, for example when travelling close to the Sun or to a planetary magnetosphere, require rapid particle measurements over the full three-dimensional velocity distribution. Traditionally, such measurements are carried out with plasma instrumentation with a fixed geometrical factor, which can only operate in a limited range of flux intensity. Here we report on the design and testing of a prototype sensor, which is capable of measuring particle flux with high angular and energy resolution, yet has a variable geometric factor that is controlled without moving parts. This prototype was designed in support of a proposal to make fast electron measurements on the Solar Probe Plus (SP+) mission planned by NASA. We simulated the ion optics inside the instrument and optimized the performance to design and build our prototype. This prototype was then tested in the MEFISTO facility at the University of Bern and its performance was verified over the full range of azimuth, elevation, energy and intensity.

  9. Role of Customs Duties in the Formation of Budget Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela - Anca Postole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accession to the European Union, starting price and trade exchange liberalization, alongside a strong exchange rate reform, required a depth rethinking of the customs duty system and also influenced the role of this category of tax in establishing budgetary resources.This study reviews the impact of customs duties on changing levels of revenues collected at the state budget. The analysis used is the econometric modeling based on a single- factor regression model.But in Romania, customs duties do not have any major impact on budget revenues and the effects of their collection on the state budget revenues are felt within two months of collection.

  10. Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

  11. Perspectives and challenges in regenerative medicine using plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Alkhraisat, Mohammad H; Orive, Gorka

    2012-01-10

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) is an endogenous therapeutic technology that is gaining interest in regenerative medicine due to its potential to stimulate and accelerate tissue healing and bone regeneration. This autologous biotechnology is designed for the in situ delivery of multiple cellular modulators and the formation of a fibrin scaffold, thereby providing different formulations that can be widely used in numerous medical and scientific fields including dentistry, oral implantology, orthopedics, ulcer treatment and tissue engineering among others. Here we discuss the important progress that has been accomplished in this field. Furthermore, a comprehensive outlook of the intriguing therapeutic applications of this technology is presented.

  12. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Brunoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is associated with neuroplasticity and synaptic strength, and is decreased in conditions associated with chronic stress. Nevertheless, BDNF has not yet been investigated in psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory systemic disease that is exacerbated by stress. Therefore, our aim was to determine BDNF plasma levels in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Adult patients (n=94 presenting with psoriasis for at least 1 year were enrolled, and age- and gender-matched with healthy controls (n=307 from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Participants had neither a previous history of coronary artery disease nor current episode of major depression. BDNF plasma levels were determined using the Promega ELISA kit. A general linear model was used to compare BDNF levels in psoriasis patients and controls, with age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, blood lipid levels, triglycerides, smoking status, and body mass index examined. After adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, significantly decreased BNDF plasma levels were observed in psoriasis patients (P=0.01 (estimated marginal means of 3922 pg/mL; 95%CI=2660-5135 compared with controls (5788 pg/mL; 95%CI=5185-6442. Similar BDNF levels were found in both mild and severe cases of psoriasis. Our finding, that BDNF is decreased in psoriasis, supports the concept of a brain-skin connection in psoriasis. Further studies should determine if BDNF is increased after specific psoriasis treatments, and associated with different disease stages.

  13. Transcription factor ABF-1 suppresses plasma cell differentiation but facilitates memory B cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Kai; Lin, I-Ying; Su, Shin-Tang; Wang, Kuan-Hsiung; Yang, Shii-Yi; Tsai, Dong-Yan; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Lin, Kuo-I

    2014-09-01

    Ag-primed B cells that result from an immune response can form either memory B cells or Ab-secreting plasma cells; however, the molecular machinery that controls this cellular fate is poorly understood. In this study, we show that activated B cell factor-1 (ABF-1), which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor, participates in this regulation. ABF-1 was prevalently expressed in purified memory B cells and induced by T follicular helper cell-mediated signals. ABF-1 expression declined by the direct repression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 during differentiation. Ectopic expression of ABF-1 reduced the formation of Ab-secreting cells in an in vitro differentiation system of human memory B cells. Accordingly, knockdown of ABF-1 potentiates the formation of Ab-secreting cells. A transgenic mouse that expresses inducible ABF-1 in a B cell-specific manner was generated to demonstrate that the formation of germinal center and memory B cells was augmented by induced ABF-1 in an immune response, whereas the Ag-specific plasma cell response was dampened. This effect was associated with the ability of ABF-1 to limit cell proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that ABF-1 facilitates formation of memory B cells but prevents plasma cell differentiation.

  14. Increase in plasma platelet-activating factor levels in enterally fed preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKendrick, W; Hill, N; Hsueh, W; Caplan, M

    1993-01-01

    Because platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we designed a prospective study to examine plasma PAF levels during the first 14 days of feeding in a population of neonates of less than 32 weeks gestation. We found that significantly more patients had detectable plasma PAF levels on days 3 and 14 of feeding when compared to their prefeeding levels (7% on day 0 vs. 26% at day 3, p = 0.04; none on day 0 vs. 18.5% at day 14, p = 0.01). This finding could not be explained by decreased plasma activity of acetylhydrolase, the PAF breakdown enzyme, spontaneous endotoxinemia or a maturational effect. None of the infants who developed detectable PAF levels after feedings were begun went on to develop NEC. We conclude that our findings may reflect increased intestinal PAF production with the provision of feedings to some premature infants. However, this phenomenon by itself does not appear to be a sufficient condition for the subsequent development of NEC.

  15. von Willebrand factor antigen levels in plasma of patients with malignant breast disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Röhsig

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor (vWF is a protein that mediates platelet adherence to the subendothelium during primary hemostasis. High plasma vWF concentrations have been reported in patients with various types of cancer, such as head and neck, laryngeal and prostatic cancer, probably representing an acute phase reactant. In the present study we determined the plasma levels of vWF antigen (vWF:Ag by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis in 128 female patients with breast cancer as well as in 47 women with benign breast disease and in 27 healthy female controls. The levels of vWF:Ag were 170.7 ± 78 U/dl in patients with cancer, 148.4 ± 59 U/dl in patients with benign disease and 130.6 ± 45 U/dl in controls (P<0.005. We also detected a significant increase in the levels of vWF:Ag (P<0.0001 in patients with advanced stages of the disease (stage IV = 263.3 ± 113 U/dl, stage IIIB = 194.0 ± 44 U/dl as compared to those with earlier stages of the disease (stage I = 155.3 ± 65 U/dl, stage IIA = 146.9 ± 75 U/dl. In conclusion, vWF levels were increased in plasma of patients with malignant breast disease, and these levels correlated with tumor progression.

  16. Purification and Characterization of a Sperm Motility Inhibiting Factor from Caprine Epididymal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujoy; Saha, Sudipta; Majumder, Gopal Chandra; Dungdung, Sandhya Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II) has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP) by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 µg/ml (12.5 nM) level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility. PMID:20706623

  17. Purification and characterization of a sperm motility inhibiting factor from caprine epididymal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Das

    Full Text Available Several studies have been reported on the occurrence of sperm motility inhibiting factors in the male reproductive fluids of different mammalian species, but these proteins have not been adequately purified and characterized. A novel sperm motility inhibiting factor (MIF-II has been purified from caprine epididymal plasma (EP by Hydroxylapatite gel adsorption chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The MIF-II has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight estimated by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration is 160 kDa. MIF-II is a dimeric protein, made up of two subunits each having a molecular mass of 80 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point of MIF-II is 5.1 as determined by chromatofocusing and isoelectric focusing. It is a heat labile protein and maximal active at the pH 6.9 to 7.5. The sperm motility inhibiting protein factor at 2 microg/ml (12.5 nM level showed maximal motility-inhibiting activity. The observation that the epididymal plasma factor lowered the intracellular cAMP level of spermatozoa in a concentration-dependent manner suggests that it may block the motility of caprine cauda spermatozoa by interfering the cAMP dependent motility function. The results revealed that the purified protein factor has the potential of sperm motility inhibition and may serve as a vaginal contraceptive. The antibody raised against the MIF-II has the potential for enhancement of forward motility of cauda-spermatozoa. This antibody may thus be useful for solving some of the problems of male infertility due to low sperm motility.

  18. Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Increases Hepatocyte Uptake of Human Plasma High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K.; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ~400,000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]CE uptake by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was respectively 2.4 and 4.5 times faster than from control HDL. CERM-[3H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[3H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[3H]CE but not HDL-[3H]CE uptake thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful. PMID:20879789

  19. Decisive factors affecting plasma resistance and roughness formation in ArF photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Uesugi, Takuji; Koyama, Koji; Samukawa, Seiji [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Maeda, Shinichi [Yokohama Research Laboratories, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd, 10-1 Daikoku-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0053 (Japan); Momose, Hikaru, E-mail: samukawa@ifs.tohoku.ac.j [Corporate Research Laboratories, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd, 2-1 Miyuki-cho, Otake, Hiroshima 739-0693 (Japan)

    2010-10-06

    Low plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist are serious issues in plasma processes. To resolve these issues, we investigated several factors that affect the roughness formation and plasma resistance in an ArF photoresist. We used our neutral beam process to categorize the effects of species from the plasma on the ArF photoresist into physical bombardment, chemical reactions and ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV) radiation. The UV/VUV radiation drastically increased the etching rates of the ArF photoresist films, and, in contrast, chemical reactions increased the formation of surface roughness. FTIR analysis indicated that the UV/VUV radiation preferentially dissociates C-H bonds in the ArF photoresist, rather than C=O bonds, because of the dissociation energies of the bonds. This indicated that the etching rates of the ArF photoresist are determined by the UV/VUV radiation because this radiation can break C-H bonds, which account for the majority of structures in the ArF photoresist. In contrast, FTIR analysis showed that chemical species such as radicals and ions were likely to react with C=O bonds, in particular C=O bonds in the lactone groups of the ArF photoresist, due to the structural and electronic effects of the lactone groups. As a result, the etching rates of the ArF photoresist can vary in different bond structures, leading to increased surface roughness in the ArF photoresist.

  20. Static and Dynamic Structure Factors with Account of the Ion Structure for High-temperature Alkali and Alkaline Earth Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sadykova, S P; Tkachenko, I M

    2010-01-01

    The $e-e$, $e-i$, $i-i$ and charge-charge static structure factors are calculated for alkali and Be$^{2+}$ plasmas using the method described by Gregori et al. in \\cite{bibGreg2006}. The dynamic structure factors for alkali plasmas are calculated using the method of moments \\cite{bibAdam83}, \\cite{bibAdam93}. In both methods the screened Hellmann-Gurskii-Krasko potential, obtained on the basis of Bogolyubov's method, has been used taking into account not only the quantum-mechanical effects but also the ion structure \\cite{bib73}. PACS: 52.27.Aj (Alkali and alkaline earth plasmas, Static and dynamic structure factors), 52.25.Kn (Thermodynamics of plasmas), 52.38.Ph (X-ray scattering)

  1. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20μg (n=158), 30μg (n=284), 35μg (n=79) or 50μg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  2. Purification and characterization of an insulin-like growth factor II variant from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, B; Burgess, W H; Marshak, D R; Cullen, K J; Perdue, J F

    1989-11-15

    An insulin-like growth factor II variant (IGF-II variant) was purified from Cohn fraction IV1 of human plasma by ion exchange, gel filtration, and reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The amino-terminal sequence of the first 35 amino acid residues showed a replacement of Ser-29 of IGF-II with the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Pro-Gly of IGF-II variant. Peptides isolated and sequenced after digestion with endoproteinase Asp-N and endoproteinase Glu-C disclosed no differences with the sequence predicted from an IGF-II variant cDNA clone isolated by Jansen, M., van Shaik, F. M. A., van Tol, H., Van den Brande, J. L., and Sussenbach, J. S. (1985) FEBS Lett., 179, 243-246. The molecular ion of intact IGF-II variant was 7809.4 mass units, as measured by plasma desorption mass spectrometry. This is in close agreement with the molecular ion of 7812.8 mass units calculated from the determined sequence and indicates the entire amino acid sequence had been accounted for. Binding of IGF-II variant to purified insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors demonstrated a 2-3-fold lower affinity for this receptor compared with IGF-I or IGF-II. The dissociation constants for IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-II variant are 0.23, 0.38, and 0.80 nM, respectively. In a growth assay, the concentration of IGF-II and IGF-II variant required to stimulate the half-maximal growth of MCF-7 cells was 4 and 13 nM, respectively. Finally, the amount of IGF-II variant that can be purified by this method constitutes approximately 25% of the total IGF-II isolated from Cohn fraction IV1 of human plasma.

  3. Model-independent determination of the astrophysical S-factor in laser-induced fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Lattuada, D; Bonasera, A; Bang, W; Quevedo, H J; Warren, M; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Andreoli, P; Kimura, S; Dyer, G; Bernstein, A C; Hagel, K; Barbui, M; Schmidt, K; Gaul, E; Donovan, M E; Natowitz, J B; Ditmire, T

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new and general method for measuring the astrophysical S-factor of nuclear reactions in laser-induced plasmas and we apply it to d(d,n)$^{3}$He. The experiment was performed with the Texas Petawatt laser, which delivered 150-270 fs pulses of energy ranging from 90 to 180 J to D$_{2}$ or CD$_{4}$ molecular clusters. After removing the background noise, we used the measured time-of-flight data of energetic deuterium ions to obtain their energy distribution. We derive the S-factor using the measured energy distribution of the ions, the measured volume of the fusion plasma and the measured fusion yields. This method is model-independent in the sense that no assumption on the state of the system is required, but it requires an accurate measurement of the ion energy distribution especially at high energies and of the relevant fusion yields. In the d(d,n)$^{3}$He and $^{3}$He(d,p)$^{4}$He cases discussed here, it is very important to apply the background subtraction for the energetic ions ...

  4. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacterial Biofilms and Reduction of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ziuzina

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and healthcare associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of culturability and retention of metabolic activity using colony count and XTT assays, respectively. All samples were treated 'inpack' using sealed polypropylene containers with a high voltage dielectric barrier discharge ACP generated at 80 kV for 0, 60, 120 and 300 s and a post treatment storage time of 24 h. According to colony counts, ACP treatment for 60 s reduced populations of E. coli to undetectable levels, whereas 300 s was necessary to significantly reduce populations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The results obtained from XTT assay indicated possible induction of viable but non culturable state of bacteria. With respect to P. aeruginosa QS-related virulence factors, the production of pyocyanin was significantly inhibited after short treatment times, but reduction of elastase was notable only after 300 s and no reduction in actual biofilm formation was achieved post-ACP treatment. Importantly, reduction of virulence factors was associated with reduction of the cytotoxic effects of the bacterial supernatant on CHO-K1 cells, regardless of mode and duration of treatment. The results of this study point to ACP technology as an effective strategy for inactivation of established biofilms and may play an important role in attenuation of virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation is warranted to propose direct evidence

  5. Escape factors for Paschen 2p-1s emission lines in low-temperature Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Wen; Pu, Yi-Kang; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Radiation trapping phenomenon is often observed when investigating low-temperature plasmas. Photons emitted from the upper excited states may be reabsorbed by the lower states before they leave the plasmas. In order to account for this effect in the modelling and optical diagnostics of plasmas, either an ‘escape factor’ of a function of the optical depth or a strict solution of the radiation transfer equation can be employed. However, the former is more convenient in comparison and thus is widely adopted. Previous literatures have provided several simple expressions of the escape factor for the uniform plasmas. The emission line profiles are assumed to be dominated by the Doppler broadening, and the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure is not considered. This kind of expression is only valid for small atoms, e.g. Ar in low-pressure uniform discharges. Actually, the excited state density in many of the low-temperature plasmas is non-uniform and the emission line profile can be significantly influenced by the collisional broadening at medium and high pressures. In these cases, a new escape factor equation should be calculated. In this work, we study the escape factor equations for the often used 2p-1s transitions (Paschen’s notation) of the Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms. Possible non-uniform density profiles are considered. In addition, we include the line splitting due to the hyperfine structure for Kr and Xe. For the low-pressure plasmas, an escape factor expression mainly based on the Gaussian line profile is given and particularly verified by an experiment in a low-pressure capacitive discharge. For the high-pressure plasmas, an equation based on the Voigt line profile is also calculated. In this way, the new escape factor expression is ready for use in the modelling of the Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas from low to atmospheric pressure.

  6. Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Correia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood neurotrophins, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are considered to be of great importance in mediating the benefits of physical exercise. In this study, the effect of acute strength exercise and the involvement of small versus large muscle mass on the levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor were evaluated in healthy individuals. METHODS: The concentric strengths of knee (large and elbow (small flexor and extensor muscles were measured on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained from 16 healthy subjects before and after exercise. RESULTS: The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the plasma did not significantly increase after both arm and leg exercise. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the arms and legs. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrate that acute strength exercise does not induce significant alterations in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma concentrations in healthy individuals. Considering that its levels may be affected by various factors, such as exercise, these findings suggest that the type of exercise program may be a decisive factor in altering peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  7. Melanoma in an Active Duty Marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartling, Samantha J; Rivard, Shayna C; Meyerle, Jon H

    2017-09-01

    Given that the majority of active duty service members are young and healthy, potentially malignant diagnoses such as skin cancer may be overlooked. Although melanoma accounts for only approximately 1% of skin cancers, it causes the greatest majority of skin cancer deaths. We present the case of a 27-year-old active duty Marine who presented with a hyperpigmented macule at his lateral neck that was a malignant melanoma in situ. This article reviews risk factors for the development of melanoma, offers guidelines for primary care providers, reviews resources for providers in a deployed or austere environment, offers recommendations for prevention and early diagnosis, and discusses follow up. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Evaluation of Some Plasma Coagulation Factors in Women with Spontaneous Miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Besharat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that 15-20% of parous female have experienced at least one miscarriage, while 3% of them have experienced two miscarriages. The goal of this study was to evaluate the plasma level of coagulation factors in women with a history of spontaneous abortions. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 82 women with a history of two or more abortions referred to the six private gynecologic clinics in Gorgan city without any structural abnormality were recruited during 2011-2012. Plasma levels of antithrombin III (ATIII using colorimetric assay, protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden and lupus anticoagulant (LAC using coagulation method were measured. The control group was women with a history of normal delivery and no abortions. Those under anti-coagulant therapy were excluded from the study. Data were entered into the computer using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA version 16 and analyzed by Chi-square, t test and non-parametric tests. Results: At least one abnormality was reported in 35 cases (42.7%. Among them, protein C deficiency was the most prevalent (30.5%. ATIII was abnormal in 17.1% and lupus anti-coagulant was abnormal in 8.5%. Factor V Leiden was normal in all cases and protein S deficiency was only seen in one case. Conclusion: We suggest to perform these tests in regards to the thrombophilia in cases with spontaneous abortions in order to find an early cure for this treatable disorder.

  9. The angiogenic growth factors HGF and VEGF in serum and plasma from neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköldenberg, Erik G; Larsson, Anders; Jakobson, Ake; Hedborg, Fredrik; Kogner, Per; Christofferson, Rolf H; Azarbayjani, Faranak

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether concentrations of the angiogenic growth factors hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) correlate with clinical and genetic markers in samples taken at diagnosis in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Heparin plasma (P-) and serum (S-) samples of healthy controls (n=73, mean age +/- SD 3.5+/-2.1; females/males: 23/50) and patients with NB (n=62; 2.2+/-1.8; 26/36) were collected between 1988 and 1999. Clinical data included age at diagnosis, gender, stage, outcome, amplification of the oncogene MYCN, loss of heterozygosity at the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p LOH) and ploidy. HGF and S-VEGF-A were elevated in NB as compared to controls (38/62 patients, p<0.0001 and p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). HGF concentrations were higher in high-stage (stage 3-4) as compared to low-stage (stage 1-2) disease (p<0.01). P-HGF was elevated in patients with 1p LOH (p<0.01), MYCN amplification (p<0.001) and di- or tetraploidy (p<0.001). S-HGF concentration was elevated in patients MYCN-amplified tumors only. Plasma and S-HGF concentrations were higher in the deceased group (p<0.05), but not P or S-VEGF-A. This study showed that concentrations of HGF and S-VEGF-A are elevated in patients with NB. Furthermore, HGF and S-VEGF-A concentrations correlate to higher stage disease and HGF correlates to genetic markers known to indicate a poor outcome. These observations imply that HGF and VEGF-A have biological roles in NB and suggest the possibility of interference with HGF or VEGF-A signaling as a therapeutic strategy.

  10. Plasma rich in growth factors: preliminary results of use in the preparation of future sites for implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E

    1999-01-01

    This article presents preliminary clinical evidence of the beneficial effect of the use of plasma rich in growth factors of autologous origin. The plasma is obtained from the individual patient by plasmapheresis. The macroscopic and microscopic results obtained with bone regeneration using this technique, which uses no membrane or barrier, can be observed. The incorporation of these concepts can introduce several advantages, including the enhancement and acceleration of bone regeneration and more rapid and predictable soft tissue healing.

  11. Plasma level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the related analysis in depressive patients with suicide attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between brainderived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)and suicidal behavior through analyzing and detecting the alteration of plasma BDNF level in depressive patients with suicide attempt.Methods Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis(ELISA)to test the plasma level of BDNF in 27suicidal depressed patients,33 non-suicidal depressed patients and 30 normal controls.Meanwhile,the Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD)and Beck

  12. Factors associated with fasting plasma ghrelin levels in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Chun Zou; Li Liang; Zheng-Yan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To measure plasma ghrelin levels in children and adolescents,analyze the associated factors,and investigate the role of ghrelin in obesity,insulin resistance and reproductive physiology.METHODS:A total of 283 subjects aged 4.8-15.8 year were enrolled.Fasting blood samples were collected and plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay.Fasting glucose (FG),fasting insulin (FI),baseline testosterone (T),estradiol (E2),prolactin (PRL),luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),serum total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and uric acid (UA) were measured.Body mass index (BMI),insulin resistance by homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function by homeostasis model (HOMA-β) were calculated.RESULTS:The median ghrelin level was 290 ng/L (15.0-1325.0 ng/i).Bivariate correlation analysis showed that ghrelin levels were inversely correlated with BMI,ALT,TG,UA,LH,FI and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05).No other significant correlation was found between ghrelin levels and age,gender,TC,E2,FSH,PRL,FG and HOMA-β.Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only BMI and FI were independent determinants of plasma ghrelin levels in these children and adolescents (P = 0.018 and P = 0.046,respectively),which explained 25.4% of the variance.CONCLUSION:These data suggest that the lower ghrelin levels in obese subjects may be the result of obesity and hyperinsulinemia,which is very common in obese subjects.Moreover,ghrelin may regulate human reproductive physiology indirectly.

  13. Tramadol Induced QTc-Interval Prolongation: Prevalence, Clinical Factors and Correlation to Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Guillermo A; Etchegoyen, María C V; Fernandez, Nicolás; Olivera, Nancy M; Quiroga, Patricia N; Belloso, Waldo H; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several cases of torsade de pointes have been associated with many opioids. However, to present no cases have been reported with tramadol. To evaluate the effect of tramadol on QT-interval in the clinical setting. Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for patients requiring medical assistance that involved tramadol administration. Ionograms and ECGs were performed at baseline and intratreatment; QT interval was analyzed after correction with Bazzet, Fridericia, Framinghan and Hogdes formula. 115 patients were studied (50.4% males) All patients had received tramadol 150-400 mg/day during 3.0-5.0 days at the moment of intratreatment control. Plasma concentrations of tramadol were 201-1613 ng/mL. Intratreatment electrocardiographic control, as mean ± SD (range), showed QTcB 372±32 (305 to 433), QTcFri 356±37 (281 to 429), QTcFra 363±33 (299 to 429), QTcH 362±30 (304 to 427), ΔQTcB 26±40 (-73 to 110), ΔQTcFri 24±48 (-97 to 121), ΔQTcFra 22±42 (-81 to 109) and .QTcH 22±38 (-68 to 110) ms. QTc interval presents high correlation with plasma tramadol concentrations (for .QTc, R>0.77). Renal failure was associated with a relative risk for ΔQTc > 30 ms of 1.90 (IC95% 1.31-2.74) and for ΔQTc > 60 ms of 4.74 (IC95% 2.57-8.74). No patient had evidence of arrhythmia during the present study. Tramadol produces QTc interval prolongation in good correlation with plasma drug concentrations; renal failure is a risk factor for higher concentration and QT prolongation by tramadol.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. 86.1818-12 Section 86.1818... vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. (a) Applicability. This section contains... vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. Manufacturers that qualify as a small...

  15. Risk factors for a low linezolid trough plasma concentration in acute infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (C(min)) and to determine factors associated with a C(min) 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of C(min) 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid C(min) of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy.

  16. The plasma concentration of the B cell activating factor is increased in children with acute malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduati, Eunice; Gwela, Agnes; Karanja, Henry; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra; Langhorne, Jean; Marsh, Kevin; Urban, Britta C

    2011-09-15

    Malaria-specific antibody responses in children often appear to be short-lived but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and its receptors expressed on B cells with antibody responses during and after acute malaria in children. Our results demonstrate that BAFF plasma levels increased during acute malarial disease and reflected disease severity. The expression profiles for BAFF receptors on B cells agreed with rapid activation and differentiation of a proportion of B cells to plasma cells. However, BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) expression was reduced on all peripheral blood B cells during acute infection, but those children with the highest level of BAFF-R expression on B cells maintained schizont-specific immunoglobin G (IgG) over a period of 4 months, indicating that dysregulation of BAFF-R expression on B cells may contribute to short-lived antibody responses to malarial antigens in children. In summary, this study suggests a potential role for BAFF during malaria disease, both as a marker for disease severity and in shaping the differentiation pattern of antigen-specific B cells.

  17. Plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors are increased in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schins, R P; Borm, P J

    1995-10-01

    Among other cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is considered to play a key role in the development of mineral dust related fibrosis. Previously, we showed that ex-vivo release of TNF by peripheral blood monocytes is a marker for progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Since soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs) are believed to play an important regulatory role in systemic effects of TNF, we measured plasma levels of sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75 in coal miners with (n = 28) or without (n = 76) CWP and in nonexposed controls (n = 29). sTNF-R75 levels were significantly increased in miners with CWP (2.09 +/- 0.44 ng.mL-1) versus the nonexposed controls (1.86 +/- 0.23 ng.mL-1). Neither sTNF-R55 nor sTNF-R75 were related to exposure, stage of pneumoconiosis, smoking, or (spontaneous or ex-vivo induced) monocyte TNF-release. sTNF-R55 was increased in subjects with medication (especially those using cardiovascular drugs); upon exclusion of these subjects, sTNF-R55 was found also to be significantly increased in CWP. In conclusion, bearing in mind a confounding effect of medication, soluble TNF receptors are elevated in plasma of retired miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis. These observations further support the important role of TNF-mediated pathways in the pathogenesis of mineral dust related fibrosis.

  18. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P<.000, P<.001, resp.. In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r=−.402, P=.025 and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r:.357; P:.048 in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  19. Risk Factors for a Low Linezolid Trough Plasma Concentration in Acute Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F.; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A.; Mensa, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (Cmin) and to determine factors associated with a Cmin 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of Cmin 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid Cmin of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy. PMID:23403416

  20. Current status and related factors of community nurses' playing duty role function%社区护士发挥角色功能现况及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富君

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the main working content of community nurses, the various duty roles and related factors, and to provide scientific references for community health care managers to set position for community nurses, to make the duty clear, to provide targeted training for community nurse and to give full play for community nurse role function. Methods: We investigated 195 community nurses in 7 community health service centers by questionnaires. Results: Among 195 nurses, 72.82% nurses mainly did therapeutic work and 32.31% nurses mainly did preventive health care work. The factors restricting community nurse to play duty role function were manpower shortage, deficiency of related knowledge and skills, inadequate comprehensive ability, position limitation, insufficient leader supports and lack of service consciousness. Conclusion: Community nurses' ideas has changed, but they do not fully perform their due role function in community health care. Community health care managers should pay more attention to take effective measures to improve community nurses' comprehensive quality and to give full play for community nurses' role function.%目的:了解目前社区护士的主要工作内容,各种角色职责的履行情况及其相关因素,为社区卫生服务管理者更好地设置社区护士岗位,明确职责,有针对性地对社区护士进行培训,充分发挥社区护士的角色功能提供科学依据.方法:使用问卷方式对北京市7所社区卫生服务中心(站)195名社区护士进行调查.结果:被调查的195名护士中,72.82%主要从事治疗性工作,32.31%从事预防保健工作.制约社区护士履行角色功能的主要因素依次为:人力不足,缺乏相关知识技能,自身综合能力不足,岗位限制,领导支持力度不够,缺乏服务意识等.结论:社区护士的观念已经发生改变,但社区护士在社区卫生服务中没有充分履行其应有的角色职责,应引起社区卫生服务管理者

  1. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder...

  2. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. (Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  3. Inhibition of vascular permeability by antisense-mediated inhibition of plasma kallikrein and coagulation factor 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Revenko, Alexey S; Crosby, Jeffrey R; May, Chris; Gao, Dacao; Zhao, Chenguang; Monia, Brett P; MacLeod, A Robert

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent, acute, and painful episodes of swelling involving multiple tissues. Deficiency or malfunction of the serine protease inhibitor C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) results in HAE types 1 and 2, respectively, whereas mutations in coagulation factor 12 (f12) have been associated with HAE type 3. C1-INH is the primary inhibitor of multiple plasma cascade pathways known to be altered in HAE patients, including the complement, fibrinolytic, coagulation, and kinin-kallikrein pathways. We have selectively inhibited several components of both the kinin-kallikrein system and the coagulation cascades with potent and selective antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to investigate their relative contributions to vascular permeability. We have also developed ASO inhibitors of C1-INH and characterized their effects on vascular permeability in mice as an inducible model of HAE. Our studies demonstrate that ASO-mediated reduction in C1-INH plasma levels results in increased vascular permeability and that inhibition of proteases of the kinin-kallikrein system, either f12 or prekallikrein (PKK) reverse the effects of C1-INH depletion with similar effects on both basal and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced permeability. In contrast, inhibition of coagulation factors 11 (f11) or 7 (f7) had no effect. These results suggest that the vascular defects observed in C1-INH deficiency are dependent on the kinin-kallikrein system proteases f12 and PKK, and not mediated through the coagulation pathways. In addition, our results highlight a novel therapeutic modality that can potentially be employed prophylactically to prevent attacks in HAE patients.

  4. Apolipoprotein modulation of streptococcal serum opacity factor activity against human plasma high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-08-25

    Human plasma HDL are the target of streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence factor that clouds human plasma. Recombinant (r) SOF transfers cholesteryl esters (CE) from approximately 400,000 HDL particles to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM), forms a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle (neo HDL), and releases lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. Whereas the rSOF reaction requires labile apo A-I, the modulation effects of other apos are not known. We compared the products and rates of the rSOF reaction against human HDL and HDL from mice overexpressing apos A-I and A-II. Kinetic studies showed that the reactivity of various HDL species is apo-specific. LpA-I reacts faster than LpA-I/A-II. Adding apos A-I and A-II inhibited the SOF reaction, an effect that was more profound for apo A-II. The rate of SOF-mediated CERM formation was slower against HDL from mice expressing human apos A-I and A-II than against WT mice HDL and slowest against HDL from apo A-II overexpressing mice. The lower reactivity of SOF against HDL containing human apos is due to the higher hydropathy of human apo A-I, particularly its C-terminus relative to mouse apo A-I, and the higher lipophilicity of human apo A-II. The SOF-catalyzed reaction is the first to target HDL rather than its transporters and receptors in a way that enhances reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Thus, effects of apos on the SOF reaction are highly relevant. Our studies show that the "humanized" apo A-I-expressing mouse is a good animal model for studies of rSOF effects on RCT in vivo.

  5. Individual Differences and Short-Term Military Factors Associated With Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors Among Active Duty and Reserve Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    dieting in binge eating disorder: Etiology and treatment implications. Clinical Psychology Review , 19(1), 25-44. Hudson, J. I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H...eating among males. Clinical Psychology Review , 27(5), 582-606. 123 Rodin, J., Silberstein, L., & Striegel-Moore, R. (1984). Women and weight...dissatisfaction: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review , 21(4), 521-551. Wynd, C. A., & Ryan-Wenger, N. A. (2004). Factors predicting health

  6. Plasma IP-10, apoptotic and angiogenic factors associated with fatal cerebral malaria in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash AP

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum in a subset of patients can lead to cerebral malaria (CM, a major contributor to malaria-associated mortality. Despite treatment, CM mortality can be as high as 30%, while 10% of survivors of the disease may experience short- and long-term neurological complications. The pathogenesis of CM is mediated by alterations in cytokine and chemokine homeostasis, inflammation as well as vascular injury and repair processes although their roles are not fully understood. The hypothesis for this study is that CM-induced changes in inflammatory, apoptotic and angiogenic factors mediate severity of CM and that their identification will enable development of new prognostic markers and adjunctive therapies for preventing CM mortalities. Methods Plasma samples (133 were obtained from healthy controls (HC, 25, mild malaria (MM, 48, cerebral malaria survivors (CMS, 48, and cerebral malaria non-survivors (CMNS, 12 at admission to the hospital in Jabalpur, India. Plasma levels of 30 biomarkers ((IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, Eotaxin, FGF basic protein, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1 (MCAF, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, TNF-α, Fas-ligand (Fas-L, soluble Fas (sFas, soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 and soluble TNF receptor 2 (sTNFR-2, PDGF bb and VEGF were simultaneously measured in an initial subset of ten samples from each group. Only those biomarkers which showed significant differences in the pilot analysis were chosen for testing on all remaining samples. The results were then compared between the four groups to determine their role in CM severity. Results IP-10, sTNF-R2 and sFas were independently associated with increased risk of CM associated mortality. CMNS patients had a significantly lower level of the neuroprotective factor VEGF when compared to other groups (P Conclusion The results suggest that plasma levels of IP-10, sTNF-R2 and sFas may be potential

  7. Clinical negligence and duty of candour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Vinita; Singh, Mark; Shekar, Kishore; Brennan, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The Department of Health is considering imposing a legal duty of candour on health care providers to ensure that an apology and explanation are given to patients when errors occur during medical treatment. This aims to improve quality of care and reduce adverse events during medical treatment. We present the current system of clinical negligence and the future of medical ethics. We discuss relevant cases with regard to duty of candour, and highlight the existence of serious imbalances in which patients' rights and corresponding ethical duties of professionals predominate over the responsibilities of patients themselves. It is known that most adverse events arise because of multiple factors for which no individual should be blamed. To improve healthcare services there is a need for a system in which lessons can be learnt from mistakes, and services can be improved in the interest of patient safety, and for transparency in the broad principles on which the decisions are based within which clinical performance is supervised and monitored. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of platelet-derived growth factor-AB on tissue development in autologous platelet-rich plasma gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Simone; Dietrich, Maren; Flanagan, Thomas C; Bokermann, Gudrun; Wagner, Wolfgang; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Jockenhoevel, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Fibrin-based scaffolds are widely used in tissue engineering. We postulated that the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in contrast to platelet-poor plasma and pure fibrinogen as the basic material leads to an increased release of autologous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB, which may have a consequent positive effect on tissue development. Therefore, we evaluated the release of PDGF-AB during the production process and the course of PDGF release during cultivation of plasma gels with and w/o platelets. The influence of PDGF-AB on the proliferation rate of human umbilical cord artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) was studied using XTT assay. The synthesis of extracellular matrix by HUASMCs in plasma- and fibrin gels was measured using hydroxyproline assay. The use of PRP led to an increase in autologous PDGF-AB release. Further, the platelet-containing plasma gels showed a prolonged release of growth factor during cultivation. Both PRP and platelet-poor plasma gels had a positive effect on the production of collagen. However, PDGF-AB as a supplement in medium and in pure fibrin gel had neither an effect on cell proliferation nor on the collagen synthesis rate. This observation may be due to an absence of PDGF receptors in HUASMCs as determined by flow cytometry. In conclusion, although the prolonged autologous production of PDGF-AB in PRP gels is possible, the enhanced tissue development by HUASMCs within such gels is not PDGF related.

  9. The protein concentration of blood coagulation factor VII can be measured equally well in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Overgaard, K; Gram, J

    1995-01-01

    In the Northwick Park Heart Study, the coagulant activity of factor VII (FVII:C) has been identified as a risk marker of ischaemic heart disease. In the fasting state, the protein concentration of FVII (FVII:Ag) might be an even better risk marker, because of the low coefficient of variation...... samples. Results were compared by means of linear regression, where y = 0.984 x +0.770, r = 0.96. No systematic variation existed between FVII:Ag in plasma and serum. The mean difference in FVII:Ag between plasma and serum was -1.17 (SD 11.92) arbitrary units, compared with a mean difference of 0.18 (SD 8.......31) arbitrary units between duplicate measurements of the same plasma dilution. Our findings indicate that there is a good agreement between FVII:Ag in plasma and serum. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-May...

