WorldWideScience

Sample records for duty diesel engine

  1. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  2. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  3. Fuel composition impact on heavy duty diesel engine combustion & emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Heavy Duty Diesel or compression ignition (CI) engine plays an important economical role in societies all over the world. Although it is a fuel efficient internal combustion engine design, CI engine emissions are an important contributor to global pollution. To further reduce engine emissions

  4. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  5. Robust cylinder pressure estimation in heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulah, S.; Forrai, A.; Rentmeester, F.; Donkers, T.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    The robustness of a new single-cylinder pressure sensor concept is experimentally demonstrated on a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Using a single-cylinder pressure sensor and a crank angle sensor, this single-cylinder pressure sensor concept estimates the in-cylinder pressure traces in the

  6. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...), optimized turbo-charging, optimized fuel injection, diesel particulate filters), plus liquid urea based...-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim... manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and 2013 for emissions of oxides of...

  7. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  8. Tailpipe emissions and engine performance of a light-duty diesel engine operating on petro- and bio-diesel fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the experimental apparatus developed in the Transportation Air Quality Laboratory (TAQ Lab) at the University of Vermont to compare light-duty diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions when operating on petroleum diesel (...

  9. Comparison of EGR-VTG control schemes for an EPA2010 heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.H.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Next generation heavy-duty diesel engines require tight air path control to meet upcoming emission legislation with minimal fuel consumption. This study concentrates on the emission control of a 13l, 360 kW EGR diesel engine, which is compliant with EPA2010 emission targets. Currently, an

  10. Oxygenated fuels for clean heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: For diesel engines, changing the fuel composition is an alternative route towards achieving lower emission levels. The potential of oxygenated fuels to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions has already been demonstrated earlier. In this study, this research has been

  11. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  13. Performance and emissions of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled whit palm oil biodiesel and premium diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, Helmer; Mantilla, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels due their potential to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Research has been addressed in order to study the emissions of light duty vehicles. However, the particle matter and gaseous emissions emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel and premium diesel fuel have seldom been addressed. The objective of this study was to explore the performance and emission levels of a Cummins 4-stroke, 9.5 liter, 6-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, and a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The palm-biodiesel lowered maximum engine output by much as 10 %. The engine emissions data is compared to standards from 2004, and is determined to pass all standards for diesel fuel, but does not meet emissions standards for PM or NOx for palm-biodiesel.

  14. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  16. Direct injection of a diesel-butane blend in a heavy duty engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, C.A.J.; van den Berge, B.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Jaasma, S.A.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) has for long been used in passenger cars. Presently, LPG sup-ply systems have also attracted considerable at-tention for heavy duty use. LPG can be applied in these engines combining port fuel injected LPG with a direct injection of diesel. These engines equipped with a

  17. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  18. Final Rule for Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to establish nonconformance penalties (NCPs) for manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines (HHDDE) in model years 2012 and later for emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) because we have found the criteria for NCPs.

  19. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  20. On particulate characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, H.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of soot measurements acquired in the combustion chamber of an optically accessible heavy-duty Diesel engine. The Diesel engine is the most efficient internal combustion engine. Pollutant emissions from the engine, such as soot and NOx, however, form a

  1. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  2. Soot particulate size characterisation in a heavy-duty diesel engine for different engine loads by laser-induced incandescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, B.; Ganippa, L.C.; Vliet, van A.P.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence was used to estimate primary particle size distributions inside the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine as a function of the crank angle, for two different engine loads at two different probe locations. Assuming a log-normal particle size

  3. Oxygenated palm biodiesel: Ignition, combustion and emissions quantification in a light-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Cheng Tung; Ng, Jo-Han; Ahmad, Solehin; Rajoo, Srithar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Diesel engine test using palm biodiesel and diesel at varying speed and load. • Palm biodiesel shows better performance at late stage of cycle evolution. • Oxygen in palm biodiesel fuel improves local combustion at late stage of combustion. • Emissions of NO are lower at low and medium operating speed for palm biodiesel. • Formulation of trend guide for performance and emissions characteristics for light-duty diesel engines. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of oxygenated neat palm biodiesel in a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine in terms of ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics. Conventional non-oxygenated diesel fuel is compared as baseline. The engine testing is performed between the operating speed of 2000–3000 rpm and load of up to 3 bar of brake mean effective pressure. From it, a total of 50 experiment cases are tested to form a comprehensive operational speed-load contour map for ignition and combustion; while various engine-out emissions such as NO, CO, UHCs and CO 2 are compared based on fuel type-speed combinations. The ignition and combustion evolution contour maps quantify the absolute ignition delay period and elucidate the difference between that of palm biodiesel and fossil diesel. Although diesel has shorter ignition delay period by up to 0.6 CAD at 3000 rpm and burns more rapidly at the start of combustion, combustion of palm biodiesel accelerates during the mid-combustion phase and overtakes diesel in the cumulative heat release rates (HRR) prior to the 90% cumulative HRR. This can be attributed to the oxygen contained in palm biodiesel assisting in localized regions of combustion. In terms of performance, the oxygenated nature of palm biodiesel provided mixed performances with improved thermal efficiency and increased brake specific fuel consumption, due to the improved combustion and lower calorific values, respectively. Emission measurements show that NO for palm biodiesel is

  4. Simulation of biodiesel combustion in a light-duty diesel engine using integrated compact biodiesel–diesel reaction mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Jo-Han

    2013-01-01

    This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study is performed to investigate the combustion characteristics and emissions formation processes of biodiesel fuels in a light-duty diesel engine. A compact reaction mechanism with 80 species and 303 reactions is used to account for the effects of chemical...... kinetics. Here, the mechanism is capable of emulating biodiesel–diesel mixture of different blending levels and biodiesel produced from different feedstock. The integrated CFD-kinetic model was validated against a test matrix which covers the entire saturated–unsaturated methyl ester range typical...... of biodiesel fuels, as well as the biodiesel–diesel blending levels. The simulated cases were then validated for in-cylinder pressure profiles and peak pressure values/timings. Errors in the peak pressure values did not exceed 1%, while the variations in peak pressure timings were kept within 1.5 crank angle...

  5. Heavy-Duty Diesel Fuel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's heavy-duty diesel fuel analysis program sought to quantify the hydrocarbon, NOx, and PM emission effects of diesel fuel parameters (such as cetane number, aromatics content, and fuel density) on various nonroad and highway heavy-duty diesel engines.

  6. Optimising the cam profile of an electronic unit pump for a heavy-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Tao; Dai, Hefei; Lei, Yan; Cao, Chunlei; Li, Xuchu

    2015-01-01

    For a fuel system with a tangent cam or a constant-velocity cam, the peak injection pressure continues to rise as the injection duration increases, but overly high peak pressures induce mechanical loads and wear, limiting the maximum engine speed and injection quantity. To improve the performance of an EUP (Electronic Unit Pump) fuel system for heavy-duty diesel engines, this work proposes a new pump cam, namely the constant-pressure cam. It helps the EUP run at a higher speed and deliver larger fuel quantities while maintaining a constant peak injection pressure, which improves the power of the heavy-duty diesel engine. A model based on the EUP was built to determine the three constraints for optimising the constant-pressure cam: 1) the pump pressure should equal the nozzle pressure; 2) the cam speed should decrease with the increase in the injection duration; and 3) the cam acceleration gradient should be zero. An EUP system was tested with the tangent cam and the optimised cam under different conditions. The experimental results show that the EUP system with the optimised cam delivers more injection quantity and runs at higher engine speeds while maintaining the same peak pressure as the tangent cam. - Highlights: • We propose a constant-pressure cam to improve the power of heavy-duty diesel engine. • We deduce three constraints for the CP (constant-peak pressure) cam based on a model. • The EUP system with the new cam works well under higher engine speed. • The peak pressure of the constant-pressure cam fuel system maintains high

  7. Computer simulation of the heavy-duty turbo-compounded diesel cycle for studies of engine efficiency and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. A.; Heywood, J. B.; Replogle, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reductions in heat loss at appropriate points in the diesel engine which result in substantially increased exhaust enthalpy were shown. The concepts for this increased enthalpy are the turbocharged, turbocompounded diesel engine cycle. A computer simulation of the heavy duty turbocharged turbo-compounded diesel engine system was undertaken. This allows the definition of the tradeoffs which are associated with the introduction of ceramic materials in various parts of the total engine system, and the study of system optimization. The basic assumptions and the mathematical relationships used in the simulation of the model engine are described.

  8. Comparisons of system benefits and thermo-economics for exhaust energy recovery applied on a heavy-duty diesel engine and a light-duty vehicle gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyou; Zhang, Yajun; Zhang, Jie; Peng, Zhijun; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparisons of exhaust energy recovery are launched between two types of engine. • System performances are analyzed in terms of benefits and thermo-economics. • Diesel engine system presents superior to gasoline type in economic applicability. • Only diesel engine system using water under full load meets the economic demand. - Abstract: Exhaust energy recovery system (EERS) based on Rankine cycle (RC) in internal combustion engines have been studied mainly on heavy-duty diesel engines (D) and light-duty vehicle gasoline engines (G), however, little information available on systematical comparisons and evaluations between the two applications, which is a particularly necessary summary for clarifying the differences. In this paper, the two particular systems are compared quantitatively using water, R141b, R123 and R245fa as working fluids. The influences of evaporating pressure, engine type and load on the system performances are analyzed with multi-objectives, including the thermal efficiency improvement, the reduced CO 2 emission, the total heat transfer area per net power output (APP), the electricity production cost (EPC) and the payback period (PBP). The results reveal that higher pressure and engine load would be attractive for better performances. R141b shows the best performances in system benefits for the D-EERS, while water exhibits the largest contributions in the G-EERS. Besides, water performs the best thermo-economics, and R245fa serves as the most uneconomical fluid. The D-EERS presents superior to the G-EERS in the economic applicability as well as much more CO 2 emission reductions, although with slightly lower thermal efficiency improvement, and only the D-EERS with water under the full load meets the economic demand. Therefore the EERS based on RC serve more applicable on the heavy-duty diesel engine, while it might be feasible for the light-duty vehicle gasoline engine as the state-of-the art technologies are developed in the

  9. Low Temperature Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleskog, Malin

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, there have been major efforts to reduce engine emissions and fuel consumption. The studies described in this thesis were conducted with the aim of identifying methods for reducing harmful engine-out emissions of soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) under high load without increasing fuel consumption. The first part of the project focused on low temperature combustion using very high levels of EGR. It was found that very low soot and NOx emissions could be achieved at low loads. Unfortunately, these conditions resulted in high fuel consumption as well as high emissions of HC and CO. The increased emissions could be mitigated by optimising the timing of the SOI and increasing the injection pressure, but the high fuel consumption remained problematic. Intermediate levels of EGR can be used to increase the ignition delay and thereby achieve partially premixed combustion. When soot and NOx emissions are plotted against the amount of EGR, there is an intersection point at which the soot emissions are just beginning to increase but the recirculated exhaust gas has greatly reduced the NOx emissions. At this point, the HC and CO emissions and the fuel consumption remain acceptably low. If the onset of the increased soot emissions could be shifted to a higher EGR level or if the peak soot emissions could be reduced in magnitude, the tradeoff between soot and NOx emissions at intermediate EGR levels could be improved. By increasing the charge air pressure, the size of the soot bump is reduced and the point of intersection between the soot and NOx curves is shifted to a higher EGR percentage. The soot-NOx tradeoff can also be improved by increasing the injection pressure to reduce the soot peak while using EGR levels that are high enough to suppress NOx formation. To further investigate the potential of partially premixed combustion, the effects of varying the timing of late inlet valve closure were investigated. The results show that reducing the effective

  10. Computational study of the effect of different injection angle on heavy duty diesel engine combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar Ali Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines exhausting gaseous emission and particulate matter have long been regarded as one of the major air pollution sources, particularly in metropolitan areas, and have been a source of serious public concern for a long time. The choosing various injection strategies is not only motivated by cost reduction but is also one of the potentially effective techniques to reduce exhaust emission from diesel engines. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different injection angles on a heavy duty diesel engine and emission characteristics. The varieties of injection angle were simulated and the emissions like soot and NO is calculated. The comparison between the different injection strategies was also investigated. A combustion chamber for three injection strategies (injection direction with angles of α=67.5, 70, and 72.5 degree was simulated. The comparative study involving rate of heat release, in-cylinder temperature, in-cylinder pressure, NO and soot emissions were also reported for different injection strategies. The case of α=70 is optimum because in this manner the emissions are lower in almost most of crank angle than two other cases and the in-cylinder pressure, which is a representation of engine power, is higher than in the case of α=67.5 and just a little lower than in the case of α=72.5.

  11. Demand Forecasting for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Considering Emission Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Seong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Makers of heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs need to reduce their inventory of old-generation products in preparation for the demand for next-generation products that satisfy new emission regulations. In this paper, a new demand forecasting model is proposed to reflect special conditions raised by the technological generational shift owing to new emission regulation enforcement. In addition, sensitivity analyses are conducted to better accommodate uncertainty involved at the time of prediction. Our proposed model can help support manufacturers’ production and sales management for a series of products in response to new emission regulations.

  12. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... implementation of the provisions of the seven consent decrees signed by the United States and diesel engine..., or anticipates receiving, requests from the diesel engine manufacturers for termination of their respective decrees. This meeting notice is also available on EPA's Diesel Engine Settlement Web site at http...

  13. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load

  14. Detroit Diesel Engine Technology for Light Duty Truck Applications - DELTA Engine Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, Charlie

    2000-08-20

    The early generation of the DELTA engine has been thoroughly tested and characterized in the virtual lab, during engine dynamometer testing, and on light duty trucks for personal transportation. This paper provides an up-to-date account of program findings. Further, the next generation engine design and future program plans will be briefly presented.

  15. Performance and emissions of a heavy-duty diesel/LPG dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, Paul [Sasol Technology, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a heavy-duty truck engine which has been equipped with an aftermarket conversion kit to enable operation as a diesel/LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) dual fuel engine. During operation diesel fuel is displaced by LPG which is vaporised and metered into the inlet manifold by means of solenoid injectors. It was found that, as the LPG fuelling rate is increased, the cylinder pressure rise rates and peak cylinder pressures increase, as do the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. At higher loads it was found that the LPG autoignites independently of the diesel fuel, resulting in very high rates of cylinder pressure rise. Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions remain largely unchanged, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced due to the lower carbon content of the LPG fuel. Different LPG compositions were also investigated and it was found that the LPG properties that have the most significant effect on combustion and emissions were the autoignition and volatility characteristics. (orig.)

  16. Quantitative nitric oxide measurements by means of laser-induced fluorescence in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Vliet, van A.P.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Ganippa, L.C.; Bougie, H.J.T.; Meerts, W.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative in-cylinder laser-induced fluorescence measurements ofnitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine are presented. Special attention is paid to experimental techniques to assess the attenuation of the laser beam and the fluorescence signal by the cylinder contents.This attenuation can be

  17. Appliance of high EGR rates with a short and long route EGR system on a heavy duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jong, de D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the possibilities of applying high EGR rates with low NOx and PM emission levels on a two-stage turbocharged 12 liter heavy duty diesel engine. The EGR is applied by using a long and short route EGR system. For the ESC operating points A25 and C100 EGR is

  18. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erren Rd., Rende District, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, West District, Chiayi 60051, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study.

  19. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study particulate OC and EC under 3 fuels, 2 aftertreatments and 4 engine loads. • Negligible to minor OC and EC changes with low, ultralow sulfur and 10% biodiesels. • Moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC from diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). • Large reductions of OC and particularly EC from DOC plus diesel particulate filter. • Highest at idle, whereas OC decreases but EC increases from low to high load. - Abstract: Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study

  20. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  2. Analysis of the Journal Bearing Friction Losses in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knauder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines (ICE for the use in heavy-duty trucks and buses have to fulfil demanding requirements for both vehicle efficiency as well as for emission of greenhouse gases. Beside the piston assembly the journal bearings are among the largest contributors to friction in the ICE. Through a combination of measurements and validated simulation methods the journal bearing friction losses of a state-of-the-art heavy-duty Diesel engine are investigated for a large range of real world operating conditions. To this task recently developed and extensively validated simulation methods are used together with realistic lubricant models that consider the Non-Newtonian behaviour as well as the piezoviscous effect. In addition, the potential for further friction reduction with the use of ultra-low viscosity lubricants is explored. The results reveal a potential of about 8% friction reduction in the journal bearings using a 0W20 ultra-low viscosity oil with an HTHS-viscosity (The HTHS-viscosity is defined as the dynamic viscosity of the lubricant measured at 150 °C and at a shear rate of 106 s

  3. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-10-30

    Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  5. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  6. Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeper, C. Paul

    Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low

  7. The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on the elemental composition of emissions from heavy duty diesel buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C.H. Lim; G.A. Ayoko; L. Morawska; Z.D. Ristovski; E.R. Jayaratne [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences

    2007-08-15

    The effects of fuel characteristics and engine operating conditions on elemental composition of emissions from twelve heavy duty diesel buses have been investigated. Two types of diesel fuels - low sulfur diesel (LSD) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels with 500 ppm and 50 ppm sulfur contents respectively and 3 driving modes corresponding to 25%, 50% and 100% power were used. Elements present in the tailpipe emissions were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and those found in measurable quantities included Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ni, Pb, Be, P, Se, Ti and Ge. Multivariate analyses using multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) facilitated the extraction of information about the structure of the data. MCDM showed that the emissions of the elements were strongly influenced by the engine driving conditions while the PCA loadings plots showed that the emission factors of the elements were correlated with those of other pollutants such as particle number, total suspended particles, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx. Partial least square analysis revealed that the emission factors of the elements were strongly dependent on the fuel parameters such as the fuel sulfur content, fuel density, distillation point and cetane index. Strong correlations were also observed between these pollutants and the engine power or exhaust temperature. The study provides insights into the possible role of fuel sulfur content in the emission of inorganic elements from heavy duty diesel vehicles. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Diesel reformulation using bio-derived propanol to control toxic emissions from a light-duty agricultural diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillainayagam, Muthukkumar; Venkatesan, Krishnamoorthy; Dipak, Rana; Subramani, Saravanan; Sethuramasamyraja, Balaji; Babu, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In the Indian agricultural sector, millions of diesel-driven pump-sets were used for irrigation purposes. These engines produce carcinogenic diesel particulates, toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions which threaten the livelihood of large population of farmers in India. The present study investigates the use of n-propanol, a less-explored high carbon bio-alcohol that can be produced by sustainable pathways from industrial and crop wastes that has an attractive opportunity for powering stationary diesel engines meant for irrigation and rural electrification. This study evaluates the use of n-propanol addition in fossil diesel by up to 30% by vol. and concurrently reports the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions of an agricultural DI diesel engine. Three blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 were prepared by mixing 10, 20, and 30% by vol. of n-propanol with fossil diesel. Results when compared to baseline diesel case indicated that smoke density reduced with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced smoke density by 13.33, 33.33, and 60%, respectively. NOx emissions increased with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. Later, three EGR rates (10, 20, and 30%) were employed. At any particular EGR rate, smoke density remained lower with increasing n-propanol content in the blends under increasing EGR rates. NOx reduced gradually with EGR. At 30% EGR, the blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced NOx emissions by 43.04, 37.98, and 34.86%, respectively when compared to baseline diesel. CO emissions remained low but hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were high for n-propanol/diesel blends under EGR. Study confirmed that n-propanol could be used by up to 30% by vol. with diesel and the blends delivered lower soot density, NOx, and CO emissions under EGR.

  9. Development of a Real-Time Virtual Nitric Oxide Sensor for Light-Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungha Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development of a semi-physical, real-time nitric oxide (NO prediction model that is capable of cycle-by-cycle prediction in a light-duty diesel engine. The model utilizes the measured in-cylinder pressure and information obtained from the engine control unit (ECU. From the inputs, the model takes into account the pilot injection burning and mixing, which affects the in-cylinder mixture formation. The representative in-cylinder temperature for NO formation was determined from the mixture composition calculation. The selected temperature and mixture composition was substituted using a simplified form of the NO formation rate equation for the cycle-by-cycle estimation. The reactive area and the duration of NO formation were assumed to be limited by the fuel quantity. The model predictability was verified not only using various steady-state conditions, including the variation of the EGR rate, the boost pressure, the rail pressure, and the injection timing, but also using transient conditions, which represent the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTC. The WLTC NO prediction results produced less than 3% error with the measured value. In addition, the proposed model maintained its reliability in terms of hardware aging, the changing and artificial perturbations during steady-state and transient engine operations. The model has been shown to require low computational effort because of the cycle-by-cycle, engine-out NO emission prediction and control were performed simultaneously in an embedded system for the automotive application. We expect that the developed NO prediction model can be helpful in emission calibration during the engine design stage or in the real-time controlling of the exhaust NO emission for improving fuel consumption while satisfying NO emission legislation.

  10. Experimental analysis of ethanol dual-fuel combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine: An optimisation at low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozo, Vinícius B.; May, Ian; Dalla Nora, Macklini; Cairns, Alasdair; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-fuel combustion offers promising results on a stock heavy-duty diesel engine. • The use of split diesel injections extends the benefits of the dual-fuel mode. • Ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion results in high indicated efficiencies. • NOx and soot emissions are significantly reduced. • Combustion efficiency reaches 98% with an ethanol energy ratio of 53%. - Abstract: Conventional diesel combustion produces harmful exhaust emissions which adversely affect the air quality if not controlled by in-cylinder measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Dual-fuel combustion can potentially reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot which are characteristic of diesel diffusion flame. The in-cylinder blending of different fuels to control the charge reactivity allows for lower local equivalence ratios and temperatures. The use of ethanol, an oxygenated biofuel with high knock resistance and high latent heat of vaporisation, increases the reactivity gradient. In addition, renewable biofuels can provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion suffers from poor engine efficiency at low load due to incomplete combustion. Therefore, experimental studies were carried out at 1200 rpm and 0.615 MPa indicated mean effective pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Fuel delivery was in the form of port fuel injection of ethanol and common rail direct injection of diesel. The objective was to improve combustion efficiency, maximise ethanol substitution, and minimise NOx and soot emissions. Ethanol energy fractions up to 69% were explored in conjunction with the effect of different diesel injection strategies on combustion, emissions, and efficiency. Optimisation tests were performed for the optimum fuelling and diesel injection strategy. The resulting effects of exhaust gas recirculation, intake air pressure, and rail pressure were

  11. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zihan [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Srinivasan, Kalyan K. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Krishnan, Sundar R. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Som, Sibendu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends.

  12. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pengine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. An experimental investigation of the combustion process of a heavy-duty diesel engine enriched with H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, C.; Li, H.; Nuszkowski, J.; Liu, S.; Gatts, T.; Atkinson, R.; Clark, N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This paper investigated the effect of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) addition on the combustion process of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The addition of a small amount of H{sub 2} was shown to have a mild effect on the cylinder pressure and combustion process. When operated at high load, the addition of a relatively large amount of H{sub 2} substantially increased the peak cylinder pressure and the peak heat release rate. Compared to the two-stage combustion process of diesel engines, a featured three-stage combustion process of the H{sub 2}-diesel dual fuel engine was observed. The extremely high peak heat release rate represented a combination of diesel diffusion combustion and the premixed combustion of H{sub 2} consumed by multiple turbulent flames, which substantially enhanced the combustion process of H{sub 2}-diesel dual fuel engine. However, the addition of a relatively large amount of H{sub 2} at low load did not change the two-stage heat release process pattern. The premixed combustion was dramatically inhibited while the diffusion combustion was slightly enhanced and elongated. The substantially reduced peak cylinder pressure at low load was due to the deteriorated premixed combustion. (author)

  14. Differences between emissions measured in urban driving and certification testing of heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Poornima; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Oshinuga, Adewale; Jiang, Yu; Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent C.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from eight heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) equipped with three different exhaust aftertreatment systems (ATS) for controlling nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were quantified on a chassis dynamometer using driving schedules representative of stop-and-go and free-flow driving in metropolitan areas. The three control technologies were: 1) cooled exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) plus a diesel particulate filter (DPF); 2) CEGR and DPF plus advanced engine controls; and 3) CEGR and DPF plus selective catalytic reduction with ammonia (SCR). Results for all control technologies and driving conditions showed PM emission factors were less than the standard, while selected non-regulated emissions (ammonia, carbonyls, and C4-C12 hydrocarbons) and a greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide) were at measurement detection limits. However, NOx emission factors depended on the control technology, engine calibration, and driving mode. For example, emissions from engines with cooled-exhaust gas recirculation (CEGR) were 239% higher for stop-and-go driving as compared with free-flow. For CEGR plus selective catalytic reduction (SCR), the ratio was 450%. A deeper analysis was carried out with the assumption that emissions measured for a drive cycle on either the chassis or in-use driving would be similar. Applying the same NTE rules to the chassis data showed emissions during stop-and-go driving often exceeded the certification standard and >90% of the driving did not fall within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) control area suggesting the NTE requirements do not provide sufficient emissions control under in-use conditions. On-road measurement of emissions using the same mobile lab while the vehicle followed a free-flow driving schedule verified the chassis results. These results have implications for scientists who build inventories using certification values instead of real world emission values and for metropolitan populations, who are exposed to elevated emissions. The differences in values

  15. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  16. The effect of the position of oxygen group to the aromatic ring to emission performance in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the soot-NOx trade-off and fuel efficiency of various aromatic oxygenates is investigated in a modern DAF heavy-duty diesel engine. All oxygenates were blended to diesel fuel such that the blend oxygen concentration was 2.59 wt.-%. The oxygenates in question, anisole, benzyl alcohol

  17. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Liou, Yi-Jyun [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Man-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erh-Jen Road, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, Chiayi 60036, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jim-Shoung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores <16 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of biodiesel blend and load. - Abstract: Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC + DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N{sub TOT}) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N{sub TOT} and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N{sub TOT} at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N{sub TOT} post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of

  18. The effects of biodiesels on semivolatile and nonvolatile particulate matter emissions from a light-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Hayden, Katherine; Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig; Chan, Tak; Poitras, Marie-Josée

    2017-11-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD. For ULSD, the contribution of pSVOCs to total particulate organic matter (POM) mass in the engine exhaust ranged between 21 and 85%. Evaporation of pSVOCs from the diesel particles during dilution led to decreases in the hydrogen to carbon ratio of POM and the PM number emission factor of the particles. Substituting biodiesels for ULSD could increase pSVOCs emissions but brought on large reductions in black carbon (BC) emissions. Among the biodiesels tested, tallow/used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel showed advantages over soybean and canola biodiesels in terms of both pSVOCs and nonvolatile PM emissions. It is noteworthy that PM properties, such as particle size and BC mass fraction, differed substantially between emissions from conventional diesel and biodiesels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental demonstration of RCCI in heavy-duty engines using diesel and natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as

  20. Emission performance of lignin-derived cyclic oxygenates in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Leermakers, C.A.J.; Dam, N.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In earlier research, a new class of bio-fuels, so-called cyclic oxygenates, was reported to have a favorable impact on the soot-NOx trade-off experience in diesel engines. In this paper, the soot-NOx trade-off is compared for two types of cyclic oxygenates. 2-phenyl ethanol has an aromatic and

  1. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  2. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  3. Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Murgovski, N.; de Jager, A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.

    This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO2–NOxCO2–NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with

  4. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  5. Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as

  6. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  7. Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zheng; Wu, Zhenkuo; Liu, Jingping; Lee, Chiafon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of EGR on high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend (Bu40) were investigated and compared with neat diesel (Bu00). • Bu40 has higher NOx due to wider combustion high-temperature region. • Bu40 has lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution. • Bu40 has higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. • For Bu40, EGR reduces NOx emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. - Abstract: In this work, the combustion and emission fundamentals of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend with 40% butanol (i.e., Bu40) in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated by experiment and simulation at constant engine speed of 1400 rpm and an IMEP of 1.0 MPa. Additionally, the impact of EGR was evaluated experimentally and compared with neat diesel fuel (i.e., Bu00). The results show that Bu40 has higher cylinder pressure, longer ignition delay, and faster burning rate than Bu00. Compared with Bu00, moreover, Bu40 has higher NOx due to wider combustion high-temperature region, lower soot due to local lower equivalence ratio distribution, and higher CO due to lower gas temperature in the late expansion process. For Bu40, EGR reduces NOx emissions dramatically with no obvious influence on soot. Meanwhile, there is no significant change in HC and CO emissions and indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) with EGR until EGR threshold is reached. When EGR rate exceeds the threshold level, HC and CO emissions increase dramatically, and ITE decreases markedly. Compared with Bu00, the threshold of Bu40 appears at lower EGR rate. Consequently, combining high butanol/diesel ratio blend with medium EGR has the potential to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining high thermal efficiency level

  8. Comparative measurement of the efficiency of catalytic after-burning devices on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattas, K.N.; Kyriakis, N.A.; Samaras, Z.C.; Aidarinis, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of three oxidation catalysts (Honeycat DEP 290, Engelhard PTX 623, Herapur 20L) and one catalytic trap oxidizer (Johnson Matthey JM 13/II) on the emissions of a RABA (M.A.N. Licensed) heavy-duty diesel engine has been comparatively studied. Tests were conducted according to EPA 13 mode test to measure CO, total HC, NO/sub x/ and total particulate matter emitted by the engine with and without devices. The test results were also correlated to the total emissions of the Athenian buses through new weighing factors of an ''Athenian 13 mode test''. The engine tests for all four devices resulted in: (1) considerable reduction of the engine's CO and total HC emissions - being already low (2) practically no difference in NO/sub x/ emissions and (3) increase of the total particulate emissions at high load modes.

  9. Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine During Cold and Warm Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Rong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through experiment conducted on a six cylinder direct injection diesel engine with SCR catalyst, effects of coolant temperature on rail pressure, injection quantity, excess air coefficient and emissions characteristics during cold and warm start were investigated. The results showed that, the maximum injection quantity during a starting event was several times higher than idling operation mode, so was the maximal opacity in the cold and warm starting process. When coolant temperature rose up to above 20℃, NOX emissions in the starting process exhibited peculiar rise which was times higher than idling mode. Compared with engine warm start, rail pressure, cycle fuel quantity, opacity, CO and HC emissions during engine cold start were higher in the course from their transient maximal values towards stabilized idling status. NOX in the same transient course, however, were lower in cold start. As coolant temperature rose, the maximal and the idling value of rail pressure and cycle fuel injection quantity during diesel engine starting process decreased gradually, the excess air coefficient increased to a certain degree, and the maximal and idling values of NOX increased gradually.

  10. Combustion and emission response of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shan, G.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the growing energy needs, alternative energy sources particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel, consisting of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats, has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbo charged, inter cooled, DI (Direct Injection) diesel engine was fuelled with biodiesel from waste cooking oil and its 20% blend with commercial diesel to study the regulated exhaust pollutants in the light of combustion parameters in the cylinder. The experimental results show that BTE (Brake Thermal Efficiently), MCP (Maximum Combustion Pressure) and SOI (Start of injection) angle were increased, ID (Ignition Delay) was decreased; however, RHR (Rate of Heat Release) remained almost unaffected in case of biodiesel. The BTE and RHR were not much affected with B20; however Sol angle and MCP were improved, and ID was decreased with B20. Smoke opacity, CO (Carbon Monoxide), and HC (HydroCarbons) emissions were decreased, but NO. (Oxides of Nitrogen) pollutants were increased in case of both B100 and B20 compared to fossil diesel. However, the increase in NO emissions was lower with B20. (author)

  11. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Turbocompounding and ORC Waste Heat Recovery Systems on the Performance of a Turbocharged Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari; Apostolos Pesiridis; Vahid Esfahanian; Ali Salavati-Zadeh; Apostolos Karvountzis-Kontakiotis; Vishal Muralidharan

    2017-01-01

    In this study the influence of utilization of two Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) strategies, namely organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and turbocompounding, have been investigated based on the performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine using 1-D simulation engine code (GT-Power) in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC) at various engine speeds and Brake Mean Effective Pressures (BMEP). The model of a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine (Holset HDX55V) was calibrated using an experimental BSFC map to...

  12. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  13. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorji-Bandpy Mofid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  14. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  15. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  16. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies.

  17. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  18. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  20. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND PREMIUM DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELMER ACEVEDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel es promocionado como combustible alternativo para sustituir combustibles de origen fósil y reducir emisiones de carbono. Algunos estudios han sido llevados a cabo para estudiar las emisiones de vehículos diesel de baja potencia. Sin embargo, las emisiones sólidas y gaseosas emitidas por vehículos de trabajo operados con biodiesel de palma africana y diesel de bajo contenido de azufre (~ 15 ppm han sido poco estudiadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el desempeño y emisiones de un motor Diesel Cummins, 4 tiempos, 9.5 litros, 6 cilindros con sistema de inyección "common rail", y sistema de recirculación de gases. El motor desarrolló una menor potencia (10 % cuando fue operado con biodiesel de palma africana. El motor cumplió con la norma ambiental 2004 cuando fue operado con combustible diesel, sin embargo, con biodiesel de palma africana las emisiones de material particulado y los óxidos de nitrógeno estuvieron fuera de norma.

  1. Technologies for simulation improvement of NOx and PM emissions and fuel consumption of future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks; Shorai no ogatasha diesel engine ni okeru NOx, PM, nenryo shohi no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, M.; Shimokawa, K.; Uchida, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Yokotaa, H.; Hosoya, M. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Future diesel engines for heavy-duty trucks are required to have significantly low NO{sub x} and PM emissions and fuel consumption characteristics. In order to improve these characteristics, various technologies including high pressure fuel injection systems, combustion optimization. high boost pressure turbocharging, EGR homogeneous charge compression ignition combined with multiple injections, and aftertreatment are discussed. As each technology has a number of challenges to overcome, it will take long before engines with these technologies are commercially available. In this paper, the research activities accomplished to date are reported. (author)

  2. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul

    2012-02-07

    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count.