  10. Predictive factors of plasma HIV suppression during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Denoeud-Ndam

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with HIV1 RNA plasma viral load (pVL below 40 copies/mL at the third trimester of pregnancy, as part of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT in Benin. DESIGN: Sub study of the PACOME clinical trial of malaria prophylaxis in HIV-infected pregnant women, conducted before and after the implementation of the WHO 2009 revised guidelines for PMTCT. METHODS: HIV-infected women were enrolled in the second trimester of pregnancy. Socio-economic characteristics, HIV history, clinical and biological characteristics were recorded. Malaria prevention and PMTCT involving antiretroviral therapy (ART for mothers and infants were provided. Logistic regression helped identifying factors associated with virologic suppression at the end of pregnancy. RESULTS: Overall 217 third trimester pVLs were available, and 71% showed undetectability. Virologic suppression was more frequent in women enrolled after the change in PMTCT recommendations, advising to start ART at 14 weeks instead of 28 weeks of pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, Fon ethnic group (the predominant ethnic group in the study area, regular job, first and second pregnancy, higher baseline pVL and impaired adherence to ART were negative factors whereas higher weight, higher antenatal care attendance and longer ART duration were favorable factors to achieve virologic suppression. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides more evidence that ART has to be initiated before the last trimester of pregnancy to achieve an undetectable pVL before delivery. In Benin, new recommendations supporting early initiation were well implemented and, together with a high antenatal care attendance, led to high rate of virologic control.

  11. On Variable Geometric Factor Systems for Top-Hat Electrostatic Space Plasma Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Dhiren O.; Collinson, Glyn A.

    2010-01-01

    Even in the relatively small region of space that is the Earth's magnetosphere, ion and electron fluxes can vary by several orders of magnitude. Top-hat electrostatic analyzers currently do not possess the dynamic range required to sample plasma under all conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare, through computer simulation, three new electrostatic methods that would allow the sensitivity of a sensor to be varied through control of its geometric factor (GF) (much like an aperture on a camera). The methods studied were inner filter plates, split hemispherical analyzer (SHA) and top-cap electrode. This is the first discussion of the filter plate concept and also the first study where all three systems are studied within a common analyzer design, so that their relative merits could be fairly compared. Filter plates were found to have the important advantage that they facilitate the reduction in instrument sensitivity whilst keeping all other instrument parameters constant. However, it was discovered that filter plates have numerous disadvantages that make such a system impracticable for a top-hat electrostatic analyzer. It was found that both the top-cap electrode and SHA are promising variable geometric factor system (VGFS) concepts for implementation into a top-hat electrostatic analyzer, each with distinct advantages over the other.

  12. Association of cardiovascular factors and Alzheimer's disease plasma amyloid-beta protein in subjective memory complainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kristyn A; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Rodrigues, Mark; Beilby, John; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Taddei, Kevin; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Howard, Matthew; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Mehta, Pankaj; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Frank L; Laws, Simon M; Gandy, Samuel E; Martins, Ralph N

    2009-01-01

    A strong link is indicated between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), which may be exacerbated by the major AD genetic risk factor apolipoprotein Eepsilon4 (APOEepsilon4). Since subjective memory complaint (SMC) may potentially be an early indicator for cognitive decline, we examined CVD risk factors in a cohort of SMC. As amyloid-beta (Abeta) is considered to play a central role in AD, we hypothesized that the CVD risk profile (increased LDL, reduced HDL, and increased body fat) would be associated with plasma Abeta levels. We explored this in 198 individuals with and without SMC (average age = 63 years). Correlations between Abeta40 and HDL were observed, which were stronger in non-APOEepsilon4 carriers (rho = -0.315, p association between HDL and Abeta, which if demonstrated to be causal has implications for the development of lifestyle interventions and/or novel therapeutics. The relationship between HDL and Abeta and the potential significance of such an association needs to be validated in a larger longitudinal study.

  13. ADAM10 regulates transcription factor expression required for plasma cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Chaimowitz

    Full Text Available A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10 is a key regulator of cellular processes by shedding extracellular domains of transmembrane proteins. We have previously demonstrated that deletion of B cell expressed ADAM10 results in changes in lymphoid tissue architecture and impaired germinal center (GC formation. In this study, mice were generated in which ADAM10 is deleted in B cells following class switch recombination (ADAM10(Δ/ΔIgG1-cre(+/- mice. Despite normal GC formation, antibody responses were impaired in ADAM10(Δ/ΔIgG1-cre(+/- mice, implicating ADAM10 in post-GC and extrafollicular B cell terminal differentiation. Surprisingly, plasma cell (PC numbers were normal in ADAM10(Δ/ΔIgG1-cre(+/- mice when compared to controls. However, PCs isolated from ADAM10(Δ/ΔIgG1-cre(+/- mice exhibited decreased expression of transcription factors important for PC function: Prdm1, Xbp1 and Irf4. Bcl6 is a GC transcriptional repressor that inhibits the PC transcriptional program and thus must be downregulated for PC differentiation to occur. Bcl6 expression was increased in PCs isolated from ADAM10(Δ/ΔIgG1-cre(+/- mice at both the mRNA and protein level. These results demonstrate that ADAM10 is required for proper transcription factor expression in PCs and thus, for normal PC function.

  14. Surgical treatment of denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia with plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzati, Marco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Gallesio, Giorgia; Ruggiero, Tiziana; Pol, Renato

    2015-05-01

    Denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia is a fibrous connective tissue lesion that commonly occurs in oral mucosa in patients showing important alveolar ridge atrophy. In this study, we propose Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) to overcome constrains of traditional surgical treatment. Herein, we demonstrated that PRGF represents an autologous source of growth factors able to reduce the healing time of the alveolar mucosa and the discomfort of those patients. These properties are the result of PRGF's precise biological features that result in the following: reduction of duration and intensity of postsurgical pain, acceleration of re-epithelialization of the wound, and reduction of bleeding events and of edema. In conclusion, we showed that using PRGF on patients affected by denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia allows a short healing time, thereby reducing complications and overall improving their quality of life. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of PRGF-ENDORET on secondary re-epithelialization in vestibuloplasty after excision of denture irritation fibrous hyperplasia, with an explorative randomized case control trial with 10 patients, 5 patients treated with PRGF and 5 patients with traditional hemostasis, and to analyze differences with simple surgery, considering postoperative rapidity of re-epithelialization, comfort, and discomfort of patients, pain, swelling, and infections.

  15. Plasma Adiponectin, clinical factors, and patient outcomes during the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J Walkey

    Full Text Available Adiponectin (APN is an anti-inflammatory hormone derived from adipose tissue that attenuates acute lung injury in rodents. In this study, we investigated the association between circulating APN and outcomes among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS.We performed a retrospective cohort study using data and plasma samples from participants in the multicenter ARDS Network Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial.Plasma APN concentrations were measured in 816 (81.6% trial participants at baseline and in 568 (56.8% subjects at both baseline and day 7 after enrollment. Clinical factors associated with baseline APN levels in multivariable-adjusted models included sex, body mass index, past medical history of cirrhosis, and central venous pressure (model R2 = 9.7%. We did not observe an association between baseline APN and either severity of illness (APACHE III or extent of lung injury (Lung Injury Score. Among patients who received right heart catheterization (n = 384, baseline APN was inversely related to mean pulmonary artery pressure (β = -0.015, R2 1.5%, p = 0.02; however, this association did not persist in multivariable models (β = -0.009, R2 0.5%, p = 0.20. Neither baseline APN levels [HR per quartile1.04 (95% CI 0.91-1.18, p = 0.61], nor change in APN level from baseline to day 7 [HR 1.04 (95% CI 0.89-1.23, p = 0.62] were associated with 60 day mortality in Cox proportional hazards regression models. However, subgroup analysis identified an association between APN and mortality among patients who developed ARDS from extra-pulmonary etiologies [HR per quartile 1.31 (95% CI 1.08-1.57]. APN levels did not correlate with mortality among patients developing ARDS in association with direct pulmonary injury [HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.83-1.13], pinteraction = 0.016.Plasma APN levels did not correlate with disease severity or mortality in a large cohort of patients with ARDS. However, higher APN levels were

  16. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profile of platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, F; Genova, T; Munaron, L; Petrillo, S; Erovigni, F; Carossa, S

    2016-07-01

    During wound healing, biologically active molecules are released from platelets. The rationale of using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) relies on the concentration of bioactive molecules and subsequent delivery to healing sites. These bioactive molecules have been seldom simultaneously quantified within the same PRP preparation. In the present study, the flexible Bio-Plex system was employed to assess the concentration of a large range of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in 16 healthy volunteers so as to determine whether significant baseline differences may be found. Besides IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, INF-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1a, RANTES, bFGF, PDGF, and VEGF that were already quantified elsewhere, the authors reported also on the presence of IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-9, IL-10, IL-15 G-CSF, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, CXCL10 chemokine (IP-10), and MIP 1b. Among the most interesting results, it is convenient to mention the high concentrations of the HIV-suppressive and inflammatory cytokine RANTES and a statistically significant difference between males and females in the content of PDGF-BB. These data are consistent with previous reports pointing out that gender, diet, and test system affect the results of platelet function in healthy subjects, but seem contradictory when compared to other quantification assays in serum and plasma. The inconsistencies affecting the experimental results found in literature, along with the variability found in the content of bioactive molecules, urge further research, hopefully in form of randomized controlled clinical trials, in order to find definitive evidence of the efficacy of PRP treatment in various pathologic and regenerative conditions.

  17. Growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine contents in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF), and concentrated growth factors (CGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuki, Hideo; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Watanebe, Taisuke; Suzuki, Masashi; Nishiyama, Kazuhiko; Okudera, Hajime; Nakata, Koh; Uematsu, Kohya; Su, Chen-Yao; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2016-12-01

    The development of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) drastically simplified the preparation procedure of platelet-concentrated biomaterials, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and facilitated their clinical application. PRF's clinical effectiveness has often been demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical studies; however, it is still controversial whether growth factors are significantly concentrated in PRF preparations to facilitate wound healing and tissue regeneration. To address this matter, we performed a comparative study of growth factor contents in PRP and its derivatives, such as advanced PRF (A-PRF) and concentrated growth factors (CGF). PRP and its derivatives were prepared from the same peripheral blood samples collected from healthy donors. A-PRF and CGF preparations were homogenized and centrifuged to produce extracts. Platelet and white blood cell counts in A-PRF and CGF preparations were determined by subtracting those counts in red blood cell fractions, supernatant acellular serum fractions, and A-PRF/CGF exudate fractions from those counts of whole blood samples. Concentrations of growth factors (TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, VEGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) were determined using ELISA kits. Compared to PRP preparations, both A-PRF and CGF extracts contained compatible or higher levels of platelets and platelet-derived growth factors. In a cell proliferation assay, both A-PRF and CGF extracts significantly stimulated the proliferation of human periosteal cells without significant reduction at higher doses. These data clearly demonstrate that both A-PRF and CGF preparations contain significant amounts of growth factors capable of stimulating periosteal cell proliferation, suggesting that A-PRF and CGF preparations function not only as a scaffolding material but also as a reservoir to deliver certain growth factors at the site of application.

  18. Danger signal-dependent activation of human dendritic cells by plasma-derived factor VIII products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Weissmüller, S; Ringler, E; Crauwels, P; van Zandbergen, G; Seitz, R; Waibler, Z

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of haemophilia A by infusions of the clotting factor VIII (FVIII) results in the development of inhibitors/anti-drug antibodies in up to 25 % of patients. Mechanisms leading to immunogenicity of FVIII products are not yet fully understood. Amongst other factors, danger signals as elicited upon infection or surgery have been proposed to play a role. In the present study, we focused on effects of danger signals on maturation and activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the context of FVIII application. Human monocyte-derived DC were treated with FVIII alone, with a danger signal alone or a combination of both. By testing more than 60 different healthy donors, we show that FVIII and the bacterial danger signal lipopolysaccharide synergise in increasing DC activation, as characterised by increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The degree and frequency of this synergistic activation correlate with CD86 expression levels on immature DC prior to stimulation. In our assay system, plasma-derived but not recombinant FVIII products activate human DC in a danger signal-dependent manner. Further tested danger signals, such as R848 also induced DC activation in combination with FVIII, albeit not in every tested donor. In our hands, human DC but not human B cells or macrophages could be activated by FVIII in a danger signal-dependent manner. Our results suggest that immunogenicity of FVIII is a result of multiple factors including the presence of danger, predisposition of the patient, and the choice of a FVIII product for treatment.

  19. Investigating the effects of sales promotions on customer behavioral intentions at duty-free shops: An Incheon International Airport case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Jin-Woo; Choi, Yu-Jin; Moon, Woo-Choon

    2013-01-01

    .... The identified sales promotion factors that influence the behavioral intentions of customers at duty-free shops are potentially useful for analyzing the possible trends and changes in duty-free shop customer buying behavior.

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta plasma dynamics and post-irradiation lung injury in lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakova-Jiresova, A; van Gameren, MM; Coppes, RP; Kampinga, HH; Groen, HJM

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relevance of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) dynamics in plasma for identification of patients at low risk for developing pneumonitis as a complication of thoracic radiotherapy (RT). Patients and methods: Non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing conventio

  1. Platelet-rich plasma preparation using three devices : Implications for platelet activation and platelet growth factor release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Peter A. M.; Mahoney, Christine Brown; Hoffmann, Johannes J. M. L.; Schonberger, Jacques P. A. M.; Box, Henk A. M.; Van Zundert, Andre; Knape, Johannes T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In this study, three commercial systems for the preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were compared and platelet growth factors release was measured. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers donated whole blood that was fractionated by a blood cell separator, and a table-top centrifuge to pre

  2. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Some Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Milovanović, Srđan; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Takić, Marija; Debeljak-Martačić, Jasmina; Pantović, Maja; Đorđević, Brižita

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties and is suggested to be a biomarker of metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on plasma adiponectin and some metabolic risk factors in patients with schizophrenia. The plasma adipokine levels (adiponectin and leptin), routine biochemical and anthropometric parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and the serum phospholipid fatty acid profile in eighteen schizophrenic patients at baseline, in the middle, and at the end of a 3-month long supplementation period with ALA (500 mg daily) were determined. A significant increase in the plasma adiponectin concentrations, as well as a decrease in fasting glucose and aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), was found. Baseline AST activity was independently correlated with the adiponectin concentrations. Our data show that ALA can improve plasma adiponectin levels and may play a potential role in the treatment of metabolic risk factor in patients with schizophrenia. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary investigations.

  3. Supervision Duty of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat YILMAZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Supervision by school administrators is becoming more and more important. The change in the roles ofschool administrators has a great effect on that increase. At present, school administrators are consideredmore than as technical directors, but as instructional leaders. This increased the importance of schooladministrators’ expected supervision acts. In this respect, the aim of this study is to make a conceptualanalysis about school administrators’ supervision duties. For this reason, a literature review related withsupervision and contemporary supervision approaches was done, and the official documents concerningsupervision were examined. As a result, it can be said that school administrators’ supervision duties havebecome very important. And these duties must certainly be carried out by school administrators.

  4. An expression for the h l factor in low-pressure electronegative plasma discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabert, P.

    2016-04-01

    The positive ion flux exiting a low-pressure plasma discharge is a crucial quantity in global (volume-averaged) models. In discharges containing only electrons and positive ions (electropositive discharges), it is common to write this flux {Γ\\text{wall}}={{h}\\text{l}}{{n}\\text{i0}}{{u}\\text{B}} , where {{n}\\text{i0}} is the central positive ion density, {{u}\\text{B}} is the positive ion fluid speed at the sheath edge (the Bohm speed), and {{h}\\text{l}} is the positive ion edge-to-centre density ratio. There are well established formulae for {{h}\\text{l}} in electropositive discharges, but for discharges containing negative ions (electronegative discharges), the analysis is more complicated. The purpose of this paper is to propose a formula for the {{h}\\text{l}} factor in low-pressure electronegative discharges. We use the numerical solution of fluid equations with Boltzmann negative ions, including Poisson’s equation, as a guide to derive an analytical expression that can easily be incorporated in global models. The parameter space in which the derived expression is valid is discussed at the end of the paper.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paknejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reconstruction methods are an essential prerequisite for functional rehabilitation of the stomatognathic system. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF offers a new and potentially useful adjunct to bone substitute materials in bone reconstructive surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the influ-ence of PRGF and fibrin membrane on regeneration of bony defects with and without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM on rabbit calvaria. Materials and Methods: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were included in this randomized, blinded, prospective study. Four equal 3.3×6.6 mm cranial bone defects were created and immediately grafted with DBBM, PRGF+DBBM, PRGF+fibrin membrane and no treatment as control. The defects were evaluated with histologic and histomorphometric analysis performed 4 and 8 weeks later. Results: Adding PRGF to DBBM led to increased bone formation as compared with the control group in 4- and 8-week intervals. In DBBM and PRGF+fibrin membrane samples, no significant increase was seen compared to the control group. There was also a significant increase in the rate of biodegradation of DBBM particles with the addition of PRGF in the 8-week interval. Neither noti-ceable foreign body reaction nor any severe inflammation was seen in each of the specimens evaluated. Conclusion: Under the limitation of this study, adding PRGF to DBBM enhanced osteogenesis in rabbit calvarias. Applying autologous fibrin membrane in the de-fects was not helpful.

  6. Plasma macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels during cardiopulmonary bypass with extracorporeal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Denizot

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia occur during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB with extracorporeal circulation (ECC. Elevated circulating concentrations of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF are reported during thrombocytopenia and leukopenia of different origins. We have assessed M-CSF concentrations in 40 patients undergoing CPB with ECC. Plasma M-CSF concentrations were stable during ECC and increased at the 6th (7.3 ± 0.7 IU/μg protein and 24th (8.6 ± 0.8 IU/μg protein postoperative hour compared with pre-ECC values (4.9 ± 0.5 IU/μg protein. A deep thrombocytopenia was found during ECC and until the 24th postoperative hour. A drop of leukocyte counts was found during ECC followed by an increase after ECC weaning. While no correlation was found between M-CSF concentrations and the leukocyte counts, M-CSF values were positively correlated with platelet counts only before and during ECC. Thus, M-CSF is not implicated in the thrombocytopenia and the leukopenia generated during CPB with ECC. However the elevated levels of M-CSFa few hours after the end of ECC might play a role in the inflammatory process often observed after CPB.

  7. Features and Impacting Factors-A Case Study of Police Duties in Tourist District of Gulangyu%鼓浪屿景区警务工作特征及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董斌彬; 郑向敏; 殷杰; 李实

    2015-01-01

    识别景区警务工作的特征及其影响因素是提升景区安全管理的基础。厦门鼓浪屿2009年1月至2014年5月的13035个接警案例显示:游客集聚的街区路面、商铺以及旅馆是案件的高发地区,案件以财产侵犯为主,且多发于旅游旺季。景区警务影响模型实证检验发现,旅游收入、居民旅游及外出消费价格指数的增加将导致景区接处警的增加。鼓浪屿景区应从防控财产性犯罪,增强游客安全意识,合理配置警力,升级景区服务4个层面加强景区警务工作。%Identifying the features and impacting factors of police duties in a tourist district is the basis to enhance its security. A case study of the 13035 calls to the Police at Gulangyu from January 2009 to May 2014 indicates that neighborhoods, roads and stores teeming with tourists are high incidence areas of crimes. Most cases involved robbery and took place in the peak tourist season. A Police-controlled impact modal indicated that alarm calls in tourist district went up with the increase of tourism revenues, the greater number of trips and travels, and the rising consumer price index. Security of Gulangyu tourist district can be enhanced though property crime prevention, enhances awareness of the safety on tourists, sufficient police force, and upgraded service and facilities there.

  8. Parametrization of pair correlation function and static structure factor of the one component plasma across coupling regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We present a parametrization of the pair correlation function and the static structure factor of the Coulomb one component plasma (OCP) from the weakly coupled regime to the strongly coupled regime. Recent experiments strongly suggest that the OCP model can play the role of a reference system for warm dense matter. It can provide the ionic static structure factor that is necessary to interpret the x-ray Thomson scattering measurements, for instance. We illustrate this with the interpretation of a x-ray diffraction spectrum recently measured, using a Bayesian method that requires many evaluations of the static structure factor to automatically calibrate the parameters. For strongly coupled dusty plasmas, the proposed parametrization of the Coulomb OCP pair correlation function can be related to the Yukawa one, including screening. Further prospects to parametrize the static structure of Yukawa systems are also discussed.

  9. Retention of coagulation factors in plasma frozen after extended holding at 1-6 degrees C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, JF; Ness, PM; Moroff, G; Luban, NLC

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The ability to use plasma, isolated from units of whole blood and frozen within 24 h of phlebotomy, as a substitute for plasma frozen within 8 h of phlebotomy would have several advantages for blood centers. It should provide increased flexibility pertaining to the freezin

  10. Low plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor are potential risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Yi; Du, Xiao-Fang; Ma, Xiang; Guo, Jian-Lian; Lu, Jian-Min; Ma, Lu-Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies suggested that neurotrophins play a role in the diabetic retinopathy (DR). We therefore evaluated the role of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Plasma levels of BDNF were determined in type 2 diabetic patients (N=344). At baseline, the demographical and clinical data were taken. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to test the overall predict accuracy of BDNF and other markers. Diabetic patients with DR and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) had significantly lower BDNF levels on admission (Pdiabetes duration for DR from 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.82) to 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95; Prisk factors showed that plasma BDNF levels≤12.4 ng/mL(1(rd) quartiles) was an independent marker of DR (OR=3.92; 95%CI: 2.31-6.56) and VTDR (OR=4.88; 95%CI: 2.21-9.30). The present study demonstrated that decreased plasma levels of BDNF were independent markers for DR and VDTR in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a possible role of BDNF in the pathogenesis of DR complications.

  11. THE INDEFENSIBLE DUTY TO DEFEND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neal Devins; Saikrishna Prakash

    2012-01-01

    .... First, the duties to enforce and defend lack any sound basis in the Constitution. Hence, while President Obama is right to refuse to defend the Defense of Marriage Act, he is wrong to continue to enforce a law he believes is unconstitutional...

  12. Changes in Dietary Fat Content Rapidly Alters the Mouse Plasma Coagulation Profile without Affecting Relative Transcript Levels of Coagulation Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey C A Cleuren

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events.Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding.HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation.Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby preceding plasma metabolic changes, which

  13. Duties: Legal? Moral? Religious? or Social?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Ann

    1990-01-01

    Presents activities in which students are asked to (1) identify sources of duties affecting individual behavior; (2) define and give examples of legal, as well as social, religious and moral duties; (3) and compare social, religious, moral, and legal duties and discuss their relationships. (DB)

  14. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established.

  15. An Ethical Climate is a Duty of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anona Armstrong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current emergence, once again, of corporate collapses due in no small way to unethical behaviour raises questions about the duties and responsibilities of boards of major organisations for building an ethical organisation. This paper argues that the legal duty of care to employees extends to creating an ethical work environment. It describes different types of ethical climates, how they are recognised and the consequences of their impact on the behaviours of their members. It illustrates this with some of the findings from our research into measuring ethics and ethical decision making. In conclusion, it identifies the key factors that boards should address to promote a desirable ethical climate.

  16. Healthcare workers' perceptions of the duty to work during an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damery, S; Draper, H; Wilson, S; Greenfield, S; Ives, J; Parry, J; Petts, J; Sorell, T

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are often assumed to have a duty to work, even if faced with personal risk. This is particularly so for professionals (doctors and nurses). However, the health service also depends on non-professionals, such as porters, cooks and cleaners. The duty to work is currently under scrutiny because of the ongoing challenge of responding to pandemic influenza, where an effective response depends on most uninfected HCWs continuing to work, despite personal risk. This paper reports findings of a survey of HCWs (n = 1032) conducted across three National Health Service trusts in the West Midlands, UK, to establish whether HCWs' likelihood of working during a pandemic is associated with views about the duty to work. The sense that HCWs felt that they had a duty to work despite personal risk emerged strongly regardless of professional status. Besides a strong sense that everyone should pull together, all kinds of HCWs recognised a duty to work even in difficult circumstances, which correlated strongly with their stated likelihood of working. This suggests that HCWs' decisions about whether or not they are prepared to work during a pandemic are closely linked to their sense of duty. However, respondents' sense of the duty to work may conflict with their sense of duty to family, as well as other factors such as a perceived lack of reciprocity from their employers. Interestingly, nearly 25% of doctors did not consider that they had a duty to work where doing so would pose risks to themselves or their families.

  17. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ... omitting the data from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, with mean values of 113 U/ml for FVII:Ag and 110 U/ml for FVII:Am (p

  18. Human plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. Oxidatively fragmented phospholipids as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, K E; Stafforini, D M; Prescott, S M; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Human plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase hydrolyzes the sn-2 acetyl residue of PAF, but not phospholipids with long chain sn-2 residues. It is associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, and is the LDL-associated phospholipase A2 activity that specifically degrades oxidatively damaged phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., Zimmerman, G. A., and McIntyre, T. M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5331-5334). To identify potential substrates, we synthesized phosphatidylcholines with sn-2 residues from two to nine carbon atoms long, and found the V/k ratio decreased as the sn-2 residue was lengthened: the C5 homolog was 50%, the C6 20%, while the C9 homolog was only 2% as efficient as PAF. However, the presence of an omega-oxo function radically affected hydrolysis: the half-life of the sn-2 9-aldehydic homolog was identical to that of PAF. We oxidized [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine and isolated a number of more polar phosphatidylcholines. We treated these with phospholipase C, derivatized the resulting diglycerides for gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analysis, and found a number of diglycerides where the m/z ratio was consistent with a series of short to medium length sn-2 residues. We treated the polar phosphatidylcholines with acetylhydrolase and derivatized the products for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The liberated residues were more polar than straight chain standards and had m/z ratios from 129 to 296, consistent with short to medium chain residues. Therefore, oxidation fragments the sn-2 residue of phospholipids, and the acetylhydrolase specifically degrades such oxidatively fragmented phospholipids.

  19. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  20. Factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease reflected by plasma adiponectin: data from the coronary risk factors for atherosclerosis in women (CORA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyriax, Birgit-Christiane; Algenstaedt, Petra; Hess, Utz Florian; Schöffauer, Mark; Bamberger, Christoph; Boeing, Heiner; Windler, Eberhard

    2008-10-01

    An inverse association of adiponectin with coronary heart disease (CHD) has been reported, but the results are inconsistent. We used data from the CORA study to investigate into plasma concentrations of adiponectin and factors that may mediate the link to incident CHD. The CORA study is a population-based case-control study on 200 women with incident CHD and 255 age-matched controls. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin were significantly lower in women with CHD (por=25 kg/m(2) (por=0.85), prevalent diabetes or insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >or=3.8), or low HDL-cholesterol (<50mg/dl), and in smokers (each p<0.0001). Adiponectin also correlated with intake of fruit and vegetables, meat and sausage and alcohol as dietary markers of cardiovascular risk. Strikingly, the trend towards lower adiponectin concentrations with increasing BMI or waist circumference was less marked than the difference of adiponectin between CHD cases and controls. In a logistic regression model the odds ratio of adiponectin of 0.943 per 1 microg/ml (CI 0.919-0.968, p<0.0001) for risk of CHD was progressively reduced by elevated WHR, obesity-related risk factors, smoking, and dietary parameters. Plasma adiponectin indicates protection from CHD in women that is attenuated by combined effects of central obesity and dependent risk factors, parameters of nutrition and smoking. Thus, the impact of adiponectin goes beyond its relation to central adiposity, but may also reflect independent effects of lifestyle.

  1. Study of Inactivation Factors in Low Temperature Surface-wave Plasma Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjai Kumar; Xu, Lei; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    In this study we investigated the low temperature surface-wave plasma sterilization of directly and indirectly exposed Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with a large-volume microwave plasma device. The air-simulated gas mixture was used to produce the plasma. The water vapor addition to the gas mixture improved the sterilization efficiency significantly. The effect of ultraviolet photons produced along with plasma to inactivate the spores was studied using a separate chamber, which was evacuated to less than one mTorr and was observed that spores were sterilized within 60 min. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed no significant changes in the actual size of the spores with that of untreated spores despite the survival curve shown that the spores were inactivated.

  2. Low prevalence of antibodies and other plasma factors binding to CC chemokines and IL-2 in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Svenson, M; Larsen, Carsten Schade;

    2000-01-01

    Neutralizing cytokine antibodies are found in healthy and diseased individuals, including patients treated with recombinant cytokines. Identification of CCR-5 as co-receptor for HIV has focused interest on CC chemokines and their potential therapeutic use. Chemokine-binding components in plasma...... of HIV-infected patients were therefore assessed by radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay. IgG from 4/505 HIV patients and 9/2000 healthy controls (p>0.05) bound rMIP-1alpha and rMIP-1beta, but not rRANTES. No other plasma factors bound the chemokines. The antibodies inhibited receptor binding of both...... chemokines. There was no association between presence of antibodies and disease stage or HIV progression rate. Three of 11 patients treated with rIL-2 developed IgG antibodies suppressing cellular binding and growth promotion of rIL-2. Hence, circulating factors, including antibodies MIP-1alpha/MIP-1beta...

  3. Low prevalence of antibodies and other plasma factors binding to CC chemokines and IL-2 in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Svenson, M; Schade Larsen, C

    2000-01-01

    chemokines. There was no association between presence of antibodies and disease stage or HIV progression rate. Three of 11 patients treated with rIL-2 developed IgG antibodies suppressing cellular binding and growth promotion of rIL-2. Hence, circulating factors, including antibodies MIP-1alpha/MIP-1beta......Neutralizing cytokine antibodies are found in healthy and diseased individuals, including patients treated with recombinant cytokines. Identification of CCR-5 as co-receptor for HIV has focused interest on CC chemokines and their potential therapeutic use. Chemokine-binding components in plasma...... of HIV-infected patients were therefore assessed by radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay. IgG from 4/505 HIV patients and 9/2000 healthy controls (p>0.05) bound rMIP-1alpha and rMIP-1beta, but not rRANTES. No other plasma factors bound the chemokines. The antibodies inhibited receptor binding of both...

  4. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of VWF....... The functionality of the G12E variant was studied in stably transfected MDCKII cells, expressing constructs of either 12G-V2R or 12E-V2R. Both V2R variants were fully glycosylated and expressed on the basolateral membrane. The binding affinity of V2R for AVP was increased three-fold in 12E-V2R-green fluorescent...

  5. 19 CFR 141.1 - Liability of importer for duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of importer for duties. 141.1 Section... Merchandise § 141.1 Liability of importer for duties. (a) Time duties accrue. Duties and the liability for... for by law. (b) Payment of duties—(1) Personal debt of importer. The liability for duties,...

  6. Plasma histamine and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis at various stages of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, A F; de Rossi, T; Konturek, P C; Albrecht, H; Walker, S; Hahn, E G; Raithel, M

    2015-08-01

    Mast cells secrete numerous mediators and this study investigated plasma levels of histamine, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Plasma levels of histamine were determined in 68 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 22 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 13 controls. TNF-α levels were assessed in 29 CD patients, 11 UC patients, and in 11 controls. Plasma histamine levels in the control group were 0.25 ng (0.14 - 0.33) and showed no difference to CD (0.19 ng, 0.09 - 0.35) or UC (0.23 ng, 0.11 - 0.60). Significantly lower histamine levels were only found in CD patients on 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment (P ≤ 0.04). Plasma TNF-α levels in the control group were significantly lower 0.44 ml/m(2) (0 - 1.15) than in CD patients (4.62 ml/m(2), 1.82 - 9.22, P = 0.005) or UC (3.14 ml/m(2); 0.08 - 11.34, P = 0.01). In CD disease activity, fistula, and extraintestinal manifestations (EM) were associated with significantly higher plasma TNF-α values, but not the type of treatment. We concluded that in contrast to TNF-α, histamine levels were normal in CD and UC. There is no correlation with histamine and thus the proportion of TNF-α secreted from mast cells in the plasma in patients with IBD is less important.

  7. Comparative performance of the protocol of plasma rich in growth factors - universal 1 (PRGF-U1 for obtaining platelet rich plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Aguirre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the platelet concentration obtained after application of the protocol of plasma rich in growth factors - universal 1 (PRGF-U1 and the protocol of Anitua and Andia (PRP-A for obtaining platelet rich plasma. Material and Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out with a simple random probabilistic sample consisting of 16 patients who attended the Periodontics service of the Unit of Second Specialization in Stomatology of the National University of Trujillo. Five blood samples were obtained from each patient, after applying a health questionnaire to rule out any disease or drug consumption, in order to obtain the baseline platelet concentration and that obtained after PRGF-U1 and PRP-A. To compare the platelet concentrations of the two protocols, Student’s t-test was used considering a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: The baseline platelet concentration was 371,250±68,203 platelets/μL, for PRGF-U1 it was 747,875±121,645 platelets/μL and for PRP-A it was 595,000±129,202 platelets/μL. A statistically significant difference (p<0.001 was found between both protocols. Conclusion: The PRGF-U1 protocol yielded a higher platelet concentration compared to the Anitúa and Andía protocol.

  8. Surgery of subacromial syndrome with application of plasma rich in growth factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate clinical recovery of patients with subacromial syndrome, after administering them plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF by means of the Constant, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA and Dissabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH tests. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study involving two groups - group A, treated with PRGF (52 patients; and group B, without PRGF treatment (79 patients. We analyzed the clinical situation preoperatively (time 1, at 1 month (time 2 and after rehabilitation (time 3. Results: We considered 131 patients (71.2% were men, with median age of 53.7 years. Different approaches were used - traditional (62.5%, mini-open (22.5% and arthroscopic (15%, without significant differences (P= .71. We observed improvement in the Constant test results at time 2 (59.8 ± 11.5 points in group A vs. 13.2 ± 7.1 points in group B; P < .05 and at time 3 (79.3 ± 11.6 points in group A vs. 59.7 ± 20.1 points in group B; P < .05. We found improvement in the UCLA test results at time 2 (23.2 ± 5.8 points in group A vs. 4.72 ± 1.1 points in group B; P < .05 and at time 3 (32.1 ± 5.3 points in group A vs. 22.1 ± 7.35 points in group B; P < .05. We also observed improvement in the DASH test results at time 2 (45.2 ± 17.2 points in group A vs. 118.3 ± 7.6 points in group B, P < .05 and at time 3 (37.3 ± 12.6 points in group A vs. 69 ± 25.7 points in group B. Time of rehabilitation reduced significantly: 2.53 months in group A vs. 4.96 months in group B (P < .05. No significant differences were observed in surgical times: 88 minutes (group A vs. 97 minutes (group B. Conclusion: In our experience, PRGF should be indicated in subacromial syndrome and cuff involvement, as shown by the improvement in our results in terms of better results of tests, reduction in rehabilitation time and no increase in operation time.

  9. Interaction between Fibrinogen and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-1 in Human Plasma under Physiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, N; Nedić, O

    2016-02-01

    Fibrinogen is a plasma glycoprotein and one of the principle participants in blood coagulation. It interacts with many proteins during formation of a blood clot, including insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBP). Fibrinogen complexes were found as minor fractions in fibrinogen preparations independently of the coagulation process, and their presence influences the kinetics of polymerization. The idea of this work was to investigate whether fibrinogen in human plasma interacts with IGFBPs independently of the tissue injury or coagulation process. The results have shown that fibrinogen forms complexes with IGFBP-1 under physiological conditions. Several experimental approaches have confirmed that complexes are co-isolated with fibrinogen from plasma, they are relatively stable, and they appear as a general feature of human plasma. Several other experiments excluded the possibility that alpha-2 macroglobulin/IGFBP-1 complexes or IGFBP-1 oligomers contributed to IGFBP-1 immunoreactivity. The role of fibrinogen/IGFBP-1 complexes is still unknown. Further investigation in individuals expressing both impaired glucose control and coagulopathy could contribute to identification and understanding of their possible physiological role.

  10. Effect of topical propranolol gel on plasma renin, angiotensin II and vascular endothelial growth factor in superficial infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-juan; Zhang, Zai-zhong; Chen, Shao-quan; Chen, Shu-ming; Li, Cheng-jin; Chen, Jian-wei; Yuan, Bo; Xia, Yin; Wang, Lie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of topical propranolol gel on the levels of plasma renin, angiotensin II (ATII) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in superficial infantile hemangiomas (IHs) was investigated. Thirty-three consecutive children with superficial IHs were observed pre-treatment, 1 and 3 months after application of topical propranolol gel for the levels of plasma renin, ATII and VEGF in Department of General Surgery of Dongfang Hospital from February 2013 to February 2014. The plasma results of IHs were compared with those of 30 healthy infants of the same age from out-patient department. The clinical efficiency of topical propranolol gel at 1st, and 3rd month after application was 45%, and 82% respectively. The levels of plasma renin, ATII and VEGF in patients pre-treatment were higher than those in healthy infants (565.86 ± 49.66 vs. 18.19 ± 3.56, 3.20 ± 0.39 vs 0.30 ± 0.03, and 362.16 ± 27.29 vs. 85.63 ± 8.14, P 0.05). It was indicated that the increased renin, ATII and VEGF might play a role in the onset or development of IHs. Propranolol gel may suppress the proliferation of IHs by reducing VEGF.