  3. An Insight into the Effect of Advanced Injection Strategies on Pollutant Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An advanced numerical investigation has been carried out in order to study the effect of multiple injection strategies on Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Both different injected fuel percentages for each pulse and several dwells between main and post phase were investigated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD and large eddy simulation (LES. Two sets of simulations were taken into account for 10% and 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR fractions. In the first one, the main injection was split into two identical phases, while in the second one into three pulses. Within each set, three strategies were considered, increasing the amount of fuel injected during the main and concurrently decreasing the post pulse. Overall, 48 simulations were employed, since four different dwells between the last phase of the main and post injection were considered. Results show that the pollutant emissions minimization has been obtained for the Schemes injecting 65% and 70% of fuel for both two and three split strategies, but for different values of dwell. In fact, emissions very close to each other for NOx and particulate matter have been reached for these cases. Reductions of about −30% and −71% were respectively obtained for NOx and soot in comparison with experimental emissions related to the single injection case.

  4. The effect of rapeseed oil biodiesel fuel on combustion, performance, and the emission formation process within a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lešnik, Luka; Biluš, Ignacijo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-models for parameter determination can be derived using experimental results. • Proposed sub-models can be used for calculation of model parameters. • Biodiesel fuel reduces emissions compared to diesel fuel on full engine load. • Usage of biodiesel fuel slow down the emission formation rate. • Oxygen content in biodiesel fuel decreases the amount of formatted CO emissions. - Abstract: This study presents the influence of biodiesel fuel and blends with mineral diesel fuel on diesel engine performance, the combustion process, and the formation of emissions. The study was conducted numerically and experimentally. The aim of the study was to test the possibility of replacing mineral diesel fuel with biodiesel fuel made from rapeseed oil. Pure biodiesel fuel and three blends of biodiesel fuel with mineral diesel fuel were tested experimentally for that purpose on a heavy-duty bus diesel engine. The engine’s performance, in-cylinder pressure, fuel consumption, and the amount of produced NO_x and CO emissions were monitored during experimental measurements, which were repeated numerically using the AVL BOOST simulation program. New empirical sub-models are proposed for determining a combustion model and emission models parameters. The proposed sub-models allow the determination of necessary combustion and emission model parameters regarding the properties of the tested fuel and the engine speed. When increasing the percentage of biodiesel fuel within the fuel blends, the reduction in engine torque and brake mean effective pressures are obtained for most of the test regimes. The reduction is caused due to the lower calorific value of the biodiesel fuel. Higher oxygen content in biodiesel fuel contributes to a better oxidation process within the combustion chamber when running on pure biodiesel or its blends. Better oxidation further results in a reduction of the formatted carbon and nitrogen oxides. The reduction of carbon emission is also

  5. Direct injection of diesel-butane blends in a heavy duty engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, C.A.J.; van den Berge, B.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Jaasma, S.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing fuel prices keep bringing attention to alternative, cheaper fuels. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been well known for decades as an alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) passenger cars. More recently, aftermarket LPG systems were also introduced to Heavy Duty transport vehicles.

  6. Analysis the effect of advanced injection strategies on engine performance and pollutant emissions in a heavy duty DI-diesel engine by CFD modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheri, Raouf; Peng, Zhijun; Mirsalim, Seyed Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Explore the effects of advanced multiple injection strategies in a DI-diesel engine. ► Achieving good agreement between the predicted results and experimental values. ► Analyzing three factors for optimization including pilot, main and post-injection. ► Injecting adequate fuel in each pulse accompanied with an appropriate EGR rate. ► Beneficial effects for significant soot reduction without a NOx penalty rate. - Abstract: An Advanced CFD simulation has been carried out in order to explore the combined effects of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies and EGR on engine performance and emission formation in a heavy duty DI-diesel engine. An improved version of the ECFM-3Z combustion model has been applied coupled with advanced models for NOx and soot formation. The model was validated with experimental data achieved from a Caterpillar 3401 DI diesel engine and good agreement between predicted and measured in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, NOx and soot emissions was obtained. The optimizations were conducted separately for different split injection cases without pilot injection and then, for various multiple injection cases. Totally, three factors were considered for the injection optimization, which included EGR rate, the separation between main injection and post-injection and the amount of injected fuel in each pulse. For the multiple injection cases, two more factors (including double and triple injections during main injection) were also added. Results show that using pilot injection accompanied with an optimized main injection has a significant beneficial effect on combustion process so that it could form a separate 2nd stage of heat release which could reduce the maximum combustion temperature, which leads to the reduction of the NOx formation. In addition, it has found that injecting adequate fuel in post-injection at an appropriate EGR allows significant soot reduction without a NOx penalty rate.

  7. An assessment of the dual-mode reactivity controlled compression ignition/conventional diesel combustion capabilities in a EURO VI medium-duty diesel engine fueled with an intermediate ethanol-gasoline blend and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Balloul, Iyad; Pradel, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reactivity controlled compression ignition regime utilized from 25% to 35% load. • Dual-mode reduces the regeneration periods of the diesel particulate filter. • The use of near-term available biofuels allows good performance and emissions. • Dual-mode leads to 2% greater efficiency than diesel combustion at high engine speeds. - Abstract: This work investigates the capabilities of the dual-mode reactivity controlled compression ignition/conventional diesel combustion engine operation to cover the full operating range of a EURO VI medium-duty diesel engine with compression ratio of 17.5:1. This concept is based on covering all the engine map switching between the reactivity controlled compression ignition and the conventional diesel combustion operating modes. Specifically, the benefits of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion are exploited whenever possible according to certain restrictions, while the conventional diesel combustion operation is used to cover the zones of the engine map in which the reactivity controlled compression ignition operation is limited. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder research diesel engine derived from the multi-cylinder production engine. In addition, considering the mandatory presence of biofuels in the future context of road transport and the ability of ethanol to be blended with gasoline, the low reactivity fuel used in the study is a blend of 20% ethanol by volume with 80% of 95 octane number gasoline. Moreover, a diesel containing 7% of biodiesel has been used as high reactivity fuel. Firstly, a reactivity controlled compression ignition mapping is performed to check the operational limits of the concept in this engine platform. Later, based on the results, the potential of the dual-mode concept is discussed. Results suggest that, under the constraints imposed, reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion can be utilized between 25% and 35% load. In this region

  8. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... later model year vehicles when operated under a wide range of real world driving conditions.\\1\\ The... diesel engines (through the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)) to develop ``data driven'' emission... Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and Instrumentation; Not-to-Exceed Emission Standards; and Technical...

  9. Energy and Exergy analysis of a light duty diesel engine operating at different altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Agudelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La densidad del aire disminuye con el aumento de la altitud sobre el nivel del mar, este aspecto afecta el proceso de combustión, la formación de emisiones contaminantes y por tanto el desempeño del motor. En este trabajo se presenta el diagnóstico del proceso de combustión de un motor diesel de automoción turbo-alimentado, mediante la medición de presión en cámara operando en tres alturas diferentes sobre el nivel del mar, bajo condiciones estacionarias, utilizando diesel convencional (acpm como combustible. A medida que aumenta la altura sobre el nivel del mar se incrementa la relación combustible/ aire (mezcla más rica y con ello el consumo específico de combustible, la duración de la combustión, la combustión en fase premezclada, la temperatura máxima, el calor transferido a los gases y la exergía destruida, mientras que el rendimiento térmico efectivo del motor, la presión máxima y la exergía en el cilindro disminuyen. Sin embargo, la eficiencia mecánica y el tiempo de inyección se mantienen aproximadamente constantes. Las diferencias encontradas en la exergía destruida se deben a las variaciones del proceso de combustión, ya que no se encontraron efectos significativos en las carreras de compresión y expansión. La mayor irreversibilidad debida al aumento de la altura se debe a la baja calidad de la energía de los gases de escape.

  10. Experimental study of fuel composition impact on PCCI combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, C.A.J.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Kalghatgi, G.T.; Albrecht, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is a combustion concept that holds the promise of combining emission levels of a spark-ignition engine with the efficiency of a compression-ignition engine. In a short term scenario, PCCI would be used in the lower load operating range only, combined with

  11. An experimental investigation of PAH emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel and its blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A. N.; Shan, G.E.Y.; Wei, T.J.; Hua, L.Z.

    2008-01-01

    For the comparison of emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel biodiesel and its 20% blend with diesel, and their carcinogenic potencies, an experimental study has been conducted on a turbocharged, intercooled and direct injection diesel engine. Total PAHs (solid and gas) from diesel, B20 and B100 at low load were more than those at high loads. Total PAH emissions from the test fuels at the rated speed were more than those at maximum torque speed. Benzo[a] pyrene (BaP) brake specific emission of biodiesel is less than that of diesel. LMW-PAH emissions for the test fuels are all higher than those of MMW and HMW PAH. Biodiesel and B20 reduce both the total Benzo[a] pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP/sub eq/) and the total mean-PAHs as compared to commercial diesel fuel. BSFC of the engine increased but its brake power decreased in the cases of B20 and biodiesel. (author)

  12. Simulation of a heavy-duty diesel engine with electrical turbocompounding system using operating charts for turbocharger components and power turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanos, C.O.; Hountalas, D.T.; Zannis, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A diesel model was developed using charts for turbocharger and power turbine. • The maximum value of bsfc improvement is 4.1% at 100% engine load. • The generated electric power ranges from 23 kW to 62 kW. • Turbocharger turbine efficiency decreases slightly with the power turbine speed. • Turbocompounding increases the average pressure value in the exhaust manifold. - Abstract: In diesel engines, approximately 30–40% of the energy supplied by the fuel is rejected to the ambience through exhaust gases. Therefore, there is a potentiality for further considerable increase of diesel engine efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas heat and its conversion to mechanical or electrical energy. In the present study, the operational behavior of a heavy-duty (HD) diesel truck engine equipped with an electric turbocompounding system is examined on a theoretical basis. The electrical turbocompounding configuration comprised of a power turbine coupled to an electric generator, which is installed downstream to the turbocharger (T/C) turbine. A diesel engine simulation model has been developed using operating charts for both turbocharger and power turbine. A method for introducing the operating charts into the engine model is described thoroughly. A parametric analysis is conducted with the developed simulation tool, where the varying parameter is the rotational speed of power turbine shaft. In this study, the interaction between the power turbine and the turbocharged diesel engine is examined in detail. The effect of power turbine speed on T/C components efficiencies, power turbine efficiency, exhaust pressure and temperature, engine boost pressure and air to fuel ratio is evaluated. In addition, theoretical results for the potential impact of electrical turbocompounding on the generated electric power, net engine power and relative improvement of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) are provided. The critical evaluation of the theoretical

  13. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... have evaluated, especially in the context of this third requirement. (1) Competitive Advantage for Non... competitive advantage remains. A manufacturer of a non-complying engine generally gains a competitive... the operator will vary based on several factors. An even harder to quantify competitive advantage is...

  14. Performance of lignin derived aromatic oxygenates in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, L.; Boot, M.D.; Johansson, B.H.; Reijnders, J.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to reduce dependence on fossil fuel resources has led to an increasing interest in the use of bio-fuels. This study builds on earlier work on (aromatic) cyclic oxygenates [1] and [2], but a far wider window of engine operation has been investigated in this paper. Two parametric

  15. Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Escobar Valdivieso, D.

    2017-01-01

    To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world

  16. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  17. Modeling and control of a parallel waste heat recovery system for Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery systemfor a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  18. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Naeimi Hessamedin; Domiry Ganji Davood; Gorji Mofid; Javadirad Ghasem; Keshavarz Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction loss...

  19. Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeePhD, John [Aramco Services Company; TzanetakisPhD, Tom [Aramco Services Company; Travers, Michael [Aramco Services Company; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    With higher volatility and longer ignition delay characteristics than typical diesel fuel, low cetane naphtha fuel has been shown to promote partially premixed combustion and produce lower soot for improved fuel economy. In this study, emission performance of low cetane, low octane naphtha (CN 35, RON 60) as a drop-in fuel was examined on a MY13 Cummins ISX15 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using the production hardware and development calibrations, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions of naphtha and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were examined during the EPA s heavy-duty emission testing cycles. Without any modification to the calibrations, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) test cycles. Overall lower CO2 emissions and fuel consumption were also measured for naphtha due in part to its higher heating value and higher hydrogen to carbon ratio. Engine-out and tailpipe NOx emissions were lower for naphtha fuel at the same catalyst conversion levels and measured particulate matter (PM) emissions were also lower when using naphtha due to its higher volatility and lower aromatic content compared to ULSD. To help assess the potential impact on diesel particulate filter design and operation, engine-out PM samples were collected and characterized at the B50 operating point. A significant reduction in elemental carbon (EC) within the particulate emissions was found when using naphtha compared to ULSD.

  20. Development and analysis of a variable position thermostat for smart cooling system of a light duty diesel vehicles and engine emissions assessment during NEDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Eid S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of the variable position electromagnetic thermostat in MCS is proposed. • A series of experiments were conducted on a light duty diesel vehicle operated over the NEDC test. • A comparative study was done on emission characteristics of the MCS and the conventional cooling system. • Engine cold start and steady-state coolant flow rate and emissions are presented. • The effect of MCS on engine accumulation FC and emissions over NEDC are evaluated. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Smart cooling control systems for IC engines can better regulate the combustion process and heat, a variable position thermostat and electric coolant pumps (EWP) for IC engines are under development by a number of researchers. However, the aim of this study is to assess the performance of a variable position electromagnetic thermostat (VPEMT) to provide more flexible control of the engine temperature and coolant mass flow rate of modification cooling system (MCS). The measurement procedure was applied to two phases under new European drive cycle (NEDC) on a chassis dynamometer, with conventional cooling system (baseline engine) and MCS of a light duty diesel engine. The experimental results revealed that MCS using a VPEMT and EWP contributed to a reduction of engine warm-up period. As a consequence, important reduces in coolant flow rate and most exhaust emission compounds (THC, CO_2, CO and smoke opacity) were obtained. In contrast, NOx emission was observed to increase in these conditions. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds during a cold start and engine fully warm-up tests when the engine was equipped by conventional cooling system and MCS operation under NEDC, revealing the effect of MCS on engine fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.

  1. Experimental study on filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system for heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Dongxiao; Shuai, Shijin; Zhao, Yanguang

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system on an engine test bench, consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF). Both the DOC and the CDPF led to a high conversion of NO to NO2 for continuous regeneration. The filtration efficiency on solid particle number (SPN) was close to 100%. The post-CDPF particles were mainly in accumulation mode. The downstream SPN was sensitively influenced by the variation of the soot loading. This phenomenon provides a method for determining the balance point temperature by measuring the trend of SPN concentration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimi Hessamedin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.

  3. Experimental comparison of R123 and R245fa as working fluids for waste heat recovery from heavy-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gequn; Zhao, Mingru; Tian, Hua; Huo, Yongzhan; Zhu, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) on-board is a solution for vehicles to save energy and reduce emission. Considering the characteristics of waste heat from vehicle, the criterions of the suitable working fluid are very strict. R123 and R245fa have been widely used in companies and labs, however, the difference of their properties under different engine conditions still requires further study. During this research, a series of experiments have been done to compare the performance of these two working fluids, what's more, to determine under which engine conditions they are suitable separately. These experimental comparisons are new and important for the targeting design of ORC for vehicles. The result shows that, considering the difference of thermodynamic properties and the limited cooling capacity on board, R123 shows its advantage for the waste heat recovery at heavy duty, while R245fa is more suitable at light-and-medium duty. These properties make R123 suitable for the ORC designed for long-haul heavy-duty truck, while R245fa is suggested for city bus. The following performance test of R123 for waste heat recovery from heavy-duty diesel engine shows that the maximum fuel consumption improvement can be as much as 2.8%. - Highlights: • R123 is more suitable for heavy duty and steady working condition. • R245fa shows its advantage at light-and-medium duty and varying working condition. • R123 suits better for long-haul heavy-duty truck, while R245fa for city bus. • The maximum fuel consumption improvement is as much as 2.8%.