  11. Methodological factors influencing measurement and processing of plasma reelin in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Flavio

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reelin, intensively studied as an extracellular protein that regulates brain development, is also expressed in a variety of tissues and a circulating pool of reelin exists in adult mammals. Here we describe the methodological and biological foundation for carrying out and interpreting clinical studies of plasma reelin. Results Reelin in human plasma was sensitive to proteolysis, freeze-thawing and heating during long-term storage, sample preparation and electrophoresis. Reelin in plasma was a dimer under denaturing conditions. Boiling of samples resulted in laddering, suggesting that each of the 8 repeats expressed in reelin contains a heat-labile covalent bond susceptible to breakage. Urinary-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator converted reelin to a discrete 310 kDa fragment co-migrating with the major immunoreactive reelin fragment seen in plasma and also detected in brain. (In contrast, plasmin produced a spectrum of smaller unstable reelin fragments. We examined archival plasma of 10 pairs of age-matched male individuals differing in repeat length of a CGG repeat polymorphism of the 5'-untranslated region of the reelin gene (both alleles 11 repeats. Reelin 310 kDa band content was lower in subjects having the long repeats in all 10 pairs, by 25% on average (p Conclusions Our studies indicate the need for caution in measuring reelin in archival blood samples, and suggest that assays of plasma reelin should take into account three dimensions that might vary independently: a the total amount of reelin protein; b the relative amounts of reelin vs. its proteolytic processing products; and c the aggregation state of the native protein. Reelin-plasminogen activator interactions may affect their roles in synaptic plasticity. Our results also suggest that the human CGG repeat polymorphism affects reelin gene expression, and may affect susceptibility to human disease.

  12. Acute Pyelonephritis during Pregnancy Changes the Balance of Angiogenic and Anti-Angiogenic Factors in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Gotsch, Francesca; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mittal, Pooja; Kim, Sun Kwon; Erez, Offer; Vaisbuch, Edi; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kim, Chong Jai; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2012-01-01

    Objective Angiogenic factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of sepsis. In experimental models of sepsis (endotoxemia and/or cecal ligation puncture), there is increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and the administration of exogenous soluble VEGF receptor (sVEGFR)-1, an antagonist to VEGF, reduces morbidity and mortality. Moreover, a dramatic elevation in sVEGFR-1 has been demonstrated in human sepsis. Although a balance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is essential for feto-placental development, the changes of angiogenic factors during pregnancy in the context of infection have never been explored. Angiogenic factors also play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. This study was conducted to determine if maternal plasma concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF), sVEGFR-2 and soluble endoglin (sEng) change in pregnancies complicated by acute pyelonephritis (AP) compared to normal pregnancy and preeclampsia (PE). Study Design A case-control study was conducted in patients with AP, normal pregnant women (NP) and patients with PE (n=36 for each group) matched for gestational age. AP was diagnosed in the presence of fever (temperature ≥ 38°C), clinical signs of infection, and a positive urine culture for micro-organisms. Plasma concentrations of PlGF, sVEGFR-2 and sEng were determined by ELISA. The results of plasma sVEGFR-1 concentrations has previously been reported before, but were included in this study to provide a complete picture of the angiogenic/anti-angiogenic profiles. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also determined using high sensitivity multiplexed immunoassays in patients with AP and NP. Results AP was associated with a lower median plasma concentration of PlGF and sVEGFR-2 than NP

  13. Evaluating Oxidative Stress Factors Induced by Chlorpyrifos Poisoning in Plasma of Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Results: The oral administration of CPF could induce symptoms such as tremors, hair erection, weakness, diarrhea and asthma on Day 7 and onward. The data analysis of plasma samples showed significant (P<0.001 decrease in the levels of glutathione and CAT enzymatic activity and a significant increase in SOD enzymatic activity and the MDA level. Conclusion: CPF could induce oxidative stress probably via production of free radicals as was evident by reduction of GSH level and CAT activity accompanied by increase in the activity of SOD and enhancement in the level of MDA in plasma samples. This necessitates the application of antioxidants when having exposure with OP pesticides.

  14. DIAGNOSTIC-VALUE OF PLASMA-LEVELS OF TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA (TNF-ALPHA) AND INTERLEUKIN-6 (IL-6) IN NEWBORNS WITH SEPSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBONT, ESJM; MARTENS, A; VANRAAN, J; SAMSON, G; FETTER, WPF; OKKEN, A; DELEIJ, LHFM; KIMPEN, J

    The aim of this study was to examine if TNF alpha and IL-6 plasma levels could be of value in diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels were determined in 15 newborn infants with confirmed sepsis (group I), 18 with suspected sepsis

  15. A cross-sectional survey on prevalence and risk factors for abnormal plasma liver enzymes in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and risk factors for abnormal plasma liver enzymes in patients with type 2diabetes mellitus.Methods Overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from 60 tertiary and secondary hospitals in Guangdong Province between August 2011 and March 2012.The abnormal plasma liver

  16. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds: reference values, factors of variation, and association with feather-damaging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Bougerol, Christian; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David

    2014-03-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a glycoprotein enzyme used in the diagnosis of toxicosis by cholinesterase-inhibitor agents like organophosphates and carbamates. In animals, butyrylcholinesterase concentrations have been shown to vary depending on numerous factors such as age, sex, diet, and season of sampling. To establish reference values of plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in common psittacine species, plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations were measured in 1942 companion psittacine birds. The birds were classified by age, sex, season, health status, and the presence of feather-damaging behavior. A significant difference was observed among species, with eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) having the lowest and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) having the highest reference values. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations varied by age, health status, and season but not by sex. Concentrations were significantly higher during autumn and spring than during winter and summer, and significantly lower in healthy birds than in sick birds. No significant association between butyrylcholinesterase concentrations and feather-damaging behavior could be established except in lovebirds (Agapornis species). Further research is needed to better understand the effect of nutritional and hormonal factors on butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds and its possible effect on bird cognition.

  17. Predictive Value of Nuclear Factor κB Activity and Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalich, Francisco; Garcia-Palomero, Esther; López, Julia; Jiménez, Manuel; Madero, Rosario; Renart, Jaime; Vázquez, Juan José; Montiel, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between fluctuating cytokine concentrations in plasma and the outcome of sepsis is complex. We postulated that early measurement of the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in proinflammatory cytokine expression, may help to predict the outcome of sepsis. We determined NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 34 patients with severe sepsis (23 survivors and 11 nonsurvivors) and serial concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor) and various endogenous antagonists in plasma. NF-κB activity was significantly higher in nonsurvivors and correlated strongly with the severity of illness (APACHE II score), although neither was related to the cytokine levels. Apart from NF-κB activity, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was the only cytokine tested whose level in plasma was of value in predicting mortality by logistic regression analysis. These results underscore the prognostic value of early measurement of NF-κB activity in patients with severe sepsis. PMID:10722586

  18. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  19. Factors regulating immunoglobulin production by normal and disease-associated plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A; Elsawa, Sherine F

    2015-01-21

    Immunoglobulins are molecules produced by activated B cells and plasma cells in response to exposure to antigens. Upon antigen exposure, these molecules are secreted allowing the immune system to recognize and effectively respond to a myriad of pathogens. Immunoglobulin or antibody secreting cells are the mature form of B lymphocytes, which during their development undergo gene rearrangements and selection in the bone marrow ultimately leading to the generation of B cells, each expressing a single antigen-specific receptor/immunoglobulin molecule. Each individual immunoglobulin molecule has an affinity for a unique motif, or epitope, found on a given antigen. When presented with an antigen, activated B cells differentiate into either plasma cells (which secrete large amounts of antibody that is specific for the inducing antigen), or memory B cells (which are long-lived and elicit a stronger and faster response if the host is re-exposed to the same antigen). The secreted form of immunoglobulin, when bound to an antigen, serves as an effector molecule that directs other cells of the immune system to facilitate the neutralization of soluble antigen or the eradication of the antigen-expressing pathogen. This review will focus on the regulation of secreted immunoglobulin by long-lived normal or disease-associated plasma. Specifically, the focus will be on signaling and transcriptional events that regulate the development and homeostasis of long-lived immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells.

  20. Leukocyte telomere length is inversely correlated with plasma Von Willebrand factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Nzietchueng, Rosine; Kimura, Masayuki;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is short, while the plasma level of Von Willebrand (VWF) is high in persons with atherosclerosis. Moreover, both short LTLs and high VWF levels are observed in individuals who display risks for atherosclerosis, including hypertension, obesity, insulin...

  1. Alterations of plasma nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and soluble form of its receptor (sFlt-1 after resistance exercise: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahanni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Resistance training does not alter plasma angiogenic factors (NO, VEGF, and sFlt-1, at least in normal rats. More studies are needed to show the effect of resistance training on angiogenesis process.

  2. New functional assays to selectively quantify the activated protein C- and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, N A; Rosing, J; Thomassen, M C L G D; Castoldi, E; Simioni, P; Hackeng, T M

    2017-02-17

    Essentials Protein S is a cofactor of activated protein C (APC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). There are no assays to quantify separate APC and TFPI cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. We developed assays to measure the APC- and TFPI-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. The assays were sensitive to protein S deficiency, and not affected by the Factor V Leiden mutation.

  3. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L; Patterson, Sharla G; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. We have reported previously that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endostatin and decreased unbound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in men. However, there are no data on women. The present study determines the following: (a) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers and (b) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound VEGF than lean women. A total of 72 African American and White adult women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 44 years were enrolled in the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (55-59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was quantified utilizing a metabolic cart. We obtained blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays showed that the plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 min), significantly higher than the basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P<0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase in the sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and White (P=0.533) women or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. The basal plasma levels of unbound VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than the basal levels of unbound VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P<0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alfa and interleukin-4 in cerbrospinal fluid and plasma in different clinical forms of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immunemediated central nervous system disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal degeneration. Cytokines are proven mediators of immunological process in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in the production of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin-4 (IL-4 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma in the MS patients and the controls (other neurological non-inflammatory diseases and to determine a possible difference in these cytokines in plasma and CSF in different clinical forms of MS. Methods. This study involved 60 consecutive MS patients - 48 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS and 12 patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS. The control group consisted of 20, age and sex matched, nonimmunological, neurological patients. According to the clinical presentation of MS at the time of this investigation, 34 (56.7% patients had relapse (RRMS, 14 (23.3% were in remission (RRMS, while the rest of the patients, 12 (20.0%, were SPMS. TNF-alpha and IL-4 concentrations were measured in the same time in CSF and plasma in the MS patients and the controls. Extended disability status score (EDSS, albumin ratio and IgG index were determined in all MS patients. Results. The MS patients had significantly higher CSF and plasma levels of TNF-alpha than the controls (p < 0.001 for both samples. IL-4 CSF levels were significantly lower in the MS patients than in the controls (p < 0.001, however plasma levels were similar. The patients in relapse (RRMS and with progressive disease (SPMS had higher concentrations of CSF TNF-alpha levels than the patients in remission (p < 0.001. IL-4 CSF levels in relapse (RRMS and SPMS groups were lower than in the patients in remission. The patients in remission had an unmeasurable plasma TNF-alpha level and the patients with SPMS had significantly lower IL-4 levels in plasma than the patients in

  5. A novel collagen/platelet-rich plasma (COL/PRP) scaffold: preparation and growth factor release analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiujie; Wang, Jingwei; Ren, Mingguang; Li, Lifeng; Wang, Qingwen; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely used in clinical practice for more than 20 years because it causes the release of many growth factors. However, the burst release pattern and short release period of PRP have become obstacles to its application. An optimal controllable release system is an urgent need for researchers. This study investigated whether collagen/PRP (COL/PRP) scaffolds can serve as a vehicle for the controllable release of growth factors. We fabricated a novel scaffold that integrates PRP activated by thrombin or collagen into type I collagen. The mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) content were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that the COL/PRP scaffolds were not cytotoxic to L-929 fibroblasts. The PDGF and FGF content in the thrombin group was at a higher level and lasted for a long period of time. Collagen and thrombin played the same role in the release of TGF-β1 and VEGF. These data suggest that the novel COL/PRP scaffolds provide a carrier for the controllable release of growth factors and may be used in tissue- regenerative therapies.

  6. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications.

  7. Microparticles (MPs), tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor inhibitor (TFPI) in cord blood plasma. A preliminary study and literature survey of procoagulant properties of MPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszyński, Mieczysław; Zekanowska, Ewa; Uszyński, Waldemar; Kuczyński, Jarosław; Zyliński, Andrzej

    2011-09-01

    In the working hypothesis we assumed that the procoagulant activity of microparticles (MPs) is associated with the concentration of tissue factor (TF) and its inhibitor (TFPI), and that these three components together affect fetal hemostasis. The aim of the study was to check whether MPs are present in the cord blood, to compare their concentration with that in the maternal blood, as well as to measure the concentrations of TF antigen and TFPI antigen in the cord blood and maternal blood. The study group consisted of 28 healthy parturient women who gave normal delivery, and their 28 babies. Blood from the umbilical vein was collected immediately after delivery, still prior to omphalotomy, whereas mother's blood was obtained from the antecubital vein. The concentration of MPs as well as TF antigen and TFPI antigen were measured using ELISA method. The level of MPs in cord blood plasma was found to be 6.25 times higher than in the mother's blood plasma (median: 26.76 nM PS; range: 22.90-34.41 nM PS vs. median: 4.26 nM PS; range: 2.68-5.37 nM PS respectively, p=0.0022), whereas the level of TF antigen was 1.94 times higher in the fetus than in the mother (median: 238.03 pg/ml; range: 192.25-283.10 pg/ml vs. median: 122.4 pg/ml, range: 52.71-176.74 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.0012). On the other hand, the level of TFPI antigen was lower in cord blood plasma than in maternal blood plasma, accounting for 33.95% of the value noted in the mother (median: 30.04 ng/ml, range: 24.84-35.12 ng/ml vs. median: 88.48 ng/ml; range: 78.64-107.20 ng/ml, respectively, pMPs) are constituent components of cord blood plasma; their concentration is significantly higher than that in mother's blood plasma. In the fetus, MPs may play a role of a powerful procoagulant, thus facilitating thrombin generation (TF-dependent thrombin generation, which may take place on their surface); this hypothesis is based on literature data and our own evidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  8. Relationships between stress, social adaptation, personality traits, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol plasma concentrations in employees at a publishing company in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Kanae; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Hori, Hikaru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Chen, Hsin-I; Nakamura, Jun

    2011-04-30

    There is growing evidence that blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a major metabolite of noradrenaline, are related to depression-associated personality traits as well as to depressive, suicidal and anxious states. Psychological job stress is well known to lead to symptoms of depression, anxiety and suicide. We have recently reported that psychological job stress among hospital employees altered blood levels of BDNF and MHPG (Mitoma et al., 2008). In the present study, we re-examined the effects of social adaptation and personality traits, as well as those of psychological job stress, on plasma levels of BDNF and MHPG in healthy employees (n=269, male/female=210/59, age=49 ± 10years) working in a publishing company in Japan. The values (mean ± SD) of scores on the Stress and Arousal Check Lists (s-SACL and a-SACL), Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS), plasma MHPG levels and plasma BDNF levels were 6.0 ± 3.4, 5.7 ± 2.3, 33.7 ± 6.8, 5.8 ± 4.3 and 4.6 ± 3.1ngml(-1), respectively. A positive correlation was found between plasma MHPG levels and scores on the s-SACL, but not the a-SACL. A positive correlation was also found between SASS scores and plasma MHPG levels and between SASS scores and plasma BDNF levels. A negative correlation was found between plasma BDNF levels and s-SACL scores. Furthermore, a positive correlation between NEO-Five factor Inventory (Openness) scores and plasma MHPG levels was observed, as well as between NEO-Five factor Inventory (Extroversion) scores and plasma BDNF levels. These results suggest that levels of plasma BDNF and plasma MHPG might be associated with psychological job stress and certain personality traits among employees in the publishing industry in Japan.

  9. Associations between five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and plasma levels of monoamine metabolite in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenya; Miura, Itaru; Kanno-Nozaki, Keiko; Horikoshi, Sho; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2015-12-15

    The five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia symptoms is the most common multiple-factor model used in analyses; its use may improve evaluation of symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Plasma monoamine metabolite levels are possible indicators of clinical symptoms or response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. We investigated the association between five-factor model components and plasma monoamine metabolites levels to explore the model's biological basis. Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography in 65 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Significant negative correlation between plasma 5-HIAA levels and the depression/anxiety component was found. Furthermore, significant positive correlation was found between plasma MHPG levels and the excitement component. Plasma HVA levels were not correlated with any five-factor model component. These results suggest that the five-factor model of the PANSS may have a biological basis, and may be useful for elucidating the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Assessment using the five-factor model may enable understanding of monoaminergic dysfunction, possibly allowing more appropriate medication selection. Further studies of a larger number of first-episode schizophrenia patients are needed to confirm and extend these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual rights versus societal duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, E

    1999-10-29

    In 'bioethics', the rights to self-determination and to informed consent of the patient are prerequisites to every medical decision: paternalism is no longer a justifiable attitude. Hence, it seems that compulsory vaccination is an unacceptable praxis. Even John Stuart Mill. however, took into account other values: e.g. the duty not to harm others. This article is dedicated to the analysis of the historical development of these values and to their relevance for the ethics of vaccination. The acceptability of coercion is upheld, but no clear-cut answers are given in general: in every case the pros and cons of coercion are to be weighed carefully against each other.

  11. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) contained in Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) stimulates migration of osteoblasts by reorganizing actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Lavinia; Celotti, Fabio; Negri-Cesi, Paola; Sacchi, Maria Cristina; Castano, Paolo; Colciago, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a platelet concentrate in a small volume of plasma. It is highly enriched in growth factors able to stimulate the migration and growth of bone-forming cells. PRP is often used in clinical applications, as dental surgery and fracture healing. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), is highly concentrated in PRP and it was shown in our previous studies to provide the chemotactic stimulus to SaOS-2 osteoblasts to move in a microchemotaxis assay. Aim of the present studies is to analyze the effects of a PRP pretreatment (short time course: 30-150 min) of SaOS-2 cells with PRP on the organization of actin cytoskeleton, the main effector of cell mobility. The results indicate that a pretreatment with PRP increases chemokinesis and chemotaxis and concomitantly induces the organization of actin microfilaments, visualized by immunocytochemistry, in a directionally elongated phenotype, which is characteristic of the cells able to move. PRP also produces a transient increase in the expression of PGDF α receptor. This reorganization is blocked by the immunoneutralization of PDGF demonstrating the responsibility of this growth factor in triggering the mechanisms responsible for cellular movements.

  12. Evaluating Oxidative Stress Factors Induced by Chlorpyrifos Poisoning in Plasma of Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, M.; A Zare’i Mahmoudabadi; M Fasihi Ramandi; A Kazemi; J Rasouli Vani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide that has been used abundantly over the globe during the past 40 years. Chemical pesticides may induce oxidative stress via generating free radicals and altering antioxidant levels of the free radical scavenging enzyme activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in the plasma samples of Wistar rat. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were selected r...

  13. The Duty to Rescue and Investigators' Obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Douglas; Rulli, Tina

    We examine current applications of the moral duty to rescue to justify clinical investigators' duties of ancillary care and standard of care to subjects in resource-poor settings. These applications fail to explain why investigators possess obligations to research participants, in particular, and not to people in need, in general. Further, these applications fail to recognize the normative significance of the institutional role of the investigators. We offer a positive account of the duty to rescue for investigators as institutional agents, with duties to populations rather than merely individuals.

  14. Properties of the Products Formed by the Activity of Serum Opacity Factor against Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Pownall, Henry J.; Courtney, Harry S.; Gillard, Baiba K.; Massey, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Serum opacity factor from Streptococcus pyogenes transfers the cholesteryl esters (CE) of ~100,000 plasma high density lipoprotein particles (HDL) to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM) while forming neo HDL, a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle. HDL, neo HDL, and CERM are distinct. Neo HDL is lower in free cholesterol and has lower surface and total microviscosities than HDL; the surface polarity of neo HDL and HDL are similar. CERM is much larger than HDL and richer in cholesterol and CE. Althou...

  15. The effect of recombinant erythropoietin on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Hoejman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The study aims to investigate the effect of repeated infusions of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with affective disorders. In total, 83 patients were recruited: 40 currently depressed patients with treatment......-resistant depression (TRD) (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS-17) score >17) (study 1) and 43 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in partial remission (HDRS-17 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) ≤ 14) (study 2). In both studies, patients were randomised to receive eight weekly EPO (Eprex; 40,000 IU...

  16. The acute response of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a result of exercise in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Gunnar; Lira, Claudia Mallea; Johansson, Jon; Wisén, Anita; Wohlfart, Björn; Ekman, Rolf; Westrin, Asa

    2009-10-30

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neurotrophins are believed to play an important role in affective disorders. In this study we investigated plasma-BDNF response during an incremental exercise test in 18 patients suffering from moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) and 18 controls. The patients were not treated with antidepressants or neuroleptics. Possible associations between plasma plasma-BDNF levels, dexamethasone suppression test cortisol levels and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were also tested. No difference in basal BDNF levels between patients and controls was found. BDNF increased significantly during exercise in both male and female patients as well as in male controls, with no significant differences between the groups. BDNF levels declined after exercise, but after 60 min of rest BDNF levels showed tendencies to increase again in male patients. No correlation between BDNF and cortisol or MADRS scores was found. We conclude that unmedicated patients with moderate depression and normal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis do not have a disturbed peripheral BDNF release during exercise. The BDNF increase 60 min after interruption of exercise in male patients might indicate up-regulated BDNF synthesis, but this needs to be further investigated in future studies.

  17. Duty hours and incidents in flight among commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anna Donnla; Issartel, Johann; Fletcher, Richard; Warrington, Giles

    2016-01-01

    Working long duty hours has often been associated with increased risk of incidents and accidents in transport industries. Despite this, information regarding the intermediate relationship between duty hours and incident risk is limited. This study aimed to test a work hours/incident model to identify the interplay of factors contributing to incidents within the aviation industry. Nine hundred and fifty-four European-registered commercial airline pilots completed a 30-item survey investigating self-report attitudes and experiences of fatigue. Path analysis was used to test the proposed model. The fit indices indicated this to be a good fit model (χ(2) = 11.066, df = 5, p = 0.05; Comparative Fit Index = 0.991; Normed Fit Index = 0.984; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.962; Root Mean Square of Approximation = 0.036). Highly significant relationships were identified between duty hours and sleep disturbance (r = 0.18, p < 0.001), sleep disturbance and fatigue in the cockpit (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), and fatigue in the cockpit and microsleeps in the cockpit (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). A critical pathway from duty hours through to self-reported incidents in flight was identified. Further investigation employing both objective and subjective measures of sleep and fatigue is needed.

  18. 19 CFR 159.38 - Rates for estimated duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... duties. For purposes of calculating estimated duties, the port director shall use the rate or rates... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates for estimated duties. 159.38 Section 159.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. Plasma CCN2/connective tissue growth factor is associated with right ventricular dysfunction in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakhus Svend

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid heart disease, a known complication of neuroendocrine tumors, is characterized by right heart fibrotic lesions. Carcinoid heart disease has traditionally been defined by the degree of valvular involvement. Right ventricular (RV dysfunction due to mural involvement may also be a manifestation. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 is elevated in many fibrotic disorders. Its role in carcinoid heart disease is unknown. We sought to investigate the relationship between plasma CCN2 and valvular and mural involvement in carcinoid heart disease. Methods Echocardiography was performed in 69 patients with neuroendocrine tumors. RV function was assessed using tissue Doppler analysis of myocardial systolic strain. Plasma CCN2 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare groups where appropriate. Linear regression was used to evaluate correlation. Results Mean strain was -21% ± 5. Thirty-three patients had reduced RV function (strain > -20%, mean -16% ± 3. Of these, 8 had no or minimal tricuspid and/or pulmonary regurgitation (TR/PR. Thirty-six patients had normal or mildly reduced RV function (strain ≤ -20%, mean -25% ± 3. There was a significant inverse correlation between RV function and plasma CCN2 levels (r = 0.47, p Conclusions Elevated plasma CCN2 levels are associated with RV dysfunction and valvular regurgitation in NET patients. CCN2 may play a role in neuroendocrine tumor-related cardiac fibrosis and may serve as a marker of its earliest stages.

  20. Apolipoprotein AI deficiency inhibits serum opacity factor activity against plasma high density lipoprotein via a stabilization mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Patel, Niket; Gillard, Baiba K; Yelamanchili, Dedipya; Yang, Yaliu; Courtney, Harry S; Santos, Raul D; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2015-04-14

    The reaction of Streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) produces a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), a smaller neo HDL that is apolipoprotein (apo) AI-poor, and lipid-free apo AI. SOF is active versus both human and mouse plasma HDL. In vivo injection of SOF into mice reduces plasma cholesterol ∼40% in 3 h while forming the same products observed in vitro, but at different ratios. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that labile apo AI is required for the SOF reaction vs HDL. Here we further tested that hypothesis by studies of SOF against HDL from apo AI-null mice. When injected into apo AI-null mice, SOF reduced plasma cholesterol ∼35% in 3 h. The reaction of SOF vs apo AI-null HDL in vitro produced a CERM and neo HDL, but no lipid-free apo. Moreover, according to the rate of CERM formation, the extent and rate of the SOF reaction versus apo AI-null mouse HDL were less than that against wild-type (WT) mouse HDL. Chaotropic perturbation studies using guanidine hydrochloride showed that apo AI-null HDL was more stable than WT HDL. Human apo AI added to apo AI-null HDL was quantitatively incorporated, giving reconstituted HDL. Both SOF and guanidine hydrochloride displaced apo AI from the reconstituted HDL. These results support the conclusion that apo AI-null HDL is more stable than WT HDL because it lacks apo AI, a labile protein that is readily displaced by physicochemical and biochemical perturbations. Thus, apo AI-null HDL is less SOF-reactive than WT HDL. The properties of apo AI-null HDL can be partially restored to those of WT HDL by the spontaneous incorporation of human apo AI. It remains to be determined what other HDL functions are affected by apo AI deletion.

  1. Streptococcal serum opacity factor increases the rate of hepatocyte uptake of human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2010-11-16

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ∼400000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins, and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E-dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The uptake of [(3)H]CE by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was 2.4 and 4.5 times faster, respectively, than from control HDL. CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[(3)H]CE but not HDL-[(3)H]CE uptake, thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases the rate of CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase the level of hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful.

  2. Plasma total homocysteine (THCY) level and other biochemical risk factors in hypertensives with and without cardiovascular events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akande AA; Salisu OT; Omotoso ABO; Kolo PM

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and elevated plasma tHcy level in Nigerian hypertensive. Methods: Thirty-six hypertensive patients were recruited with 36 age and sex-matched controls. The age, sex and anthropometric measurements including height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were taken. Plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), tri-glycerides and tHey were analyzed. The results of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher in the subjects than in the controls (P=0.01 and 0.03 respectively). On the other hand, means of HDL-C and triglycerides were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.06 and O. 68 respectively). Mean total plasma tHey was (12. 95±4.9)μmol/L in hypertensive patients when compared with (11.29±3.6)μmol/L in the controls (P =0.09), however the mean they was significantly higher in hypertensive patients who had stroke or myocardial infarction than those without these complications (one way Anova F = 3.63, P =0.04). Significant positive correlation was seen between tHcy and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and LDL-C. Conclusion:The study suggests that elevated plasma tH-ey may predict occurrence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive individuals.

  3. Analysis of cytokine profile and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma obtained by open systems and commercial columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Antonioli, Eliane; Bucci, Daniella Zanetti; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ferretti, Mario; Ejnisman, Benno; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate growth factors and cytokines in samples of platelet-rich plasma obtained by three different centrifugation methods. Peripheral blood of six individuals with no hematological diseases, aged 18 to 68 years, was drawn to obtain platelet-rich plasma, using the open method and commercial columns by Medtronic and Biomet. The products obtained with the different types of centrifugation were submitted to laboratory analysis, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by flow cytometry assays, the concentration of fibroblast growth factors-2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1). The diverse separation methods generated systematically different profiles regarding number of platelets and leukocytes. The Medtronic system yielded a product with the highest concentration of platelets, and the open method, with the lowest concentration of platelets. The results of cytokine analysis showed that the different types of centrifugation yielded products with high concentrations of interleukin 8, interleukin 1β. The open system resulted in a product with high levels of interleukin 6. Other cytokines and chemokines measured were similar between systems. The product obtained with the open method showed higher levels of TGF-β1 in relation to other systems and low FGF-2 levels. The formed elements, growth factors and cytokines in samples of platelet-rich plasma varied according to the centrifugation technique used. Avaliar fatores de crescimento e citocinas em amostras de plasma rico em plaquetas obtidas por três diferentes métodos de centrifugação. Foi coletado sangue periférico de seis indivíduos, sem doença hematológica, com idades entre 18 e 68 anos, para obtenção de plasma rico em plaquetas, utilizando o método aberto e sistemas comerciais das empresas Medtronic e Biomet. Os produtos obtidos com os diferentes tipos de centrifugação foram submetidos às análises laboratoriais, incluindo citocinas próinflamatórias e quimiocinas

  4. Study on main factors influencing acetylene formation during coal pyrolysis in arc plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.R.; Chang, L.P.; Lu, Y.K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2006-05-15

    Acetylene from coal pyrolysis in arc plasma jet is simple and environmentally friendly with promising applications. A set of rank-ordered coal samples were selected in this study, in order to study the effects of volatile matter yield and the content of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in raw coal on the yield of acetylene from arc plasma pyrolysis. The influence of feeding rate on the conversion of coal and acetylene yield was also investigated. The results showed that acetylene and carbon monoxide were the main gaseous products during coal pyrolysis under plasma conditions. A higher acetylene yield of 17-22% could be obtained from coal with volatile matter yield of 25-40%. A high C/H mole ratio and low O/C mole ratio were favorable to the formation of acetylene. The percent conversion of coal, the yield of acetylene and the specific energy consumption (SEC) decreased as the feeding rate increased, but the trends in their changes were not identical. The relative volume fractions (RVF) in gaseous products of acetylene and carbon monoxide increased with increasing coal feeding rate until 5 g s{sup -1}, while the RVFs of light hydrocarbons such as CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} gradually increased. The change in the selectivity for acetylene was not obvious when the feeding rate was less than 4 g s{sup -1}. However, the portion of acetylene in the total gaseous products decreased rapidly when the coal feeding rate was further increased.

  5. Simulation of the Effects of Several Factors on Arc Plasma Behavior in Low Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the properties of the arc plasma and the electromagnetic, heat and radiative phenomena, commercial computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS has been adapted and modified to develop the three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD)model of arc in a low voltage circuit breaker. The effects of the arc ignition location, venting size and gassing material on arc behavior have been investigated. The analysis of the results show that the arc velocity accelerates with the increase in the distance between arc ignition location and of the venting size, and the existence of the gassing material is beneficial to improving the arc voltage and reducing the arc temperature.

  6. Density Fluctuations in the Yukawa One Component Plasma: An accurate model for the dynamical structure factor

    CERN Document Server

    Mithen, James P; Crowley, Basil J B; Gregori, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we investigate the equilibrium dynamics of a single component fluid with Yukawa interaction potential. We show that, for a wide range of densities and temperatures, the dynamics of the system are in striking agreement with a simple model of generalized hydrodynamics. Since the Yukawa potential can describe the ion-ion interactions in a plasma, the model has significant applicability for both analyzing and interpreting the results of x-ray scattering data from high power lasers and fourth generation light sources.

  7. Inflammation but not obesity or insulin resistance is associated with increased plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Michał; Chudek, Jerzy; Owczarek, Aleksander; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Bożentowicz-Wikarek, Maria; Duława, Jan; Mossakowska, Małgorzata; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Skalska, Anna; Więcek, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone involved in calcium-phosphate homoeostasis. The data of recently published studies suggest that FGF-23 may also play a role in some metabolic processes beyond mineral metabolism, such as insulin resistance or energy homoeostasis. The aim of the study was to attempt the relationships between plasma cFGF-23 (C-terminal) and iFGF-23 (intact) concentrations and the occurrence of obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation in elderly population. The analysis included 3115 elderly subjects (1485 women). During three visits, a questionnaire survey, comprehensive geriatric assessment and anthropometric measurements were performed as well as blood and urine samples were collected by trained nurses. Serum phosphorus, calcium, intact parathormone (iPTH), 25(OH)D3 , iFGF-23 and cFGF-23, insulin, glucose, albumin (also in urine), creatinine, hs-CRP, interleukin-6 and NT-proBNP concentrations were assessed. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the standard formula. Both forms of FGF23, iPTH and 25-OH-D3 levels were not related to the occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance. Increase in phosphorus, iPTH and NT-proBNP concentrations is associated with rise in plasma iFGF23 and cFGF23 levels. Additionally, increase in hs-CRP explained the elevated plasma iFGF23 levels. In multiple regression models, circulating iFGF23 and cFGF23 level's variability in elderly population were explained by changes in serum phosphorus, iPTH, eGFR, hs-CRP and NT-proBNP levels but not by BMI and HOMA-IR values. In conclusion, our study shows that increased levels of both circulating Fibroblast growth factor 23 forms in elderly subjects are associated with inflammation but not obesity or insulin resistance per se. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Plasma von Willebrand factor as a predictor of survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers have been identified for pulmonary arterial hypertension, but are less well defined for specific etiologies such as congenital heart disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (CHDPAH. We measured plasma levels of eight microvascular dysfunction markers in CHDPAH, and tested for associations with survival. A cohort of 46 inoperable CHDPAH patients (age 15.0 to 60.2 years, median 33.5 years, female:male 29:17 was prospectively followed for 0.7 to 4.0 years (median 3.6 years. Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA and its inhibitor (PAI-1, P-selectin, reactive C-protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 and -10 were measured at baseline, and at 30, 90, and 180 days in all subjects. Levels of six of the eight proteins were significantly increased in patients versus controls (13 to 106% increase, P < 0.003. Interleukin-10 level was 2.06 times normal (P = 0.0003; Th2 cytokine response. Increased levels of four proteins (t-PA, PAI-1, P-selectin, and interleukin-6 correlated with disease severity indices (P < 0.05. Seven patients died during follow-up. An average VWF:Ag (mean of four determinations above the level corresponding to the 95th percentile of controls (139 U/dL was independently associated with a high risk of death (hazard ratio = 6.56, 95%CI = 1.46 to 29.4, P = 0.014. Thus, in CHDPAH, microvascular dysfunction appears to involve Th2 inflammatory response. Of the biomarkers studied, plasma vWF:Ag was independently associated with survival.

  9. Emission characteristics of kerosene-air spray combustion with plasma assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A plasma assisted combustion system for combustion of kerosene-air mixtures was developed to study emission levels of O2, CO2, CO, and NOx. The emission measurement was conducted by Testo 350-Pro Flue Gas Analyzer. The effect of duty ratio, feedstock gas flow rate and applied voltage on emission performance has been analyzed. The results show that O2 and CO emissions reduce with an increase of applied voltage, while CO2 and NOx emissions increase. Besides, when duty ratio or feedstock gas flow rate decreases, the same emission results would appear. The emission spectrum of the air plasma of plasma assisted combustion actuator was also registered to analyze the kinetic enhancement effect of plasma, and the generation of ozone was believed to be the main factor that plasma makes a difference in our experiment. These results are valuable for the future optimization of kerosene-fueled aircraft engine when using plasma assisted combustion devices to exert emission control.

  10. Low prevalence of antibodies and other plasma factors binding to CC chemokines and IL-2 in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Svenson, M; Schade Larsen, C;

    2000-01-01

    of HIV-infected patients were therefore assessed by radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay. IgG from 4/505 HIV patients and 9/2000 healthy controls (p>0.05) bound rMIP-1alpha and rMIP-1beta, but not rRANTES. No other plasma factors bound the chemokines. The antibodies inhibited receptor binding of both...... chemokines. There was no association between presence of antibodies and disease stage or HIV progression rate. Three of 11 patients treated with rIL-2 developed IgG antibodies suppressing cellular binding and growth promotion of rIL-2. Hence, circulating factors, including antibodies MIP-1alpha/MIP-1beta...

  11. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I as predictor of progression and all cause mortality in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Kistorp, Caroline; Raymond, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an anabolic growth factor that seems to increase cardiac contractility. Reduced levels of IGF-I may be implicated in progression of CHF. The objective was to compare plasma IGF-I in CHF patients with healthy controls, and to examine......, renal function and LVEF) IGF-I levels did not influence the overall mortality risk or the admission rate to hospital, hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence intervals) 1.05 (0.75-1.47) (P=0.77) and 1.00 (0.80-1.26) (P=0.96), respectively per each SD increase in log IGF-I levels. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels...

  12. Selective depletion of plasma prekallikrein or coagulation factor XII inhibits thrombosis in mice without increased risk of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenko, Alexey S; Gao, Dacao; Crosby, Jeff R; Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Zhao, Chenguang; May, Chris; Gailani, David; Monia, Brett P; MacLeod, A Robert

    2011-11-10

    Recent studies indicate that the plasma contact system plays an important role in thrombosis, despite being dispensable for hemostasis. For example, mice deficient in coagulation factor XII (fXII) are protected from arterial thrombosis and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. We demonstrate that selective reduction of prekallikrein (PKK), another member of the contact system, using antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) technology results in an antithrombotic phenotype in mice. The effects of PKK deficiency were compared with those of fXII deficiency produced by specific ASO-mediated reduction of fXII. Mice with reduced PKK had ∼ 3-fold higher plasma levels of fXII, and reduced levels of fXIIa-serpin complexes, consistent with fXII being a substrate for activated PKK in vivo. PKK or fXII deficiency reduced thrombus formation in both arterial and venous thrombosis models, without an apparent effect on hemostasis. The amount of reduction of PKK and fXII required to produce an antithrombotic effect differed between venous and arterial models, suggesting that these factors may regulate thrombus formation by distinct mechanisms. Our results support the concept that fXII and PKK play important and perhaps nonredundant roles in pathogenic thrombus propagation, and highlight a novel, specific and safe pharmaceutical approach to target these contact system proteases.

  13. Growth factor-enriched autologous plasma improves wound healing after surgical debridement in odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Fong Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is a fulminant infection of odontogenic origin that quickly spreads along the fascial planes and results in necrosis of the affected tissues. It is usually polymicrobial, occurs frequently in immunocompromised patients, and has a high mortality rate. Case presentation A 69-year old Mexican male had a pain in the maxillar right-canine region and a swelling of the submental and submandibular regions. Our examination revealed local pain, tachycardia, hyperthermia (39°C, and the swelling of bilateral submental and submandibular regions, which also were erythematous, hyperthermic, crepitant, and with a positive Godet sign. Mobility and third-degree caries were seen in the right mandibular canine. Bacteriological cultures isolated streptococcus pyogenes and staphylococcus aureus. The histopathological diagnosis was odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis of the submental and submandibular regions. The initial treatment was surgical debridement and the administration of antibiotics. After cultures were negative, the surgical wound was treated with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma eight times every third day until complete healing occurred. Conclusions The treatment with a growth factor-enriched autologous plasma caused a rapid healing of an extensive surgical wound in a patient with odontogenic necrotizing fasciitis. The benefits were rapid tissue regeneration, an aesthetic and a functional scar, and the avoidance of further surgery and possible complications.

  14. Low prevalence of antibodies and other plasma factors binding to CC chemokines and IL-2 in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C N; Svenson, M; Schade Larsen, C; Odum, N; Skinhøj, P; Bendtzen, K

    2000-02-01

    Neutralizing cytokine antibodies are found in healthy and diseased individuals, including patients treated with recombinant cytokines. Identification of CCR-5 as co-receptor for HIV has focused interest on CC chemokines and their potential therapeutic use. Chemokine-binding components in plasma of HIV-infected patients were therefore assessed by radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay. IgG from 4/505 HIV patients and 9/2000 healthy controls (p>0.05) bound rMIP-1alpha and rMIP-1beta, but not rRANTES. No other plasma factors bound the chemokines. The antibodies inhibited receptor binding of both chemokines. There was no association between presence of antibodies and disease stage or HIV progression rate. Three of 11 patients treated with rIL-2 developed IgG antibodies suppressing cellular binding and growth promotion of rIL-2. Hence, circulating factors, including antibodies MIP-1alpha/MIP-1beta, are uncommon in healthy individuals and HIV patients, and are apparently without prognostic significance. In contrast to earlier reports, IL-2 antibodies were found only in HIV patients treated with rIL-2.

  15. 76 FR 66915 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of measure into... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-Month Cap on Duty and Quota Free...

  16. 77 FR 59913 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-month cap on duty and quota free...

  17. 77 FR 64798 - Correction to the Amendment of the Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for ] units of... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Correction to the Amendment of the Limitation of Duty- and Quota- Free...: Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-Month Cap on Duty...

  18. 75 FR 1589 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... World Trade Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-month cap on duty- and quota-free...

  19. 76 FR 66914 - Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Organization Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC), and the conversion factors for units of measure into... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment of Limitation of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles... Implementation of Textile Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 12-Month Cap on Duty and Quota Free...

  20. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helminiak, M.A.; Yanar, N.M.; Pettit, F.S.; Meier, G.H. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 636 Benedum Hall, 3700 O& #x27; Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Taylor, T.A. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., 1400 Polco Street, Indianapolis, IN 46224 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Forgiveness and the Limits of Duty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Can there be a duty to forgive those who have wronged us? According to a popular view amongst philosophers working on forgiveness the answer is no. Forgiveness, it is claimed, is always elective. This view is rejected by Gamlund (2010a; 2010b) who argues that duties to forgive do exist and then

  2. Health versus harm: euthanasia and physicians' duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J L A

    2007-01-01

    This essay rebuts Gary Seay's efforts to show that committing euthanasia need not conflict with a physician's professional duties. First, I try to show how his misunderstanding of the correlativity of rights and duties and his discussion of the foundation of moral rights undermine his case. Second, I show aspects of physicians' professional duties that clash with euthanasia, and that attempts to avoid this clash lead to absurdities. For professional duties are best understood as deriving from professional virtues and the commitments and purposes with which the professional as such ought to act, and there is no plausible way in which her death can be seen as advancing the patient's medical welfare. Third, I argue against Prof. Seay's assumption that apparent conflicts among professional duties must be resolved through "balancing" and argue that, while the physician's duty to extend life is continuous with her duty to protect health, any duty to relieve pain is subordinate to these. Finally, I show that what is morally determinative here, as throughout the moral life, is the agent's intention and that Prof. Seay's implicitly preferred consequentialism threatens not only to distort moral thinking but would altogether undermine the medical (and any other) profession and its internal ethics.

  3. 45 CFR 46.403 - IRB duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IRB duties. 46.403 Section 46.403 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Research § 46.403 IRB duties. In addition to...

  4. Exit and the duty to admit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lenard, Patti Tamara

    2015-01-01

    .... I argue that receiving states are duty-bound to act in ways that enable migrants to exercise their right to exit. In particular, I argue that receiving states have a perfect duty to collectivize the process by which needy migrants can exercise the right to exit.

  5. Forgiveness and the Limits of Duty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Can there be a duty to forgive those who have wronged us? According to a popular view amongst philosophers working on forgiveness the answer is no. Forgiveness, it is claimed, is always elective. This view is rejected by Gamlund (2010a; 2010b) who argues that duties to forgive do exist and then prov

  6. Seven Legal Duties of a Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figone, Albert J.

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies seven legal duties of coaches and discusses the practical application of each. These duties relate to supervision, planning, warning of risks, providing a safe environment, evaluating players for injuries and incapacities, fairly matching players, and first aid and emergency procedures. (IAH)

  7. 7 CFR 1205.332 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Secretary, a program of research, advertising, and sales promotion projects, together with a... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.332 Duties. The Board shall have the following duties:...

  8. Duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2012-02-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body and have many different and important roles. These micromachines move along filament tracks and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II (a nonprocessive molecular machine with a low duty ratio), cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of nonprocessive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  9. THE EFFECT OF INSULIN LIKE GROWTH FACTOR – I COMPLEX TO CORELATION MALONDIALDEHIDE CONCENTRATE WITH INTAC MEMBRAN PLASMA OF SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherni Susilowati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was study of Insulin Like Growth -I Complex to level of malondialdehide (MDA and percentage of intact membrane plasm. Report of several species suggest that seminal plasma contains factors that may influence sperm viability. Seminal plasma was reported to be important for maintaining spermatozoa motility in bull and ram. For improving ram sperm viability and for increasing the resistance of boar spermatozoa to cold shock damage. IGF-I has been identified in the testis, where secreted by Leydig and Sertoli cells. Collection of semen by using artificial vagina from male goats and then characterized of motility and viability of spermatozoa. Identification of Insulin Like Growth Factor –I Complex were done by Native-PAGE 12% techniques, after several bands were identified and was done isolate of first band protein Insulin Like Growth Factor-I Complex. Insulin Like Growth Factor – I (IGF-I Complex seminal plasma have molecular weight of 150,288 kDa, respectively. Sperm preparation for this research by centrifugation of semen with Bracket and Oliphan’s medium. These sperm preparation were characterized of motility, viability. Then after sperm preparation divided into three groups. The group I, added with Bracket and Oliphan’t medium, group II added with Bracket Oliphan’t and IGF – I Complex medium, group III added with IGF – I Complex medium and then were exposed 45 minutes for incubation and then percentage of MPU and level of MDA was evaluated. The result of this research showed that percentage of level MDA has significant different between group I,group II and group III, (p<0,05. The percentage of MPU sperm has significant different between groups I, group II and group III (p<0,05. The highest of percentage MPU was found in group III and the lower of level MDA was found in group III. Regresion test showed that negative correlation between level of MDA and percentage of MPU sperm.

  10. Neonatal Plasma Polarizes TLR4-Mediated Cytokine Responses towards Low IL-12p70 and High IL-10 Production via Distinct Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderbos, Mirjam E.; Levy, Ofer; Stalpers, Femke; Kimpen, Jan L.; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs) produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP) or soluble CD14 (sCD14). The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection. PMID:22442690

  11. Neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine responses towards low IL-12p70 and high IL-10 production via distinct factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E Belderbos

    Full Text Available Human neonates are highly susceptible to infection, which may be due in part to impaired innate immune function. Neonatal Toll-like receptor (TLR responses are biased against the generation of pro-inflammatory/Th1-polarizing cytokines, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal plasma polarizes TLR4-mediated cytokine production. When exposed to cord blood plasma, mononuclear cells (MCs produced significantly lower TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 and higher IL-10 compared to MC exposed to adult plasma. Suppression by neonatal plasma of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production, but not induction of TLR4-mediated IL-10 production, was maintained up to the age of 1 month. Cord blood plasma conferred a similar pattern of MC cytokine responses to TLR3 and TLR8 agonists, demonstrating activity towards both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent agonists. The factor causing increased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production by cord blood plasma was heat-labile, lost after protein depletion and independent of lipoprotein binding protein (LBP or soluble CD14 (sCD14. The factor causing inhibition of TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production by cord blood plasma was resistant to heat inactivation or protein depletion and was independent of IL-10, vitamin D and prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10 or production. Further identification of these factors will provide insight into the ontogeny of innate immune development and might identify novel targets for the prevention and treatment of neonatal infection.

  12. An oxidized derivative of phosphatidylcholine is a substrate for the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, K E; Stafforini, D M; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M

    1989-04-05

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a glycerophospholipid that has diverse potent biological actions. A plasma enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acetoyl group of PAF and thereby abolishes its bioactivity. This PAF acetylhydrolase is specific for phospholipids, such as PAF, with a short acyl group at the sn-2 position. The majority of it (60-70%) is associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the remainder is with high density lipoprotein (HDL). LDL also has a phospholipase A2 activity that is specific for oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be important in determining how LDL is recognized by cellular receptors. We previously have purified and characterized the PAF acetylhydrolase from human plasma. We now have found that the purified PAF acetylhydrolase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the oxidized fragments of arachidonic acid from the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine. One of the preferred substrates appeared by mass spectrometry to have 5-oxovalerate at the sn-2 position. We synthesized 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and found that the PAF acetylhydrolase had the same apparent Km for it (11.3 microM) as for PAF (12.5 microM), with Vmax values of 100 and 167 mumol/h/mg of protein, respectively. We also conclude that the PAF acetylhydrolase is the sole activity in LDL that degrades oxidized phospholipids since we found co-localization of the activity against both substrates to LDL and HDL, and precipitation of enzyme activity with an antibody to the PAF acetylhydrolase. Thus, the PAF acetylhydrolase in human plasma degrades oxidized phospholipids, which may be involved in the modification of apolipoprotein B100 and other pathological processes.

  13. Modulatory effects of aromatherapy massage intervention on electroencephalogram, psychological assessments, salivary cortisol and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Ji; Cui, Yanji; Yang, Yoon-Sil; Kang, Moon-Seok; Jung, Sung-Cherl; Park, Hyeung Keun; Yeun, Hye-Young; Jang, Won Jung; Lee, Sunjoo; Kwak, Young Sook; Eun, Su-Yong

    2014-06-01

    Aromatherapy massage is commonly used for the stress management of healthy individuals, and also has been often employed as a therapeutic use for pain control and alleviating psychological distress, such as anxiety and depression, in oncological palliative care patients. However, the exact biological basis of aromatherapy massage is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated here the effects of aromatherapy massage interventions on multiple neurobiological indices such as quantitative psychological assessments, electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. A control group without treatment (n = 12) and aromatherapy massage group (n = 13) were randomly recruited. They were all females whose children were diagnosed as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and followed up in the Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University Hospital. Participants were treated with aromatherapy massage for 40 min twice per week for 4 weeks (8 interventions). A 4-week-aromatherapy massage program significantly improved all psychological assessment scores in the Stat-Trait Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Short Form of Psychosocial Well-being Index. Interestingly, plasma BDNF levels were significantly increased after a 4 week-aromatherapy massage program. Alpha-brain wave activities were significantly enhanced and delta wave activities were markedly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment, as shown in the meditation and neurofeedback training. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were significantly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage could exert significant influences on multiple neurobiological indices such as EEG pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma BDNF levels as well as psychological assessments. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, learning capacity and cognition in patients with first episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Azua Sonia Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairments are seen in first psychotic episode (FEP patients. The neurobiological underpinnings that might underlie these changes remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels are associated with cognitive impairment in FEP patients compared with healthy controls. Methods 45 FEP patients and 45 healthy controls matched by age, gender and educational level were selected from the Basque Country area of Spain. Plasma BDNF levels were assessed in healthy controls and in patients. A battery of cognitive tests was applied to both groups, with the patients being assessed at 6 months after the acute episode and only in those with a clinical response to treatment. Results Plasma BDNF levels were altered in patients compared with the control group. In FEP patients, we observed a positive association between BDNF levels at six months and five cognitive domains (learning ability, immediate and delayed memory, abstract thinking and processing speed which persisted after controlling for medications prescribed, drug use, intelligence quotient (IQ and negative symptoms. In the healthy control group, BDNF levels were not associated with cognitive test scores. Conclusion Our results suggest that BDNF is associated with the cognitive impairment seen after a FEP. Further investigations of the role of this neurotrophin in the symptoms associated with psychosis onset are warranted.

  15. Factors predictive of macrosomia in pregnancies with a positive oral glucose challenge test: importance of fasting plasma glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legardeur, H; Girard, G; Journy, N; Ressencourt, V; Durand-Zaleski, I; Mandelbrot, L

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the factors associated with fetal macrosomia following a positive oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). In this retrospective single-centre study of 1268 pregnancies with positive 50-g OGCTs (plasma glucose≥130mg/dL, or 7.2mmol/L), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG)≥95mg/dL (5.3mmol/L) and/or postprandial glucose (PPG)≥120mg/dL (6.7mmol/L). In GDM pregnancies, the odds ratios adjusted for confounders (age, BMI, ethnicity, parity and weight gain) were 2.02 for macrosomia (Z score≥1.28) and 2.62 for severe macrosomia (Z score≥1.88). For each 10-mg/dL increase in FPG, the mean birth-weight increase was 60g. Macrosomia risk did not differ between GDM patients with normal FPG (macrosomia risk were strongly correlated with FPG, suggesting that it is a simple and efficient marker for the risk of macrosomia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python (Morelia spilota imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gillian L; Fleming, Patricia A; Twomey, Leanne; Warren, Kristin A

    2012-04-01

    Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons (Morelia spilota imbricata) were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia. Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time (radiotransmitters were surgically implanted), repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters. There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity. Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer (as was phosphorous) and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement (as was calcium). No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M. s. imbricata. For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.

  17. Plasma adiponectin: a contributing factor for cardiac changes in visceral obesity-associated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Licata, Anna; Argano, Christiano; Duro, Giovanni; Corrao, Salvatore; Scaglione, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate the impact of adiponectin levels on left ventricular geometry and function in visceral obesity-associated hypertension. 94 consecutive subjects, 53 of them were hypertensives and 41 normotensives with age ≤ 65 years, subgrouped according to the presence or absence of visceral obesity, were studied. Total adiponectin levels were measured by a validated competitive radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular telediastolic internal diameter, interventricular septum, posterior wall thickness, total left ventricular mass (LVM) and normalized for height to the 2.7 power (LVM/h(2.7)), relative wall thickness, left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography and isovolumic relaxation time, E/A ratio and deceleration time of E velocity, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in visceral obesity-associated hypertensives than lean hypertensives (p hypertensive groups, and in visceral obesity-associated normotensives in comparison with lean normotensives. Adiponectin levels correlated inversely with LVM/h(2.7) but only in normotensives (adjusted R squared 0.77, p hypertensives (0.67, p obesity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that adiponectin levels remain significantly associated (p obesity-associated normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In this last group, adiponectin, more than blood pressure, may be able to explain the development of cardiac damage.

  18. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...

  19. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body

  20. The forkhead transcription factor FOXP1 represses human plasma cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Van Keimpema (Martine); L.J. Grüneberg (Leonie J.); M. Mokry (Michal); R. Van Boxtel (Ruben); M.C. van Zelm (Menno); P.J. Coffer (Paul); S. Pals; M. Spaargaren

    2015-01-01

    textabstractExpression of the for khead transcription factor FOXP1 is essential for early B-cell development, whereas down regulation ofFOXP1at the germinal center (GC) stage is required for GC B-cell function. Aberrantly high FOXP1 expression is frequently observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

  1. Decreased plasma levels of activated factor VII in patients with deep vein thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A. M.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Y.; van Montfoort, M. L.; Roest, M.; de Groot, P. G.; Urbanus, R. T.; Coppens, M.; Lisman, T.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundThe initiating trigger in the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unidentified. It has been suggested that tissue factor (TF)-bearing microparticles play a key role, which indicates a role for the TF pathway in the initiation of DVT. ObjectiveTo assess the role of the TF path

  2. The plasma-rich in growth factor as a suitable matrix in regenerative endodontics: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Hengameh; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Rayani, Arezoo; Navi, Fina; Asna-Ashari, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Anahid; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the positive effect of plasma-rich in growth factor (PRGF) on pulp regeneration and apex formation in cases with necrotic pulps and open apices. After access cavity preparation and cleaning of the canal, triple antibiotic paste was inserted into the canals for the purpose of disinfection. After two weeks, apical bleeding was mechanically created by insertion of a #80 file through the apex. PRGF obtained from the patient was centrifuged and injected into the canals up to the level of the cementoenamel junction; the teeth were restored temporarily. The patients returned for review two weeks later. If there was absence of pain, swelling, fistula or any other complication, the teeth were sealed with MTA and composite. At 22 months follow-up, complete apex closure in two teeth and apical closure and continued increase of dentinal wall thickness in two other cases were evident.

  3. Considerations in the development of a sensitive HPLC assay for human epidermal growth factors in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, J R; Rossi, D T; Nordblom, G D; Dudeck, R C; Barksdale, C M; Kuo, B S; Wright, D S

    1995-09-01

    A sensitive assay was developed for human epidermal growth factors (hEGF) 1-48 (dosed), hEGF 1-53 (endogenous), without interference from potential metabolites hEGFs 1-47 or 1-46. Spiked human plasma samples were injected directly, utilizing on-line immunoaffinity HPLC (anti-hEGF) clean-up. No change in capacity was noted after 81 cycles. After release from the immunoaffinity column, the fragments were further resolved by strong cation-exchange (SCX) via a column switching valve. Method development also required interfacing immunoaffinity, ion-exchange, and detection components. Immunoassays on collected fractions yielded a detection limit of 1 microgram ml-1, although a detection limit of 75 pg ml-1 appears feasible.

  4. Plasma rich in growth factors and bone formation: a radiological and histomorphometric study in New Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Molina-Miñano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A radiographic and histomorphometric study was conducted on the influence of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF upon bone healing in surgically created defects in rabbits. Radiographically, bone regeneration was significantly greater with the use of PRGF after one month (p = 0.005, though no differences were recorded after the second month. In the histomorphometric analysis one month after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone plus PRGF showed a greater percentage of neoformed bone (35.01 ± 5.31 than the control defects (22.90 ± 12.23, though the differences were not significant. Two months after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone showed greater regeneration (46.04 ± 10.36% than the control defects (30.59 ± 5.69%, though the differences were not significant. The application of PRGF in the bone defects produced in New Zealand rabbits exerted a limited effect on local bone formation.

  5. Plasma rich in growth factors and bone formation: a radiological and histomorphometric study in New Zealand rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Miñano, Francisco; López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    A radiographic and histomorphometric study was conducted on the influence of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) upon bone healing in surgically created defects in rabbits. Radiographically, bone regeneration was significantly greater with the use of PRGF after one month (p = 0.005), though no differences were recorded after the second month. In the histomorphometric analysis one month after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone plus PRGF showed a greater percentage of neoformed bone (35.01 +/- 5.31) than the control defects (22.90 +/- 12.23), though the differences were not significant. Two months after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone showed greater regeneration (46.04 +/- 10.36%) than the control defects (30.59 +/- 5.69%), though the differences were not significant. The application of PRGF in the bone defects produced in New Zealand rabbits exerted a limited effect on local bone formation.

  6. Properties of the Products Formed by the Activity of Serum Opacity Factor against Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Henry J.; Courtney, Harry S.; Gillard, Baiba K.; Massey, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor from Streptococcus pyogenes transfers the cholesteryl esters (CE) of ~100,000 plasma high density lipoprotein particles (HDL) to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM) while forming neo HDL, a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle. HDL, neo HDL, and CERM are distinct. Neo HDL is lower in free cholesterol and has lower surface and total microviscosities than HDL; the surface polarity of neo HDL and HDL are similar. CERM is much larger than HDL and richer in cholesterol and CE. Although the surface microviscosity of HDL is higher than that of CERM, they have similar total microviscosities because cholesterol partitions into the neutral lipid core. Because of its unique surface properties apo E preferentially associates with the CERM. In contrast, the composition and properties of neo HDL make it a potential acceptor of cellular cholesterol and its esterification. Thus, neo HDL and CERM are possible vehicles for improving cholesterol transport to the liver. PMID:18838065

  7. Properties of the products formed by the activity of serum opacity factor against human plasma high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Henry J; Courtney, Harry S; Gillard, Baiba K; Massey, John B

    2008-11-01

    Serum opacity factor from Streptococcus pyogenes transfers the cholesteryl esters (CE) of approximately 100,000 plasma high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL) to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM) while forming neo HDL, a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle. HDL, neo HDL, and CERM are distinct. Neo HDL is lower in free cholesterol and has lower surface and total microviscosities than HDL; the surface polarity of neo HDL and HDL are similar. CERM is much larger than HDL and richer in cholesterol and CE. Although the surface microviscosity of HDL is higher than that of CERM, they have similar total microviscosities because cholesterol partitions into the neutral lipid core. Because of its unique surface properties apo E preferentially associates with the CERM. In contrast, the composition and properties of neo HDL make it a potential acceptor of cellular cholesterol and its esterification. Thus, neo HDL and CERM are possible vehicles for improving cholesterol transport to the liver.

  8. Clinical correlates of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor in post-traumatic stress disorder spectrum after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, Paolo; Sanità, Patrizia; Bonanni, Roberto L; de Cataldo, Stefano; Angelucci, Adriano; Rossi, Rodolfo; Origlia, Nicola; Domenici, Luciano; Carmassi, Claudia; Piccinni, Armando; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2016-10-30

    Clinical correlates of plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) have been investigated in a clinical population with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and healthy control subjects who survived to the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake. Twenty-six outpatients and 14 control subjects were recruited. Assessments included: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders Patient Version, Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) for post-traumatic spectrum symptoms. Thirteen patients were diagnosed as Full PTSD and 13 as Partial PTSD. The subjects with full-blown PTSD showed lower BDNF level than subjects with partial PTSD and controls. Different relationship patterns of BDNF with post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms have been reported in the three samples. Our findings add more insight on the mechanisms regulating BDNF levels in response to stress and further proofs of the utility of the distinction of PTSD into full and partial categories.

  9. [Patients' rights--doctors' duties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, L; Bertram, E; Grate, S; Mischkowsky, T; Paul, D; Probst, J; Scala, E; Wbllenweber, H D

    2015-06-01

    On 26 February 2013 the new "Law on Patients' Rights" (hereinafter also the "Law") became effective. This Law strengthens patients' rights vis-à-vis the insurdnce company and also regulates patients' rights regarding their relation to the doctor. This has consequences for the laws on medical liability all doctors must consider. The doctor's performance is and remains a service and such service does not hold any guarantee of success. Nevertheless, this Law primarily reads as a "law on the duties of physicians". To duly take into account these duties and to avoid mistakes and misinterpretation of the Law, the Ethics Committee of the Consortium of Osteosynthesis Trauma Germany (AOTRAUMA-D) has drafted comments on the Law. Brief summaries of its effects are to be found at the end of the respective comment under the heading "Consequences for Practice". The text of the law was influenced particularly by case law, as continuously developed by the German Federal Court of Justice ("BGH"). The implementation of the Law on Patients' Rights was effected by the newly inserted sections 630a to 630h of the German Civil Code (the "BGB"), which are analysed below. The following comments are addressed to physicians only and do not deal with the specific requirements and particularities of the other medical professions such as physiotherapy, midwifery and others so on. Special attention should be paid to the comments on the newly inserted Duty to inform, which has to be fullfilled prior to any diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (sec. 630c para 2 sentence 1 BGB). Under certain conditions the doctor also has to inform the patient about the circumstances that lead to the presumed occurance of a therapeutic or diagnostic malpractice (sec. 630c para. 2 sentence 2 BGB), based on the manifestation of an undesired event or an undesired outcome. As before, the patient's valid consent to any procedure (sec. 630d BGB) is directly linked to the comprehensive and timely provision of information

  10. Arsenic exposure affects plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 in children in rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (As through drinking water during pregnancy is associated with lower birth size and child growth. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of As exposure on child growth parameters to evaluate causal associations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Children born in a longitudinal mother-child cohort in rural Bangladesh were studied at 4.5 years (n=640 as well as at birth (n=134. Exposure to arsenic was assessed by concurrent and prenatal (maternal urinary concentrations of arsenic metabolites (U-As. Associations with plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, calcium (Ca, vitamin D (Vit-D, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and phosphate (PO4 were evaluated by linear regression analysis, adjusted for socioeconomic factor, parity and child sex. Child U-As (per 10 µg/L was significantly inversely associated with concurrent plasma IGF-1 (β=-0.27; 95% confidence interval: -0.50, -0.0042 at 4.5 years. The effect was more obvious in girls (β=-0.29; -0.59, 0.021 than in boys, and particularly in girls with adequate height (β=-0.491; -0.97, -0.02 or weight (β=-0.47; 0.97, 0.01. Maternal U-As was inversely associated with child IGF-1 at birth (r=-0.254, P=0.003, but not at 4.5 years. There was a tendency of positive association between U-As and plasma PO4 in stunted boys (β=0.27; 0.089, 0.46. When stratified by % monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, arsenic metabolite (median split at 9.7%, a much stronger inverse association between U-As and IGF-1 in the girls (β=-0.41; -0.77, -0.03 was obtained above the median split. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that As-related growth impairment in children is mediated, at least partly, through suppressed IGF-1 levels.

  11. THE EFFECT OF PLASMA PREPARATION RICH IN GROWTH FACTORS ON PATELLAR STABILITY AFTER MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT REEFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andonovski Alan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although more than 100 operative procedures have been described for the treatment of patellar instability, there is no single universally successful procedure. For the most patients with lateral patellar instability medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL reefing is recommended. When we perform MPFL reefing we are not aware of the quality and strength of the MPFL tissue. In the presence of recurrent patellar instability,the quality and strength of MPFL tissue is often compromised and it disturbs patellar stability after MPFL reefing. Biomedicine development,recognizing the ligament healing process show us that autologous blood products, particularly PRP can enhance healing in soft tissue injuries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the potential effect of Plasma preparation rich in growth factorson patellar stability after MPFL reefing. Material and methods: Plasma preparationrich in growth factors was produced from a unit of autologous whole blood using Arthrex ACP double syringe system.Platelet gel was prepared by adding bovine thrombin and 10% solution of calcium chloride.The platelet gel was applied locally into the place where suturing of the MPFL was performed. In this prospective, randomized and double blindstudy12 patients were included:6 patients in the PG group who received platelet gel and 6 patients in the control group who were not treated with platelet gel. Patellar stability was evaluated before surgery and 3 months after surgery with Axial stress radiographs. Results: The calculated 3 month improvement was 12.67 ± 2.51 in the control group and 17.33 ± 1.52 in the PG group, (p=0.064.Although there was greater improvement in patellar stability in PG group comparing to the control group, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.The main reason for this was probably the small number of patients included in the study. Conclusion: Results showed that growth factors from the plasma

  12. Risk Factors and Plasma Glucose Profile of Gestational Diabetes in Omani Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitme, Havagiray R; Al Shibli, Sumaiya Abdallah Said; Al-Shamiry, Raya Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to conduct a detailed study on the risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Omani women to determine the actual and applicable risk factors and glucose profile in this population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study using pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Pregnant women without GDM were used as a control group. We collected information related to age, family history, prior history of pregnancy complications, age of marriage, age of first pregnancy, fasting glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results from three hospitals in Oman through face-to-face interviews and hospital records. Results The median age of women with GDM was 33 years old (p 3 deliveries, height marriage at age family history, anthropometric profile, and age of first pregnancy and marriage should be considered while screening for GDM and determining the care needs of Omani women with GDM. PMID:27602192

  13. Heavy duty complete extension slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, José Ignacio; Vázquez, Javier

    2001-09-01

    The selection from available commercial market of a set of slides to be used in an habitable pressurised module in space, to draw a 660 mm box out of a rack, up to a completely extracted position in a safely supported configuration, seems in principle not to be a complicated task. That was the first approach taken in the design process of the telescopic guides of the Crew Work Bench (CWB) included in the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), part of "ESA Microgravity Facilities for Columbus" within the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Nevertheless, common space compatible requirements such as materials, specific environmental loads, available envelope, total weight, etc., can make the selection of telescopic slides from commercial market unfeasible. A specific development to design space compatible telescopic slides for the CWB was undertaken. A set of heavy duty space compatible telescopic slides were designed, manufactured and tested. They should be operative in both, 1-g environment and in orbit, and additionally should withstand an inadvertent astronaut kick or bump of 556 N in any direction.

  14. Elective surgery on factor VIII inhibitor patients using continuous infusion of recombinant activated factor VII: plasma factor VII activity of 10 IU/ml is associated with an increased incidence of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M P; Ludlam, C A; Collins, P W; Hay, C R; Wilde, J T; Grigeri, A; Melsen, T; Savidge, G F

    2001-10-01

    We examined recombinant activated factor VII (rVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to eight patients with inhibitors to factor VIII, undergoing elective surgery. rVIIa was infused at a fixed rate of 16.5 microg/kg/h for a median of 13.5 days (range 1-26). There was effective haemostasis at this infusion rate in only one of two minor procedures and two of six major operations. Three patients experienced excessive bleeding despite plasma factor VII activity around 10 IU/ml. Serious bleeding occurred in two other patients caused by procedural errors unrelated to rVIIa and required re-operation. The median rVIIa clearance on day 1 was 57 ml/h/kg (range 18-100) and on day 3 was 100 ml/h/kg (range 61-200). Clearance on the final infusion day was not significantly different from day 3. The infusion did not induce pathological activation of the coagulation mechanism. The only thrombotic adverse events were two episodes of superficial thrombophlebitis of the infused vein in one subject. In conclusion, the 16.5 microg/kg/h infusion rate reliably achieves plasma factor VII activity levels of 10 IU/ml, but this level does not provide reliable haemostasis.

  15. 7 CFR 1210.328 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan National Watermelon Promotion Board § 1210.328 Duties....

  16. 7 CFR 1207.328 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan National Potato Promotion Board § 1207.328 Duties. The Board...

  17. Ethics, pandemics, and the duty to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Heidi; May, Thomas; Francis, Leslie P; Omer, Saad B; Salmon, Daniel A; Hood, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Numerous grounds have been offered for the view that healthcare workers have a duty to treat, including expressed consent, implied consent, special training, reciprocity (also called the social contract view), and professional oaths and codes. Quite often, however, these grounds are simply asserted without being adequately defended or without the defenses being critically evaluated. This essay aims to help remedy that problem by providing a critical examination of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these five grounds for asserting that healthcare workers have a duty to treat, especially as that duty would arise in the context of an infectious disease pandemic. Ultimately, it argues that none of the defenses is currently sufficient to ground the kind of duty that would be needed in a pandemic. It concludes by sketching some practical recommendations in that regard.

  18. The role of carrier number on the procoagulant activity of tissue factor in blood and plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, G. W.; Rugonyi, S.; Gruber, A.; McCarty, O. J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein cofactor of activated blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIa) that is required for hemostatic thrombin generation at sites of blood vessel injury. Membrane-associated TF detected in circulating blood of healthy subjects, referred to as intravascular or circulating TF has been shown to contribute to experimental thrombus propagation at sites of localized vessel injury. Certain disease states, such as metastatic cancer, are associated with increased levels of intravascular TF and an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism. However, the physiological relevance of circulating TF to hemostasis or thrombosis, as well as cancer metastasis, is ill-defined. This study was designed to assess whether the spatial separation of intravascular TF carriers in blood, demonstrated with TF-inducible human monocytic cell line U937 or TF-coated polymer microspheres, affected procoagulant activity and hence thrombogenic potential. Experiments were performed to characterize the effects of TF-carrier number on the kinetics of clot formation in both open and closed systems. The procoagulant activity of TF carriers was found to correlate with spatial separation in both closed, well-mixed systems and open, flowing systems. TF carriers enhanced the amidolytic activity of FVIIa toward the chromogenic substrate, S-2366, as a function of carrier count. These results suggest that TF-initiated coagulation by circulating TF is kinetically limited by mass transport of TF-dependent coagulation factors to the TF-bearing surface, a constraint that may be unique to circulating TF. Spatial separation of circulating TF carriers is therefore a critical determinant of the procoagulant activity of circulating TF.

  19. State duties of protection and fundamental rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Starck

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Duties of protection are duties of the state to protect certain legal interests of its citizens. They cover the interests of life, health, freedom and property and also protect some other interests and certain constitutionally recognised institutions. State duties of protection must be considered in connection with fundamental rights. The foundations of modern constitutionalism and attendant procedures are essential to develop guidelines for a constructive critique of the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court. This is done with reference to the recent history of France, Germany and England. The historical excursus reveals that a single theory underlies the variety of constitutional states. The development of the constitutional state gave rise to the significance of the preservation of freedom through the maintenance of law and the separation of powers. This has given rise to various legal devices, based also in part on experience with moderate rule and earlier theories of the imperium limitatum.A textual analysis of the German Basic Law is undertaken to determine whether and how the duties of protection are expressly created. Furthermore, the duties that have been discovered in the Basic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court are considered. These duties include the protection of human life and health, personal freedom, the right to autonomous development of one's personality, freedom of science, research and teaching, marriage and the family, children, mothers, professional freedom, property and the protection of German nationals against foreign states. Finally the justification of such duties and the constitutional control of the manner of protection are considered.In a final section a critique of relevant constitutional jurisprudence is undertaken. It is argued that claims to protection cannot be directly binding law. They presuppose legislation. If statutory protection is connected with infringements of third-party fundamental rights

  20. Factors associated with the effectiveness of plasma exchange for the treatment of NMO-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Min; Pyun, So Young; Kang, Bong-Hui; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Kwang-Kuk

    2013-08-01

    To identify factors associated with plasma exchange response in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 31 NMO-IgG-positive patients receiving plasma exchange for steroid-resistant exacerbations were analyzed. Functional improvement was observed in 65% of the patients. A lower baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale score was associated with favorable response (p = 0.040). Patients without cord atrophy had a higher success rate than patients with atrophy (p = 0.016). Levels of NMO-IgG did not differ between responders and non-responders before and after plasma exchange. In conclusion, a minimal pre-existing disability is the primary determinant of the effectiveness of plasma exchange.

  1. Significance of plasma von Willebrand factor level and von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease activity in patients with chronic renal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-yuan; SHEN Lei; WANG Zhao-yue; GUO Xiao-fang; BAI Xia; SU Jian; RUAN Chang-geng

    2008-01-01

    Background yon Willebrand factor(vWF)mediates the initial capture of platelets to vascular subendothelium and is essential for platelet aggregation under high fluid shear stress as in arteriaI stenosis.On release frOm endothelial cells,vWF is rapidly cleaved by ADAMTSl 3/vWF-cleaving protease (vWF-CP).We investigated the clinical significance of changes in plasma vWF and vWF-CP activities in chronic renal disease.Methods Plasma vWF and vWF-CP activities were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and residual collagen binding assay respectively in patients with lupus nephritis(n=31),primary nephritic syndrome(n=25),diabetic nephropathy(n=45),chronic glomerulonephritis(n=38)and 40 normal controls.The reIation of their levels with pathological and renal status was analyzed.Results In all diseased patients the levels of vWF were significantly higher and vWF-CP activity significantly lower than the controls(both P<0.01).vWF in the four subgroups did not correlate with the stage of disease but correlated negatively with vWF-CP activity.vWF-CP activity was not changed two weeks after renal transplantation.Renal biopsy demonstrated that the vWF level in stage Ⅳ was higher than in stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ while vWF-CP activity was lower in patients with lupus nephritis.After eight-week treatment,the vWF level significantly decreased and the vWF-CP activity significantly increased in systemic lupus erythema,disease activity index<9,but not with index≥9.Even though the vWF-CP activity was significantly lower in membranous nephropathy than in minimal change disease,mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis or IgA glomerulonephritis,the vWF level was not significantly different.Conclusions The alterations of plasma vWF and vWF-CP activities were associated with different renal pathologies.Injury to endothelial cells and autoantibodies against vWF-CP activity may result in higher vWF Ievel and Iower vWF-CP activity in chronic renaI disease and thus a

  2. 19 CFR 10.43 - Duty-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 10.43 Duty-free status. (a) The port director may, at his discretion, require appropriate proof of... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duty-free status. 10.43 Section 10.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  3. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  4. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement; duties of Customs officers. 12.62 Section 12.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...; duties of Customs officers. (a) In accordance with the authority contained in sections 10 and 12 of...