  4. Comparative study of regulated and unregulated gaseous emissions during NEDC in a light-duty diesel engine fuelled with Fischer Tropsch and biodiesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Vicente; Lujan, Jose M.; Pla, Benjamin; Linares, Waldemar G. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, regulated and unregulated gaseous emissions and fuel consumption with five different fuels were tested in a 4-cylinder, light-duty diesel EURO IV typically used for the automotive vehicles in Europe. Three different biodiesel fuels obtained from soybean oil, rapeseed oil and palm oil, a Fischer Tropsch fuel and an ultra low sulphur diesel were studied. The test used was the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), this allowed tests to be carried out on an engine warmed up beforehand to avoid the effect of cold starts and several tests a day. Regulated emissions of NO{sub X}, CO, HC and CO{sub 2} were measured for each fuel. Unburned Hydrocarbon Speciation and formaldehyde were also measured in order to determine the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) of the gaseous emissions. Pollutants were measured without the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) to gather data about raw emissions. When biodiesel was used, increases in regulated and unregulated emissions were observed and also significant increases in engine fuel consumption. The use of Fischer Tropsch fuel, however, caused lower regulated and unregulated emissions and fuel consumption than diesel. (author)

  5. Transient performance and emission characteristics of a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with microalga Chlorella variabilis and Jatropha curcas biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devendra; Singal, S.K.; Garg, M.O.; Maiti, Pratyush; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Pushpito K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B100 biodiesels from Jatropha (BJ) and marine microalga (BA) compared. • 17% lower NOx and 6% lower specific fuel consumption of BA over BJ. • Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) highest in urban mode in all cases. • NOx, HC and CO highest in rural-, motorway-and urban modes, respectively. • Microalga Chlorella variabilis is a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petro-diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. Two B100 biodiesel samples were prepared by patented routes from the lipids extracted from marine microalga Chlorella variabilis (BA) cultivated in salt pans and wasteland-compatible Jatropha curcas (BJ). The fuels complied with ASTM D-6751 and European Standard EN-14214 specifications. Standard Petro-diesel served as a control. Transient performance and emission characteristics of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled with these B100 fuels (BJ and BA) were studied over European Transient Cycle. Test results showed that both B100 biodiesels outperformed petro-diesel in terms of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, with slight penalty on NOx emissions. Among the two biodiesels, merits of BA were established over BJ in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions and specific fuel consumption. Mode-wise transient emission analysis revealed that NOx was highest in rural mode, CO was highest in urban and HC was highest in motorway mode for all fuels. BA may be considered as a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine which can be produced sustainably through cultivation of the marine microalga in coastal locations using seawater as culture medium, obviating thereby concerns around land use competition for food and fuel.

  6. Low cetane number renewable oxy-fuels for premixed combustion concept application : experimental investigation on a light duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Blasio, G.; Beatrice, C.; Dijkstra, R.; Boot, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the results of an experimental study on the impact of a low cetane number (CN) oxygenated fuel on the combustion process and emissions of a light-duty (LD) single-cylinder research engine. In an earlier study, it was concluded that cyclic oxygenates consistently outperformed

  7. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadano, Yara S.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana Flávia L.; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O.B.; Valebona, Fábio B.; Errera, Marcelo R. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Penteado Neto, Renato A.; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas [Institute of Technology for Development, Lactec–Leme Division, 01 LothárioMeissner Ave., Curitiba, PR, 80210-170 (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil); Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana, 210 Francisco H. dos Santos St., Curitiba, PR, 81531-980 Brazil (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NO{sub x} and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH{sub 3}, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NO{sub x} and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH{sub 3} concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. - Highlights: • Emission, dispersion and risk assessment

  8. An experimental investigation of H{sub 2} emissions of a 2004 heavy-duty diesel engine supplemented with H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatts, T.; Li, H.; Liew, C.; Liu, S.; Spencer, T.; Wayne, S.; Clark, N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6106, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) emissions characteristics of H{sub 2}-diesel dual fuel engine were measured using a 2004 turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine with H{sub 2} supplemented into the intake air. The emissions of H{sub 2} were measured using an Electron Pulse Ionization (EPI) Mass Spectrometer (MS). The effect of the amount of H{sub 2} added, the engine load, and diesel fuel flow rates on the emissions of H{sub 2} and its combustion efficiency in the engine were investigated. The addition of H{sub 2} under high load operation was notable for its ability to obtain high H{sub 2} combustion efficiency and improve brake thermal efficiency. However, the addition of H{sub 2} at low load resulted in high emissions of H{sub 2} due to the failure to initiate and support a sufficiently vigorous flame for the complete combustion of H{sub 2} present outside the diesel spray plume. The maximum H{sub 2} emissions of 1.4% (volume in dry exhaust gas) were observed with the addition of 6% H{sub 2} at 10% load. In comparison, the maximum H{sub 2} emissions of 0.13% were observed when operated at 70% load with the addition of 6% H{sub 2}. The slip of a large percentage of H{sub 2} at low load operation was shown to deteriorate the potential of H{sub 2} in improving the brake thermal efficiency. (author)

  9. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  10. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  11. Environmental effects of using Methanol as a biofuel into the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kianoosh shojae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol as a biofuel is an environmentally friendly substitute for pure diesel and can be obtained from biomasses. The use of biofuels such as methanol for the combustion process is associated with positive impacts on the environment. Using pure methanol or a blend of diesel/methanol fuel in motorized vehicles has been proposed by researchers. In this paper, pure methanol was injected into the combustion chamber of a ISM 370 HD diesel engine and the exhaust emissions were evaluated by using AVL FIRE CFD code software at four engine speeds (1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800 rpm. Additionally, the influences of EGR mass fraction and various injection timings were investigated. In order to validate the simulation results, in-cylinder mean pressure and rate of heat release (RHR were compared with experimental data, and the results gave an acceptable agreement. The obtained results from the conducted simulation showed that the use of methanol fuel in the combustion chamber dramatically reduced the amount of exhaust emissions such as NO, soot, CO, and CO2 to 90%, 75%, 40%, and 26%, respectively. In addition, a mass fraction of EGR (20% caused a reduction in the amount of exhaust NO to about 12%. It was determined that when a system is equipped with a fueling system at 3 deg before top dead center (BTDC, the exhaust NO and soot are reduced by 5.8% and 3%.

  12. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  13. Higher alcohol–biodiesel–diesel blends: An approach for improving the performance, emission, and combustion of a light-duty diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Teoh, Y.H.; How, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The fuel properties of higher alcohol blended biodiesel were improved. • Higher alcohol shows remarkable increase in the BP, BTE and decrease the BSFC. • Alcohols mixed with biodiesel diminishes HC, CO and smoke significantly. • CO 2 emissions of pentanol blended fuel decreases at maximum speed. • Higher alcohol blended biodiesel showed improved combustion. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long-chain alcohol with five carbons in its molecular structure and is produced from renewable feedstock, which may help to improve the challenging problems of energy security and environmental issues. In this investigation, the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, direct-injection diesel engine were evaluated by using 10%, 15%, and 20% pentanol and Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) biodiesel blends in diesel under different speed conditions. The fuel properties of the blended fuels were measured and compared. Combustion attributes, such as cylinder pressure and heat-release rate, were also analyzed. Results indicated that increasing the proportion of pentanol in biodiesel blends improved the fuel properties compared with 20% blend of CI biodiesel (CI 20). The modified blends of pentanol showed reduced brake-specific fuel consumption with higher brake thermal efficiency and brake power than CI 20. Although the modified test blends showed a slightly higher nitric oxide emission, the carbon monoxide emission and unburned hydrocarbon emission for 15% and 20% blends of pentanol showed even better reduction than CI 20. Smoke emission was also reduced significantly. The carbon dioxide emission of the test blends were reduced at the maximum speed condition compared to CI 20. In terms of combustion, the modified test fuels exhibited a significant improvement, thus indicating better performance and emission. This study concluded that the 15% and 20% blends of biodiesel, diesel, and pentanol can optimize engine

  14. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines, the...

  15. Regulated and unregulated emissions from highway heavy-duty diesel engines complying with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 emissions standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Bougher, Thomas L; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from four different 2007 model year U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-compliant heavy-duty highway diesel engines were measured on an engine dynamometer. The engines were equipped with exhaust high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filters (C-DPFs) that are actively regenerated or cleaned using the engine control module. Regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (PM) were on average 97, 89, and 86% lower than the 2007 EPA standard, respectively, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were on average 9% lower. Unregulated exhaust emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions were on, average 1.3 and 2.8 times higher than the NO, emissions reported in previous work using 1998- and 2004-technology engines, respectively. However, compared with other work performed on 1994- to 2004-technology engines, average emission reductions in the range of 71-99% were observed for a very comprehensive list of unregulated engine exhaust pollutants and air toxic contaminants that included metals and other elements, elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, and gas- and particle-phase volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon (OC) compounds. The low PM mass emitted from the 2007 technology ACES engines was composed mainly of sulfate (53%) and OC (30%), with a small fraction of EC (13%) and metals and other elements (4%). The fraction of EC is expected to remain small, regardless of engine operation, because of the presence of the high-efficiency C-DPF in the exhaust. This is different from typical PM composition of pre-2007 engines with EC in the range of 10-90%, depending on engine operation. Most of the particles emitted from the 2007 engines were mainly volatile nuclei mode in the sub-30-nm size range. An increase in volatile nanoparticles was observed during C-DPF active regeneration, during which the observed particle number was

  16. Rotating Liner Engine: Improving Efficiency of Heavy Duty Diesels by Significant Friction Reduction, and Extending the Life of Heavy Duty Engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dardalis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-31

    This report describes the work on converting a 4 cylinder Cummins ISB engine into a single cylinder Rotating Liner Engine functioning prototype that can be used to measure the friction benefits of rotating the cylinder liner in a high pressure compression ignition engine. A similar baseline engine was also prepared, and preliminary testing was done. Even though the fabrication of the single cylinder prototype was behind schedule due to machine shop delays, the fundamental soundness of the design elements are proven, and the engine has successfully functioned. However, the testing approach of the two engines, as envisioned by the original proposal, proved impossible due to torsional vibration resonance caused by the single active piston. A new approach for proper testing has been proposed,

  17. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  18. Numerical Investigation on Effects of Assigned EGR Stratification on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with Two-Stage Fuel Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojie Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available External exhaust gas recirculation (EGR stratification in diesel engines contributes to reduction of toxic emissions. Weak EGR stratification lies in that strong turbulence and mixing between EGR and intake air by current introduction strategies of EGR. For understanding of ideal EGR stratification combustion, EGR was assigned radically at −30 °CA after top dead center (ATDC to organize strong EGR stratification using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The effects of assigned EGR stratification on diesel performance and emissions are discussed in this paper. Although nitric oxides (NOx and soot emissions are both reduced by means of EGR stratification compared to uniform EGR, the trade-off between NOx and soot still exists under the condition of arranged EGR stratification with different fuel injection strategies. A deterioration of soot emissions was observed when the interval between main and post fuel injection increased, while NO emissions increased first then reduced. The case with a 4 °CA interval between main and post fuel injection is suitable for acceptable NO and soot emissions. Starting the main fuel injection too early and too late is not acceptable, which results in high NO emissions and high soot emissions respectively. The start of the main fuel injection −10 °CA ATDC is suitable.

  19. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  20. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  1. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Turbocompounding and ORC Waste Heat Recovery Systems on the Performance of a Turbocharged Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of utilization of two Waste Heat Recovery (WHR strategies, namely organic Rankine cycle (ORC and turbocompounding, have been investigated based on the performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine using 1-D simulation engine code (GT-Power in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC at various engine speeds and Brake Mean Effective Pressures (BMEP. The model of a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine (Holset HDX55V was calibrated using an experimental BSFC map to predict engine exhaust thermodynamic conditions such as exhaust mass flow rate and exhaust temperature under various operating conditions. These engine exhaust conditions were then utilized to feed the inlet conditions for both the ORC and turbocompounding models, evaluating the available exhaust energy to be recovered by each technology. Firstly the ORC system model was simulated to obtain the power that can be generated from the system. Having this additional power converted to useful work, the BSFC was observed to reduce around 2–5% depending upon engine’s speed and BMEP. The initial model of the engine was then modified by considering a second turbine representing turbocompounding heat recovery system. The BSFC was increased due to the back-pressure from the second turbine, but the energy generated from the turbine was sufficient to reduce the BSFC further. However, by application of turbocompounding no improvement in BSFC was achieved at low engine’s speeds. It is concluded that ORC heat recovery system produces a satisfactory results at low engine speeds with both low and high loads whereas at medium and high engine speeds turbocompounding heat recovery system causes higher BSFC reduction.

  3. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. ► Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. ► Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. ► The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores TOT ) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N TOT and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N TOT at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N TOT post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ∼10 4 cm −3 . This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the aftertreatment is highly favored.

  4. Optimization of the combustion system of a medium duty direct injection diesel engine by combining CFD modeling with experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesus; Novella, Ricardo; Pastor, Jose Manuel; Hernández-López, Alberto; Hasegawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Naohide; Emi, Masahiko; Uehara, Isshoh; Martorell, Jordi; Alonso, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A DOE-based optimization of the combustion system of a CI engine has been performed. • Improving efficiency controlling emissions needs optimizing bowl design and settings. • Swirl-supported with re-entrant bowl combustion system is required after optimizing. • Computationally optimized combustion system has been validated by engine tests. - Abstract: The research in the field of internal combustion engines is currently driven by the needs of decreasing fuel consumption and CO_2 emissions, while fulfilling the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions regulations. In this framework, this research work focuses on describing a methodology for optimizing the combustion system of Compression Ignition (CI) engines, by combining Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling, and the statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) technique known as Response Surface Method (RSM). As a key aspect, in addition to the definition of the optimum set of values for the input parameters, this methodology is extremely useful to gain knowledge on the cause/effect relationships between the input and output parameters under investigation. This methodology is applied in two sequential studies to the optimization of the combustion system of a 4-cylinder 4-stroke Medium Duty Direct Injection (DI) CI engine, minimizing the fuel consumption while fulfilling the emission limits in terms of NO_x and soot. The first study targeted four optimization parameters related to the engine hardware including piston bowl geometry, injector nozzle configuration and mean swirl number (MSN) induced by the intake manifold design. After the analysis of the results, the second study extended to six parameters, limiting the optimization of the engine hardware to the bowl geometry, but including the key air management and injection settings. For both studies, the simulation plans were defined following a Central Composite Design (CCD), providing 25 and 77 simulations respectively. The results

  5. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...

  6. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheshu; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    The increase of ship's energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  7. In-use NOx emissions from model year 2010 and 2011 heavy-duty diesel engines equipped with aftertreatment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chandan; Collins, John F; Herner, Jorn D; Sax, Todd; Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Sobieralski, Wayne; Burntizki, Mark; Chernich, Don

    2013-07-16

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions of model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel engines. Emissions from four trucks: one equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three equipped with EGR and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device were measured on two different routes with three different payloads using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results indicated that brake-specific NOx emissions for the truck equipped only with an EGR were independent of the driving conditions. Results also showed that for typical highway driving conditions, the SCR technology is proving to be effective in controlling NOx emissions. However, under operations where the SCR's do not reach minimum operating temperature, like cold starts and some low load/slow speed driving conditions, NOx emissions are still elevated. The study indicated that strategies used to maintain exhaust temperature above a certain threshold, which are used in some of the newer SCRs, have the potential to control NOx emissions during certain low-load/slow speed driving conditions.

  8. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Zheshu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  9. A comprehensive design methodology of organic Rankine cycles for the waste heat recovery of automotive heavy-duty diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amicabile, Simone; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Kum, Dongsuk

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches to recover the waste heat from internal combustion engines is the Organic Rankine Cycle owing to its efficiency and reliability. The design optimization of ORC, however, is nontrivial because there exist many design variables and practical considerations. The present paper proposes a comprehensive design methodology to optimize the Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) considering a wide range of design variables as well as practical aspects such as component limitations and costs. The design process is comprised of three steps: heat source selection, candidate fluid selection, and thermodynamic cycle optimization. In order to select the best waste heat source, the available energy and other practical considerations of various heat sources have been compared. Among others, the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) cooler is found to be the best heat source, and thus used for the rest of this study. Based on a systematic working fluid analysis, Ethanol, Pentane, and R245fa are selected as three candidate fluids. For the comprehensive ORC optimization, four types of cycle layouts are considered; 1) subcritical cycle without a recuperator, 2) subcritical cycle with a recuperator, 3) supercritical without a recuperator, and 4) supercritical cycle with a recuperator. Four cycle layouts coupled with three candidate fluids give a total of twelve cycle analyses. Results show that the best performance is provided by the regenerative subcritical cycle with Ethanol, while the solution with minimum capital cost is the subcritical cycles with Ethanol but without a recuperator. - Highlights: • Selection of the best waste heat source of a diesel engine for a heat recovery system. • Screening process to identify the most suitable working fluids for the system. • Comprehensive ORC optimization is introduced for four types of cycle layouts. • Pay Back Time investigation to present the economic analysis of the cycles

  10. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements, please contact Tad Wysor, Office of... address: wysor.tad@epa.gov . If you have questions concerning EPA's 610 Review related to NESHAP...