  5. The clinical significance of tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma level in patients having chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J; Manshouri, Taghi; Giles, Francis J; Dey, Amanda; Estrov, Zeev; Koller, Charles A; Kurzrock, Razelle; Thomas, Deborah A; Faderl, Stefan; Lerner, Susan; O'Brien, Susan; Albitar, Maher

    2002-08-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine possessing pleiotropic biological activities, is produced by leukemic lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acts as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor in this disease. In this study, TNF-alpha levels were determined in 150 patients with CLL and correlated with disease characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival. The mean TNF-alpha plasma concentration in the patients with CLL was significantly higher than in the healthy control population (16.4 versus 8.7 pg/mL; P <.0001). Patients having an elevated TNF-alpha level had more advanced Rai and Binet stage disease, higher serum beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) levels, a greater percentage of cells expressing CD38, and lower hemoglobin and platelet levels. Patients having chromosomal abnormalities such as 11q deletion, trisomy 12, and chromosome 17 aberrations had a higher mean TNF-alpha level (27.5 pg/mL) than patients having a diploid karyotype or other miscellaneous cytogenetic abnormalities (14.2 pg/mL; P <.001). The TNF-alpha level was a predictor of survival when the Cox proportional hazards model was used with TNF-alpha entered as a continuous variable (P =.0001). Also, patients having a TNF-alpha level above the mean value of 14 pg/mL had significantly shorter survival duration (P =.00001). The TNF-alpha level remained predictive of survival in Cox multivariate analysis independent of Rai staging and beta(2)M, hemoglobin, prior therapy, white cell count, and platelet level (P =.005). We conclude that the TNF-alpha level serves as a prognostic factor in patients with CLL and that inhibition of TNF-alpha in these patients could have therapeutic importance.

  6. The plasma permeability factor in nephrotic syndrome: indirect evidence in pediatric peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azocar, Marta; Quiroz, Lily; Delucchi, Angela; Dinamarca, Hector; Emilfork, Marcos; Cano, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children has been associated with a systemic circulating permeability factor. Therefore, once peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been started, peritoneal protein losses should be higher in the nephrotic than in the non-nephrotic population. We compared peritoneal protein losses in children with and without NS on PD. Our retrospective 4-year study analyzed Hispanic patients with NS under PD. Data at dialysis entry and 6 months later were compared. Nutritional support was given according to recommended dietary allowances and recommendations from the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Clinical and biochemical data were obtained, and 24-hour dialysate and urine samples were collected to measure protein losses. Dialysis dose (Kt/V), daily protein intake (DPI), normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (nPNA), peritoneal equilibration test (PET), and peritonitis rate were determined. All measurements took place at least 4 weeks after resolution of a peritonitis episode. All patients received automated PD using a HomeChoice PD System cycler (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA), with an exchange volume of 1100 mL/m(2) and a dextrose concentration of 1.5% - 2.5%. A control group of non-NS children on PD matched by age and sex were also studied. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation. Differences between groups were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and p permeability caused by a systemic permeability factor.

  7. Measurement of intact insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in human plasma using a ligand immunofunctional assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassarre, C; Binoux, M

    2001-03-01

    Limited proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of IGF-I bioavailability in the bloodstream. Its measurement by Western immunoblotting provides only semiquantitative estimation. We have developed a ligand immunofunctional assay (LIFA) for quantifying human (h) intact IGFBP-3 in biological fluids. IGFBP-bound IGFs are dissociated and separated by acid pH ultrafiltration, and a monoclonal antibody specific to the first 160 amino acids of IGFBP-3 is used to capture hIGFBP-3 in a solid-phase assay. The complex is then incubated with (125)I-IGF-I, which binds to intact IGFBP-3 but not to its proteolytic fragments. Binding specificity was demonstrated in competition experiments with unlabeled IGF. Nonspecific binding was 1.4%. The fragments comprising residues 1-160 and 1-95 of recombinant hIGFBP-3 [corresponding to the major proteolytic fragments of approximately 30 kDa and (glycosylated) 20 or (nonglycosylated) 16 kDa detected in serum by Western immunoblotting, respectively] fail to bind (125)I-IGF-I when complexed with the monoclonal antibody. Similarly, no binding of (125)I-IGF-I was obtained in the LIFA when applied to plasmas from pregnant women during the final 3 months of pregnancy, where the characteristic 42- to 39-kDa doublet of intact IGFBP-3 is undetectable. The standard curve was established using a pool of plasmas (EDTA) from healthy adults, for which standardization with glycosylated recombinant hIGFBP-3 yielded an intact IGFBP-3 content of 2 microg/mL. The dynamic range of the LIFA was 0.50-3.75 microL equivalent of the plasma pool in a total volume of 300 microL per assay tube, with a sensitivity threshold of approximately 1 ng intact IGFBP-3. Unknown plasma samples were studied at three concentrations. Intra- and interassay variations were 3.6% and 4%, respectively. In 31 healthy adults, the mean plasma concentration of intact IGFBP-3 was 2.24 +/- 0.08 (SEM) mg/L, and that of

  8. Towards a Duty of Care for Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, G.; Curtis, A.; Allan, C.

    2010-04-01

    The decline in biodiversity is a worldwide phenomenon, with current rates of species extinction more dramatic than any previously recorded. Habitat loss has been identified as the major cause of biodiversity decline. In this article we suggest that a statutory duty of care would complement the current mix of policy options for biodiversity conservation. Obstacles hindering the introduction of a statutory duty of care include linguistic ambiguity about the terms ‘duty of care’ and ‘stewardship’ and how they are applied in a natural resource management context, and the absence of a mechanism to guide its implementation. Drawing on international literature and key informant interviews we have articulated characteristics of duty of care to reduce linguistic ambiguity, and developed a framework for implementing a duty of care for biodiversity at the regional scale. The framework draws on key elements of the common law ‘duty of care’, the concepts of ‘taking reasonable care’ and ‘avoiding foreseeable harm’, in its logic. Core elements of the framework include desired outcomes for biodiversity, supported by current recommended practices. The focus on outcomes provides opportunities for the development of innovative management practices. The framework incorporates multiple pathways for the redress of non-compliance including tiered negative sanctions, and positive measures to encourage compliance. Importantly, the framework addresses the need for change and adaptation that is a necessary part of biodiversity management.

  9. A STUDY ON PLASMA 25 - HYDROXY VITAMIN D LEVELS AS A RISK FACTOR IN PRIMARY HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinandana Gowda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research shows that vitamin D deficiency could be a risk factor in many chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, auto immune disease and tuberculosis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine serum 25 - hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients with primary hypertension. This study also attempts to demonstrate an inverse co - relation between vitamin D levels and primary hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: 30 patients who are primary hype rtensive were selected, their vitamin D levels measured and the vitamin D levels were compared to age and sex matched non hypertensive controls. STATISTICAL METHODS: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study . ANOVA test and Chi - square test was applied for quantitative and qualitative data respectively to find significant associations between two variables. RESULTS: It is seen from this study that serum vitamin D levels was lower in hypertensive patients when compared to non - hypertensive controls. Hypertensive patients had lower levels of vitamin D with vitamin D status of deficiency in 50% of the cases and insufficiency in 43.3% of the cases and normal levels in 6.7% of the cases. Non hypertensive controls sho wed vitamin D status of normal in 66.7% of controls and insufficiency in 33.3% of the controls without deficiency. Age of the cases, duration of hypertension, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure inversely correlated to vitamin D levels. Bo dy mass index, diet of the patient, alcohol consumption, number of anti - hypertensive drugs, drug compliance, family history of hypertension and fundus status did not correlate to vitamin D levels. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the observations of the study, Vitami n D is an independent risk factor that is associated with primary or essential hypertension. The level of vitamin D also correlated inversely to age, duration of

  10. Lower cerebrospinal fluid/plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 ratios and placental FGF21 production in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee K Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21 levels are increased in insulin resistant states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. In addition, GDM is associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. We sought to study human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and corresponding circulating FGF21 levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and in age and BMI matched control subjects. We also assessed FGF21 secretion from GDM and control human placental explants. DESIGN: CSF and corresponding plasma FGF21 levels of 24 women were measured by ELISA [12 GDM (age: 26-47 years, BMI: 24.3-36.3 kg/m(2 and 12 controls (age: 22-40 years, BMI: 30.1-37.0 kg/m(2]. FGF21 levels in conditioned media were secretion from GDM and control human placental explants were also measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Glucose, HOMA-IR and circulating NEFA levels were significantly higher in women with GDM compared to control subjects. Plasma FGF21 levels were significantly higher in women with GDM compared to control subjects [234.3 (150.2-352.7 vs. 115.5 (60.5-188.7 pg/ml; P<0.05]. However, there was no significant difference in CSF FGF21 levels in women with GDM compared to control subjects. Interestingly, CSF/Plasma FGF21 ratio was significantly lower in women with GDM compared to control subjects [0.4 (0.3-0.6 vs. 0.8 (0.5-1.6; P<0.05]. FGF21 secretion into conditioned media was significantly lower in human placental explants from women with GDM compared to control subjects (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The central actions of FGF21 in GDM subjects maybe pivotal in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in GDM subjects. The significance of FGF21 produced by the placenta remains uncharted and maybe crucial in our understanding of the patho-physiology of GDM and its associated maternal and fetal complications. Future research should seek to elucidate these points.

  11. Interaction between obesity and the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit rs3826795 polymorphism in relation with plasma alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Song, Jieyun; Yang, Yide; Zhang, Yining; Chawla, Nitesh V; Ma, Jun; Wang, Haijun

    2017-07-28

    Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) DNA has been demonstrated to be associated with obesity in the methylation level, and it also has a Body Mass Index (BMI)-independent association with plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT). However, the relation among obesity, plasma ALT, HIF3A polymorphism and methylation remains unclear. This study aims to identify the association between HIF3A polymorphism and plasma ALT, and further to determine whether the effect of HIF3A polymorphism on ALT could be modified by obesity or mediated by DNA methylation. The HIF3A rs3826795 polymorphism was genotyped in a case-control study including 2030 Chinese children aged 7-18 years (705 obese cases and 1325 non-obese controls). Furthermore, the HIF3A DNA methylation of the peripheral blood was measured in 110 severely obese children and 110 age- and gender- matched normal-weight controls. There was no overall association between the HIF3A rs3826795 polymorphism and ALT. A significant interaction between obesity and rs3826795 in relation with ALT was found (P inter = 0.042), with rs3826795 G-allele number elevating ALT significantly only in obese children (β' = 0.075, P = 0.037), but not in non-obese children (β' = -0.009, P = 0.741). Additionally, a mediation effect of HIF3A methylation was found in the association between the HIF3A rs3826795 polymorphism and ALT among obese children (β' = 0.242, P = 0.014). This is the first study to report the interaction between obesity and HIF3A gene in relation with ALT, and also to reveal a mediation effect among the HIF3A polymorphism, methylation and ALT. This study provides new evidence to the function of HIF3A gene, which would be helpful for future risk assessment and personalized treatment of liver diseases.

  12. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese, Korean and Mongolian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Akiko; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Limei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mamiko; Watanabe, Minako; Hashimoto, Michio; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2007-05-01

    The favorable role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal experiments and in humans in Western countries, but its effect remains controversial in Asian populations. An observational study of Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians with extended histories of remarkably different frequencies of fish intake was conducted to examine whether differences in plasma n-3 PUFA affects CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in workplace settings and determined body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fatty acid composition in plasma. A total of 411 Japanese, 418 Korean and 252 Mongolian workers aged 30-60 yr participated in this study. The Japanese ate fish more frequently and had remarkably higher values of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 PUFA, and lower values of BMI and HOMA-IR, followed by the Koreans, and then the Mongolians. In age groups, the Japanese and Koreans showed a similar tendency of increase in n-3 PUFA with increasing age. General linear measurement multivariate analysis after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, exercise habits and BMI showed n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese, while it was associated with systolic blood pressure in the Koreans, and TG in the Mongolians. In conclusion, an increase in n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese and Mongolians, but these beneficial effects were not constant across the three Asian ethnic groups.

  13. A prospective study of gynecological cancer risk in relation to adiposity factors: cumulative incidence and association with plasma adipokine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei-Maan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors with uterine corpus cancer (UCC and ovarian cancer (OVC risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers. METHODS: Totally, 11,258 women, aged 30-65, were recruited into the Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (CBCSP study during 1991-1993, and were followed for UCC and OVC cases until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs. Adiposity factors and risk covariates were assessed at recruitment. Newly-developed cancer cases were determined from data in the government's National Cancer Registry and Death Certification System. For adipokienes study, a nested case-control study was conducted within the cohort. Baseline plasma samples of 40 incident gynecological cancer cases and 240 age-menopause-matched controls were assayed for adipokines levels. FINDINGS: There were 38 and 30 incident cases of UCC and OVC, respectively, diagnosed during a median 19.9 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (HR = 16.00, 95%  = 4.83-53.00, high triglyceride levels (HR = 2.58, 95% = 1.28-5.17, and years of endogenous estrogen exposure per 5-year increment (HR = 1.91, 95%  = 1.08-3.38 were associated with increased UCC risk. High body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2, HR = 2.90, 95%  = 1.30-6.46 was associated with increased OVC risk. Analysis further showed an independent effect of adipokines on UCC and OVC risk after adjustment of the risk covariates. CONCLUSION: We provided evidence

  14. Short-term weight loss in overweight/obese low-income women improves plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cai, Guowen; Klohe, Deborah M; Jordan, Kristine C; Lane, Michelle A; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders involving obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Obesity is the most crucial risk factor of metabolic syndrome, because it is known to precede other risk factors. Obesity is also associated with disturbances in the metabolism of the trace mineral, zinc. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term weight loss on plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors. An 8-week weight loss intervention study was conducted with 90 low-income overweight/obese mothers, whose youngest child was 1-3 years old. Plasma levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured and compared at weeks 0 and 8 of the weight loss program. At pre-study, plasma zinc was low in 39% and, within normal values in 46%, of obese/overweight mothers. By the end of intervention, plasma zinc rose by 22% and only 5% of the mothers continued to exhibit low plasma zinc. At post-study, the metabolic syndrome risk factors of waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure (pzinc increased by a greater margin (67%) in women with low zinc, as compared to those with normal zinc (18%); weight reduction was similar in both the groups. Finally, changes in % body fat were related negatively with changes in plasma zinc (r=- 0.28, pzinc, as well as the metabolic syndrome components, showed significant improvements in overweight/obese low-income women after weight loss.

  15. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  16. Graphics, Playability and Social Interaction, the Greatest Motivations for Playing Call of Duty. Educational Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Lárez, Beatriz Elena

    2014-01-01

    War videogames raise a lot of controversy in the educational field and are by far the most played videogames worldwide. This study explores the factors that encouraged gamers to choose war videogames with a sample of 387 Call of Duty players. The motivational factors were pinpointed using a non-experimental descriptive exploratory study through an…

  17. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic...

  18. Plasma connective tissue growth factor is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease and mortality in type 1 diabetic nephropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Tarnow, L.; Jorsal, A.; Oliver, N.; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Ito, Y.; Parving, H.H.; Rossing, P.; Nieuwenhoven, FA van; Goldschmeding, R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of baseline plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in a prospective study of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were 198 type 1 diabetic patients with established diabetic nephropathy and 188 type 1 diabetic patien

  19. Prediagnostic circulating concentrations of plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of lymphoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Appleby, Paul N.; Tipper, Sarah; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Nieters, Alexandra; Vermeulen, Roel; Roulland, Sandrine; Casabonne, Delphine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renee T.; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Klinaki, Eleni; Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Bonnet, Fabrice; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Barricarte, Aurelio; Gavrila, Diana; Agudo, Antonio; Borgquist, Signe; Rosendahl, Ann H.; Melin, Beatrice; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Travis, Ruth C.

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I has cancer promoting activities. However, the hypothesis that circulating IGF-I concentration is related to risk of lymphoma overall or its subtypes has not been examined prospectively. IGF-I concentration was measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples from a nested

  20. HUBUNGAN KUALITAS DARAH DENGAN KONSENTRASI TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR (TGF-??1) PADA PLATELET RICH PLASMA YANG DIGUNAKAN UNTUK REGENERASI TULANG DAN JARINGAN PERIODONTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mappangara, Surijana

    2015-01-01

    Tujuan : Untuk mengetahui hubungan kualitas darah dengan konsentrasi Transforming Growth Factor (TGF- ??1) pada platelet rich plasma yang digunakan untuk regenerasi tulang dan jaringan periodontal. Bahan dan Metoda : Sebanyak 39 penderita berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Data usia, jenis kelamin, kadar eritrosit, leukosit, hemoglobin, trombosit dan konsentrasi TGF-??1digunakan untuk menganalisis hubungan dengan Korelasi Spearman. Hasil : Rata-rata kadar leukosit dalam darah mencap...

  1. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    1997-01-01

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant r

  2. Influence of tropical adaptation on plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and residual feed intake in purebred and crossbred beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) differed among heifers and steers produced from three-breed diallel matings using temperate and tropically adapted breeds of cattle in Brooksville, FL. Additionally, for steers only, body w...

  3. Plasma Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and d-Dopachrome Tautomerase Show a Highly Specific Profile in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thierry; Schlapbach, Luregn J.; Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Wellmann, Sven; Marquis, Patrick; Vermijlen, David; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic, constitutively expressed, pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important regulator of immune responses. d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a newly described member of the MIF protein superfamily, shares sequence homology and biological activities with MIF. We recently reported that high expression levels of MIF sustain innate immune responses in newborns. Here, we elected to further characterize age-dependent MIF expression and to define whether DDT shares a similar expression profile with MIF. Therefore, we delineated the circulating concentrations of MIF and DDT throughout life using a large cohort of 307 subjects including fetuses, newborns, infants, children, and adults. Compared to levels measured in healthy adults (median: 5.7 ng/ml for MIF and 16.8 ng/ml for DDT), MIF and DDT plasma concentrations were higher in fetuses (median: 48.9 and 29.6 ng/ml), increased further at birth (median: 82.6 and 52.0 ng/ml), reached strikingly elevated levels on postnatal day 4 (median: 109.5 and 121.6 ng/ml), and decreased to adult levels during the first months of life. A strong correlation was observed between MIF and DDT concentrations in all age groups (R = 0.91, P < 0.0001). MIF and DDT levels correlated with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, a protein upregulated under low oxygen tension and implicated in vascular and lung development (R = 0.70, P < 0.0001 for MIF and R = 0.65, P < 0.0001 for DDT). In very preterm infants, lower levels of MIF and DDT on postnatal day 6 were associated with an increased risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and late-onset neonatal sepsis. Thus, MIF and DDT plasma levels show a highly specific developmental profile in early life, supporting an important role for these cytokines during the neonatal period. PMID:28179905

  4. [Utility of platelet-rich plasma and growth factors bone in the bone defects. Regional Hospital Lic. Adolfo López Mateos, ISSSTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia, Trinidad Ramón Mendieta; Soriano, Juan Carlos Alvarado; Corona, Jorge Negrete

    2007-01-01

    The platelet-rich plasma is a concentrated of platelets with the presence of growth factors and proteins that serve as osteoconducer matrix for bone formation. We present the results obtained with the use of platelet-rich plasma and a hydroxyapatite and bovine collagen graft in the management of bone defects. We studied eight patients with bone defects, treated surgically in whom platelet rich plasma and a hydroxyapatite and bovine collagen graft was used, with clinical and radiographic follow-up at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 18 weeks after surgery. Starting on week 7 since surgery, evidence of osteointegration and bone callus formation, during the weeks 10 and 14 most cases showed bone consolidation. A case without consolidation through week 18. The immediate response of the body tissue damaged is the accumulation of a large number of activated platelets, which release their granules and growth factors that promote the regeneration of tissues. It is possible to obtain platelet-rich plasma and accelerating the process of bone regeneration. Our study shows beneficial results with the use of platelet-rich plasma.

  5. Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M K; Ogino, A; Nagatsu, M [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Johoku 3-5-1, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)], E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2009-11-15

    In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N{sub 2}:O{sub 2}=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 10{sup 6} populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 deg. C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek (registered) sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

  6. Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. K.; Ogino, A.; Nagatsu, M.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N2:O2=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 106 populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 °C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek® sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

  7. Elevated plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 decrease during improvement of psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Svendsen, M N;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: An evaluation of angiogenesis related molecules during open treatment of psoriasis. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: Plasma samples and skin biopsies from 16 patients with psoriasis and plasma samples from 13 healthy controls. TREATMENT: Ranitidine 300 mg orally twice daily for 6 mon...... improvement of the disease suggest that the two molecules may play a role in pathogenesis of psoriasis.......OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: An evaluation of angiogenesis related molecules during open treatment of psoriasis. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: Plasma samples and skin biopsies from 16 patients with psoriasis and plasma samples from 13 healthy controls. TREATMENT: Ranitidine 300 mg orally twice daily for 6...

  8. A Proposal for a Novel H- Ion Source Based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Heating and Surface Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O.; Kurennoy, S.

    2009-03-01

    A design for a novel H- ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE111 eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H- ion beam is further "self-extracted" through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H- ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  9. Duty-ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, Nadiv

    2012-01-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body, and have many different and important roles. These micro-machines move along filament tracks, and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty-ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II - a non-processive molecular machine with a low duty ratio - cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of non-processive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  10. High-throughput proteomic characterization of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret)-derived fibrin clot interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Prado, Roberto; Azkargorta, Mikel; Rodriguez-Suárez, Eva; Iloro, Ibon; Casado-Vela, Juan; Elortza, Felix; Orive, Gorka

    2015-11-01

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF®-Endoret®) is an autologous technology that contains a set of proteins specifically addressed to wound healing and tissue regeneration. The scaffold formed by using this technology is a clot mainly composed of fibrin protein, forming a three-dimensional (3D) macroscopic network. This biomaterial is easily obtained by biotechnological means from blood and can be used in a range of situations to help wound healing and tissue regeneration. Although the main constituent of this clot is the fibrin scaffold, little is known about other proteins interacting in this clot that may act as adjuvants in the healing process. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteins enclosed by PRGF-Endoret scaffold, using a double-proteomic approach that combines 1D-SDS-PAGE approach followed by LC-MS/MS, and 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The results presented here provide a description of the catalogue of key proteins in close contact with the fibrin scaffold. The obtained lists of proteins were grouped into families and networks according to gene ontology. Taken together, an enrichment of both proteins and protein families specifically involved in tissue regeneration and wound healing has been found.

  11. Metal: ATP characteristics of insulin- and epidermal growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation in detergent extracts of rat liver plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhing, R J; Exton, J H

    1986-09-01

    The metal: ATP characteristics of insulin- and epidermal growth factor-(EGF)-stimulated protein kinase activities were examined in Nonidet P40 extracts of rat liver plasma membranes. The two kinase activities were capable of utilizing either manganese or magnesium, although differences were observed. Insulin-stimulated 32P incorporation into an Mr 95 000 protein exhibited a higher affinity for ATP in the presence of manganese compared to magnesium. At 200 microM ATP, insulin stimulated 32P incorporation into the Mr 95 000 protein 3- to 5-fold after 5 min in the presence of either metal. At 1 mM ATP, insulin-stimulated 32P incorporation was significantly greater in the presence of magnesium. In contrast, EGF-stimulated 32P incorporation into an Mr 170 000 protein exhibited similar ATP dependencies in the presence of magnesium or manganese. Basal phosphorylation of the Mr 170 000 protein was 2- to 3-fold higher in the presence of manganese, however. Since the higher basal phosphorylation persisted after chromatography on wheat germ lectin-Sepharose, it may represent an inherent activity of the receptor kinase. In the presence of magnesium: ATP, low concentrations of manganese enhanced both insulin- and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of angiotensin II suggesting involvement of a second metal binding site which regulates the kinase activity. The results presented show major differences in the metal: ATP properties of the two major hormonally regulated protein kinase activities observed in detergent-extracted liver membranes.

  12. Hip Osteoarthritis in Dogs: A Randomized Study Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue and Plasma Rich in Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Cuervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intra-articular injection of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs versus plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF as a treatment for reducing symptoms in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA. Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel group. Thirty-nine dogs with symptomatic hip OA were assigned to one of the two groups, to receive aMSCs or PRGF. The primary outcome measures were pain and function subscales, including radiologic assessment, functional limitation and joint mobility. The secondary outcome measures were owners’ satisfaction questionnaire, rescue analgesic requirement and overall safety. Data was collected at baseline, then, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Results: OA degree did not vary within groups. Functional limitation, range of motion (ROM, owner’s and veterinary investigator visual analogue scale (VAS, and patient’s quality of life improved from the first month up to six months. The aMSCs group obtained better results at 6 months. There were no adverse effects during the study. Our findings show that aMSCs and PRGF are safe and effective in the functional analysis at 1, 3 and 6 months; provide a significant improvement, reducing dog’s pain, and improving physical function. With respect to basal levels for every parameter in patients with hip OA, aMSCs showed better results at 6 months.

  13. Plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfei Zhu; Ling Cai; Haoxian Yang; Yinsheng Wen; Junye Wang; Tiehua Rong; Lanjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The plasma fibrinogen levels had not only been used as an independent prognostic parameter for thepatients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but also as a promising biomarker for evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the plasma fibrinogen levels and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation and clinical-pathological characteristics of Chinese patients with NSCLC. Methods: In this retrospective study, NSCLC specimens collected from 352 patients between November 2009 and November 2011 were selected to detect EGFR gene mutation with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In these specimens, 308 ones were also detected EGFR gene copy number with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Coagulation makers were examined prior to the operations. The association between the plasma fibrinogen levels and EGFR gene mutation and clinical-pathological characteristics were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software. Results: The median pre-operation plasma fibrinogen level was 3.55 g/L (109/352) patients with higher plasma fibrinogen level (> 4.0 g/L). The lower plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with EGFR gene mutations (P < 0.001), the similar result was seen in platelet counts (P = 0.026). A linear correlation was found between the plasma fibrinogen levels and the platelet counts in NSCLC patients (R2 = 0.209, P < 0.001). Pre-operationplasma fibrinogen levels correlated with gender (P < 0.001), smoking status (P < 0.001), and histology (P < 0.001). There weresignificant link between the above clinical-pathological characteristics and EGFR gene mutations. In addition, EGFR gene mutationwas correlated with FISH-positive status (P < 0.001). Moreover, both plasma fibrinogen level (P = 0.024) and the EGFRgene copy number (P = 0.040) had significant relationships with the pathological TNM stage. Conclusion: This study showedthat a significant relevance between plasma fibrinogen

  14. Effects of the breed, sex and age on cellular content and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Carlos E; López Catalina; Álvarez María E; Samudio Ismael J; Prades Marta; Carmona Jorge U

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no information on the effects of the breed, gender and age on the cellular content and growth factor (GF) release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma (P-PRP) and pure-platelet rich gel (P-PRG). The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the cellular composition of P-PRP with whole blood and platelet poor plasma (PPP); 2) to compare the concentration of transforming GF beta 1 (TGF-β1) and platelet derived GF isoform BB (PDGF-BB) between P-PRP treated with n...

  15. Articular cartilage tissue engineering with plasma-rich in growth factors and stem cells with nano scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Abbassy, Hadeer A.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. There is a great promise to advance current cartilage therapies toward achieving a consistently successful approach for addressing cartilage afflictions. Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. In this paper, current and emergent approach in the field of cartilage tissue engineering is presented for specific application. In the next years, the development of new strategies using stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium could improve the quality of new formed cartilage.

  16. Interleukin-6 and ratio of plasma interleukin-6/interleukin-10 as risk factors of symptomatic lumbar osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyasa, I Ketut; Kawiyana, I Ketut Siki; Bakta, I Made; Widiana, I Gde Raka

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the role of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and ratio of IL-6/IL-10 as risk factors of symptomatic lumbar osteoarthritis (OA) in postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency. METHODS Case-control study had been conducted in Sanglah General Hospital from October 2015 until March 2016. The blood samples were obtained and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS From 44 pairs of samples which divided into 44 samples as case group and 44 samples as control group showed that high level of COMP in estrogen deficiency postmenopausal women were not at risk (OR = 0.7; 95%CI: 0.261-1.751; P = 0.393) for symptomatic lumbar OA (cut-off point 0.946). Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women with the high level of IL-6 had 2.7 times risk (OR = 2.7; 95%CI: 0.991-8.320; P = 0.033) for symptomatic lumbar OA from the low level of IL-6 (cut-off point 2.264). At lower level of IL-10, there was no risk for symptomatic lumbar OA (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.209-1.798; P = 0.345) than with the higher level of IL-10 (cut-off point 6.049). While the high ratio of IL-6/IL-10 level in estrogen deficiency postmenopausal women gave 3.4 times risk (OR = 3.4; 95%CI: 1.204-11.787; P = 0.011) for symptomatic lumbar OA than the low ratio of IL-6/IL-10 level (cut-off point 0.364). CONCLUSION High ratio of IL-6/IL-10 plasma level was the highest risk factor for causing symptomatic lumbar OA in postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency. PMID:28251065

  17. Effectiveness and relevant factors of platelet-rich plasma treatment in managing plantar fasciitis:A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seet Khing Chiew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF is a common foot complaint, affects both active sportsmen and physically inactive middle age group. It is believed that PF results from degenerative changes rather than inflammation. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy has been introduced as an alternative therapy for PF. This study is aimed to systematically review to the effectiveness and relevant factors of PRP treatment in managing PF. Materials and Methods: A search was conducted in electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using different keywords. Publications in English-language from 2010 to 2015 were included. Two reviewers extracted data from selected articles after the quality assessment was done. Results: A total of 1126 articles were retrieved, but only 12 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria. With a total of 455 patients, a number of potentially influencing factors on the effectiveness of PRP for PF was identified. In all these studies, PRP had been injected directly into the plantar fascia, with or without ultrasound guidance. Steps from preparation to injection were found equally crucial. Amount of collected blood, types of blood anti-coagulant, methods in preparing PRP, speed, and numbers of time the blood samples were centrifuged, activating agent added to the PRP and techniques of injection, were varied between different studies. Regardless of these variations, superiority of PRP treatment compared to steroid was reported in all studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, PRP therapy might provide an effective alternative to conservative management of PF with no obvious side effect or complication. The onset of action after PRP injection also greatly depended on the degree of degeneration.

  18. Bone morphogenic protein 6: a member of a novel class of prognostic factors expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells inhibiting proliferation and angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckinger, Anja; Meissner, Tobias; Moreaux, Jérôme; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Benner, Axel; Hundemer, Michael; Rème, Thierry; Shaughnessy, John D.; Barlogie, Bart; Bertsch, Uta; Hillengass, Jens; Ho, Anthony D.; Pantesco, Véronique; Jauch, Anna; De Vos, John; Rossi, Jean-François; Möhler, Thomas; Klein, Bernard; Hose, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is associated with an aberrant expression of pro-proliferative, pro-angiogenic and bone-metabolism modifying factors by malignant plasma cells. Given the frequently long time-span from diagnosis of early-stage plasma cell dyscrasias to overt myeloma and the mostly low proliferation rate of malignant plasma cells, we hypothesize these likewise to express a novel class of inhibitory factors of potential prognostic relevance. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) represent possible candidates as they inhibit proliferation, stimulate bone formation, and have impact on the survival of cancer patients. We assessed expression of BMPs and their receptors by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays (n=779) including CD138-purified primary myeloma cell samples (n=635) of previously untreated patients. BMP6 is the only BMP expressed by malignant and normal plasma cells. Its expression is significantly lower in proliferating myeloma cells, myeloma cell lines, or plasmablasts. BMP6 significantly inhibits proliferation of myeloma cell lines, survival of primary myeloma cells, and in vitro angiogenesis. High BMP6-expression in primary myeloma cell samples delineates significantly superior overall survival for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy independent of conventional prognostic factors (ISS-stage, beta-2-microglobulin). PMID:19718049

  19. Duty hours as viewed through a professionalism lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    them [4]. A restriction in duty hours for trainees is clearly an important environmental and contextual factor to consider in evaluating professional behaviour. In this paper I will review some key issues with respect to understanding and evaluating professionalism, and then discuss these in the context of duty hour reform. Readers should note that this is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature of either professionalism or duty hour reform, but rather a critical narrative review that uses selected articles. PMID:25560827

  20. Correlating plasma endothelin-1 and beta-endorphin levels to nine risk factors of acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daoyou Zhou; Jun Liu; Yingrong Lao; Yigang Xing; Yan Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Several studies have confirmed that endothelin and endorphin are involved in the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. However, the correlation of these factors to acute cerebral infarction-related risk factors needs to be confirmed.OBJECTIVE:To detect endothelin-1(ET-1)and beta-endorphin(β-EP)levels in plasma of patients with acute cerebral infarction,and to analyze the correlations of these factors to smoking,alcohol abuse, hypertension,diabetes mellitus,diseased region,diseased degree,gender,and other factors related to acute cerebral infarction. DESIGN:A case-control observation. SETTING:First Department of Neurology,Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Department of Neurology,Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS:Sixty-nine inpatients with acute cerebral infarction were admitted to the Department of Neurology,Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University(March 2003-January 2004)and First Department of Neurology,Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine(March - July 2004)and recruited for this study.All 69 inpatients corresponded to the diagnosis criteria of acute cerebral infarction,formulated in the National Working Conference of Cerebrovascular Disease in 1998,and were confirmed as acute cerebral infarction by CT/MRI.The patient group consisted of 35 males [(64±12)years old] and 34 females[(67±13 )years old].Among them,9 patients were smokers,7 were alcohol users,48 had a history of hypertension,and 16 had a history of diabetes mellitus.CT/MRI examinations revealed that 35 patients presented with left focus sites,11 with right ones and 23 with bilateral ones.Following attack,24 patients had Barthel Index Scale grading<40 points,21 patients 40-60 points,and 24 patients>60 points.An additional 59 healthy individuals,who received health examinations simultaneously,were included as controls.Among the control subjects,there were 37 males [(62±10)years old] and 22 females [(65±11) years old

  1. Three transcription factors and the way immune cells affected by different plasma change in opposite ways in the development of the syndrome of pre-eclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhou; Zhu Jing; Wang Yunfei; Wang You; Zhang Yu; Lin Jianhua; Di Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background How the transcriptional factors regulated the innate and adaptive immune system in pregnancy and preeclampsia are less understood.Nevertheless,what the plasma work in the development of this disease was not sure.The present study was design to evaluate what the transcriptional factors change in innate and adaptive immune system and what the plasma do in this filed.Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from non-pregnant women (n=18),women with clinically normal pregnancies (n=23) and women with pre-eclampsia (n=20) were separated from peripheral blood to isolate monocytes and T cells.The purity of monocytes and T cells were analysed by flow cytometry.Monocytes and T cells were stimulated in either lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA),respectively.Transcription Factor Arrays were used to screen the transcription factors of interest in comparing of different groups.PBMC were isolated from another 8 nonpregnant samples were co-incubated with different groups of plasma.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using whole cell extractions of the samples.Results Nuclear factor of activated T-cells-1 (NFAT-1),signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 (STAT-1) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) are up-regulated in monocytes in pregnancy and more so in pre-eclampsia.On the the contrary,NFAT-1,STAT-1 and AP-1 are down-regulated in T cells in pregnancy and more so in pre-eclampsia.A reduction was observed in interferon (IFN)-y,interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-4 expression in T cells incubated with pre-eclamptic plasma.An elevation was observed in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,IL-1 and IL-12 expression in monocytes incubated with preeclamptic plasma.Conclusions Innate immunity is over activated and adaptive immunity is over suppressed in the development of preeclampsia.NFAT-1,STAT-1 and AP-1 might be the central transcription factors in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.They induced some changes in plasma and "educate" the

  2. The relationship between renal function and plasma concentration of the cachectic factor zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Caroline C; Koppe, Laetitia; Alix, Pascaline M; Kalbacher, Emilie; Croze, Marine L; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Fouque, Denis; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Soulage, Christophe O

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a potent cachectic factor, is increased in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. However, there is no data for patients before initiation of renal replacement therapy. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between plasma ZAG concentration and renal function in patients with a large range of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Plasma ZAG concentration and its relationship to GFR were investigated in 71 patients with a chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 1 to 5, 17 chronic hemodialysis (HD), 8 peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 18 non-CKD patients. Plasma ZAG concentration was 2.3-fold higher in CKD stage 5 patients and 3-fold higher in HD and PD patients compared to non-CKD controls (Prenal disease.

  3. Plasma levels of brain derived-neurotrophic factor and catecholamine metabolites are increased during active phase of psychotic symptoms in CNS lupus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenouchi, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ikemura, Naomi; Utsunomiya, Kensuke; Mitoma, Masae; Nakamura, Jun

    2006-09-30

    In the present study, the authors reported a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with central nervous system involvement (CNS lupus). The authors also longitudinally investigated plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catecholamine metabolites in the patient, and found that plasma levels of BDNF, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were raised in accordance with the severity of psychotic symptoms in this case of CNS lupus. These results suggest that it is useful to measure plasma levels of BDNF and the catecholamine metabolites in order to predict the severity of psychotic symptoms in CNS lupus and to provide a differential diagnosis from that of steroid-induced psychosis.

  4. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  5. Influence of electron-neutral collisions on the Compton scattering cross section and the Salpeter structure factor in warm collisional plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-Dong, Gunsan-City, Jeollabuk-Do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The electron-neutral collision effects on the Compton scattering process are investigated in warm collisional plasmas. The Compton scattering cross section in warm collisional plasmas is obtained by the Salpeter structure factor with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the plasma dielectric function as a function of the electron-neutral collision frequency, Debye length, and wave number. It is shown that the influence of electron-neutral collision strongly suppresses the Compton scattering cross section in warm collisional plasmas. It is also found that the electron-neutral collision effect on the differential Compton scattering cross section is more significant in forward scattering directions. We show that the differential Compton scattering cross section has a maximum at the scattering angle φ=π/2. In addition, we find that the electron-neutral collision effect on the total Compton scattering cross section increases with increasing Debye length and wave number. The variation of the Compton scattering cross section due to the change of collision frequency and plasma parameters is also discussed.

  6. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker for the Main Types of Mild Neurocognitive Disorders and Treatment Efficacy: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Levada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF are assumed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs. In this study, we compared plasma BDNF levels (at baseline and after two months of treatment with escitalopram in patients with the main types of MNCDs and normal controls. 21 patients met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for possible MNCD due to Alzheimer’s disease (MNCD-AD; 22 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD according to Frisoni et al. (2002 and neuroimaging-supported probable diagnosis of vascular MNCD according to DSM-5; 16 subjects entered control group. At baseline, we detected lower BDNF levels in both MNCD groups, which was significant only in subjects with MNCD-AD. Moreover, plasma BDNF level of 21160 pg/mL showed high sensitivity (94% to discriminate patients with MNCD-AD. Decreased plasma BDNF highly correlated with the severity of memory impairment and total MMSE score in MNCD-AD group. Escitalopram treatment in patients with MNCD-AD or ScVMNCD led to an increase of plasma BDNF concentrations and as a result to a decrease of cognitive, depressive, and anxiety symptom severity. In conclusion, plasma BDNF might be a reliable biomarker for the validation of MNCD-AD diagnosis and treatment efficacy.

  7. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor as a Biomarker for the Main Types of Mild Neurocognitive Disorders and Treatment Efficacy: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levada, Oleg A; Cherednichenko, Nataliya V; Trailin, Andriy V; Troyan, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are assumed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of mild neurocognitive disorders (MNCDs). In this study, we compared plasma BDNF levels (at baseline and after two months of treatment with escitalopram) in patients with the main types of MNCDs and normal controls. 21 patients met the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for possible MNCD due to Alzheimer's disease (MNCD-AD); 22 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for subcortical vascular MNCD (ScVMNCD) according to Frisoni et al. (2002) and neuroimaging-supported probable diagnosis of vascular MNCD according to DSM-5; 16 subjects entered control group. At baseline, we detected lower BDNF levels in both MNCD groups, which was significant only in subjects with MNCD-AD. Moreover, plasma BDNF level of 21160 pg/mL showed high sensitivity (94%) to discriminate patients with MNCD-AD. Decreased plasma BDNF highly correlated with the severity of memory impairment and total MMSE score in MNCD-AD group. Escitalopram treatment in patients with MNCD-AD or ScVMNCD led to an increase of plasma BDNF concentrations and as a result to a decrease of cognitive, depressive, and anxiety symptom severity. In conclusion, plasma BDNF might be a reliable biomarker for the validation of MNCD-AD diagnosis and treatment efficacy.

  8. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in Han Chinese heroin-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-02-02

    BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of long-term heroin use. Thus, we investigated the relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentrations and the BDNF Val66Met nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in heroin-dependent patients. The pretreatment expression levels of plasma BDNF and the BDNF Val66Met SNP in 172 heroin-dependent patients and 102 healthy controls were checked. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients (F = 52.28, p BDNF levels significantly different between Met/Met, Met/Val, and Val/Val carriers in each group, which indicated that the BDNF Val66Met SNP did not affect plasma BDNF levels in our participants. In heroin-dependent patients, plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the length of heroin dependency. Long-term (>15 years) users had significantly lower plasma BDNF levels than did short-term (BDNF concentration in habitual heroin users are not affected by BDNF Val66Met gene variants, but by the length of the heroin dependency.

  9. Apolipoprotein E mediates enhanced plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol clearance by low-dose streptococcal serum opacity factor via hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Tang, Daming; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant streptococcal serum opacity factor (rSOF) mediates the in vitro disassembly of human plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, a neo-HDL that is cholesterol poor, and a cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) containing apoE. Given the occurrence of apoE on the CERM, we tested the hypothesis that rSOF injection into mice would reduce total plasma cholesterol clearance via apoE-dependent hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). rSOF (4 μg) injection into wild-type C57BL/6J mice formed neo-HDL, CERM, and lipid-free apoA-I, as observed in vitro, and reduced plasma total cholesterol (-43%, t(1/2)=44±18 minutes) whereas control saline injections had a negligible effect. Similar experiments with apoE(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice reduced plasma total cholesterol ≈0% and 20%, respectively. rSOF was potent; injection of 0.18 μg of rSOF produced 50% of maximum reduction of plasma cholesterol 3 hours postinjection, corresponding to a ≈0.5-mg human dose. Most cholesterol was cleared hepatically (>99%), with rSOF treatment increasing clearance by 65%. rSOF injection into mice formed a CERM that was cleared via hepatic LDLR that recognize apoE. This reaction could provide an alternative mechanism for reverse cholesterol transport.

  10. The Effect of a Prophylactic Dose of Ibuprofen on Plasma Level of Interleukin 1, Interleukin 6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in a 1500 m Running Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sepehri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: there are controversies about the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on exercised induced changes on plasma cytokines in untrained male athletes, so the primary purpose of this study was to measure the influence of a prophylactic dose of ibuprofen use on plasma cytokines during a 1500 m running race. Approach: Subjects were 10 untrained male Medical University students who consumed 400 mg ibuprofen two hours before the 1500 m running practice and 10 controls that competed in the race but avoided ibuprofen and all other medications. Blood samples were collected before, 1h and 24 h following the 1500 m exercise bout to measure plasma concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β , interleukin-6(IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α . Results: There were not any significant differences between plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF- α during the study period. Also the data showed that there were not any significant differences between plasma level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF- α in ibuprofen and control group during the study period. Conclusions/Recommendation: Our result showed that a prophylactic dose of ibuprofen did not affect acute inflammatory cytokines levels (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF- α in untrained healthy young males. So the etiology of the muscle soreness in athletes actively participating in sport races seems to be independent of inflammatory processes.

  11. Maternal Plasma Concentration of the Pro-Inflammatory Adipokine Pre-B-Cell Enhancing Factor (PBEF)/ Visfatin Is Elevated In Pregnant Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Sun Kwon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Gomez, Ricardo; Yoon, Bo H.; Yeo, Lami; Mittal, Pooja; Ogge, Giovanna; Gonzalez, Juan M.; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    Problem Visfatin/pre-B-cell enhancing factor (PBEF) has been implicated in the regulation of the innate immune system, as well as in glucose metabolism. Specifically, visfatin plays a requisite role in delayed neutrophil apoptosis in patients with sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with changes in maternal plasma visfatin concentration in normal weight and overweight/obese patients. Methods of Study This cross-sectional study included the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=200); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=40). Maternal plasma visfatin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma visfatin concentration was significantly higher in patients with pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy; 2) among overweight/obese pregnant women, those with pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median plasma visfatin concentration than women with a normal pregnancy; and 3) pyelonephritis was independently associated with higher maternal plasma visfatin concentrations after adjustment for maternal age, pre-gestational BMI, smoking status, gestational age at sampling, and birthweight. Conclusions Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a high circulating maternal visfatin concentration. These findings suggest that visfatin/PBEF may play a role in the regulation of the complex and dynamic crosstalk between inflammation and metabolism during pregnancy. PMID:20085562

  12. Elevated plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor correlated with inflammation and lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoou Li,1–3 Tao Wang,1,2 Ting Yang,1,2 Yongchun Shen,1,2 Jing An,1,2 Lian Liu,1,2 Jiajia Dong,1,2 Lingli Guo,1,2 Diandian Li,1,2 Xue Zhang,1,2 Lei Chen,1,2 Dan Xu,1,2 Fuqiang Wen1,2 1Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Rationale: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is a 50 kD small secreting glycoprotein that participates in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have reported that PEDF plays an important role in inflammatory responses in several diseases. However, the role of PEDF in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains unclear.Objective: The aim of the present study is to explore the potential relationship between PEDF and COPD.Methods: We used differential proteomics – stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture – to investigate protein expression profile changes in cigarette smoke extract-treated pulmonary cells and found that the neurotrophic and antiangiogenic protein PEDF was abnormally expressed. Furthermore, Western blotting was used to detect the expression of PEDF in the lung tissue of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighty subjects between the ages of 40–90 years, including 20 healthy nonsmokers, ten smoking volunteers, and 50 COPD patients, were recruited from September 2012 until August 2013 in Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China. We measured the plasma PEDF concentration and classic proinflammatory cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we performed a spirometry examination to

  13. Formularization of the confinement enhancement factor as a function of the heating profile for FFHR-d1 core plasma design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, J.; Goto, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Motojima, G.; Suzuki, C.; Funaba, H.; Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Yamada, I.; Murakami, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Peterson, B. J.; Yamada, H.; Sagara, A.; the FFHR Design Group

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative estimation of the confinement enhancement due to the heating profile effect is introduced to the helical fusion DEMO reactor design of FFHR-d1, based on the experimental results of the Large Helical Device. By applying this to the direct profile extrapolation (DPE) method, radial profiles in the reactor are extrapolated from experimental results. In reactor plasmas, the heat deposition profile of alpha heating is expected to be peaked in the core region as in the case of tangential neutral beam (NB) injection on low-density plasmas. The height of the pressure profile normalized by the gyro-Bohm-type parameter dependence increases with the power (˜0.6) of the peaking factor of the heat deposition profile, as long as the core confinement degradation observed in low-density plasmas is ignored. According to this observation, the confinement enhancement factor expected under the self-ignition condition ranges from ˜1.1 to ˜1.7, for example, depending on the used data. Degradation of the global energy confinement observed in high-density NB-heated plasmas is mitigated and the gyro-Bohm-type parameter dependence reappears after introducing the confinement enhancement due to the heating profile effect. Finally, typical example profiles in FFHR-d1 are provided by the DPE method for future analyses.

  14. Association Between Flexible Duty Hour Policies and General Surgery Resident Examination Performance: A Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Eddie; Hewitt, D Brock; Chung, Jeanette W; Biester, Thomas; Fiore, James F; Dahlke, Allison R; Quinn, Christopher M; Lewis, Frank R; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    Concerns persist about the effect of current duty hour reforms on resident educational outcomes. We investigated whether a flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policy (Flexible Policy) was associated with differential general surgery examination performance compared with current ACGME duty hour policy (Standard Policy). We obtained examination scores on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, Qualifying Examination (written boards), and Certifying Examination (oral boards) for residents in 117 general surgery residency programs that participated in the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial. Using bivariate analyses and regression models, we compared resident examination performance across study arms (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) for 2015 and 2016, and 1 year of the Qualifying Examination and Certifying Examination. Adjusted analyses accounted for program-level factors, including the stratification variable for randomization. In 2016, FIRST trial participants were 4,363 general surgery residents. Mean American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination scores for residents were not significantly different between study groups (Flexible Policy vs Standard Policy) overall (Flexible Policy: mean [SD] 502.6 [100.9] vs Standard Policy: 502.7 [98.6]; p = 0.98) or for any individual postgraduate year level. There was no difference in pass rates between study arms for either the Qualifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 90.4% vs Standard Policy: 90.5%; p = 0.99) or Certifying Examination (Flexible Policy: 86.3% vs Standard Policy: 88.6%; p = 0.24). Results from adjusted analyses were consistent with these findings. Flexible, less-restrictive duty hour policies were not associated with differences in general surgery resident performance on examinations during the FIRST Trial. However, more years under flexible duty hour policies might be needed to observe an effect. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons

  15. Effects of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Proliferation and Viability of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Platelet preparations are commonly used to enhance bone and soft tissue regeneration. Considering the existing controversies on the efficacy of platelet products for tissue regeneration, more in vitro studies are required. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on proliferation and viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Materials and Methods: Anitua's PRGF and Choukran's PRF were prepared according to the standard protocols. After culture periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation of HGFs was evaluated by the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s multiple comparisons and P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: PRGF treatment induced statistically significant (P<0.001 proliferation of HGF cells compared to the negative control (100% viability at 24, 48 and 72 hours in values of 123%±2.25%, 102%±2.8% and 101%±3.92%, respectively. The PRF membrane treatment of HGF cells had a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation (21%±1.73%, P<0.001 at 24 hours compared to the negative control. However, at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, PRF had a negative effect on HGF cell proliferation and caused 38% and 60% decrease in viability and proliferation compared to the negative control, respectively. The HGF cell proliferation was significantly higher in PRGF than in PRF group (P< 0.001.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that PRGF had a strong stimulatory effect on HGF cell viability and proliferation compared to PRF.

  16. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA. Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm. The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm². The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm². The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm². Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  17. A sequence variation scan of the coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) structural gene and associations with plasma FVIII activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Kevin R; Machiah, Deepa K; Warren, Diane M; Khachidze, Manana; Buil, Alfonso; Fernstrom, Karl; Souto, Juan C; Peralta, Juan M; Smith, Todd; Blangero, John; Porter, Sandra; Warren, Stephen T; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Soria, Jose M; Flanders, W Dana; Almasy, Laura; Howard, Tom E

    2007-05-01

    Plasma factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) level is a highly heritable quantitative trait that is strongly correlated with thrombosis risk. Polymorphisms within only 1 gene, the ABO blood-group locus, have been unequivocally demonstrated to contribute to the broad population variability observed for this trait. Because less than 2.5% of the structural FVIII gene (F8) has been examined previously, we resequenced all known functional regions in 222 potentially distinct alleles from 137 unrelated nonhemophilic individuals representing 7 racial groups. Eighteen of the 47 variants identified, including 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were previously unknown. As the degree of linkage disequilibrium across F8 was weak overall, we used measured-genotype association analysis to evaluate the influence of each polymorphism on the FVIII:C levels in 398 subjects from 21 pedigrees known as the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia project (GAIT). Our results suggested that 92714C>G, a nonsynonymous SNP encoding the B-domain substitution D1241E, was significantly associated with FVIII:C level. After accounting for important covariates, including age and ABO genotype, the association persisted with each C-allele additively increasing the FVIII:C level by 14.3 IU dL(-1) (P = .016). Nevertheless, because the alleles of 56010G>A, a SNP within the 3' splice junction of intron 7, are strongly associated with 92714C>G in GAIT, additional studies are required to determine whether D1241E is itself a functional variant.

  18. How far does a doctor's 'duty of care' go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torda, A

    2005-05-01

    It is a long-standing tradition in medicine that doctors have an ethical duty to care for all patients who fall within the scope of their skill base. This duty reflects the value system of many doctors and the type of typical dedication to their craft that has long been expected and given. The modern doctor, however, may have other additional roles -- such as those of parent, researcher, business person and many others. What about the duties that accompany these other activities and what if these duties come into conflict with the duty to care for patients? How does a doctor decide how far the duty to care for patients extends? This article explores this question of duty and discusses how the notion of the traditional doctor's duty to care may need to be amended in light of the kinds of lives that doctors now lead.

  19. 7 CFR 982.39 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.39 Duties. The Board shall have among others the... investigate the growing, shipping and marketing conditions with respect to hazelnuts, and assemble data...

  20. Duties of care on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; van Engers, T.; Wiersma, C.; Jasserand, C.; Abel, W.

    2011-01-01

    Internet Service Providers currently find themselves in the spotlight, both in a national and international context, with regard to their relationship both with governments and other private parties, on for example questions of (civil) liability. The paper focuses on duties of care as concerns the r

  1. 38 CFR 3.6 - Duty periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from an injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty or from an acute myocardial infarction, a cardiac... manner in which the travel was performed; and the immediate cause of disability or death. Whenever any... means any of the following: (i) An acute myocardial infarction. (ii) A cardiac arrest. (iii)...

  2. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NAMI to 741741 Find Help Living with a Mental Health Condition Family Members and Caregivers Teens and Young Adults Veterans & Active Duty Diverse Communities LGBTQ NAMI Programs Discussion Groups NAMI HelpLine Get Involved stigma free Learn how you can help replace stigma ...

  3. NGO Duties in Relation to Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298979446

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the moral duties that human rights NGOs, such as Amnesty International, and development NGOs, such as Oxfam, have in relation to human rights – especially in relation to the human right to a decent standard of living. The mentioned NGOs are powerful new agents on the global

  4. Machine Tool Series. Duty Task List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course to prepare machine tool, drill press, grinding machine, lathe, mill, and/or power saw operators. The listing is divided into six sections, with each one outlining the tasks required to perform the duties that have been identified for the given occupation.…

  5. Duties of care on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; van Engers, T.; Wiersma, C.; Jasserand, C.; Abel, W.

    2011-01-01

    Internet Service Providers currently find themselves in the spotlight, both in a national and international context, with regard to their relationship both with governments and other private parties, on for example questions of (civil) liability. The paper focuses on duties of care as concerns the

  6. The Customs Adjusted Certain Import Duties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to adapt to market development, the General Administration of Customs recently has revised the “Classification Table for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China” and “Duty-Paid Price List for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China”, and the new standard was put into practice on April 15th, 2012. According to the Announcement No.15, 2012, of the General Administration of Customs, the rate of duty on imports of clothing, accessories, home textiles, and others whose duty paragraph is 04000000 is adjusted to 20%, and the leather clothing and its accessories (including all kinds of leather garments and leather accessories) of duty paragraph 05000000 see the adjustment to 10%. As for the former one, the clothing includes coat, trousers, underwear, shirt/T-shirt, and other clothing; accessories include hats, scarves, headcloth, neckerchief, ties, belts, gloves, socks, handkerchiefs and so on; home textiles refer to blankets, quilts, pillows, bedspreads, sleeping bags, screens, etc.; the others are towels, bath towels, tablecloths, curtains, and carpets.

  7. NGO Duties in Relation to Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the moral duties that human rights NGOs, such as Amnesty International, and development NGOs, such as Oxfam, have in relation to human rights – especially in relation to the human right to a decent standard of living. The mentioned NGOs are powerful new agents on the global s

  8. 7 CFR 1215.30 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties. 1215.30 Section 1215.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... statements to be prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to be audited by an...

  9. 7 CFR 1209.39 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties. 1209.39 Section 1209.39 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... statements to be prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to be audited by an...

  10. 7 CFR 981.39 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... growing, shipping, and marketing conditions with respect to almonds and to assemble data in connection... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties. 981.39 Section 981.39 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  11. 7 CFR 947.30 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... duties of each such person; (e) To investigate, from time to time, and to assemble data on the growing, harvesting, shipping, and marketing conditions with respect to potatoes; (f) To keep minutes, books,...

  12. 7 CFR 958.25 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... and define the duties of each such person; (e) To investigate from time to time and to assemble data on the growing, harvesting, shipping and marketing conditions with respect to onions and to engage...

  13. 7 CFR 993.36 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and assemble data on the producing, handling, shipping, and marketing conditions relative to prunes... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.36 Duties. The committee shall have, among others,...

  14. 7 CFR 925.29 - Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... investigate and assemble data on the growing, handling, and marketing conditions with respect to grapes; (i... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties. 925.29 Section 925.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  15. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  16. Precautionary rights and duties of states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the definition and implementation of the precautionary principle under general, or customary, international law. A search for patterns and common denominators in state practice resulted in the following definitions of a right and a duty which states are deemed to have under

  17. Ion flux and ion distribution function measurements in synchronously pulsed inductively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brihoum, Melisa; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Joubert, Olivier [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique CNRS, Grenoble Cedex 9, Isere 38054 (France); Gahan, David [Impedans Ltd., Dublin 17 (Ireland); Braithwaite, Nicholas St. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Changes in the ion flux and the time-averaged ion distribution functions are reported for pulsed, inductively coupled RF plasmas (ICPs) operated over a range of duty cycles. For helium and argon plasmas, the ion flux increases rapidly after the start of the RF pulse and after about 50 {mu}s reaches the same steady state value as that in continuous ICPs. Therefore, when the plasma is pulsed at 1 kHz, the ion flux during the pulse has a value that is almost independent of the duty cycle. By contrast, in molecular electronegative chlorine/chlorosilane plasmas, the ion flux during the pulse reaches a steady state value that depends strongly on the duty cycle. This is because both the plasma chemistry and the electronegativity depend on the duty cycle. As a result, the ion flux is 15 times smaller in a pulsed 10% duty cycle plasma than in the continuous wave (CW) plasma. The consequence is that for a given synchronous RF biasing of a wafer-chuck, the ion energy is much higher in the pulsed plasma than it is in the CW plasma of chlorine/chlorosilane. Under these conditions, the wafer is bombarded by a low flux of very energetic ions, very much as it would in a low density, capacitively coupled plasma. Therefore, one can extend the operating range of ICPs through synchronous pulsing of the inductive excitation and capacitive chuck-bias, offering new means by which to control plasma etching.

  18. Plasma quetiapine in relation to prescribed dose and other factors: data from a therapeutic drug monitoring service, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowskill, Sally V.J.; Patel, Maxine X.; Flanagan, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Suggested predose plasma quetiapine target ranges for effective therapy in schizophrenia lie between 50 and 500 µg/l. We aimed to examine data from a quetiapine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service to assess the plasma quetiapine concentrations attained at specified doses in clinical practice. Method: We studied TDM data from patients given immediate-release quetiapine in the period 2000–2011. Results: There were 946 samples from 487 patients (257 males, age at time of first sample, median [range] 34 [14–87] years, and 230 females, age at time of first sample, median [range] 38 [10–92] years). The plasma quetiapine concentration was <50 and <100 µg/l in 30% and 50% of samples, respectively (no quetiapine detected in 9% of samples). The relationship between dose and plasma quetiapine was poor. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) quetiapine dose was higher (t = 3.6, df = 446, p <0.01) in males versus females (641 [600–1240] and 548 [600–943] mg/day, respectively), although there was no difference in median dose (600 mg/day) or in the mean (95% CI) plasma quetiapine concentrations attained. Smoking habit had no discernible effect on plasma quetiapine concentration. Conclusions: There was a poor relationship between dose and plasma quetiapine concentration in this study, as found by others. This is probably because of the short plasma half-life of the drug, at least in part. Nevertheless, quetiapine TDM can help assess adherence and measurement of quetiapine metabolites, notably N-desalkylquetiapine, as well as quetiapine itself may enhance the value of quetiapine TDM in future. PMID:24167685

  19. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  20. 76 FR 21270 - Interpretation of Duty and Rest Provisions for Maintenance Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ..., 2010 interpretation changes the plain language of the regulation and requests that it be withdrawn. The... an increase in the number of errors made for maintenance personnel. In light of these factors, the... facility. The second explores the extent to which Pratt may view as non-duty time the time an...

  1. 18 CFR 701.77 - Director-duties and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Director-duties and... ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.77 Director—duties and responsibilities. The Director shall serve... their authorities; and facilitate the work of the Council and the Chairman. His duties...

  2. 78 FR 14166 - Clarification of Flight, Duty, and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 117 and 121 Clarification of Flight, Duty, and Rest... published a final rule on January 4, 2012, that amends the existing flight, duty and rest regulations... questions about the new flight, duty, and rest rule. This is a response to those questions. FOR FURTHER...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.604 - Duties of the referendum agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Duties of the referendum agent. 1160.604 Section 1160... Procedure for Conduct of Referenda in Connection with a Fluid Milk Promotion Order § 1160.604 Duties of the referendum agent. The referendum agent, in addition to any other duties imposed by this subpart, shall: (a...

  4. 46 CFR 531.5 - Duty to file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty to file. 531.5 Section 531.5 Shipping FEDERAL... General Provisions § 531.5 Duty to file. (a) The duty under this part to file NSAs, amendments and notices.... (d) Registration—(1) Application. Authority to file or delegate the authority to file must...

  5. 46 CFR 530.5 - Duty to file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty to file. 530.5 Section 530.5 Shipping FEDERAL... Provisions § 530.5 Duty to file. (a) The duty under this part to file service contracts, amendments and... conditions as the parties may agree. (c) Registration—(1) Application. Authority to file or delegate...

  6. 38 CFR 17.31 - Duty periods defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Active Duty § 17.31 Duty periods defined. Full-time duty as a member of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, Women's Reserve of the Navy and Marine Corps and Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard... Patient Rights...

  7. Do PT and APTT sensitivities to factors' deficiencies calculated by the H47-A2 2008 CLSI guideline reflect the deficiencies found in plasmas from patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzo, M; Barrera, L; Rodriguez, M; D'Adamo, M A; López, M S; Otaso, J C

    2015-12-01

    Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) sensitivity for detecting isolated factor deficiencies varies with different reagents and coagulometers. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) H47A2 guideline proposed a method to calculate these sensitivities, but some inconsistency has been reported. This study aimed to calculate factor sensitivities using CLSI guideline and to compare them with those obtained from single factor-deficient patients' data. Different mixtures of normal pooled and deficient plasmas were prepared (CLSI H47A2 guideline. PT with rabbit brain (RB) and human recombinant (HR) thromboplastins, APTT and factors' activities were measured in an ACL TOP coagulometer. Sensitivities (maximum factor concentration that produces PT or APTT values out of the reference range) were calculated from mixtures and from patients with single-factor deficiencies: 17 factor FV, 36 FVII, 19 FX, 39 FVIII, 15 FIX 15 FXI and 24 FXII. PT sensitivity with RB was as follows: FV 38 and 59, FVII 35 and 58, FX 56 and 64 IU/dL; PT sensitivity with HR was as follows: FV 39 and 45, FVII 51 and 50, FX 33 and 61 IU/dL; and APTT sensitivity was as follows: FV 39 and 45, FX 32 and 38, FVIII 47 and 60, FIX 35 and 44, FXI 33 and 43, FXII 37 and 46 IU/dL, respectively. Reagent-coagulometer combination has adequate sensitivities to factor deficiencies according to guideline recommendations (>30 IU/dL). These should not be considered as actual sensitivities because those obtained by analysing patients' plasmas with single-factor deficiencies were higher for most factors and could induce misinterpretation of the basic coagulation test results. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Antihemophilic factor (recombinant plasma/albumin-free method for the management and prevention of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pipe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven PipeDepartment of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Hemophilia is a rare genetic bleeding disorder that, if not adequately controlled, is associated with life-threatening bleeding events and serious and costly complications, primarily from joint damage. The advent of effective clotting factor replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia is considered one of the foremost medical advances of the 20th century. The last 3 decades of experience in hemophilia care have witnessed the effectiveness of the care of patients with hemophilia within specialized comprehensive care centers, advances in factor replacement therapies, the benefits of prophylaxis over on-demand replacement therapy, and the role of aggressive management of joint disease to prevent dysfunction. Ongoing challenges, including the management of inhibitors to factor therapies and the consequences of thousands of patients with hemophilia becoming infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in the 1980s from contaminated plasma-derived factor concentrates, have highlighted the need for vigilance with respect to clotting factor product safety, access to care, and a full complement of choice of factor replacement therapies. Advate® (antihemophilic factor [recombinant] plasma/albumin-free method [rAHF-PFM] is the first recombinant factor VIII therapy manufactured without human or animal protein additives to eliminate the risk of pathogen transmission that could be carried by these additives. Preclinical studies established bioequivalence with recombinant antihemophilic factor (Recombinate®, a product with 16 years of clinical experience. Currently licensed in 44 countries worldwide, rAHF-PFM has over 7 years of clinical research within 5 global studies supporting its safety and efficacy in the treatment of patients with hemophilia A.Keywords: factor VIII, hemophilia A, recombinant proteins, clinical

  9. A Bright Side to the Work-Family Interface: Husbands' Support as a Resource in Double-and-Triple-Duty Caregiving Wives' Work Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Polenick, Courtney A; Davis, Kelly D; Berkman, Lisa F; Cabot, Thomas D

    2017-06-16

    This study examined how women who combine long-term care employment with unpaid, informal caregiving roles for children (double-duty-child caregivers), older adults (double-duty-elder caregivers), and both children and older adults (triple-duty caregivers) differed from their workplace-only caregiving counterparts on workplace factors related to job retention (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions) and performance (i.e., perceived obligation to work while sick and emotional exhaustion). The moderating effects of perceived spouse support were also examined. Regression analyses were conducted on survey data from 546 married, heterosexual women employed in U.S.-based nursing homes. Compared to workplace-only caregivers, double-duty-elder and triple-duty caregivers reported more emotional exhaustion. Double-duty-child caregivers reported lower turnover intentions and both double-and-triple-duty caregivers felt less obligated to work while sick when perceiving greater support from husbands. Results indicate that double-and-triple-duty caregiving women's job retention and obligation to work while sick may depend on perceived spouse support, highlighting the important role husbands play in their wives' professional lives. Findings also lend support to the emerging literature on marriage-to-work positive spillover, and suggest that long-term care organizations should target marital relationships in family-friendly initiatives to retain and engage double-and-triple-duty caregiving employees.

  10. Epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms in the fibrinogen and coagulation factor XIII genes on plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin gel structure and risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Maria Nastase; Eriksson, Per; Ericsson, Carl-Göran; Hamsten, Anders; Silveira, Angela

    2006-03-01

    An intricate interplay between the genes encoding fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB), coagulation factor XIII (F13A1) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and environmental factors is likely to influence plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin clot structure and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, the potential contribution of SNPs harboured in the fibrinogen, IL6 and F13A1 genes to these biochemical and clinical phenotypes was examined. A database and biobank based on 387 survivors of a first MI and population-based controls were used. Sixty controls were selected according to FGG 9340T > C [rs1049636] genotype for studies on fibrin clot structure using the liquid permeation method. The multifactor dimensionality reduction method was used for interaction analyses. We here report that the FGA 2224G > A [rs2070011] SNP (9.2%), plasma fibrinogen concentration (13.1%) and age (8.1%) appeared as independent determinants of fibrin gel porosity. The FGA 2224G > A SNP modulated the relation between plasma fibrinogen concentration and fibrin clot porosity. The FGG-FGA*4 haplotype, composed of the minor FGG 9340C and FGA 2224A alleles, had similar effects, supporting its reported protective role in relation to MI. Significant epistasis on plasma fibrinogen concentration was detected between the FGA 2224G > A and F13A1 Val34Leu [rs5985] SNPs (p FGG 9340T > C and FGB 1038G > A [rs1800791] SNPs appeared to interact on MI risk, explaining the association of FGG-FGB haplotypes with MI in the absence of effects of individual SNPs. Thus, epistatic and pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms contribute to the variation in plasma fibrinogen concentration, fibrin clot structure and risk of MI.

  11. Exploring the potential duty of care in clinical genomics under UK law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploem, Corrette; Chico, Victoria; Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Hall, Alison; Wallace, Susan; Fay, Michael; Goodwin, Deirdre; Bell, Jessica; Phillips, Simon; Taylor, Jenny C.; Hennekam, Raoul; Kaye, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide sequencing technologies are beginning to be used in projects that have both clinical diagnostic and research components. The clinical application of this technology, which generates a huge amount of information of varying diagnostic certainty, involves addressing a number of challenges to establish appropriate standards. In this article, we explore the way that UK law may respond to three of these key challenges and could establish new legal duties in relation to feedback of findings that are unrelated to the presenting condition (secondary, additional or incidental findings); duties towards genetic relatives as well as the patient and duties on the part of researchers and professionals who do not have direct contact with patients. When considering these issues, the courts will take account of European and international comparisons, developing guidance and relevant ethical, social and policy factors. The UK courts will also be strongly influenced by precedent set in case law. PMID:28943725

  12. Physical therapy intervention (PTI) increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in non-frail and pre-frail elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, F M; Pereira, D S; Lustosa, L P; Silva, J P; Dias, J M D; Dias, R C D; Queiroz, B Z; Teixeira, A L; Teixeira, M M; Pereira, L S M

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are important factors in the identification of the frail elderly (higher risk of developing disease) and in assessing the impact of PTI. On the other hand, BDNF has been related to neuroprotection in a series of central nervous system diseases in older age. The levels of BDNF in groups of elderly women classified according to Fried phenotype (non-frail and pre-frail) were compared. We assessed the impact of a PTI on BDNF levels. A convenience sample of 48 elderly women was randomly selected. The PTI group was composed by 20 elderly women selected from this group. Plasma neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF, glial-derived neutrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Timed-up-and-go (TUG) test, hand-grip and work/body weight were evaluated before and after the intervention. Plasma concentrations of BDNF were significantly higher in non-frail in comparison to pre-frail elderly women. After the PTI, higher levels of BDNF were found in elderly women (before 351±68 pg/ml and after 593±79 pg/ml; pelderly women suggest that this neurotrophic factor may be a key pathophysiological mediator in the syndrome of frailty. The fact that PTI increased BDNF levels in both groups suggests that it may be possible to modify this phenotype.

  13. International movement of plasma and plasma contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, A

    2005-01-01

    Plasma fractionation is a global business characterised by technological stability, increasing consolidation and a high level of regulatory oversight. All these factors affect the ease with which plasma derivatives can be accessed in the world market. As domestic regulatory measures in the first world blood economies become increasingly resonant to the precautionary approach, the availability of plasma as a raw material, as well as its cost, become an increasingly significant component in the cost of the final product. This decreases the amount of plasma which fractionators are able to allocate for export activities. Also, regulatory standards in the country of manufacture will reflect priorities in that country which may not be similar to those in export markets, but which will affect entry to those markets. While many countries possess a fractionation capacity, the limiting factor in supply worldwide is the amount of plasma available, and nationalistic drivers for each country to have its own plant are inimical to product safety and supply. Rather, the provision of sufficient supplies of domestic plasma should be the focus of resource allocation, with a choice of an appropriate contract fractionator. However, contract fractionation too may be affected by domestic considerations unrelated to the needs of the country of plasma origin. This chapter will review the global plasma market and the influences on plasma and plasma product movement across national borders. Problems in ensuring adequate safety and supply will be identified, and some tentative approaches to the amelioration of current barriers to the provision of plasma derivatives will be outlined.

  14. Temporomandibular joint disorders treated with articular injection: the effectiveness of plasma rich in growth factors-Endoret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomello, Maurizio; Giacomello, Alberto; Mortellaro, Carmen; Gallesio, Giorgia; Mozzati, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis treatment through articular injections of plasma rich in growth factors (PGRF)-Endoret. Thirteen patients (median age, 47.64 y; SD, 7.51; range, 40-64 y; male-female ratio, 2:11) with osteoarthritis of TMJ associated to chronic pain have been selected. They were treated with articular injections of PRGF-Endoret, measuring the maximum mouth opening and pain level before the first injection (t0), 30 days after just before the second (t1), and after 6 months (t2). Data were analyzed using the paired Student's t-test data. The visual analogue scale score at t0 is 7.69 (range, 4-10; SD, 1.9), whereas that at t1 is 1.54 (range, 0-5; SD, 1.74) and that at t2 is 0.23 (range, 0-2; SD, 0.65). These differences in the results are statistically highly significant (P < 0.0001 comparison t0-t1 and t0-t2 and P < 0.01 comparison t1-t2). In terms of maximum mouth opening, it reduced from 30.15 mm at t0 (range, 26-40 mm; SD, 4.44) to 37.54 mm at t1 (range, 31-51 mm; SD, 5.10), with an increase of 7.38 mm (range, 4-11 mm; SD, 2.02) and a highly significant difference (P < 0.0001). At t2, it was 39.54 mm (range, 34-51; SD, 4.55) with an increase of 9.38 mm (range, 5-12 mm; SD, 2.21) compared with t0 and that of 2.00 mm compared with t1. Both differences in the results are statistically significant (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The articular injections of PRGF-Endoret represent a very efficient method to control pain and to improve the TMJ mobility.