  11. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  12. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Happo, Mikko S; Markkanen, Ari; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Salonen, Raimo O; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-09-29

    One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used - rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than those with EN590

  13. Studies of valve lifter for automotive heavy duty diesel engine by ceramic materials. II. Development of SiC valve lifter by injection molding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, H W [Technical Centre of KIA-ASIA MOTORS (Korea, Republic of); Han, I S [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Tajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Y S; Chung, Y J [Myong Ji University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Valve lifter, namely tappet, is supported by lifter hole which is located upper side of camshaft in cylinder block, transforms rotatic movement of camshaft into linear movement and helps to open and shut the engine valve as an engine parts. The face of valve lifter, which is continuously contacting with camshaft, brings about abnormal wears, such as unfair wear and early wear, because it is severely loaded in the valve train system. These wears act as a defect like over-clearance and cause imperfect combustion of fuel during the valve lifting in the combustion chamber. Consequently, this imperfect combustion makes the engine out-put decrease and has cause on air pollution. To prevent these wears, therefore, the valve lifter cast in metal developed into SiC ceramics valve lifter which has an excellence in wear and impact resistance. As a result, the optimum process conditions like injection condition, mixture ratio and debonding process could be established. After sintering, fine-sinered dual microstructure in which prior {alpha}-SiC, carbon and silicon was obtained. Based on the new SiC({beta}-SiC) produced by reaction among the {alpha}-SiC, carbon and silicon was obtained. Based on the study, it is verified that mechanical properties of SiC valve lifter are excellent in Vickers hardness 1100{approx}1200 bending strength (300{approx}350 Pa), fracture toughness (1.5{approx}1.7 MPacentre dotm{sup 1/2}). Through engine dynamo testing, SiC valve lifter and metal valve lifter are examined and compared into abnormal phenomena such early fracture, unfair and early wear. It is hoped that this research will serve as an important springboard for the future study of heavy duty diesel engine parts developed by ceramics which has a good wear resistance, reliability, and lightability.

  14. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a

  15. Similarity Theory Based Radial Turbine Performance and Loss Mechanism Comparison between R245fa and Air for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycles using radial turbines as expanders are considered as one of the most efficient technologies to convert heavy-duty diesel engine waste heat into useful work. Turbine similarity design based on the existing air turbine profiles is time saving. Due to totally different thermodynamic properties between organic fluids and air, its influence on turbine performance and loss mechanisms need to be analyzed. This paper numerically simulated a radial turbine under similar conditions between R245fa and air, and compared the differences of the turbine performance and loss mechanisms. Larger specific heat ratio of air leads to air turbine operating at higher pressure ratios. As R245fa gas constant is only about one-fifth of air gas constant, reduced rotating speeds of R245fa turbine are only 0.4-fold of those of air turbine, and reduced mass flow rates are about twice of those of air turbine. When using R245fa as working fluid, the nozzle shock wave losses decrease but rotor suction surface separation vortex losses increase, and eventually leads that isentropic efficiencies of R245fa turbine in the commonly used velocity ratio range from 0.5 to 0.9 are 3%–4% lower than those of air turbine.

  16. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musculus, Mark P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Regulatory drivers and market demands for lower pollutant emissions, lower carbon dioxide emissions, and lower fuel consumption motivate the development of clean and fuel-efficient engine operating strategies. Most current production engines use a combination of both in-cylinder and exhaust emissions-control strategies to achieve these goals. The emissions and efficiency performance of in-cylinder strategies depend strongly on flow and mixing processes associated with fuel injection. Various diesel engine manufacturers have adopted close-coupled post-injection combustion strategies to both reduce pollutant emissions and to increase engine efficiency for heavy-duty applications, as well as for light- and medium-duty applications. Close-coupled post-injections are typically short injections that follow a larger main injection in the same cycle after a short dwell, such that the energy conversion efficiency of the post-injection is typical of diesel combustion. Of the various post-injection schedules that have been reported in the literature, effects on exhaust soot vary by roughly an order of magnitude in either direction of increasing or decreasing emissions relative to single injections (O’Connor et al., 2015). While several hypotheses have been offered in the literature to help explain these observations, no clear consensus has been established. For new engines to take full advantage of the benefits that post-injections can offer, the in-cylinder mechanisms that affect emissions and efficiency must be identified and described to provide guidance for engine design.

  17. The Low Load Limit of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) - Experiments in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Borgqvist, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The decreasing oil supply, more stringent pollutant legislations and strong focus on decreasing carbon dioxide emissions drives the research of more efficient and clean combustion engines. One such combustion engine concept is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) which potentially achieves high efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions. One practical realization of HCCI in SI engines is to use a variable valve train to trap hot residual gases in order to increase the temperature of ...

  18. Noise Optimization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Euro 6 norms emphasize on reduction of emissions from the engines. New injection methods are being adopted for homogenous mixture formation in diesel engines. During steady state conditions homogenous combustion gave noise levels in lower frequencies. In this work noise produced in a 440 cc diesel engine has been investigated. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters.

  19. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  20. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  1. Dynamic behavior of Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery of heavy duty diesel engines under driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Can

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery behavior of the RCS during driving cycle was investigated. • Four operating modes were defined to describe the operating process of the RCS under driving cycle. • The operating mode switching is the crucial reason for on-road inefficiency. • The dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet ones on the adaptability to unsteady ExGE. • The effects of the vapor parameters on RCT-E and power mode percentage are opposite. - Abstract: The RCS (Rankine cycle system) used to recover the WHE (waste heat energy) from engines has been regarded as one of the most potential ways of achieving higher efficiency. However, it is of great challenge to keep the RCS still in good performance under driving cycle. This paper tries to reveal and explain its on-road inefficiency. The operating process of the RCS under driving cycle was analyzed in advance. Afterwards, four basic operating modes were defined, including startup mode, turbine turning mode, power mode and protection mode. Then, a RCS model was established and operating performances of the RCS under an actual driving cycle were discussed based on this model. The results indicate that the on-road RCS-E (Rankine cycle system efficiency) is as low as 3.63%, which is less than half of the design RCS-E (7.77%) at the rated operating point. Despite the inevitable vapor state fluctuation, it is the operating mode switching during the driving cycle that leads to the on-road inefficiency. Further investigations indicate that the expander safety temperature and its safety margin affected by the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure are the main factors determining the operating mode switching. Finally, the effects of the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure on the operating mode switching and RC (Rankine cycle) efficiencies were profoundly investigated. The study shows that the dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet

  2. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  3. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  4. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  5. Ventajas del uso de la inyección electrónica para vehículos diesel pesados en las condiciones de Cuba. // Advantages of electronic injection for diesel engines in heavy duty equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Reyes González

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en cuenta la importancia que tiene para Cuba el obtener una eficiencia energética elevada en los motores decombustión interna, al igual que el control de las emanaciones de gases tóxicos en los mismos, se realizó este trabajo dondese demuestran las ventajas tanto en el orden económico como ecológico de los motores diesel con mando electrónico paraequipos pesados empleados en la transportación de carga por camiones en la empresa Cubalse.Por medio de métodos experimentales y estadísticos, se obtuvo el consumo de combustible y la humosidad en motores coninyección electrónica (Detroit y en motores que utilizan los métodos tradicionales (Cummins. Los rresultadosdemostraron la superioridad en ambos aspectos de los motores con inyección electrónica.Se realizó una valoración del tiempo de amortización de la inversión inicial necesaria para utilizar en el parque existenteesta novedosa técnica de la inyección electrónica.Palabras claves: Eficiencia energética, inyección electrónica, consumo de combustible, motores de combustióninterna.__________________________________________________________________Abstract.Taking into consideration the importance of achieving a high efficiency in the internal combustion engines and emissioncontrol of the exhaust gases, this paper deals with economical and environmental advantages of the electronic controlleddiesel engines in heavy-duty trucks, which are used by Cubalse in the transportation. The fuel consumption and the sootemission in Detroit motors (with electronic injection system and Cummins (with traditional system, were studied usingstatistic and experimental methods, and the Detroit proved to be superior in both parameters. The pay back time for theinvestment needed to change the systems of all the existent trucks were calculatedKey words: Energetic efficiency, electronic injection, fuel consumption, internal combustion engine.

  6. Efficient EGR technology for future HD diesel engine emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Different systems for achieving short-route cooled EGR on turbocharged and aftercooled heavy-duty diesel engines have been tested on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and an electronically controlled unit pump fuel injection system. In all of these systems the exhaust gas was

  7. Application of a Detailed Emission Model for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Simulations Application d'un modèle détaillé d'émissions pour la simulation de gros moteurs diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson I.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed chemical model describing the formation of soot and NO is applied to simulate emission formation in a heavy duty diesel engine. Cylinder flow and spray development is simulated using an engine CFD code - Speedstar. Combustion is described using a simple eddy break-up model. Modeling of the emission-chemistry/turbulent-flow interaction is based on a flamelet approach. Contrary to a typical flamelet concept, transport equations are solved for mass fractions of soot and NO. The reason being that these major emission constituencies are assumed to change slowly in comparison to typical time scales for chemical processes or transport processes important for combustion. Chemical reactions leading to production and destruction of soot and NO are, however, assumed to be fast. Soot and NO source terms are therefore evaluated from a flamelet library using a presumed probability density function and integrating over mixture fraction space. Results from simulations are compared to engine measurements inform of exhaust emission data and cylinder pressure. Un modèle avec chimie détaillée décrivant la formation des suies et du NO est appliqué à la simulation de la formation des polluants dans un gros moteur Diesel. L'écoulement et le spray sont modélisés avec le code de calcul Speedstar. La combustion est représentée par le modèle eddy break-up . La modélisation de l'interaction entre l'écoulement turbulent et la chimie des polluants est basée sur une approche de type flamelet . Cependant, à la différence d'autres travaux, des équations de transport pour les fractions massiques de suies et de NO sont résolues. Cela est justifié par la supposition que les temps caractéristiques de formation de ces composés sont longs comparés à ceux associés aux phénomènes de transport et aux réactions chimiques associées à la combustion. Cependant, les vitesses de réaction se rapportant aux suies et au NO sont supposées rapides. Cela

  8. The effect of dynamic operating conditions on nano-particle emissions from a light-duty diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the nano-sized particle emission characteristics from a small turbocharged common rail diesel engine applicable to prime and auxiliary machines on marine vessels. The experiments were conducted under dynamic engine operating conditions, such as steady-state, cold start, and transient conditions. The particle number and size distributions were analyzed with a high resolution PM analyzer. The diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC had an insignificant effect on the reduction in particle number, but particle number emissions were drastically reduced by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF at various steady conditions. Under high speed and load conditions, the particle filtering efficiency was decreased by the partial combustion of trapped particles inside the DPF because of the high exhaust temperature caused by the increased particle number concentration. Retarded fuel injection timing and higher EGR rates led to increased particle number emissions. As the temperature inside the DPF increased from 25 °C to 300 °C, the peak particle number level was reduced by 70% compared to cold start conditions. High levels of nucleation mode particle generation were found in the deceleration phases during the transient tests.

  9. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  10. Ion currents in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents an experimental and modelling investigation into ion formation in diesel engines, its uses in the field of engine performance and emissions prediction and the mechanisms by which these uses are made possible. Ion sensors have been employed in engines for a variety of purposes, including estimation of air-fuel ratio, start of combustion and in-cylinder pressure, detection of knock, misfire and combustion resonance, prediction of soot formation, and control of spark ...

  11. Simulation and control of a HD diesel engine equipped with new EGR technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic model of a Heavy Duty (HD) turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was developed. The engine was equipped with high pressure diesel injection, a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) and an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. This engine was targeted at meeting EURO4 emission

  12. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  13. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  14. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Pollutants Formation of New Technology Light Duty Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans les nouveaux moteurs diesel automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belardini P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper some results, obtained by the use of modern numerical CFD tools, are presented. In particular, starting from the experimental characterization of a common rail DI Diesel engine, the empirical constants of the different submodels were tuned to obtain satisfactory results in some key test conditions. The main constraints of numerical models, to obtain a right scaling of pollutants predictions in the different test cases are analyzed. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the numerical CFD tools, at their stage of development, can help the engine designers to define the more promising strategies to obtain tailpipe emission control of common rail Diesel DI engines. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats obtenus en utilisant des outils de simulation de la mécanique des fluides numérique (CFD. À partir de résultats expérimentaux issus de la caractérisation d'un moteur Diesel common rail, les constantes empiriques de divers modèles ont été ajustées afin d'obtenir des résultats satisfaisants pour des cas tests représentatifs. Les principales contraintes des modèles numériques pour obtenir une bonne précision dans les différents cas d'études sont ici analysées. Cette analyse numérique montre que la CFD permet déjà, au stade de développement atteint, d'aider les ingénieurs à définir les stratégies les plus prometteuses pour maîtriser les émissions à l'échappement des moteurs Diesel à injection common rail.

  15. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  16. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs shall not exceed the following: (i)(A) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non... diesel HDE families in any or all of the emissions ABT programs for HDEs, within the restrictions...

  17. Annual Report: DOE Advanced Combustion Systems & Fuels R&D; Light-Duty Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Despite compliance issues in previous years, automakers have demonstrated that the newest generation of diesel power trains are capable of meeting all federal and state regulations (EPA, 2016). Diesels continue to be a cost-effective, efficient, powerful propulsion source for many light- and medium-duty vehicle applications (Martec, 2016). Even modest reductions in the fuel consumption of light- and medium duty diesel vehicles in the U.S. will eliminate millions of tons of CO2 emissions per year. Continued improvement of diesel combustion systems will play an important role in reducing fleet fuel consumption, but these improvements will require an unprecedented scientific understanding of how changes in engine design and calibration affect the mixture preparation, combustion, and pollutant formation processes that take place inside the cylinder. The focus of this year’s research is to provide insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for improved thermal efficiency observed with a stepped-lip piston. Understanding how piston design can influence efficiency will help engineers develop and optimize new diesel combustion systems.

  18. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM(sub 2.5)). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO(sub x) and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles

  19. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  20. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  1. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  2. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluder, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO(sub 2)-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles

  3. Experimental Investigation of Embedded Controlled Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    R.Govindaraju; M.Bharathiraja; Dr. K.Ramani; Dr.K.R.Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in Automobiles, Agriculture and Power generation sectors in a large scale. The modern techniques have contributed a lot in the saving of fuel in these diesel engines. However, from 1970 onwards the fuel consumption becomes a serious concern because of a manifold increase of automobiles and fast depletion of non renewable sources of energy. Since the fuel injection system plays a major role in the consumption of fuel in diesel engines, various control measures we...

  4. Proposed Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Proposed Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule summary, CFR citations and additional resources concerning proposed new emission standards that will begin to take effect in 2007 and corresponding diesel fuel requirements that take effect in 2006.

  5. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  6. Diluted Operation of a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine - Aiming at Improved Effciency, Emission and Maximum Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiadi, Mehrzad

    2011-01-01

    Most heavy-duty engines are diesel operated. Severe emission regulations, high fuel prices, high technology costs (e.g. catalysts, fuel injection systems) and unsustainably in supplying fuel are enough reasons to convenience engine developers to explore alternative technologies or fuels. Using natural gas/biogas can be a very good alternative due to the attractive fuel properties regarding emission reduction and engine operation. Heavy-duty diesel engines can be easily converted for natur...

  7. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  8. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  9. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  10. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  11. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  12. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  13. METHOD OF CONVERSION OF HIGH- AND MIDDLE-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES INTO GAS DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Shatrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the development of fuel supply and electronic control systems for boosted high- and middle-speed transport engines. A detailed analysis of different ways of converting diesel engine to operate on natural gas was carried out. The gas diesel process with minimized ignition portion of diesel fuel injected by the Common Rail (CR system was selected. Electronic engine control and modular gas feed systems which can be used both on high- and middle-speed gas diesel engines were developed. Also diesel CR fuel supply systems were developed in cooperation with the industrial partner, namely, those that can be mounted on middle-speed diesel and gas diesel engines. Electronic control and gas feed systems were perfected using modeling and engine tests. The high-speed diesel engine was converted into a gas diesel one. After perfection of the gas feed and electronic control systems, bench tests of the high-speed gas diesel engine were carried out showing a high share of diesel fuel substitution with gas, high fuel efficiency and significant decrease of NOх and СО2 emissions.

  14. Emissions During and Real-world Frequency of Heavy-duty Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, Chris; Smith, Jeremy D; Ma, Yilin; Shields, Jennifer Erin; Burnitzki, Mark; Sobieralski, Wayne; Ianni, Robert; Chernich, Donald J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Collins, John Francis; Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David; Hu, Shaohua; Dwyer, Harry

    2018-05-15

    Recent tightening of particulate matter (PM) emission standards for heavy-duty engines has spurred the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which need to be regenerated periodically to remove trapped PM. The total impact of DPFs therefore depends not only on their filtering efficiency during normal operation, but also on the emissions during and the frequency of regeneration events. We performed active (parked and driving) and passive regenerations on two heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), and report the chemical composition of emissions during these events, as well as the efficiency with which trapped PM is converted to gas-phase products. We also collected activity data from 85 HDDVs to determine how often regeneration occurs during real-world operation. PM emitted during regeneration ranged from 0.2 to 16.3 g, and the average time and distance between real-world active regenerations was 28.0 h and 599 miles. These results indicate that regeneration of real-world DPFs does not substantially offset the reduction of PM by DPFs during normal operation. The broad ranges of regeneration frequency per truck (3-100 h and 23-4078 miles) underscore the challenges in designing engines and associated aftertreatments that reduce emissions for all real-world duty cycles.