  15. Serum opacity factor unmasks human plasma high-density lipoprotein instability via selective delipidation and apolipoprotein A-I desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Massey, John B; Pownall, Henry J

    2007-11-13

    Human plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are important vehicles in reverse cholesterol transport, the cardioprotective mechanism by which peripheral tissue-cholesterol is transported to the liver for disposal. HDL is the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a substance produced by Streptococcus pyogenes that turns mammalian serum cloudy. Using a recombinant (r) SOF, we studied opacification and its mechanism. rSOF catalyzes the partial disproportionation of HDL into a cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) and a new HDL-like particle, neo HDL, with the concomitant release of lipid-free (LF)-apo A-I. Opacification is unique; rSOF transfers apo E and nearly all neutral lipids of approximately 100,000 HDL particles into a single large CERM whose size increases with HDL-CE content (r approximately 100-250 nm) leaving a neo HDL that is enriched in PL (41%) and protein (48%), especially apo A-II. rSOF is potent; within 30 min at 37 degrees C, 10 nM rSOF opacifies 4 microM HDL. At respective low and high physiological HDL concentrations, LF-apo A-I is monomeric and tetrameric. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics suggesting parallel or rapid sequential steps. According to the reaction products and kinetics, rSOF is a heterodivalent fusogenic protein that uses a docking site to displace apo A-I and bind to exposed CE surfaces on HDL; the resulting rSOF-HDL complex recruits additional HDL with its binding-delipidation site and through multiple fusion steps forms a CERM. rSOF may be a clinically useful and novel modality for improving reverse cholesterol transport. With apo E and a high CE content, CERM could transfer large amounts of cholesterol to the liver for disposal via the LDL receptor; neo HDL is likely a better acceptor of cellular cholesterol than HDL; LF-apo A-I could enhance efflux via the ATP-binding casette transporter ABCA1.

  16. Disruption of human plasma high-density lipoproteins by streptococcal serum opacity factor requires labile apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-02-24

    Human plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipidscholesteryl esters and some triglyceridesurrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins [apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II]. A HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent, or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of approximately 100,000 HDL particles (D approximately 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D > 100 nm), leaving a new HDL-like particle [neo HDL (D approximately 5.8 nm)] while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics, suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physicochemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, a HDL containing nonlabile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. On the basis of kinetic cryo-electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 microM) to neo HDL via a stepwise mechanism in which intermediate-sized particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k of (4.400 +/- 0.004) x 10(-2) min(-1). Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy (DeltaH()), entropy (DeltaS(++)), and free energy (DeltaG()) of activation of 73.9 kJ/mol, -66.87 J/K, and 94.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the

  17. A supersulfated low-molecular-weight heparin (IK-SSH) increases plasma levels of free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, B; Glusa, E; Hoppensteadt, D A; Breddin, H K; Amiral, J; Fareed, J

    1998-09-01

    Unfractionated as well as low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are known to cause an increase in blood levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To study the effect of a newly developed supersulfated LMWH (IK-SSH, Iketon Farmaceutici) on TFPI concentrations in human plasma, the compound was injected into volunteers at doses of 0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg intravenously or 0.33, 0.66 and 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. At certain known times blood was drawn and plasma levels of both total and free TFPI were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Baseline plasma concentrations of TFPI were 72.2+/-3.1 ng/ml for total and 10.8+/-0.8 ng/ml for free TFPI. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of IK-SSH led to a strong and long-lasting rise in TFPI levels which were increased more than 5-fold for total TFPI and more than 30-fold for free TFPI. Maximum TFPI levels were reached 5-10 min after intravenous and 60 min after subcutaneous administration. IK-SSH caused prolongation of ex-vivo clotting times in the APTT and Heptest assay, whereas thrombin time was not affected. Anticoagulant actions of IK-SSH showed a significant correlation to plasma concentrations of TFPI and they are thought to be based at least partially on the release of TFPI from vascular sites.

  18. Venlafaxine inhibits the upregulation of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the Chinese patients with major depressive disorder: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zezhi; Qi, Dake; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Zhenghui; Yuan, Chengmei; Wang, Zuowei; Hong, Wu; Yu, Shunying; Cui, Donghong; Fang, Yiru

    2013-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been recognized to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) for a long time, only few studies so far investigated the effects of antidepressant, venlafaxine on TNF-α and the results are inconsistent. Moreover, the association between plasma TNF-α levels and suicide accompanied with MDD is entirely unknown. To elucidate these relationships, in the present study, 64 first-episode drug-naïve MDD patients and 64 matched healthy controls were recruited. Total 61 MDD patients received 8-week venlafaxine treatment and they were divided into responders and non-responders according to the reduction rate of HRSD-17. Prior to venlafaxine treatment, both responders and non-responders shared a similar plasma TNF-α (p=0.33), which was significantly decreased following venlafaxine treatment (pTNF-α (p=0.01), which was associated with the greater reduction rate of HRSD-17 (B=1.02, p=0.01). In addition, the plasma TNF-α levels were equally higher in both suicidal and non-suicidal MDD patients (p=0.84) compared to the healthy controls on admission (p=0.001, p=0.03, respectively). Together, our data suggest that MDD per se rather than suicide is associated with the elevated plasma TNF-α, which can be inhibited with venlfaxine monotherapy. The extent of TNF-α reduction may be associated with the efficiency of venlafaxine.

  19. Effects of physical exercise on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms in elderly women--a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Daniele S; de Queiroz, Bárbara Z; Miranda, Aline S; Rocha, Natália P; Felício, Diogo C; Mateo, Elvis C; Favero, Michelle; Coelho, Fernanda M; Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna; Gomes Pereira, Danielle A; Teixeira, Antonio L; Máximo Pereira, Leani S

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effect of 2 standardized exercise programs, muscle strength exercises (SE) and aerobic exercises (AE), on the plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and depressive symptoms in 451 elderly women. A randomized controlled trial. Belo Horizonte/MG-Brazil. Community-dwelling older women (N=451; age, 65-89y). The participants were divided into 2 groups: SE and AE. Both protocols lasted 10 weeks, and 30 sessions (1-h sessions) in total were performed 3 times a week under the direct supervision of physical therapists. Plasma levels of BDNF (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale). There was a significant difference for BDNF plasma levels between the SE and AE groups (P=.009). Post hoc analysis revealed a pre-post intervention difference in BDNF levels only for the SE group (P=.008). A statistically significant difference was found for the pre- and postintervention Geriatric Depression Scale scores in both groups (P=.001), showing that the effects of both exercise protocols were comparable regarding depressive symptoms (P=.185). The present findings have demonstrated the positive effect of muscle strengthening and aerobic intervention on depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elderly women. Interestingly, only SE significantly increased the plasma levels of BDNF in our sample. The positive effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms in the elderly were not mediated by BDNF. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Plasma Levels of Chemerin and Factors Related to Obesity in Overweight and Obese Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Jafari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Obesity is accompanied with a lot of metabolic disorders such as changing Adipokines like Chemerin. The present study evaluated the effects of endurance and resistance training on Plasma levels of chemerin and Factors related to obesity in overweight and obese females. Methods: In this study 34 overweight and obese females with an average of age (22.29±2.49 years, body mass index (BMI (30.19±2.79 kg/m2, weight (77.23±10 kg participated voluntarily and were randomly assigned into two experimental groups (n=12 and one control group (n=10. Endurance and resistance training groups trained for 8 weeks (4 days a week, respectively with intensity of 65 to 80% maximum heart rate (HRmax and 65 to 80% one repetition maximum (1RM. In two steps of pre-test and post-test, after 12 hours of fasting, the blood samples were collected in the same conditions and ELIZA method was used to assess Plasma levels of Chemerin. Kolmogorov-Smirnove test was used to evaluate the normal distribution of data, the variation within groups using paired t-test and variation between groups analysis of variance (ANOVA and LSD were used in significant level (P<0.05. Results: Plasma Chemerin decreased significantly after 8 weeks of training in endurance group (P0.05. Also In the experimental groups, factors related to obesity (weight, fat mass, WHR and BMI were significantly decreased while the maximum oxygen consumption were significantly increased (P<0.05. Conclusions: Both endurance and resistance training, improved Factors related to Obesity and maximum oxygen consumption, but endurance training with a significant reduction in plasma chemerin, has a more effective role in health and reducing inflammation in overweight and obese females.

  1. Electrofishing power requirements in relation to duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Dolan, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Under controlled laboratory conditions we measured the electrical peak power required to immobilize (i.e., narcotize or tetanize) fish of various species and sizes with duty cycles (i.e., percentage of time a field is energized) ranging from 1.5% to 100%. Electrofishing effectiveness was closely associated with duty cycle. Duty cycles of 10-50% required the least peak power to immobilize fish; peak power requirements increased gradually above 50% duty cycle and sharply below 10%. Small duty cycles can increase field strength by making possible higher instantaneous peak voltages that allow the threshold power needed to immobilize fish to radiate farther away from the electrodes. Therefore, operating within the 10-50% range of duty cycles would allow a larger radius of immobilization action than operating with higher duty cycles. This 10-50% range of duty cycles also coincided with some of the highest margins of difference between the electrical power required to narcotize and that required to tetanize fish. This observation is worthy of note because proper use of duty cycle could help reduce the mortality associated with tetany documented by some authors. Although electrofishing with intermediate duty cycles can potentially increase effectiveness of electrofishing, our results suggest that immobilization response is not fully accounted for by duty cycle because of a potential interaction between pulse frequency and duration that requires further investigation.

  2. Minimally invasive colorectal resection is associated with a transient increase in plasma hepatocyte growth factor levels early after surgery for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha Kumara, H M C; Tohme, Samer T; Kim, Ik Y; Kim, Donald G; Kalady, Matthew F; Luchtefeld, Martin; Hoffman, Keith; Dimaggio, Vincent; Whelan, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    Surgery's impact on blood levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a potent angiogenic factor, is unknown. Preoperative (PreOp) HGF blood levels are elevated in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and correlate with disease stage and prognosis. This study's purpose was to determine plasma HGF levels after minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR) in patients with CRC. Clinical and operative data were collected. Blood samples were obtained in all patients PreOp and on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 3; in some, samples were taken during weeks 2 and 3 after MICR. Late samples were bundled into 7-day time blocks. HGF levels were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in duplicate. Student's t test was used to analyze the data (significance, P MICR were studied. Most had right, sigmoid, or left segmental colectomy. The mean plasma HGF level was higher on POD 1 (2417 ± 1476 pg/mL, P MICR for CRC is associated with a 1.9- to 2.3-fold increase in plasma HGF levels during the first 3 PODs after which levels normalize. This transient increase may briefly promote angiogenesis and the growth of residual tumor cells.

  3. Exit and the duty to admit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti Tamara Lenard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, it is presumed that while citizens have the right to exit the state in which they are located, no particular state (except a citizen's home state is required to admit them. Yet, this convention has produced, and continues to produce, injustice; to understand why, I focus on defining and protecting a right to exit, as distinct from the right to move in general. This analysis leads me to propose that whereas the political theoretic literature appears to have converged on a commitment to decisive asymmetry (in favor of accepting a state's right to exclude, I propose that only a weak asymmetry is justified. I argue that receiving states are duty-bound to act in ways that enable migrants to exercise their right to exit. In particular, I argue that receiving states have a perfect duty to collectivize the process by which needy migrants can exercise the right to exit.

  4. Key Elements of a Low Voltage, Ultracompact Plasma Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scime, E. E.; Barrie, A.; Dugas, M.; Elliott, D.; Ellison, S.; Keesee, A. M.; Pollock, C. J.; Rager, A.; Tersteeg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of technological developments in wafer-scale processing over the past two decades, such as deep etching, 3-D chip stacking, and double-sided lithography, we have designed and fabricated the key elements of an ultracompact 1.5cm (exp 3)plasma spectrometer that requires only low-voltage power supplies, has no microchannel plates, and has a high aperture area to instrument volume ratio. The initial design of the instrument targets the measurement of charged particles in the 3-20keV range with a highly directional field of view and a 100 duty cycle; i.e., the entire energy range Is continuously measured. In addition to reducing mass, size, and voltage requirements, the new design will affect the manufacturing process of plasma spectrometers, enabling large quantities of identical instruments to be manufactured at low individual unit cost. Such a plasma spectrometer is ideal for heliophysics plasma investigations, particularly for small satellite and multispacecraft missions. Two key elements of the instrument have been fabricated: the collimator and the energy analyzer. An initial collimator transparency of 20 with 3deg x 3deg angular resolution was achieved. The targeted 40 collimator transparency appears readily achievable. The targeted energy analyzer scaling factor of 1875 was achieved; i.e.20 keV electrons were selected for only a 10.7V bias voltage in the energy analyzer.

  5. For a pedagogy of the duty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos FERNANDES MAIA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from some considerations about Froebel's and the New School pedagogy and tries to oppose to that orientation of rights the need of a perspective of the duty. This is the best ethical way to manifest the human fulfilment in the present and the possibility of future perfection. With the story "Natal" (Christmas, from Miguel Torga, the value of an ethic of initiative and sharing as the best way to achieve liberty is exemplified.

  6. Higher plasma platelet-activating factor levels are associated with increased risk of vertebral fracture and lower bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonmok; Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Lee, Seung Hun; Koh, Jung-Min

    2015-11-01

    Despite experimental and animal evidence showing the detrimental effects of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on bone metabolism, there are no clinical studies relating PAF to osteoporosis-related phenotypes. This case-control study investigates the association between plasma PAF, osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF), and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. Among 474 eligible women not taking any drug or having any disease that could affect bone metabolism, we identified 73 cases defined as subjects with radiological VF. The controls were randomly selected from the remaining 401 subjects and matched 1:1 to cases in terms of both age and body mass index (BMI). Lateral thoracolumbar radiographs, BMD, and plasma PAF levels were determined for all subjects. Postmenopausal women with VF demonstrated 34.6 % higher plasma PAF levels than subjects without VF after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking habits, alcohol intake, regular exercise, and parental history of osteoporotic fractures (P = 0.021). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio for VF linearly increased across increasing PAF quartiles (P for trend = 0.040) and the odds for VF were 2.88-fold higher in subjects in the highest quartile in comparison with those in the lowest quartile (95 % CI 1.04-8.01). Plasma PAF levels were inversely correlated with BMD at various sites (γ = -0.253 to -0.176, P = 0.003-0.041). These findings suggest that plasma PAF may be a potential biomarker for predicting poor bone health in postmenopausal women.

  7. Nanowired Delivery of Growth Hormone Attenuates Pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury and Enhances Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Concentration in the Plasma and the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresanu, Dafin F; Sharma, Aruna; Lafuente, José V; Patnaik, Ranjana; Tian, Z Ryan; Nyberg, Fred; Sharma, Hari S

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that topical application of growth hormone (GH) induced neuroprotection 5 h after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model. Since nanodelivery of drugs exerts superior neuroprotective effects, a possibility exists that nanodelivery of GH will induce long-term neuroprotection after a focal SCI. SCI induces GH deficiency that is coupled with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) reduction in the plasma. Thus, an exogenous supplement of GH in SCI may enhance the IGF-1 levels in the cord and induce neuroprotection. In the present investigation, we delivered TiO2-nanowired growth hormone (NWGH) after a longitudinal incision of the right dorsal horn at the T10-11 segments in anesthetized rats and compared the results with normal GH therapy on IGF-1 and GH contents in the plasma and in the cord in relation to blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption, edema formation, and neuronal injuries. Our results showed a progressive decline in IGF-1 and GH contents in the plasma and the T9 and T12 segments of the cord 12 and 24 h after SCI. Marked increase in the BSCB breakdown, as revealed by extravasation of Evans blue and radioiodine, was seen at these time points after SCI in association with edema and neuronal injuries. Administration of NWGH markedly enhanced the IGF-1 levels and GH contents in plasma and cord after SCI, whereas normal GH was unable to enhance IGF-1 or GH levels 12 or 24 h after SCI. Interestingly, NWGH was also able to reduce BSCB disruption, edema formation, and neuronal injuries after trauma. On the other hand, normal GH was ineffective on these parameters at all time points examined. Taken together, our results are the first to demonstrate that NWGH is quite effective in enhancing IGF-1 and GH levels in the cord and plasma that may be crucial in reducing pathophysiology of SCI.

  8. Free and protein-bound insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins in plasma of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    1999-09-01

    Total and free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were quantified in plasma from growth hormone (GH)-treated and fasted coho salmon. Total IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay after acid-ethanol extraction and free IGF-I was separated from protein-bound IGF-I using ultrafiltration by centrifugation. Total and free IGF-I increased in plasma after GH treatment and decreased after fasting. The level of free IGF-I, however, was maintained at approximately 0.3% in both experiments. Unsaturated binding activity in plasma for IGF-I was assessed by incubation with (125)I-recombinant salmon IGF-I ((125)I-sIGF-I). Although there was no difference in binding activity between GH-treated and control fish, fasted fish showed higher binding activity than did fed fish, suggesting induction of unsaturated binding protein by fasting. IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) bands were observed in plasma of coho salmon by Western ligand blotting using (125)I-sIGF-I. A low-molecular-weight (22 kDa) band was clear in fasted fish but not detectable in fed fish. The IGFBP band, which has molecular weight similar to that of human IGFBP-3 (41 kDa), was more intense in GH-treated fish than in controls. The molecular distribution of IGF-I in plasma was examined by gel filtration under neutral conditions. Most IGF-I was eluted around 40 kDa. This result suggests that the major form of bound IGF-I in the circulation of coho salmon may be in a 40-kDa binary complex rather than in a 150-kDa ternary complex, as in mammals.

  9. Urinary epidermal growth factor is excreted from the rat isolated perfused kidney in the absence of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Hilchey, S D; Nexø, Ebba;

    1993-01-01

    . Administration of the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin reduced urinary EGF excretion from the rat isolated perfused kidney by approximately 50%. In conclusion, the rat isolated perfused kidney excreted significant amounts of urinary EGF without having access to plasma, and EGF excretion was reduced by aprotinin...

  10. [Early signs of the effect of complex occupational factors of plasma technology on the workers' health status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineva, E L; Il'nitskaia, A V; Marushkin, V E

    1991-01-01

    The article reports the results of health-related studies among workers engaged in plasma technology processes. It was found that the earliest indicators of health changes in the workers revealed themselves in the vegetative nervous system and vestibulocochlear function combined with subatrophic++ changes in the respiratory mucous membranes.

  11. Repression of the transcription factor Bach2 contributes to predisposition of IgG1 memory B cells toward plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Kohei; Nakagawa, Rinako; Shinnakasu, Ryo; Kaji, Tomohiro; Rybouchkin, Andrei; Moriyama, Saya; Furukawa, Koji; Koseki, Haruhiko; Takemori, Toshitada; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2013-07-25

    Memory B cells are essential for generating rapid and robust secondary antibody responses. It has been thought that the unique cytoplasmic domain of IgG causes the prompt activation of antigen-experienced IgG memory B cells. To assess this model, we have generated a mouse containing IgG1 B cells that have never encountered antigen. We found that, upon challenge, antigen-experienced IgG1 memory B cells rapidly differentiated into plasma cells, whereas nonexperienced IgG1 B cells did not, suggesting the importance of the stimulation history. In addition, our results suggest that repression of the Bach2 transcription factor, which results from antigen experience, contributes to predisposition of IgG1 memory B cells to differentiate into plasma cells.

  12. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  13. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  14. Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) Levels Correlate with Disease Severity in Spastic Diplegia, Triplegia, and Quadriplegia in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianxian; Li, Xueming

    2015-12-11

    BACKGROUND Inflammatory responses in utero and in neonates have been involved in the development of white matter lesions. This study aimed to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in spastic cerebral palsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Plasma TNF-α was measured by ELISA in 54 children with spastic cerebral palsy and 28 aged-matched controls. Both groups were split into age subgroups (1-3 vs. 4-12). Gross motor function and activities of daily living were assessed on enrollment and after 6 months of rehabilitation. RESULTS TNF-α was higher in patients with cerebral palsy than in controls in young (Pcerebral palsy had significantly higher TNF-α levels compared with older ones (Pcerebral palsy showed higher plasma levels of TNF-α than controls. In addition, pre-treatment TNF-α levels were correlated with the improvements after rehabilitation therapy.

  15. Eps15 is recruited to the plasma membrane upon epidermal growth factor receptor activation and localizes to components of the endocytic pathway during receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, M R; Lotti, L V; Belleudi, F;

    1999-01-01

    Eps15 is a substrate for the tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is characterized by the presence of a novel protein:protein interaction domain, the EH domain. Eps15 also stably binds the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2. Previous work demonstrated an essential...... role for eps15 in receptor-mediated endocytosis. In this study we show that, upon activation of the EGFR kinase, eps15 undergoes dramatic relocalization consisting of 1) initial relocalization to the plasma membrane and 2) subsequent colocalization with the EGFR in various intracellular compartments...... of the endocytic pathway, with the notable exclusion of coated vesicles. Relocalization of eps15 is independent of its binding to the EGFR or of binding of the receptor to AP-2. Furthermore, eps15 appears to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation both at the plasma membrane and in a nocodazole-sensitive compartment...

  16. Heparin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres enhance large-wound healing by delivering growth factors in platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Wan-Geun; Yang, Hee Seok

    2015-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains many growth factors that are involved in tissue regeneration processes. For successful tissue regeneration, protein growth factors require a delivery vehicle for long-term and sustained release to a defect site in order to maintain their bioactivity. Previously, we showed that heparin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres (HCPNs) can provide long-term delivery of growth factors with affinity for heparin. In this study, we hypothesize that treatment of a skin wound with a mixture of PRP and HCPNs would provide long-term delivery of several growth factors contained in PRP to promote the skin wound healing process with preservation of bioactivity. The release of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), contained in PRP, from HCPN with fibrin gel (FG) showed a prolonged release period versus a PRP mixture with FG alone (FG-PRP). Also, growth factors released from PRP with HCPN and FG showed sustained human dermal fibroblast growth for 12 days. Full-thickness skin wound treatment in mice with FG-HCPN-PRP resulted in much faster wound closure as well as dermal and epidermal regeneration at day 9 compared with treatment with FG-HCPN or FG-PRP. The enhanced wound healing using FG-HCPN-PRP may be due to the prolonged release not only of PDGF-BB but also of other growth factors in the PRP. The delivered growth factors accelerated angiogenesis at the wound site.

  17. Preliminary separation of the growth factors in platelet-rich plasma: effects on the proliferation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qian; WANG Yun-dan; WU Tao; JIANG Shan; HU Yan-ling; PEI Guo-xian

    2009-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a storage vehicle of growth factors has been successfully used in clinical applications, but in most cases the platelets were autologous. However, the large volume of blood withdrawn has detrimental effects on patients with anemia or poor general health. To overcome these limitations, this study was designed to separate the growth factors in homologous platelet-rich plasma. Methods The gel chromatography with Superdex-75 column was applied to separate PRP supernatants into 4 major fractions. Then the four fractions were vacuumed freeze-dried and re-dissolved in phosphate buffered saline. Proteins concentrations in PRP and in four fractions were detected by bicinchoninic acid protein assay; platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) and transforming growth factor 131 (TGF-β1) levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The effects of fractions on the proliferation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were determined by 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results PRP supernatants were separated into four major fractions by gel chromatography. The proteins recovery was 96.72%. Of the four fractions, fraction B contained the highest TGF-β1 and PDGF-AB levels, and the highest proteins concentrations. Cell proliferation curves of MSC demonstrated that fraction B and C induced a remarkable increase of MTT values compared to the untreated culture (P 0.05). Fraction A and D showed no significant difference to the negative control group (P >0.05). Conclusions The growth factors in PRP supernatants could be preliminarily separated into four fractions by gel chromatography, and the freeze-drying fractions retained the biological activity of growth factors. The growth factors were mostly presented in fraction B and C, and they promoted cell proliferation effectively.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and a synchronized examination of plasma and tissue expression in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskari, J; Premalata, C S; Shilpa, V; Rahul, B; Pallavi, V R; Ramesh, G; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed six genetic polymorphisms of the VEGF-A gene and correlated the genetic data with plasma and tissue expression of VEGF-A in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. A total of 130 cases including 95 malignant carcinomas, 17 low malignant potential and 18 benign tumours were studied. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were studied by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma levels of VEGF-A were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue expression of VEGF-A by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four polymorphisms of the above excluding rs699947 and rs3025039 showed significant association with malignancy, and we observed the presence of positive correlation between haplotype CCGGCC and increased expression of VEGF-A in both plasma and tissues which also correlated with poor prognosis and recurrence suggesting a probable increase in resistance to treatment in such carriers. Highly upregulated tissue expression of VEGF-A was seen in all epithelial ovarian carcinomas with intensity of expression increasing from benign to malignant cases. ELISA data from our study showed an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A in malignancies. VEGF-A plasma levels can be employed as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy in epithelial ovarian cancers alongside tissue expression and CA-125 levels. This study is unique due to the fact that a simultaneous analysis of plasma and tissue expression has been demonstrated and is a first such study in epithelial ovarian cancers and representing the Indian population (South-east Asian) synchronized with genetic polymorphism data as well.

  19. Opioid Use Patterns Among Active Duty Service Members and Civilians: 2006 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-06

    population-level research in opioid use could be very useful for comparing different populations. It is unclear if the seasonal effect observed is a remnant of...the 11 out of I2-month TRICARE enrollment requirement or some other factor. However, we included a seasonal factor in each time series analysis. This...US Total Retail Prescriptions (IMS Health) -- Active Duty Service MembersTotal Prescriptions (TRICARE) Figure 3. Monthly forecasted number versus

  20. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of VEGF in overweight/obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L.; Patterson, Sharla G.; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E.; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D.; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity. We previously reported that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in men. However, there is no data on women. The present study determines the following: 1) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers; 2) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound-VEGF than lean women. 72 African American and Caucasian adult women volunteers aged from 18–44 were enrolled into the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity (55–59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO2) was quantified by utilizing a metabolic cart. We had the blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays (R&D Systems) showed that plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 minutes), significantly higher than basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P < 0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase of sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and Caucasian (P=0.533) or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. Basal plasma levels of unbound-VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than basal levels of unbound-VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P < 0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise-induced plasma levels of sFlt-1 could be an important clinical biomarker to explore the mechanisms of exercise

  1. [Conditioning of community nurse duties towards the patient treated by family doctor--the opinion of family doctor staff members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala-Pawelczyk, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The team of family doctor is the main link in the basic health care. It consists of community nurses who work according to the plan specifying the health needs of patients. Community nurses fulfil the needs of patients of various age and health conditions. The paper presents a part of studies on the area and activities of community nurses working in the team of family doctor. An attempt was made to answer the following questions: what are the duties of community nurse, what factors make it easy to fulfil the duties and what factors make the work more difficult? The study comprised a few dozen of community nurses and family doctors all over the country. It was carried out from January to April 2001. Two questionnaires were used for community nurses and for family doctors. Medical documentation was also analysed. It gave answers to problem questions: duties of community nurses include: co-operation in diagnosing and treatment, health promotion and education, fulfilment of therapeutic and nursing programme, factors which help to realise the programme include: qualifications, clearly stated duties, equipment, factors which make the work difficult comprise: lack of staff, poor salary, legislation problems, difficulties in self-development, lack of co-operation from patients and their families. No differences in the opinion of both groups on the duties of community nurses were noticed.

  2. Measurement of the plasma astrophysical S factor for the 3He(D, p)4He reaction in exploding molecular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barbui, M; Bonasera, A; Hagel, K; Schmidt, K; Natowitz, J B; Burch, R; Giuliani, G; Barbarino, M; Zheng, H; Dyer, G; Quevedo, H J; Gaul, E; Bernstein, A C; Donovan, M; Kimura, S; Mazzocco, M; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Andreoli, P; Ditmire, T

    2013-01-01

    The plasma astrophysical S factor for the 3He(D, p)4He fusion reaction was measured for the first time at temperatures of few keV, using the interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular deuterium clusters mixed with 3He atoms. Different proportions of D2 and 3He or CD4 and 3He were mixed in the gas jet target in order to allow the measurement of the cross-section for the 3He(D, p)4He reaction. The yield of 14.7 MeV protons from the 3He(D, p)4He reaction was measured in order to extract the astrophysical S factor at low energies. Our result is in agreement with other S factor parameterizations found in the literature.

  3. Investigating the effects of sales promotions on customer behavioral intentions at duty-free shops: An Incheon International Airport case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the effects of sales promotions at airport duty-free shops by testing a conceptual model that considers price, coupons, free gifts, points, satisfaction, value, image, and behavioral intentions simultaneously.Design/methodology/approach: For this testing, structural equation modeling was applied to data collected from duty-free shop users at Incheon International Airport.Findings: Price and coupons were found as significant drivers of customer satisfaction, which was directly related to customer value, image, and behavioral intentions.Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the effects of sales promotions at the duty-free shops of Incheon International Airport. The identified sales promotion factors that influence the behavioral intentions of customers at duty-free shops are potentially useful for analyzing the possible trends and changes in duty-free shop customer buying behavior.

  4. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  5. A call of duty in hard times: Duty to vote and the Spanish Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Galais

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although scarce, the literature addressing the effects of the economy on voter turnout and political attitudes has yielded mixed results. By using individual, longitudinal data from Spain—a country devastated by the Great Recession—our study illuminates how the latest economic crisis has impacted citizens’ perceptions of voting. We analyze how economic conditions and perceptions of the economy have transformed the belief that voting is a civic duty, which is one of the strongest attitudinal predictors of turnout. Our results suggest that hard times slightly weaken citizens’ sense of civic duty, particularly among the youngest. However, the adverse effects of the economic crisis are compensated by the positive effects of the electoral context, and as a consequence there is no aggregate decline in civic duty during the period examined (2010–2012.

  6. Optical emission spectroscopy of the Linac4 and superconducting proton Linac plasma generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J.; Kronberger, M.; Mahner, E.; Schmitzer, C.; Sanchez, J.; Scrivens, R.; Midttun, O.; O' Neil, M.; Pereira, H.; Paoluzzi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fantz, U.; Wuenderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Myllyperkioe, P.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, 40500 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    CERN's superconducting proton Linac (SPL) study investigates a 50 Hz high-energy, high-power Linac for H{sup -} ions. The SPL plasma generator is an evolution of the DESY ion source plasma generator currently operated at CERN's Linac4 test stand. The plasma generator is a step towards a particle source for the SPL, it is designed to handle 100 kW peak RF-power at a 6% duty factor. While the acquisition of an integrated hydrogen plasma optical spectrum is straightforward, the measurement of a time-resolved spectrum requires dedicated amplification schemes. The experimental setup for visible light based on photomultipliers and narrow bandwidth filters and the UV spectrometer setup are described. The H{sub {alpha}}, H{sub {beta}}, and H{sub {gamma}} Balmer line intensities, the Lyman band and alpha transition were measured. A parametric study of the optical emission from the Linac4 ion source and the SPL plasma generator as a function of RF-power and gas pressure is presented. The potential of optical emission spectrometry coupled to RF-power coupling measurements for on-line monitoring of short RF heated hydrogen plasma pulses is discussed.

  7. New observations on procoagulant properties of amniotic fluid: microparticles (MPs) and tissue factor-bearing MPs (MPs-TF), comparison with maternal blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszyński, Waldemar; Zekanowska, Ewa; Uszyński, Mieczysław; Zyliński, Andrzej; Kuczyński, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are submicron fragments of the cell membrane affecting many biological processes, e.g. coagulation. The aim of the study was to determine (i) MPs and (ii) tissue factor bearing MPs (MPs-TF) in the amniotic fluid and in blood plasma of parturient women, as well as to assess (iii) TF and TFPI. The study group consisted of 38 women laboring at term, whereas the control group included 20 non-pregnant women. ELISA method was used to evaluate MPs, MPs-TF, TF and TFPI. The levels of MPs and MPs-TF were significantly higher in the amniotic fluid than in blood plasma of parturient women: the level of MPs was 41.08 times higher (medians: 246.48 nM PS vs. 6.00 nM PS, respectively, pMPs-TF was 18.59 times higher (medians: 90.16pg/ml vs. 4.85pg/ml, respectively) (pMPs) and tissue factor-bearing MPs (MPs-TF) are constituent components of amniotic fluid. 2. It is reasonable to assume that these components together with tissue factor (TF) and its inhibitor (TFPI) can participate in life-threatening coagulation disturbances in amniotic fluid embolism, and to take into consideration their impact on fetal development. © 2013.

  8. Preoperative plasma level of IL-10 but not of proinflammatory cytokines is an independent prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarska, Anna; Szczepanik, Antoni; Siedlar, Maciej; Czupryna, Antoni; Sierzega, Marek; Popiela, Tadeusz; Zembala, Marek

    2009-12-01

    There have been many discrepant observations on the serum levels of cytokines in cancer patients and their prognostic value. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their clinical significance in a large group of patients with gastric carcinoma. The levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-12p70, IL-18, IL-10 and soluble TNF receptors I and II sTNF-Rs were investigated in the plasma of 136 consecutive patients with biopsy proven gastric cancer using specific enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA). Survival curves were estimated using the method of Kaplan and Meier and the differences in the survival rates were tested by the log-rank test. For multivariate analysis of prognostic factors, the Cox proportional hazard model was used. Proinflammatory cytokines and sTNF-Rs were higher in the whole group of patients in comparison to healthy volunteers. IL-10 was elevated mostly in advanced disease. The increased levels of IL-10 (>10 pg/ml) were associated with significantly poorer survival of patients, while the levels of the other cytokines and sTNF-Rs showed no correlation with prognosis. The increased level of IL-10 is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer.

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor genotype in plasma DNA and outcome of chemotherapy in the Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Ming-lei; DUAN Jian-chun; WANG Yu-yan; GUO Qing-zhi; LIU Xu-yi; LIU Ning-hong; WANG Jie; WU Mei-na; ZHAO Jun; Sonya Wei Song; BAI Hua; WANG Shu-hang; YANG Lu; AN Tong-tong; WANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    Background The genotype of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor and effectiveness of therapy,but its role in cytotoxic chemotherapy is still unknown.Previous studies indicated that certain EGFR mutations were associated with response and progression free survival following platinum based chemotherapy.Our recent studies have identified that EGFR genotypes in the tumour tissues were not associated with response to the first-line chemotherapy in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).In this study,we investigated associations of EGFR genotypes from plasma of patients with advanced NSCLC and response to first-line chemotherapy and prognosis.Methods We enrolled 145 advanced NSCLC patients who had received first-line chemotherapy in our department.We examined plasma EGFR genotypes for these patients and associations of EGFR mutations with response to chemotherapy and clinical outcomes.Results There were 54 patients with known EGFR mutations and 91 cases of wild types.No significant difference was detected in the response rate to first-line chemotherapy between mutation carriers and wild-type patients (37.0% vs.31.9%).The median survival time and 1-,2-year survival rates were higher in mutation carriers than wild-types (24months vs.18 months,85.7% vs.65.7% and 43.7% vs.25.9%,P=0.047).Clinical stage (IV vs.Ⅲb),response to the first-line chemotherapy (partial vs.no) and EGFR genotype were independent prognostic factors.Conclusion Plasma EGFR mutations in the Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC is not a predictor for the response to first-line chemotherapy,but an independent prognostic factor indicating longer survival.

  10. Plasma levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in treatment-resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Hidenaga; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ishima, Tamaki; Kishi, Fukuko; Yasuda, Yuka; Ohi, Kazutaka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Ito, Akira; Hashimoto, Kenji; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-11-27

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the survival and growth of neurons, and influences synaptic efficiency and plasticity. Peripheral BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia have been widely reported in the literature. However, it is still controversial whether peripheral levels of BDNF are altered in patients with schizophrenia. The peripheral BDNF levels previously reported in patients with schizophrenia were total BDNF (proBDNF and mature BDNF) as it was unable to specifically measure mature BDNF due to limited BDNF antibody specificity. In this study, we examined whether peripheral levels of mature BDNF were altered in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were also measured, as MMP-9 plays a role in the conversion of proBDNF to mature BDNF. Twenty-two patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia treated with clozapine and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma levels of mature BDNF and MMP-9 were measured using ELISA kits. No significant difference was observed for mature BDNF however, MMP-9 was significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia. The significant correlation was observed between mature BDNF and MMP-9 plasma levels. Neither mature BDNF nor MMP-9 plasma levels were associated clinical variables. Our results do not support the view that peripheral BDNF levels are associated with schizophrenia. MMP-9 may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and serve as a biomarker for schizophrenia.

  11. Detection and quantitation of twenty-seven cytokines, chemokines and growth factors pre- and post-high abundance protein depletion in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Beom Ahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors (CCGFs in human plasma are analyzed for identification of biomarkers. However concentrations of CCGFs are very low; it is difficult to identify and quantify low abundance proteins in the presence of the high abundance proteins (HAPs unless HAPs are removed prior to analysis. However, there is a concern that the low abundance proteins such as CCGFs may also be removed during the HAP depletion process. In this study, we have examined whether or not depletion of the HAPs enhances detection of the CCGFs by immuno-assays. Top 14 HAPs were depleted from 10 healthy volunteers’ plasma using MARS-14 immuno-depletion column and a total of 27 CCGFs were analyzed by bead-based multiplexed immuno-assay. All 27 CCGFs were detected in neat plasma (NP, 25 were detected in flow through fraction (FT and 21 were detected in bound protein (BP fraction. Concentrations of 22 CCGFs were significantly higher in NP compared to FT and BP. Only one CCGF had higher concentration in FT compared to NP. The remaining 2 CCGFs were not different between NP and FT. It was counter-productive for the detection of 24 CCGFs after HAP removal, primarily due to post-depletion protein precipitation and/or re-suspension of pellets.