  15. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  16. Diesel engines for independent power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berc, Dj.

    1999-01-01

    During recent years an increasing demand has been experienced in the stationary diesel engine market for 10-70 MW diesel units. For larger units this demand is being met by two-stroke low-speed crosshead uniflow scavenged diesel engines, capable of burning almost any fuel available on the market, both liquid of gaseous. The paper deals with service experience gained from such engines and their fuel capability. Examples of actual installations for IPPs and captive plants, together with an example of a typical feasibility study of such plants, is presented in the Appendix. (author)

  17. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  18. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  19. Review of Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert W. Carling; Gurpreet Singh

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine facility is under development. Recent experimental results to be discussed are: the effects of injection timing and diluent addition on late-combustion soot burnout, diesel-spray ignition and premixed-burn behavior, a comparison of the combustion characteristics of M85 (a mixture of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline) and DF2 (No.2 diesel reference fuel), and a description of our HCCI experimental program and modeling work

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  1. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  2. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  3. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO_2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  4. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  5. Studies of valve lifter for automotive heavy duty diesel engine by ceramic materials. I. Development of ceramic-metal joint by brazing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, H W [Technical Centre of KIA-ASIA MOTORS (Korea, Republic of); Han, I S [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Tajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Y S; Chung, Y J [Myong Ji University (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Continuously contacting with camshaft, the face of Valve Lifter, made of cast iron, brings about abnormal wear such as unfair wear or early wear because it is heavily loaded in the valve train system as the engine gets more powered. This abnormal sear becomes a defect namely over-clearance when the valve is lifting so that the fuel gas imperfectly combusted by unsuitable open or close action of engine valve in the combustion chamber. The imperfect combustion, in the end, results in the major causes of air pollution and decrease of the engine output. Consequently, to prevent this wear, this study was to develop the valve lifter which is joined by brazing process with SCM435H and a tip by manufacturing the face as a superhardened ceramics alloy which has high wear resistance. Having the excellent surface hardness with Hv1100-1200, the sintered body developed with superhardened alloy(WC) can endure the severe face loading in the valve train system. We experienced with various brazing alloys and obtained the excellent joining strength to the joint had 150 MPa shear strength. Interface analysis and microstructure in a joint were examined through SEM and EDS, Optical microscope. Also, 2,500 hours, high speed(3,000{approx}4,000 rpm) and continuous (1step 12hr) engine dynamo testing was carried out to the casting valve lifter and ceramics-metal joint valve lifter so that the abnormal wears were compared and evaluated.

  6. Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Nieuwenhof, R. van den; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  7. Robust emission management strategy to meet real-world emission requirements for HD diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Nieuwenhof, van den R.; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  8. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  9. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  10. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2004-08-23

    Diesel and hybrid technologies each have the potential to increase light-duty vehicle fuel economy by a third or more without loss of performance, yet these technologies have typically been excluded from technical assessments of fuel economy potential on the grounds that hybrids are too expensive and diesels cannot meet Tier 2 emissions standards. Recently, hybrid costs have come down and the few hybrid makes available are selling well. Diesels have made great strides in reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, and are likely though not certain to meet future standards. In light of these developments, this study takes a detailed look at the market potential of these two powertrain technologies and their possible impacts on light-duty vehicle fuel economy. A nested multinomial logit model of vehicle choice was calibrated to 2002 model year sales of 930 makes, models and engine-transmission configurations. Based on an assessment of the status and outlook for the two technologies, market shares were predicted for 2008, 2012 and beyond, assuming no additional increase in fuel economy standards or other new policy initiatives. Current tax incentives for hybrids are assumed to be phased out by 2008. Given announced and likely introductions by 2008, hybrids could capture 4-7% and diesels 2-4% of the light-duty market. Based on our best guesses for further introductions, these shares could increase to 10-15% for hybrids and 4-7% for diesels by 2012. The resulting impacts on fleet average fuel economy would be about +2% in 2008 and +4% in 2012. If diesels and hybrids were widely available across vehicle classes, makes, and models, they could capture 40% or more of the light-duty vehicle market.

  11. Effect of turbulence intensity on PM emission of heavy duty diesel trucks - Wind tunnel studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littera, D.; Cozzolini, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Gautam, M.

    2017-08-01

    Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel aftertreatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. The formation and evolution of PM from modern engines are more sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process, such as rapidity of mixing, background PM present in the air. These technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environments compliant with measurement standards (i.e. Code of Federal Regulation CFR in the USA) and are not fully representative of real-world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In light of this, a specifically designed and built wind tunnel by West Virginia University (WVU) is used for the study of the exhaust plume of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle, providing a better insight in the dilution process and the representative nanoparticles emissions in a real-world scenario. The subsonic environmental wind tunnel is capable of accommodating a full-sized heavy-duty truck and generating wind speeds in excess of 50mph. A three-dimensional gantry system allows spanning the test section and sample regions in the plume with accuracy of less than 5 mm. The gantry system is equipped with engine exhaust gas analyzers and PM sizing instruments. The investigation involves three different heavy-duty Class-8 diesel vehicles representative of three emission regulation standards, namely a US-EPA 2007 compliant, a US-EPA 2010 compliant, and a baseline vehicle without any aftertreatment technologies as a pre US-EPA 2007, respectively. The testing procedure includes three different vehicle speeds: idling, 20mph, and 35mph. The vehicles were tested on WVU's medium-duty chassis dynamometer, with the load applied to the truck reflecting the road load equation at the corresponding vehicle test speeds. Wind tunnel wind speed and vehicle speed were maintained in close proximity to one another during the entire test. Results show that the cross-sectional plume area

  12. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  13. Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John H. Stang

    2000-01-01

    The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution

  14. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  15. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  16. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions.

  17. Chassis dynamometer study of emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanowitz, J.; Graboski, M.S.; Ryan, L.B.A.; Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles were measured on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer via three driving cycles using a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and PM sulfate fraction were measured. For hot start tests, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 7.43 g/mi (mean 1.96) for PM; 4.15--54.0 g/mi (mean 23.3) for NO x ; 2.09--86.2 g/mi (mean 19.5) for CO; and 0.25--8.25 g/mi (mean 1.70) for THC. When emissions are converted to a g/gal basis, the effect of driving cycle is eliminated for NO x and largely eliminated for PM. Sulfate comprised less than 1% of the emitted PM for all vehicles and test cycles. A strong correlation is observed between emissions of CO and PM. Cold starting at 77 F produced an 11% increase in PM emissions. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that in-use PM emissions have decreased at a slower rate than anticipated based on the stricter engine certification test standards put into effect since 1985. NO x emissions do not decrease with model year for the vehicles tested here. Smoke opacity measurements are not well correlated with mass emissions of regulated pollutants

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty natural gas, hybrid, and conventional diesel on-road trucks during freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C.; Smith, Jeremy; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Huai, Tao; Hu, Shaohua

    2017-11-01

    Heavy-duty on-road vehicles account for 70% of all freight transport and 20% of transportation-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. This study measured three prevalent GHG emissions - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) - from seven heavy-duty vehicles, fueled by diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG), and compliant to the MY 2007 or 2010 U.S. EPA emission standards, while operated over six routes used for freight movement in California. Total combined (tractor, trailer, and payload) weights were 68,000 ± 1000 lbs. for the seven vehicles. Using the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) radiative forcing values for a 100-year time horizon, N2O emissions accounted for 2.6-8.3% of total tailpipe CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2-eq) for diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, Diesel Particulate Filter, and Selective Catalytic Reduction system (DOC + DPF + SCR), and CH4 emissions accounted for 1.4-5.9% of CO2-eq emissions from the CNG-powered vehicle with a three-way catalyst (TWC). N2O emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with SCR (0.17-0.30 g/mi) were an order of magnitude higher than diesel vehicles without SCR (0.013-0.023 g/mi) during highway operation. For the vehicles selected in this test program, we measured 11-22% lower CO2-eq emissions from a hybrid compared to conventional diesel vehicles during transport over lower-speed routes of the freight transport system, but 20-27% higher CO2-eq emissions during higher-speed routes. Similarly, a CNG vehicle emitted up to 15% lower CO2-eq compared to conventional diesel vehicles over more neutral-grade highway routes, but emitted up to 12% greater CO2-eq emissions over routes with higher engine loads.

  19. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  20. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  1. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  2. Application of diagnostic system for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Takeshi; Hayashi, Haruji; Usui, Hiromi; Tsuruzono, Atsuya; Matsuda, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) began to implement Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for rotating components (pumps, fans and electric motors) from 1999 and, also has begun to apply diesel engine diagnostic techniques at our three nuclear power plants since 2004. This paper provides a description of the CBM methods used for diesel engines in nuclear standby service, a summary of the procedures to introduce these diagnostic techniques to our nuclear power plants, and experience with the application of these methods to JAPC nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  4. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin Nur; Yanuandri Putrasari; Iman Kartolaksono Reksowardojo

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices we...

  5. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  6. Diesel Combustion and Emission Using High Boost and High Injection Pressure in a Single Cylinder Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yuzo; Kunishima, Eiji; Asaumi, Yasuo; Aihara, Yoshiaki; Odaka, Matsuo; Goto, Yuichi

    Heavy-duty diesel engines have adopted numerous technologies for clean emissions and low fuel consumption. Some are direct fuel injection combined with high injection pressure and adequate in-cylinder air motion, turbo-intercooler systems, and strong steel pistons. Using these technologies, diesel engines have achieved an extremely low CO2 emission as a prime mover. However, heavy-duty diesel engines with even lower NOx and PM emission levels are anticipated. This study achieved high-boost and lean diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine that provides good engine performance and clean exhaust emission. The experiment was done under conditions of intake air quantity up to five times that of a naturally aspirated (NA) engine and 200MPa injection pressure. The adopted pressure booster is an external supercharger that can control intake air temperature. In this engine, the maximum cylinder pressure was increased and new technologies were adopted, including a monotherm piston for endurance of Pmax =30MPa. Moreover, every engine part is newly designed. As the boost pressure increases, the rate of heat release resembles the injection rate and becomes sharper. The combustion and brake thermal efficiency are improved. This high boost and lean diesel combustion creates little smoke; ISCO and ISTHC without the ISNOx increase. It also yields good thermal efficiency.

  7. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  8. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  9. Adaptive vibration isolation system for diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-jun; ZHANG Xin-yu; XIAO You-hong; HUANG Jin-e; LIU Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    An active two-stage isolation mounting, on which servo-hydraulic system is used as the actuator (secondary vibration source) and a diesel engine is used as primary vibration source, has been built. The upper mass of the mounting is composed of a 495diesel and an electrical eddy current dynamometer. The lower mass is divided into four small masses to which servo-hydraulic actuator and rubber isolators are attached. According to the periodical characteristics of diesel vibration signals, a multi-point adaptive strategy based on adaptive comb filtered algorithm is applied to active multi-direction coupled vibrations control for the engine. The experimental results demonstrate that a good suppression in the effective range of phase compensation in secondary path (within 100Hz) at different operation conditions is achieved, and verify that this strategy is effective. The features of the active system, the development activities carried out on the system and experimental results are discussed in the paper.

  10. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  11. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  12. Disturbance rejection in diesel engines for low emissions and high fuel efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C. H. A.; Willems, F. P. T.; Van Keulen, T. A. C.; Steinbuch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a novel and time-efficient control design for modern heavy-duty diesel engines using a variable geometry turbine and an exhaust gas recirculation valve. The goal is to simultaneously and robustly achieve low fuel consumption and low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and

  13. Cyclic oxygenates : a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.D.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.J.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) direct-injection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM

  14. Cyclic oxygenates: a new class of second-generation biofuels for diesel engines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.; Frijters, P.; Luijten, C.; Somers, B.; Baert, R.S.G.; Donkerbroek, A.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Dam, N.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion behavior of various oxygenated fuels has been studied in a DAF heavy-duty (HD) directinjection (DI) diesel engine. From these fuels, it is well-known that they lead to lower particle (PM) emissions; however, for a given fuel oxygen mass fraction, there are significant differences in PM

  15. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  16. Real-world exhaust temperature profiles of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriboonsomsin, Kanok; Durbin, Thomas; Scora, George; Johnson, Kent; Sandez, Daniel; Vu, Alexander; Jiang, Yu; Burnette, Andrew; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Dai, Zhen; Fulper, Carl; Kishan, Sandeep; Sabisch, Michael; Jackson, Doug

    2018-09-01

    On-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a major contributor of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emissions. In the US, many heavy-duty diesel vehicles employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to meet the 2010 emission standard for NO x . Typically, SCR needs to be at least 200°C before a significant level of NO x reduction is achieved. However, this SCR temperature requirement may not be met under some real-world operating conditions, such as during cold starts, long idling, or low speed/low engine load driving activities. The frequency of vehicle operation with low SCR temperature varies partly by the vehicle's vocational use. In this study, detailed vehicle and engine activity data were collected from 90 heavy-duty vehicles involved in a range of vocations, including line haul, drayage, construction, agricultural, food distribution, beverage distribution, refuse, public work, and utility repair. The data were used to create real-world SCR temperature and engine load profiles and identify the fraction of vehicle operating time that SCR may not be as effective for NO x control. It is found that the vehicles participated in this study operate with SCR temperature lower than 200°C for 11-70% of the time depending on their vocation type. This implies that real-world NO x control efficiency could deviate from the control efficiency observed during engine certification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma Catalysis for NOx Reduction from Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-15

    On behalf of the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, we are pleased to introduce the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The mission of the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable Americans to use less petroleum for their vehicles. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program supports this mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines for light-, medium-, and heavy-duty highway vehicles that meet future Federal and state emissions regulations. The primary objective of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program is to improve the brake thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines from 30 to 45 percent for light-duty applications by 2010; and 40 to 55 percent for heavy-duty applications by 2012; while meeting cost, durability, and emissions constraints. R&D activities include work on combustion technologies that increase efficiency and minimize in-cylinder formation of emissions, as well as aftertreatment technologies that further reduce exhaust emissions. Work is also being conducted on ways to reduce parasitic and heat transfer losses through the development and application of thermoelectrics and turbochargers that include electricity generating capability, and conversion of mechanically driven engine components to be driven via electric motors. This introduction serves to outline the nature, current progress, and future directions of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program. The research activities of this Sub-Program are planned in conjunction with the FreedomCAR Partnership and the 21st Century Truck Partnership and are carried out in collaboration with industry, national laboratories, and universities. Because of the importance of clean fuels in achieving low

  18. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Phan Minh; Wattanavichien, Kanit

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  19. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  20. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  1. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  2. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  3. Computer simulation of a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikiv, M.G.; Saeed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Engine model described in this paper was developed to investigate the working process and overall performance of a heavy-duty turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The primary focus was made on exploring the methods of engine power boosting, study of engine behaviour after their implementation and optimization of all engine parameters. Engine model is classified as on zone, zero dimensional and phenomenological and includes submodels for in cylinder heat transfer, heat release and valve flow processes. Turbocharger model is developed using the available maps of turbine and compressor. The whole engine system is zero dimensional and the different system components are liked by means of mean values for mass flow, temperatures, pressures and gas composition. NASA polynomials are used for computing thermal properties of mixture of gasses. Model is flexible and easy to accommodate additional submodels of various physical phenomena such as emission formation, fuel injection, ignition delay period calculation etc. The software is developed in MATLAB. Software was used to analyse an evaporative cooling of boost air as a method of an increase of engine power. Results of simulation are provided in the paper. For the augmented engine, mechanical and thermal loads required for the strength analyses were obtained. (author)

  4. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  5. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  6. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  7. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  8. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A

    2011-01-01

    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  9. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  10. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  11. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  12. On-road heavy-duty diesel particulate matter emissions modeled using chassis dynamometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Tom; Niemeier, D A

    2006-12-15

    This study presents a model, derived from chassis dynamometer test data, for factors (operational correction factors, or OCFs) that correct (g/mi) heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates measured on standard test cycles for real-world conditions. Using a random effects mixed regression model with data from 531 tests of 34 heavy-duty vehicles from the Coordinating Research Council's E55/E59 research project, we specify a model with covariates that characterize high power transient driving, time spent idling, and average speed. Gram per mile particle emissions rates were negatively correlated with high power transient driving, average speed, and time idling. The new model is capable of predicting relative changes in g/mi on-road heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates for real-world driving conditions that are not reflected in the driving cycles used to test heavy-duty vehicles.

  13. Combustion aided by a glow plug in diesel engines under cold idling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qile

    2016-01-01

    Glow plugs are widely used to promote the desired cold start and post-cold start combustion characteristics of light duty diesel engines. The importance of the glow plug becomes more apparent when the compression ratio is low. An experimental investigation of combustion initiation and development aided by the glow plug has been carried out on a single cylinder HPCR DI diesel engine with a low compression ratio of 15.5:1. High speed imaging of combustion initiated by the glow plug in a combust...

  14. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  15. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  17. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  18. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  19. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  20. Carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions from CNG heavy-duty engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, M.; Cericola, R.; Corbo, P.; Iannaccone, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous works carried out in Istituto Motori laboratories have shown that natural gas is a suitable fuel for general means of transportation. This is because of its favorable effects on engine performance and pollutant emissions. The natural gas fueled engine provided the same performance as the diesel engine, met R49 emission standards, and showed very low smoke levels. On the other hand, it is well known that internal combustion engines emit some components that are harmful for human health, such as carbonyl compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This paper shows the results of carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions analysis for a heavy-duty Otto cycle engine fueled with natural gas. The engine was tested using the R49 cycle that is used to measure the regulated emissions. The test analysis has been compared with an analysis of a diesel engine, tested under the same conditions. Total PAH emissions from the CNG engine were about three orders of magnitude lower than from the diesel engine. Formaldehyde emission from the CNG engine was about ten times as much as from the diesel engine, while emissions of other carbonyl compounds were comparable

  1. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Diesel engine, diesel, coconut oil biodiesel, blends, emissions. Introduction ... Automobile exhaust ... power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in ... diesel fuel in terms of power and torque and none or ... gas analyzer (Motorscan 8050) made in Italy which .... different injection pressures.

  2. Emission characterization of diesel engine run on coconut oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biodiesel in running diesel has been called for, with a view to mitigating the environmental pollution, depletion, cost and scarcity associated with the use diesel in running diesel engine. So the need to characterize the emissions from these biodiesel, cannot be overemphasized, hence this paper presents the ...

  3. Gear ratting noise reduction of diesel engine; Diesel engine no gear hauchi soon teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Miura, Y [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Gear raffling noise of diesel engine at idling condition is required to reduce for keeping quiet environment and comfort of driver and passengers on track and bus. Decrease of gear backlash is generally adopted for reducing gear rattling noise. On the other hand, it has been found that newly devised measurement of gear teeth speed and gear meshing error has clarified phenomena of gear rattling between the crankshaft gear and the camshaft gear of the diesel engine. And it has been also found that gear ratting noise is reduced by changing meshing between the crankshaft gear and the camshaft gear. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Development of Advanced High Strength Cast Alloys for Heavy Duty Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, James [Caterpillar Inc., Mossville, IL (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Gray iron has been the primary alloy for heavy duty diesel engine core castings for decades. During recent decades the limitations of gray iron have been reached in some applications, leading to the use of compacted graphite iron in engine blocks and heads. Caterpillar has had compacted graphite designs in continuous production since the late 1980’s. Due to the drive for higher power density, decreased emissions and increased fuel economy, cylinder pressures and temperatures continue to increase. Currently no viable replacement for today’s compacted graphite irons exist at an acceptable cost level. This project explored methods to develop the next generation of heavy duty diesel engine materials as well as demonstrated some results on new alloy designs although cost targets will likely not be met.

  5. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  6. Lignocellulosic Biobutanol as Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pexa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery of lignocellulosic waste material in the form of liquid fractions can yield alcohol-based fuels such as bioethanol or biobutanol. This study examined biobutanol derived from lignocellulosic material that was then used as an additive for diesel engines. Biobutanol was used in fuel mixtures with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME obtained by esterification of animal fat (also a waste material in the amounts of 10%, 30%, and 50% butanol. 100% diesel and 100% FAME were used as reference fuels. The evaluation concerned the fuel’s effect on the external speed characteristics, harmful exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption while using the Non-Road Steady Cycle test. When the percentage of butanol was increased, the torque and the power decreased and the brake specific fuel consumption increased. The main advantage of using biobutanol in fuel was its positive effect on reducing the fuel’s viscosity.

  7. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  8. Development of a robust and compact kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Mohan, Balaji; An, Hui; Zhou, Dezhi; Yu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach is used to develop a robust kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism. • Ignition delay of the kerosene sub-mechanism is well validated with experiments. • The kerosene sub-mechanism reproduces the flame lift-off lengths of Jet-A reasonably well. • The kerosene sub-mechanism performs reasonably well under engine conditions. - Abstract: The use of kerosene fuels in internal combustion engines is getting more widespread. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization military is pushing for the use of a single fuel on the battlefield in order to reduce logistical issues. Moreover, in some countries, fuel adulteration is a serious matter where kerosene is blended with diesel and used in diesel engines. So far, most investigations done regarding the use of kerosene fuels in diesel engines are experimental and there is negligible simulation work done in this area possibly because of the lack of a robust and compact kerosene reaction mechanism. This work focuses on the development of a small but reliable kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism, suitable to be used for diesel engine simulations. The new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism consists only of 48 species and 152 reactions. Furthermore, the kerosene sub-mechanism in this new mechanism is well validated for its ignition delay times and has proven to replicate kerosene combustion well in a constant volume combustion chamber and an optical engine. Overall, this new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism is proven to be robust and practical for diesel engine simulations.

  9. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  10. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...

  11. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  12. Formation and emission of organic pollutants from diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A.; Barbella, R.

    1993-01-01

    The emission of soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel engines results from the competition between oxidative and pyrolytic routes which the fuel takes in the unsteady, heterogeneous conditions of the diesel combustion process. In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons and gaseous inorganic species were carried out in two locations of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve in order to follow the behaviour of a diesel fuel during the engine cycle. The effect of fuel quality (volatility, aromatic content, cetane number) and air/fuel mass feed ratio on soot, PAH, and light and heavy hydrocarbons was also investigated by direct sampling and chemical analysis of the exhausts emitted from a direct injection diesel engine (D.I.) and an indirect injection diesel engine (I.D.I.)

  13. Fueling diesel engines with methyl-ester soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, L.G.; Hires, W.G.; Borgelt, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two 5.9 liter Cummins engines were fueled for a combined total of more than 80,467 km (50,000 miles). One truck, a 1991 Dodge, has been driven approximately 48,280 km (30,000 miles). The other, a 1992 Dodge, has been driven approximately 32,187 km (20,000 miles). Fueling these engines with soydiesel increase engine power by 3 percent (1991 engine) and reduced power by 6 percent (1992 engine). The pickups averaged more than 7.1 km/L (16.7 mpg). Analysis of used engine oil samples indicated that the engines were wearing at normal rate. The black exhaust smoke normally observed when a diesel engine accelerates was reduced as much as 86 percent when the diesel engine was fueled with 100% soydiesel. Increased EPA exhaust emissions requirements for diesel engines have created much interest in the use of soydiesel as fuel for diesel engines

  14. Simulations of Multi Combustion Modes Hydrogen Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical study of a diesel direct injection heavy duty truck engine converted to hydrogen. The engine has a power turbine connected through a clutch and a continuously variable transmission to the crankshaft. The power turbine may be disconnected and by-passed when it is inefficient or inconvenient to use. The conversion is obtained by replacing the Diesel injector with a hydrogen injector and the glow plug with a jet ignition device. The hydrogen engine operates different modes of combustion depending on the relative phasing of the main injection and the jet ignition. The engine generally operates mostly in Diesel-like mode, with the most part of the main injection following the suitable creation in cylinder conditions by jet ignition. For medium-low loads, better efficienciy is obtained with the gasoline-like mode jet igniting the premixed homogeneous mixture at top dead centre. It’s permitted at higher loads or at very low loads for the excessive peak pressure or the mixture too lean to burn rapidly. The hydrogen engine has better efficiency than Diesel outputs and fuel conversion. Thanks to the larger rate of heat release, it has the opportunity to run closer to stoichiometry and the multi mode capabilities. The critical area for this engine development is found in the design of a hydrogen injector delivering the amount of fuel needed to the large volume cylinder within a Diesel-like injection time.

  15. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  16. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  17. Crude palm oil as fuel extender for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed M El-Awad; Fuad Abas; Mak Kian Sin

    2000-01-01

    In this work an investigation has been conducted into the use of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as an extender fuel for diesel engines. Mixtures of CPO with normal diesel fuel (with a percentage of 25%, 50% and 75% CPO by volume) were used to fuel a stationary diesel engine and the engine performance variables, i.e., power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust-gas emission, were compared to those of normal diesel fuel. The results obtained, for a fixed throttle opening and variable speed, indicate that at high engine speeds, the engine performance with CP0/diesel mixtures with up to 50% CPO is comparable to that of diesel fuel. However, the results of the 75% CPO mixture showed a higher temperature and emission of CO and NO compared to the diesel fuel. At low engine speeds, the engine performance with CPO mixtures gave higher power output and lower emission of NO compared to that with diesel fuel, but showed higher specific fuel consumption and higher emission of CO. Based on these results, the study recommends that CPO can be used to extend diesel fuel in a mixture of up to 50% CPO by volume for an unmodified engine. (Author)

  18. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Electric Vehicles to supply battery modules for Smith’s lineup of zero-emission, all-electric commercial vehicles (CVs). A123 expects to begin...hybrids may have generally improved reliability compared to conventional diesel vehicles, their maintenance procedures are specialized. Hybrid

  19. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  1. Oil soot measurement system of diesel engine; Diesel engine no oil sutsu sokutei sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Y; Moritsugu, M; Kato, N [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Osaki, R [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For use evaluate diesel engine in laboratory, we have developed a apparatus which can measure soot density in engine oil instantly and accurately. We have achieved accuracy of 0.03 wt% by employing the following; (1) utilize a ligh-reflecting oil soot sensor, (2) regurate the temperature and flow of the in-coming oil to be constant. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance M Hallberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology, and modified fuel formulations, to bring about reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides within the exhaust. To illustrate the impact of that technological transition, a brief overview of pre-2007 diesel engine exhaust biomarkers of genotoxicity and health-related concerns is provided, to set the context for the results of our research findings, as part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES, in which the effects of a 2007-compliant diesel engine were examined. In agreement with ACES findings reported in other tissues, we observed a lack of measurable 2007-compliant diesel treatment–associated DNA damage, in lung tissue (comet assay, blood serum (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] assay, and hippocampus (lipid peroxidation assay, across diesel exhaust exposure levels. A time-dependent assessment of 8-OHdG and lipid peroxidation also suggested no differences in responses across diesel exhaust exposure levels more than 24 months of exposure. These results indicated that the 2007-compliant diesel engine reduced measurable reactive oxygen species–associated tissue derangements and suggested that the 2007 standards–based mitigation approaches were effective.

  3. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  4. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  5. Embarked diagnosis applied to a mechanical system "diesel engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of OBD (on-board diagnostic) systems for diesel engines has become an unavoidable necessity. From the models described in the literature, the latest generation diesel engine models as well as defects affecting it were established. A board diagnostic system based on the use of fuzzy pattern ...

  6. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  7. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  8. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    S Abbasi; H Bahrami; B Ghobadian; M Kiani Deh Kiani

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel a...

  9. Common rail fuel injection system for improvement of engine performance and reduction of exhaust emission on heavy duty diesel engine; Common rail system ni yoru seino haishutsu gas no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T; Koyama, T; Sasaki, K; Mori, K; Mori, K [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    With the objective of improvement of engine performance and reduction of exhaust emissions, influence of control method to decrease initial injection rate and effect of injector types on fuel leakage of common rail fuel injection system (Common Rail System) were investigated. As a results, it became clear that injector with 2-way valve brings improvement of engine performance and reduction of exhaust emissions as compared with injector with 3-way valve because injector with 2-way valve has lower fuel leakage and is able to use higher injection pressure than injector with 3-way valve. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandip D.; Johnson, Kent C.; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    Emissions from heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles are affected by many factors. Changes in engine technology, operating mode, fuel properties, vehicle speed and ambient conditions can have significant effects on emission rates of regulated species. This paper presents the results of on-road emissions testing of 11 HDD vehicles (model years 1996-2000) over the ARB Four Phase driving schedule and the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS). Emission rates were found to be highly dependent on vehicle operating mode. Per mile NO x emission rates for vehicle operation at low speeds, in simulated congested traffic, were three times higher per mile emissions then while cruising on the freeway. Comparisons of NO x emission factors to EMFAC baseline emission factors were within 5-40% for vehicles of various model years tested over the UDDS. A comparison of NO x emission factors for a weighted average of the ARB four phase driving schedule yielded values within 17-57% of EMFAC values. Generally, particulate matter (PM) emission rates were lower than EMFAC values.

  11. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  13. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Nur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices were mounted on the exhaust pipe. The test of fuel variations started from 100% diesel fuel (D100 to 2.5% (DE2.5, 5% (DE5, 7.5% (DE7.5, and 10% (DE10 ethanol additions. Performance test was conducted at 1500 rpm with load variations from 0 to 60 Nm by increasing the load on each level by 10 Nm. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel (DE5 increased the average pressure of combustion chamber indication to 48% as well as reduced the specific fuel consumption to 9.5%. There were better exhaust emission characteristics at this mixture ratio than diesel engine which used pure diesel fuel (D100, the reduction of CO to 37%, HC to 44% and opacity to 15.9%.

  14. Prospects of biogas as dual fuel in small diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Irvinder; Mittal, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on diesel engines to find out the effect of induction rate of biogas on engine performance indices. The results of dual fuel engine performance was compared with diesel mode for various levels of biogas induction rate (0.3 to 7.2 l/s) engine load (20% to full load) and injection timing (20.6 to 48 before top dead centre). At full and 80% brake load, the best energy mix between diesel and biogas was 1.5:1 and 4:1 respectively. (author). 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  16. Modal extraction on a diesel engine in operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nis; Herlufsen, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a diesel engine is presented. The only loading on the engine is the unknown loading from the engine itself. Two test cases were considered: engine run-up, and engine Run-Down. The response data were analyzed using two different...

  17. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Jager, de A.G.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat

  18. Experimental validation of a combustion kinetics based multi-zone model for natural gas-diesel RCCI engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikulski, M.; Bekdemir, C.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the validation results of TNO's combustion model designed to support RCCI control development. In-depth validation was performed on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine operating in RCCI mode on natural gas and diesel fuel. It was shown that the adopted approach is able to

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  20. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  1. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  2. Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    F. Halek; A. Kavousi; M. Banifatemi

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester or FAME) because of the similarity in its properties when compared to those of diesel fuels. Diesel engines operated on biodiesel have lower emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and air toxics than when operated on petroleum-based diesel fuel. Production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed (nonedible oil) fatty acid distillate having high free fatty acids (FFA) ...

  3. An experimental investigation of performance of diesel to CNG engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sheelam; Gupta, Ayush; Garg, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few decades, diesel engines are widely used in automobiles which is responsible for hazardous increase in pollution. Around the world, many countries are trying to reduce it by replacing diesel with CNG as a fuel which is more economical and leads to pollution free environment. Engineers came up with an idea to convert diesel engine to CNG engine. This conversion is possible by doing some alteration of engine components and it also include adding some extra components to the system which includes spark plug, valves etc. and by decreasing the compression ratio of the engine. It is used worldwide today and many countries have many programs to convert older, polluting diesel vehicles to CNG enable vehicles so that they can run on clean, economical natural gas. This is, an excellent way to reduce fuel cost, reduce pollution, reduce noise with minimum possible capital costs.first, second, and third level headings.

  4. Natural gas in a D. I. diesel engine. A comparison of two different ways. [Direct injection diesel enginer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun-ming, Qu; Sorenson, S.C.; Kofoed, E.

    1987-01-01

    A D.I. diesel engine was modified for natural gas operation with pilot injection and with spark ignition so that a comparative analysis of these two different ways of using natural gas could be made. The results of the experiments indicate that for a diesel engine, it is possible that the operating characteristics of a straight natural gas engine are comparable with those of a diesel/gas engine at the same compression ratio and speed. For a dual fuel engine with pilot injection the best diesel/gas ratio by energy content is approximately 20/80 at full load operation. For straight natural gas engine with spark ignition, quality governed natural gas operation has good efficiency but poor NOx emissions. This problem could be improved through throttle controlled operation. These two different ways of using natural gas are best suited to stationary engines.

  5. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  6. Biogas Production and Engine Conversion From Diesel Engine to Biogas Engine for Lighting in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Seint Thandar

    2012-01-01

    The research of alternative fuels implemented in internal combustion engines are becoming the subjects of interest nowadays. This paper describes a production of biogas from cow dung, diesel engine conversion process with piston modification of ZH1115 diesel engine. To produce biogas, the usual practice is to mix water with some organic material, such as cow dung (a free source of the appropriate micro-organisms). The slurry is placed in a leak-proof container (called a digester) and leaves i...