  12. Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentration and Alveolar Nitric Oxide as Potential Predictors of Disease Progression and Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalpa Kotecha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Declining lung function signifies disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentration is associated with declining lung function in 6 and 12-month studies. Alveolar nitric oxide concentration (CANO is increased in patients with IPF, however its significance is unclear. This study investigated whether baseline plasma VEGF concentration and CANO are associated with disease progression or mortality in IPF. Methods: 27 IPF patients were studied (maximum follow-up 65 months. Baseline plasma VEGF concentration, CANO and pulmonary function tests (PFTs were measured. PFTs were performed the preceding year and subsequent PFTs and data regarding mortality were collected. Disease progression was defined as one of: death, relative decrease of ≥10% in baseline forced vital capacity (FVC % predicted, or relative decrease of ≥15% in baseline single breath diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (TLCO-SB % predicted. Results: Plasma VEGF concentration was not associated with progression-free survival or mortality. There was a trend towards shorter time to disease progression and death with higher CANO. CANO was significantly higher in patients with previous declining versus stable lung function. Conclusion: The role of VEGF in IPF remains uncertain. It may be of value to further investigate CANO in IPF.

  13. Gender differences in the expression of PTSD symptoms among active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel; Williams, Jason; Bray, Robert; Kandel, Denise

    2015-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and symptom factors in the total U.S. active duty force. Data were drawn from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel including 17,939 men and 6751 women from all services. The results indicated that women expressed more distress than men across almost all the symptoms on the PTSD Checklist except for hypervigilance. Women also scored significantly higher on all four factors examined: Re-experiencing, Avoidance, Emotionally Numb, Hyperarousal. More women than men were distressed by combat experiences that involved some type of violence, such as being wounded, witnessing or engaging in acts of cruelty, engaging in hand-to-hand combat, and, to a lesser extent, handling dead bodies. Men who had been sexually abused had a greater number of symptoms and were consistently more distressed than women on individual symptoms and symptom factors.

  14. Effect of aerobic training on plasma levels and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jan; Klimcakova, Eva; Moro, Cedric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Berlan, Michel; Hejnova, Jindriska; Richterova, Blanka; Kraus, Ivan; Langin, Dominique; Stich, Vladimir

    2006-10-01

    Adipocytokines secreted by adipose tissue are suggested to play a role in the development of obesity-related complications. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic complications in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training on gene expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) and on plasma levels of several adipocytokines in obese women. Twenty-five obese sedentary premenopausal women (body mass index, 32.18 +/- 3.17 kg/m(2)) underwent a 12-week aerobic exercise program, with a frequency of 5 d/wk and intensity corresponding to 50% of individual maximal oxygen consumption (V(.-)(O(2)max)) consisting of 2 sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise and 3 sessions per week of home-based exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Before and after the aerobic training, (V(.-)(O(2)max)) and body composition were measured and plasma and SCAAT biopsy samples (in a subgroup of 8 subjects) were obtained for determination of plasma and messenger RNA levels of adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha). The aerobic training resulted in an increase of subjects' V o(2)max by 12.8% (24.6 +/- 3.9 vs 27.7 +/- 4.8 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), P < .05). Body weight and fat mass were reduced by 5.9% (88.5 +/- 8.2 vs 83.3 +/- 7.7 kg, P < .001) and 6.4% (38.8 +/- 4.2% vs 36.3 +/- 4.6%, P < .001), respectively, and the revised QUantitative Insulin sensitivity ChecK Index (QUICKI) increased (0.43 +/- 0.06 vs 0.48 +/- 0.06, P < .05) during the aerobic training. No aerobic training-induced changes in messenger RNA levels of the investigated genes in SCAAT were observed. A decrease of plasma leptin (24.3 +/- 8.7 vs 18.1 +/- 8.3 ng/mL, P < .05) was detected, whereas plasma levels of other cytokines remained unchanged. In moderately obese females, 3 months' aerobic training did not promote changes in the adipose tissue gene expression or plasma levels of the adipocytokines

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances GABA transport by modulating the trafficking of GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) from the plasma membrane of rat cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sandra H; Jørgensen, Trine N; Cristóvão-Ferreira, Sofia; Duflot, Sylvie; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Gether, Ulrik; Sebastião, Ana M

    2011-11-25

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters (GATs) are located in the plasma membrane of neurons and astrocytes and are responsible for termination of GABAergic transmission. It has previously been shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates GAT-1-mediated GABA transport in nerve terminals and neuronal cultures. We now report that BDNF enhances GAT-1-mediated GABA transport in cultured astrocytes, an effect mostly due to an increase in the V(max) kinetic constant. This action involves the truncated form of the TrkB receptor (TrkB-t) coupled to a non-classic PLC-γ/PKC-δ and ERK/MAPK pathway and requires active adenosine A(2A) receptors. Transport through GAT-3 is not affected by BDNF. To elucidate if BDNF affects trafficking of GAT-1 in astrocytes, we generated and infected astrocytes with a functional mutant of the rat GAT-1 (rGAT-1) in which the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope was incorporated into the second extracellular loop. An increase in plasma membrane of HA-rGAT-1 as well as of rGAT-1 was observed when both HA-GAT-1-transduced astrocytes and rGAT-1-overexpressing astrocytes were treated with BDNF. The effect of BDNF results from inhibition of dynamin/clathrin-dependent constitutive internalization of GAT-1 rather than from facilitation of the monensin-sensitive recycling of GAT-1 molecules back to the plasma membrane. We therefore conclude that BDNF enhances the time span of GAT-1 molecules at the plasma membrane of astrocytes. BDNF may thus play an active role in the clearance of GABA from synaptic and extrasynaptic sites and in this way influence neuronal excitability.

  16. Plasma levels of nitric oxide and related vasoactive factors following long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Minami, M; Yasunari, K; Maeda, K; Kano, H; Hanehira, T; Yoshikawa, J

    1999-10-01

    Several mechanisms other than the inhibition of systemic and local formation of angiotensin II (Ang II) have been proposed to play a role in mediating the hypotensive effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In the present study, we measured plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) and the related vasoactive factors bradykinin, 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto PGF1alpha) a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) before and after a 4-week treatment with the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in 17 patients with essential hypertension. Plasma NO levels were measured by the Griess method after conversion of nitrate to nitrite. Long-term lisinopril treatment significantly reduced blood pressure and increased plasma NO and 6-keto PGF1alpha. The treatment also tended to increase plasma levels of bradykinin and cGMP, but not to a significant extent. The posttreatment NO level was inversely correlated with posttreatment systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (n = 17, r= -.68, P< .01, n = 17, r= -.54, P < .05, and n = 17, r= -.66, P< .01, respectively). The posttreatment bradykinin level was also modestly correlated with posttreatment systolic and mean blood pressure (n = 17, r = -.51, P < .05 and n = 17, r = -.55, P < .05, respectively). In contrast, posttreatment 6-keto PGF1alpha and cGMP levels were not correlated with posttreatment systolic, diastolic, or mean blood pressure. These findings raise the possibility that increased formation of NO and bradykinin, as well as inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, contribute to the hypotensive effect of the ACE inhibitor observed in our hypertensive patients.

  17. Effect of pulse duty cycle on Inconel 718 laser welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, M. H.; McCay, T. D.; Dahotre, N. B.; Sharp, C. M.; Sedghinasab, A.; Gopinathan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Crack sensitive Inconel 718 was laser pulse welded using a 3.0 kW CO2 laser. Weld shape, structure, and porosity were recorded as a function of the pulse duty cycle. Within the matrix studied, the welds were found to be optimized at a high (17 ms on, 7 ms off) duty cycle. These welds were superior in appearance and lack of porosity to both low duty cycle and CW welds.

  18. Antidumping duties, undertakings, and foreign direct investment in the EU.

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos, René

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of EU antidumping policy when foreign firms can ‘jump’ antidumping duties through foreign direct investment (FDI) in the EU. We show that duty jumping or duty pre-empting FDI occurs if the EU administration has broader objectives than protecting EU industry's profitability and if cost advantages of foreign firms are transferable abroad. The (expectation of) price undertakings reduces the incentives to engage in FDI and may even discourage FDI as long as products are not t...

  19. Legal consequences of the moral duty to report errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jacqulyn Kay

    2003-09-01

    Increasingly, clinicians are under a moral duty to report errors to the patients who are injured by such errors. The sources of this duty are identified, and its probable impact on malpractice litigation and criminal law is discussed. The potential consequences of enforcing this new moral duty as a minimum in law are noted. One predicted consequence is that the trend will be accelerated toward government payment of compensation for errors. The effect of truth-telling on individuals is discussed.

  20. Social Duty and Her Function in Communication Strategy of Firm

    OpenAIRE

    TANASOIU Georgiana Lavinia; Enea, Constanta

    2008-01-01

    Social responsibility is not charity, it’s a duty. Today we see all major companies following social responsibility. Social duty is not only attention allotted consumers, customers and contractors, communions and environment, as well employees and implicit their family. In concept triple bottom line, social duty presume achievements of social level, financial plane and environment level and follow a positive impact on society and, in same time, financial achievements. Education is an area...

  1. How cognitive enhancement can change our duties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eSantoni de Sio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper draws the scientific community’s attention to how pharmacological cognitive enhancement may impact on society and law. Namely, if safe, reliable, and effective techniques to enhance mental performance are eventually developed, then this may under some circumstances impose new duties onto people in high-responsibility professions – e.g. surgeons or pilots – to use such substances to minimize risks of adverse outcomes or to increase the likelihood of good outcomes. By discussing this topic, we also hope to encourage scientists to bring their expertise to bear on this current public debate.

  2. The duty to consult and legal obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.W. [Lawson Lundell Lawson and MacIntosh, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Aboriginal law in Canada has been evolving and industry is beginning to engage in the change. This presentation describes the legal aspects regarding Aboriginal rights and the duty to consult First Nations regarding treaty rights. The implications for First Nations and industry are described. Aboriginal peoples of Canada include the Indian, Inuit and Metis populations. Aboriginal titles exist, therefore they are constitutionally protected. The paper describes recent decisions regarding the Mikisew Cree First Nation versus Canada, the Taku River Tlinget versus Ringstad, and the Haida Nation versus British Columbia and Weyerhaeuser.

  3. The Disquietude of Duty Assuming Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Maureira Pacheco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For Kant, the moral duty is determined universally, that is, on account of its form, in the moral norm. However the moral norm is opposed to particularity, determined by what is not the norm itself, hence being the origin of singularity. The singularized norm is opposed, from experience, by its negation in individual cases. To assume Kant demands the reconciliation of the singular, manifested incases, with the universal. This article deals with this question, demonstrating, above all, the practical difficulties linked to the moral experience in its totality.

  4. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  5. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556; training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3 and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8 carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ≥ 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9, current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4, hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1, and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6. Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

  6. Epistemic duties and failure to understand one’s evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stapleford

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper defends the thesis that our epistemic duty is the duty to proportion our beliefs to the evidence we possess. An inclusive view of evidenced possessed is put forward on the grounds that it makes sense of our intuitions about when it is right to say that a person ought to believe some proposition P. A second thesis is that we have no epistemic duty to adopt any particular doxastic attitudes. The apparent tension between the two theses is resolved by applying the concept of duty to belief indirectly.

  7. Plasma levels of factor XII, prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen in normal blood donors and patients having suffered venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Michael J; Harris, Simon L; Jones, David W; Winter, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The contact system proteins factor XII (FXII), prekallikrein (PK) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) have roles in coagulation, fibrinolysis, thrombin-induced platelet activation, cell adhesion and angeogenisis. It has been suggested that inherited or acquired deficiencies of these proteins may be risk factors for thrombosis. Studies on the levels of FXII in plasma from normal and thrombotic patient populations have been reported, to our knowledge however, no systematic study on plasma levels of PK and HK in large populations of normal blood donors and patients having had venous thrombotic events has been performed. Chromogenic substrate assays were used to measure plasma levels of FXII, PK and HK in 300 normal blood donors (ND) and 300 patients attending our anticoagulant clinic who had a history of venous thrombosis (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism [VT]). All subjects were Caucasian, antiphospholipid antibody negative and had normal liver function. Mean values +/- SD were: FXII: ND 99.4 +/- 26.7%: VT 91.0 +/- 27.2%: PKK: ND 99.7 +/- 19.8%: VT 99.1 +/- 21.2%: HK: ND 101.0 +/- 20.5%: VT 110.7 +/- 32.3%. Statistical analysis of the data revealed significantly lower (pPKK: 66.8%, HK: 63.4%. The prevalence of values below the lower limit of normal were FXII-ND 2.3%: FXII-VT 8.0%, PKK-ND 3.0%: PKK-VT 4.7%, HK-ND 2.3%: HK-VT 5.0%. No homozygous deficiency patients were found for any parameter. One VT patient had combined FXII and HK deficiency and one ND and two VT patients had combined PK and HK deficiency. FXII levels were lower and HK levels and the prevalence of FXII, PK and HK deficiency higher in a population of patients with a history of VT than in a population of healthy blood donors.

  8. The effect of clomethiazole on plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, -8, -1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, D

    2012-02-03

    Clomethiazole (CMZ), a neuroprotective drug, has antiinflammatory actions. We investigated the effects of CMZ administration on plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation. Five healthy volunteers each donated 500 mL of blood, which was subsequently divided into equal portions. Identical extracorporeal circuits were simultaneously primed with donated blood (250 mL) and circulated for 2 h at 37 degrees C. CMZ was added to 1 of the circuits of each pair to achieve a total plasma concentration of 40 micro mol\\/L. Blood samples were withdrawn at (i) donation, (ii) immediately after addition of CMZ, and at (iii) 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after commencing circulation. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were less in the CMZ group compared with control after 60 min of circulation (2.2 [0.3] versus 3.2 [0.4], 14.9 [4.8] versus 21.9 [18.4], 63.3 [43.5] versus 132.2 [118.9] pg\\/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). After 120 min of circulation, neutrophils from CMZ-treated circuits showed significantly less CD18 expression compared with control (237.5 [97.4] versus 280.5 [111.5], P = 0.03). The addition of CMZ to experimental extracorporeal circuits decreases the inflammatory response. This effect may be of clinical benefit by decreasing inflammatory-mediated neurological injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. IMPLICATIONS: Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-mediated effects by clomethiazole (CMZ) and associated neuroprotection has been established in animal models of cerebral ischemia. In an ex vivo study, we demonstrated antiinflammatory activity of CMZ in experimental extracorporeal circulation. This represents a potential neuroprotective mechanism of CMZ in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

  9. The effect of recombinant erythropoietin on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with affective disorders: a randomised controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Vinberg

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effect of repeated infusions of recombinant erythropoietin (EPO on plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in patients with affective disorders. In total, 83 patients were recruited: 40 currently depressed patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HDRS-17 score >17 (study 1 and 43 patients with bipolar disorder (BD in partial remission (HDRS-17 and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS ≤ 14 (study 2. In both studies, patients were randomised to receive eight weekly EPO (Eprex; 40,000 IU or saline (0.9% NaCl infusions in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel--group design. Plasma BDNF levels were measured at baseline and at weeks 5, 9 and at follow up, week 14. In contrast with our hypothesis, EPO down regulated plasma BDNF levels in patients with TRD (mean reduction at week 9 (95% CI: EPO 10.94 ng/l (4.51-21.41 ng/l; mean increase at week 9: Saline 0.52 ng/l, p=0.04 (-5.88-4.48 ng/l p=0.04, partial ŋ2=0.12. No significant effects were found on BDNF levels in partially remitted patients with BD (p=0.35. The present effects of EPO on BDNF levels in patients with TRD point to a role of neurotrophic factors in the potential effects of EPO seen in TRD and BD. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects and the interaction between EPO and peripheral levels on BDNF need to be further elucidated in human studies including a broad range of biomarkers.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00916552.

  10. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  11. Is the C677T polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene or plasma homocysteine a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongli; Fan, Dongsheng; Hong, Tianpei

    2012-10-25

    The present study enrolled 251 diabetic patients, including 101 with neuropathy and 150 without neuropathy. Of the 150 patients, 100 had no complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to identify methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants. Plasma homocysteine levels were also measured. Homocysteine levels and the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia were significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with diabetic patients without neuropathy (P diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with patients without diabetic complications. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy carrying the 677T allele and low folic acid levels. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for diabetic neuropathy in Chinese patients with diabetes. The C677T polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and low folic acid levels may be risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients with diabetes.

  12. Compassion fatigue within double duty caregiving: nurse-daughters caring for elderly parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; St-Amantr, Oona; Brown, Judith Belle

    2011-01-31

    This article examines compassion fatigue within double duty caregiving, defined here as the provision of care to elderly relatives by practicing nurses. Using qualitative data from our two studies of Canadian double duty caregivers, we identified and interviewed 20 female registered nurses whom we described as "living on the edge." The themes of context, characteristics, and consequences emerged from the findings. In this article, we argue that being both a nurse and a daughter leads to the blurring of boundaries between professional and personal care work, which ultimately predisposed these caregivers to compassion fatigue. We found that the context of double duty caregiving, specifically the lack of personal and professional resources along with increasing familial care expectations, shaped the development of compassion fatigue. Nurse-daughters caring for elderly parents under intense and prolonged conditions exhibited certain characteristics, such as being preoccupied and absorbed with their parents' health needs. The continual negotiation between professional and personal care work, and subsequent erosion of those boundaries, led to adverse health consequences experienced by the nurse-daughters. The study findings point to the need to move beyond the individualistic conceptualization and medical treatment of compassion fatigue to one that recognizes the inherent socio-economic and political contextual factors associated with compassion fatigue. Advocating for practice and policy changes at the societal level is needed to decrease compassion fatigue amongst double duty caregivers. In this article we review the compassion fatigue literature, report our most recent study methods and findings, and discuss our conclusions.

  13. Genotype–phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayashree Shanker; Ganapathy Perumal; Arindam Maitra; Veena S. Rao; B. K. Natesha; Shibu John; Sridhar Hebbagodi; Vijay V. Kakkar

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed significantly across R353Q genotype ($P \\lt 0.0001$). Frequency of subjects with RR and QQ genotypes were higher in 4th quartile and 1st quartile of FVII.c activity, respectively ($P \\lt 0.0001$). F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score $-1.82$; $P = 0.002$). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506–2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679–3.641), respectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  14. Fluorescent quantification of terazosin hydrochloride content in human plasma and tablets using second-order calibration based on both parallel factor analysis and alternating penalty trilinear decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hong-Yan; Wu, Hai-Long; OuYang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Jin-Fang; Fu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2009-09-14

    Two second-order calibration methods based on the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) method, have been utilized for the direct determination of terazosin hydrochloride (THD) in human plasma samples, coupled with the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the two algorithms combing with the standard addition procedures have been applied for the determination of terazosin hydrochloride in tablets and the results were validated by the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. These second-order calibrations all adequately exploited the second-order advantages. For human plasma samples, the average recoveries by the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms with the factor number of 2 (N=2) were 100.4+/-2.7% and 99.2+/-2.4%, respectively. The accuracy of two algorithms was also evaluated through elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) tests and t-test. It was found that both algorithms could give accurate results, and only the performance of APTLD was slightly better than that of PARAFAC. Figures of merit, such as sensitivity (SEN), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD) were also calculated to compare the performances of the two strategies. For tablets, the average concentrations of THD in tablet were 63.5 and 63.2 ng mL(-1) by using the PARAFAC and APTLD algorithms, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by t-test and both algorithms could give accurate results, too.

  15. Genotype-phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Jayashree; Perumal, Ganapathy; Maitra, Arindam; Rao, Veena S; Natesha, B K; John, Shibu; Hebbagodi, Sridhar; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2009-12-01

    Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the role of R353Q polymorphism in the F7 gene in 139 Indian families with CAD, comprising of 222 affected subjects, 105 unaffected subjects and 126 affected sibling pairs. Plasma per cent FVIIc activity (FVII.c activity) differed ignificantly across R353Q genotype (P F7 R353Q SNP was able to explain up to 7% of variation in FVII.c activity by regression analysis and an additive genetic component of variance of 28.04% by heritability analysis. Quantitative trait loci analysis showed suggestive linkage evidence of F7 SNP with per cent FVII.c activity (LOD score -1.82; P = 0.002). Individuals with RR and RQ genotypes carried an OR of 2.071 (95% c.i. = 1.506-2.850) and 2.472 (95% c.i. = 1.679-3.641), espectively, towards CAD risk. There was significant correlation of FVII.c activity with lipid markers, particularly among those with RR and RQ genotype after covariate adjustment. In conclusion, the F7 R353Q SNP appears to moderately influence plasma FVII.c activity and risk of CAD in Indians.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S. heavy-duty vehicle sales of complete heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicles for model year 2008... complete heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicles for model year 2008. (2)(i) Manufacturers certifying vehicles... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  17. Quantifying on-road emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles: accounting for the presence of medium- and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; DeMartini, Steven J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-12-03

    Vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic aerosol (OA), and black carbon (BC) were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Measurements were made in bore 2 of the tunnel, where light-duty (LD) vehicles accounted for >99% of total traffic and heavy-duty trucks were not allowed. Prior emission studies conducted in North America have often assumed that route- or weekend-specific prohibitions on heavy-duty truck traffic imply that diesel contributions to pollutant concentrations measured in on-road settings can be neglected. However, as light-duty vehicle emissions have declined, this assumption can lead to biased results, especially for pollutants such as NOx, OA, and BC, for which diesel-engine emission rates are high compared to corresponding values for gasoline engines. In this study, diesel vehicles (mostly medium-duty delivery trucks with two axles and six tires) accounted for emission factors for light-duty vehicles are, respectively, 10 and 50 times lower than for heavy-duty diesel trucks. Using measured emission factors from this study and publicly available data on taxable fuel sales, as of 2010, LD gasoline vehicles were estimated to be responsible for 85%, 18%, 18%, and 6% of emissions of CO, NOx, OA, and BC, respectively, from on-road motor vehicles in the United States.

  18. Niveles del factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas en el plasma rico en plaquetas antes y despues de antiagregantes plaquetarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczy González

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El PDGF es uno de los mitógenos más potentes para el tejido conectivo, su secreción parece ser particularmente importante cuando la fuente es el Plasma Rico en Plaquetas (PRP, de allí el rol protagónico de este último en la regeneración tisular. Se determinó mediante ELISA los niveles de PDGFBB en el PRP, Plasma Pobre en Plaquetas (PPP y Exudado de 32 sujetos sanos antes y 24 horas después de ingerir AAS (Aspirina y Clopidogrel. Los niveles basales de PDGFBB ueron de 10, 6 ± 1, 9 ng/ml (PPP, 12, 12 ± 2, 5 ng/ml (PRP y 10, 84 ± 1, 68 ng/ml (Exudado. Mientras que después del tratamiento con AAS las concentraciones de PDGFBB estuvieron en 8, 96 ± 1, 4 ng/ml (PPP, 11, 36 ± 1, 48ng/ml (PRP, 11, 11 ± 1, 14ng/ml (Exudado y para el Clopidogrel fueron de 8, 53 ± 0, 59 ng/ml (PPP, 9, 65 ± 1, 17 ng/ml (PRP y 8, 51 ± 0, 75 ng/ml (Exudado. Se notó que luego de la administración de AAS y Clopidogrel los valores de PDGFBB disminuyeron de manera estadísticamente significativa, en especial para el grupo del Clopidogrel. El AAS pareció afectar en menor grado las concentraciones de PDGFBB, lo cual puede ser atribuible al mecanismo de acción farmacológica diferencial existente entre la AAS y Clopidogrel. No se encontró correlación entre el recuento plaquetario y los niveles basales de PDGFBB del PRP. PDGF levels in platelet-rich plasma before and after anti platelets drugs Abstract PDGF is one of the most potent mitogen for connective tissue, its secretion appears to be particularly important when the source is Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP, hence the latter leading role in tissue regeneration. ELISA PDGFBB levels in PRP, Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP and exudates, were determined in 32 healthy subjects before and 24 hours after ingestion of Aspirin (ASA and Clopidogrel (CLO. PDGFBB baseline levels were 10.6 ± 1.9 ng / ml (PPP, 12.12 ± 2.5 ng / ml (PRP and 10.84 ± 1.68 ng / ml (exudate. After treatment with ASA concentrations were PDGFBB in 8

  19. "A Kantian care ethics suicide duty".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Standard arguments for a duty to die or to commit suicide generally rely upon contractarian or other form of justice or the Principle of Beneficence. Even though some of these arguments might appear deontological, there is an explicit or implicit consequentialist common thread in all of them in which utility of some sort is maximized only through the taking of one's own life. Hence, most arguments for a suicide duty are consequentialist in nature. There are a number of relatively unexplored deontological arguments that make plausible cases for the mandatory taking of one's own life. For example, although Kant is widely thought to prohibit all suicides, a careful reading of his work can show a plausible case based on the Categorical Imperative. If it is necessary to preserve the individual's moral life, then everyone could will the generalized maxim governing the situation as a law of nature. Unfortunately, Kant's argument is weakened by his poor understanding of moral psychology. To strengthen Kant's case, care-relationship ethics can be combined with the argument to produce a plausible case that people are obligated to kill themselves if a number of criteria are satisfied.

  20. Canonical duties, liabilities of trustees and administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, F G

    1985-06-01

    The new Code of Canon Law outlines a number of duties of those who have responsibility for administering the Church's temporal goods. Before assuming office, administrators must pledge to be efficient and faithful, and they must prepare an inventory of goods belonging to the juridic person they serve. Among their duties, administrators must: Ensure that adequate insurance is provided; Use civilly valid methods to protect canonical ownership of the goods; Observe civil and canon law prescriptions as well as donors' intentions; Collect and safeguard revenues, repay debts, and invest funds securely; Maintain accurate records, keep documents secure, and prepare an annual budget; Prepare an annual report and present it to the Ordinary where prescribed; Observe civil law concerning labor and social policy, and pay employees a just and decent wage. Administrators who carry out acts that are invalid canonically are liable for such acts. The juridic person is not liable, unless it derived benefit from the transaction. Liability is especially high when the sale of property is involved or when a contract is entered into without proper cannonical consent. Although Church law is relatively powerless to punish those who have been negligent, stewards, administrators, and trustees must do all they can to be truthful to the responsibility with which they have been entrusted.

  1. Constraining duty cycles through a Bayesian technique

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, P; Segreto, A; Ducci, L; Vercellone, S

    2014-01-01

    The duty cycle (DC) of astrophysical sources is generally defined as the fraction of time during which the sources are active. However, DCs are generally not provided with statistical uncertainties, since the standard approach is to perform Monte Carlo bootstrap simulations to evaluate them, which can be quite time consuming for a large sample of sources. As an alternative, considerably less time-consuming approach, we derived the theoretical expectation value for the DC and its error for sources whose state is one of two possible, mutually exclusive states, inactive (off) or flaring (on), as based on a finite set of independent observational data points. Following a Bayesian approach, we derived the analytical expression for the posterior, the conjugated distribution adopted as prior, and the expectation value and variance. We applied our method to the specific case of the inactivity duty cycle (IDC) for supergiant fast X-ray transients. We also studied IDC as a function of the number of observations in the ...

  2. Rights and duties in parenting practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Solans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to present the results of three qualitative research on the exercise of rights and duties on Parenting Practices (PP, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina. They included interviews with mothers of children with Unsatisfied Basic Needs concretized between 2009 and 2013. Their analysis revealed that in this set of households were carried out three types of PP: imposition, guide and free will, the latter was the most used. As part of this practice, children managed their hours of sleep, wakefulness and leisure, without the intervention of their parents. It was noted, for example, that children over 10 years decided on matters concerning their schooling, absenting progressively to school, to abandonment. These practices were respected by their parents. By default, the postponement of pleasure (tolerance to frustration will not be exercised: they let children do at will. A trend of teenage pregnancy and the formation of pairs of children between 14-16 years with parental consent was also noted. In this sense, even when children lived in a house in contact with their parents, with a supply of food and available school, the indiscriminate exercise of free will put children's health at risk and full development, curtailing their rights. We recommend further studies such timely interventions to promote programs and projects designed to guide parents on issues related to the development of children as subjects of Rights and Duties.

  3. Low fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, the nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in normal individuals are not well-defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the ...

  4. Effects of the breed, sex and age on cellular content and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Carlos E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no information on the effects of the breed, gender and age on the cellular content and growth factor (GF release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma (P-PRP and pure-platelet rich gel (P-PRG. The objectives of this study were: 1 to compare the cellular composition of P-PRP with whole blood and platelet poor plasma (PPP; 2 to compare the concentration of transforming GF beta 1 (TGF-β1 and platelet derived GF isoform BB (PDGF-BB between P-PRP treated with non-ionic detergent (P-PRP+NID, P-PRG (activated with calcium gluconate -CG-, PPP+NID, PPP gel (PPG, and plasma and; 3 to evaluate and to correlate the effect of the breed, gender and age on the cellular and GF concentration for each blood component. Forty adult horses, 20 Argentinean Creole Horses (ACH and, 20 Colombian Creole Horses (CCH were included. Data were analyzed by parametric (i.e.: t-test, one way ANOVA and non parametric (Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test tests. Correlation analysis was also performed by using the Spearman and Pearson tests. A p ≤ 0.05 was set as significant for all tests. All the blood components were compared for platelet (PLT, leukocyte (WBC, TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations. The effect of the breed, gender and age on these variables was analyzed. A P ≤ 0.05 was accepted as significant for all the tests. Results PLT counts were 1.8 and 0.6 times higher in P-PRP than in whole blood and PPP, respectively; WBC counts were 0.5 and 0.1 times lower in P-PRP, in comparison with whole blood and PPP, respectively. TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were 2.3 and 262 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in plasma, and 0.59 and 0.48 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in PPG. P-PRG derived from CCH females or young horses presented significantly (P Conclusions Our results indicated that P-PRP obtained by a manual method was affected by intrinsic factors such as the breed, gender and age. Equine practitioners should be

  5. Plasma factors in severe early-onset preeclampsia do not substantially alter endothelial gene expression in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, RB; Asgeirsdottir, SA; Gerbens, F; van Pamus, MG; Kallenberg, CGM; Meerman, GJT; Aarnoudse, JG; Molema, G

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systemic endothelial dysfunction is a central feature in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Its cell biologic and molecular basis is poorly understood. One leading hypothesis argues that endothelial dysfunction is caused by (at present largely unknown) circulating factors released from

  6. Thermo-mechanical behaviour of heavy-duty disc brake systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    In heavy-duty disc brake systems, braking is a transient, non-linear and asymmetrical thermo-mechanical process. Surface cracking, rather than wear, is the major factor limiting the brake disc's life. The disc material (cast-iron), heat transfer boundary conditions and pad-disc frictional reactions are characteristically non-linear and asymmetrical during the friction process. Non-uniform deformation and surface cracks in brake discs result from the accumulation of excess...

  7. Effect of Membrane Permeability on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and β2m Plasma Levels in Patients on Long-Term Haemodialysis: A Randomised Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Charles; Kirchgessner, Judith; Pham, Jenny; Vo-Van, Cyril; Lorriaux, Christie; Hurot, Jean-Marc; Zaoui, Eric; Grassmann, Aileen; Jean, Guillaume; Marcelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Survival of haemodialysis (HD) patients is influenced by many factors. Mortality is mainly of cardiovascular (CV) origin and related to both traditional and nontraditional CV risk factors. Low plasma Beta2-microglobulin (β2m) levels are associated with improved HD patient survival. HD session times that are longer than the conventional 4 h (i.e., extended dialysis) provide better middle molecule clearance and are also associated with a survival advantage. In this crossover randomised trial, we investigated the effect of membrane flux on CV risk factors and on β2m plasma levels in patients treated with extended dialysis. Dialysis session duration was between 5 and 8 h for all patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the treatment sequences low-flux/high-flux dialysis versus high-flux/low-flux dialysis in a crossover design after a 3-month run-in period, with each phase lasting 9 months. Of the initially enrolled 168 patients, 155 patients started the study after the run-in period, 117 patients completed Phase 1, and 83 patients completed the whole study. Lp(a), homocystein, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and serum albumin were comparable in the low-flux and high-flux treatments. The average β2m level was 43.3 ± 11.1 mg/l at the end of the low-flux phase. Independent of sequence assignation, average β2m was significantly lower at the end of the high-flux phase (27.5 ± 76.0 mg/l, p dialysis. However, high-flux filters are necessary to optimise middle molecule clearance and reduce the β2m level. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Effects of prepartum 2,4-thiazolidinedione on insulin sensitivity, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and leptin, and adipose tissue gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, K M; Perfield, K L; Farney, J K; Bradford, B J; Boisclair, Y R; Overton, T R

    2011-11-01

    Administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZD), to prepartum dairy cattle has been shown to improve dry matter intake and decrease circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) around the time of calving. The objective of this work was to elucidate mechanisms of TZD action in transition dairy cattle by investigating changes in plasma leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI), and adipose tissue gene expression of leptin, PPARγ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Multiparous Holstein cows (n=40) were administered 0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg of TZD/kg of body weight (BW) by intrajugular infusion once daily from 21 d before expected parturition until parturition. Plasma samples collected daily from 22 d before expected parturition through 21 d postpartum were analyzed for glucose, NEFA, and insulin. Plasma samples collected on d -14, -3, -1, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 49 relative to parturition were also analyzed for leptin and TNFα. Adipose tissue was collected on d 7 before expected parturition from a subset of cows, and gene expression was examined via quantitative real-time PCR. A tendency for a treatment by time effect on plasma leptin prepartum was observed such that values were similar on d -14 but cows receiving 2.0 mg/kg of BW of TZD tended to have lower circulating leptin as calving approached. Postpartum leptin tended to be increased linearly (2.3, 2.4, and 2.5±0.1 ng/mL for 0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg treatments, respectively) in cows that received TZD prepartum. Plasma TNFα increased linearly (2.6, 3.7, and 4.0±0.1 pg/mL) in response to TZD treatment and decreased through the first week postpartum. Calculation of RQUICKI 1/[log(glucose)+log(insulin)+log(NEFA)] suggested altered insulin sensitivity in cows administered TZD that may depend on day relative to calving. Administration of TZD increased adipose tissue expression of

  9. 33 CFR 5.27 - Assignment to specific duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assignment to specific duties. 5.27 Section 5.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.27 Assignment to specific duties. Members of the Auxiliary shall not be...

  10. 7 CFR 7.25 - County executive director duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false County executive director duties. 7.25 Section 7.25... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.25 County executive director duties. (a) The county executive director shall execute the policies established by the county committee and be responsible for...

  11. 77 FR 73911 - Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... and Rest Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Availability of... Regulatory Impact Analysis of its final rule amending its existing flight, duty and rest regulations... Register as Flight Crew Member Duty and Rest Requirements on January 4, 2012. 77 FR 330. The regulations...

  12. 75 FR 63424 - Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 117 and 121 RIN 2120-AJ58 Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest..., to amend its existing flight, duty and rest regulations applicable to certificate holders and their... and Rest Requirements.'' The proposed regulation recognizes the growing similarities between the types...

  13. 75 FR 62486 - Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 117 and 121 RIN 2120-AJ58 Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest... flight, duty and rest regulations applicable to certificate holders and their flightcrew members. The FAA... and Rest Requirements'' (75 FR 55852). The proposed regulation recognizes the growing similarities...

  14. 38 CFR 3.301 - Line of duty and misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... misconduct. 3.301 Section 3.301 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Entitlement Considerations § 3.301 Line of duty and misconduct. (a) Line of duty. Direct service connection..., and not the result of the veteran's own willful misconduct or, for claims filed after October 31,...

  15. 15 CFR 270.105 - Duties of a Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of a Team. 270.105 Section 270... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.105 Duties of a Team. (a) A Team's...

  16. 5 CFR 630.210 - Uncommon tours of duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uncommon tours of duty. 630.210 Section 630.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.210 Uncommon tours of duty. (a...

  17. 28 CFR 49.2 - Duties of custodian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of custodian. 49.2 Section 49.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) ANTITRUST CIVIL PROCESS ACT § 49.2 Duties of custodian. (a) Upon taking physical possession of documentary material, answers to interrogatories,...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.512 - Duty cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty cycle generation. 1065.512... cycle generation. (a) Generate duty cycles according to this section if the standard-setting part... sequence of paired values for speed and torque or for speed and power. (b) Transform normalized values...

  19. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic... last CAFTA-DR country will be liquidated or reliquidated at the applicable rate of duty for that good... excess customs duties paid with respect to such entry, with interest accrued from the date of entry...

  20. 7 CFR 7.22 - Community committee duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Community committee duties. 7.22 Section 7.22... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.22 Community committee duties. (a) The community... community committee shall: (1) Serve as an advisor and consultant to the county committee; (2)...