  7. Super Turbocharging the Direct Injection Diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Albert

    2018-03-01

    The steady operation of a turbocharged diesel direct injection (TDI) engine featuring a variable speed ratio mechanism linking the turbocharger shaft to the crankshaft is modelled in the present study. Key parameters of the variable speed ratio mechanism are range of speed ratios, efficiency and inertia, in addition to the ability to control relative speed and flow of power. The device receives energy from, or delivers energy to, the crankshaft or the turbocharger. In addition to the pistons of the internal combustion engine (ICE), also the turbocharger thus contributes to the total mechanical power output of the engine. The energy supply from the crankshaft is mostly needed during sharp accelerations to avoid turbo-lag, and to boost torque at low speeds. At low speeds, the maximum torque is drastically improved, radically expanding the load range. Additionally, moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger, it is also possible to improve both the efficiency η, defined as the ratio of the piston crankshaft power to the fuel flow power, and the total efficiency η*, defined as the ratio of piston crankshaft power augmented of the power from the turbocharger shaft to the fuel flow power, even if of a minimal extent. The energy supply to the crankshaft is possible mostly at high speeds and high loads, where otherwise the turbine could have been waste gated, and during decelerations. The use of the energy at the turbine otherwise waste gated translates in improvements of the total fuel conversion efficiency η* more than the efficiency η. Much smaller improvements are obtained for the maximum torque, yet again moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger. Adopting a much larger turbocharger (target displacement x speed 30% larger than a conventional turbocharger), better torque outputs and fuel conversion efficiencies η* and η are possible at every speed vs. the engine with a smaller, balanced turbocharger. This result

  8. Comparative first- and second-law parametric study of transient diesel engine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    A computer model is developed for studying the first- and second-law (availability) balances of a turbocharged diesel engine, operating under transient load conditions. Special attention is paid to the direct comparison between the results from the two laws, for various operating parameters of the engine. The model simulates the transient operation on a degree crank angle basis, using a detailed analysis of mechanical friction, a separate consideration for the processes of each cylinder during a cycle ('multi-cylinder' model) and a mathematical model of the fuel pump. Experimental data taken from a marine duty, turbocharged diesel engine, located at the authors' laboratory, are used for the evaluation of the model's predictive capabilities. The first-law (e.g., engine speed, fuel pump rack position, engine load, etc.) and second-law (e.g., irreversibilities, heat loss and exhaust gases) terms for the diesel engine cylinder are both computed and depicted in comparison, using detailed diagrams, for various engine operating parameters. It is revealed that, at least for the specific engine type and operation, a thermodynamic, dynamic or design parameter can have a conflicting impact on the engine transient response as regards energy and availability properties, implying that both a first- and second-law optimization is needed for best performance evaluation

  9. Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    system does not provide direct current power to the preamplifier, equivalent pre-amplifiers with external power inputs were purchased , but the... behaviour of piston ring/cylinder liner interaction in diesel engines using acoustic emission. Tribology International 39 (12) 12 / 01 / 1634-1642...diesel engine using in-cylinder pressure and acoustic emission techniques. Dyanmics for Sustainable Engineering 1 454-463 26. Lowe, D. P., et al

  10. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  11. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  12. Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel presents a large potential for replacing other fossil-based fuels. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal efficiency and emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), in a cycle diesel engine-generator set, using soybean biodiesel and diesel as fuels.

  13. Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaban, Farid

    1998-01-01

    Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

  14. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  15. Improvement of ecological characteristics of the hydrogen diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriashvili, T.; Kavtaradze, R.; Glonti, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the article are considered the questions of influence of a swirl intensity of the shot and injector design on the ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel, little-investigated till now. The necessity of solution of these problems arises at conversion of the serial diesel engine into the hydrogen diesel. The mathematical model consists of the three-dimensional non-stationary equations of transfer and also models of turbulence and combustion. The numerical experiments have been carried out with the use of program code FIRE. The optimal values of parameters of the working process, ensuring improvement of the effective and ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel are determined.

  16. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  17. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  18. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  19. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K.; Oduro, E.K.; Hammond-Donkoh, E. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Results are presented on tests on a single-cylinder direct-injection engine operating on diesel fuel, jatropha oil, and blends of diesel and jatropha oil in proportions of 97.4%/2.6%; 80%120%; and 50%150% by volume. The results covered a range of operating loads on the engine. Values are given for the chemical and physical properties of the fuels, brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, brake thermal efficiency, engine torque, and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases. Carbon dioxide emissions were similar for all fuels, the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend was observed to be the lower net contributor to the atmospheric level. The trend of carbon monoxide emissions was similar for the fuels but diesel fuel showed slightly lower emissions to the atmosphere. The test showed that jatropha oil could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increases in brake thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for jatropha oil and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend produced maximum values of the brake power and brake thermal efficiency as well as minimum values of the specific fuel consumption. The 97.4%12.6% fuel blend yielded the highest cetane number and even better engine performance than the diesel fuel suggesting that jatropha oil can be used as an ignition- accelerator additive for diesel fuel. (author)

  1. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  2. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheman, H.; Phadatare, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO x to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  3. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  4. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y J; Ju, U S; Park, Y C [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  5. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  6. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2011-01-01

    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...

  7. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  8. Experimental investigations on CRDI diesel engine fuelled with acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported that NOx emission amplified by means of an amplification in the proportion ... performance and emission characteristics of CRDI engine when fuelled with diesel, ..... rate of NOx formation is primarily a function of flame temperature, the ...

  9. Computational Study of Stratified Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Johansson, Bengt; Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Full cycle simulations of KAUST optical diesel engine were conducted in order to provide insights into the details of fuel spray, mixing, and combustion characteristics at different start of injection (SOI) conditions. Although optical diagnostics

  10. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  11. Application of wear resistant spraying for diesel engine; Diesel kikan eno taimamo yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuliding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-31

    Diesel engines used widely as propelling engines of ships have increasingly been provided with a high output and a high thermal efficiency; their structural members, particularly, the component parts for combustion chambers are therefore used under severe conditions, giving rise to the need of surface treatment and surface reforming of the members. Parts for marine diesel engines are huge, so that the technology applicable to the surface treatment and reforming are limited in point of facility and cost; therefore, most suitable is thermal spraying. This paper primarily discusses, among marine diesel engines, a 2-cycle low-speed engine with a 260-980mm bore used for the main engine of a merchant ship such as a container ship, bulk carrier or a tanker, and a 4-cycle medium-speed engine with a 300-420mm bore used for the main engine of a naval vessel; the paper explains the application status of a thermal spraying technology which is in progress to cope with the high output and high thermal efficiency of the diesel engines, explaining particularly the story of the development and the technological features of the wear resistant thermal spraying, which has been put to practical use, on the cylinder liner and the piston ring of the 4-cycle medium-speed engine. (NEDO)

  12. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  13. Combustion Heat Release Rate Comparison of Algae Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel to F-76 in a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    was recorded. Figure 14 shows the gauge on the rocker arm during calibration . Figure 14. Mechanical Injector Rocker Arm Strain Gauge. D. DATA...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE by John H. Petersen June 2013 Thesis...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) John H

  14. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  15. Development of catalyst for diesel engine; Diesel engine yo shokubai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, H; Furutani, T; Nagami, T [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Aono, N; Goshima, H; Kasahara, K [Cataler Industrial Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The new concept catalyst for diesel engine has been developed. When the exhaust temperature is low, SOF and HC are temporarily adsorbed by the adsorbent within the catalyst and are oxidized as the temperature rise. The process of this development have manifested as follows. (1) The coating material is important factor to govern the oxidation activity. (2) SOF is reduced by the coating material in low temperature less than 200degC. (3) The coating material, which has low SO2 adsorbing rate suppress the sulfate formation at high temperature. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Detection Using Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Elamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated, using experimental method, the suitability of acoustic emission (AE technique for the condition monitoring of diesel engine valve faults. The clearance fault was adjusted experimentally in an exhaust valve and successfully detected and diagnosed in a Ford FSD 425 four-cylinder, four-stroke, in-line OHV, direct injection diesel engine. The effect of faulty exhaust valve clearance on engine performance was monitored and the difference between the healthy and faulty engine was observed from the recorded AE signals. The measured results from this technique show that using only time domain and frequency domain analysis of acoustic emission signals can give a superior measure of engine condition. This concludes that acoustic emission is a powerful and reliable method of detection and diagnosis of the faults in diesel engines and this is considered to be a unique approach to condition monitoring of valve performance.

  17. Proceedings of the 1997 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was held July 28--31, 1997 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on diesel engine emissions issues. Diesel engine manufacturers have significantly reduced emission of nitrogen oxides and particulates over the last 12 years. Currently there is concern about the 4% contribution of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels to the atmosphere and its role in the greenhouse effect. The 56 papers in this report are arranged under the following topical headings: Agency diesel engine emissions and concerns; Human health effects -- Diesel exhaust; Aftertreatment -- Non-thermal plasma; Aftertreatment and in-cylinder emissions reduction; Combustion, fuel, and air management; Fuels and associated technology; and Advanced technology. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. 76 FR 54373 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... diesel piston engines, with high-pressure (HP) fuel pump, part number (P/N) E4A- 30-100-000, installed... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... pressure supply for excessive oscillations to determine if high-pressure (HP) fuel pumps have been exposed...

  19. Turbulence-combustion interaction in direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencherif Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental measures of chemical species and turbulence intensity during the closed part of the engine combustion cycle are today unattainable exactly. This paper deals with numerical investigations of an experimental direct injection Diesel engine and a commercial turbocharged heavy duty direct injection one. Simulations are carried out with the kiva3v2 code using the RNG (k-ε model. A reduced mechanism for n-heptane was adopted for predicting auto-ignition and combustion processes. From the calibrated code based on experimental in-cylinder pressures, the study focuses on the turbulence parameters and combustion species evolution in the attempt to improve understanding of turbulence-chemistry interaction during the engine cycle. The turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate are taken as representative parameters of turbulence. The results indicate that chemistry reactions of fuel oxidation during the auto-ignition delay improve the turbulence levels. The peak position of turbulent kinetic energy coincides systematically with the auto-ignition timing. This position seems to be governed by the viscous effects generated by the high pressure level reached at the auto-ignition timing. The hot regime flame decreases rapidly the turbulence intensity successively by the viscous effects during the fast premixed combustion and heat transfer during other periods. It is showed that instable species such as CO are due to deficiency of local mixture preparation during the strong decrease of turbulence energy. Also, an attempt to build an innovative relationship between self-ignition and maximum turbulence level is proposed. This work justifies the suggestion to determine otherwise the self-ignition timing.

  20. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Sulfuric Acid Condensation and Corrosion Rate in Motored Bukh DV24 Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjemtrup, Lars; Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Meyer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The work conducted in this paper presents a novel experimental setup to study sulfuric acid cold corrosion of cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. The process is simulated in a motored light duty BUKH DV24 diesel engine where the charge air contain known amounts of H2SO4 and H......2O vapor. Liner corrosion is measured as iron accumulation in the lubeoil. Similarly sulfuric acid condensation is assessed by measuring the accumulation of sulfur in the lube oil. To clarify the corrosive effect of sulfuric acid the lube oil utilized for experiments is a sulfur free neutral oil...... without alkaline additives (Chevron Neutral Oil 600R). Iron and sulfur accumulation in the lube oil is analyzed withan Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) apparatus. Three test cases with different H2SO4 concentrations are run. Results reveal good agreement between sulfuric acid injection flow...

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  3. Experimental investigations of LPG use at the automotive diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquefied petroleum gas has a great potential to improve energetically and pollution performance of compression ignition engines due to its good combustion properties. This paper presents results of the researches carried on a car compression ignition engine with a 1.5 dm3 displacement, fuelled with diesel fuel and liquefied petroleum gas by diesel-gas method at the operating regimens of 70% and 55% engine load, engine speed of 2000 rpm and for substitute ratios between (6–19%. A specific objective of this paper is to establish a correlation between the optimum adjustments and the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with liquefied petroleum gas for the investigated regimens to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning and having regard to decrease the fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions.

  4. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  5. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  6. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  7. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  8. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  9. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  10. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  11. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  12. Combustion control for diesel engines with direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeschke, J.; Henn, M.; Lang, T.; Wendt, J.; Nitzke, H.G.; Mannigel, D. [Volkswagen AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This article looks at a new cylinder pressure-based combustion control for DI diesel engines that has been developed by Volkswagen. This cylinder pressure-based control uses cylinder pressure sensors that are integrated in the glow plugs. The description and the evaluation of these sensors form a main part of this article as they are a central element in the new diesel management system. The test and development phase in connection with a rapid prototyping system and the realisation of the combustion control algorithms in a diesel control unit are also described. Finally, results from use of the closed-loop combustion control with different applications on a diesel engine are presented. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  14. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  15. Supply and demand of diesel engine for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This document takes stock on the diesel engine situation in France, in order to define the future policy for 2010. The first part is a state of the art concerning the description and characteristics of the diesel, the diesel production in refineries, the biofuels, the supply and demand. The second part details the evolutions, the investments and the fiscality impacts. The last part concludes on the necessity of a fiscal neutrality and on the fact that no new refinery is justified in France. It proposes different scenario of the imports evolution. (A.L.B.)

  16. The all new BMW top diesel engines; Die neuen Diesel Spitzenmotorisierungen von BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardey, N.; Wichtl, R.; Steinmayr, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Hiemesch, D.; Stuetz, W. [BMW Motoren GmbH, Steyr (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    From the very beginning, diesel drivetrains have been important components of the BMW EfficientDynamics strategy. High levels of driving dynamics in combination with attractive fuel consumption have become features of a wide range of models. With the introduction of 2-stage turbocharging for passenger car diesel engines in 2004, BMW was able to significantly enhance the power density without increasing the number of cylinders or the cylinder capacity. In the meantime, the BMW TwinPower Turbo diesel engine variants achieve a rated power of up to 160 kW on the 2.0-litre 4-cylinder engine and 230 kW on the 3.0-litre 6-cylinder engine. In order to extend the leading position in the premium segment, a new BMW TwinPower Turbo variant has been developed. The major objectives were to achieve a range of power output, torque and comfort at least at the level of 8-cylinder competitors, but at the same time equal the lower fuel consumption and power/weight ratio that is typical for existing BMW 6-cylinder diesel engines. The new engine will be used for the first time in the emphatically sports-oriented BMW M Performance Automobiles (MPA) of the X5/X6 and 5 Series. The charging and injection technology as well as capability of high cylinder pressures in the core engine are key technologies for the enhancement of performance. The new BMW TwinPower Turbo diesel drivetrain is based on the main dimensions of the existing 3.0-litre 6-cylinder inline diesel engines. The core element of the new engine is a 2-stage turbocharging system, consisting of 3 exhaust turbochargers. A common rail injection system with a system pressure up to 2200 bar is deployed for the first time. The drive unit has been configured for a maximum cylinder pressure of 200 bar, an innovative feature is the aluminium crankcase with its screwed tension anchor connection. The cooling system contains an indirect 2-stage intercooler. The exhaust system of the new BMW diesel engine in the 5 Series is equipped as

  17. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  18. Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.I.; Som, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Kastengren, A.L.; El-Hannouny, E.M.; Longman, D.E.; Powell, C.F. [Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software

  19. Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays from a production heavy duty diesel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A. I.; Som, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Kastengren, A. L.; El-Hannouny, E. M.; Longman, D. E.; Powell, C. F.

    2009-07-01

    A quantitative and time-resolved X-ray radiography technique has been used for detailed measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region of a diesel engine injector. The technique provides high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the relatively dense core region. A single spray plume from a hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector model 315B injector with a 6-hole nozzle was isolated and studied at engine-like densities for two different injection pressures. Optical spray imaging was also employed to evaluate the effectiveness of the shield used to isolate a single spray plume. The steady state fuel distributions for both injection pressures are similar and show a dense spray region along the axis of the spray, with the on-axis spray density decreasing as the spray progresses downstream. The higher injection pressure case exhibits a larger cone angle and spray broadening at the exit of the nozzle. For some time periods, the near-nozzle penetration speed is lower for the high injection pressure case than the low injection pressure case, which is unexpected, but can be attributed to the needle and flow dynamics inside the injector causing slower pressure build-up for the former case. Rate of injection testing was performed to further understand near-nozzle behavior. Mass distribution data were obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several significant differences. The current data show a larger cone angle and lower penetration speed than that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across the spray near the injector, whereas in previous light-duty injector measurements, the mass distribution had steeper sides and a flatter peak. Measurements are also used to examine the spray models in the STAR-CD software.

  20. Hydraulic Characterization of Diesel Engine Single-Hole Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Arco Sola, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Due to world trend on the emission regulations and greater demand of fuel economy,the research on advanced diesel injector designs is a key factor for the next generation diesel engines. For that reason, it is well established that understanding the effects of the nozzle geometry on the spray development, fuel-air mixing, combustion and pollutants formation is of crucial importance to achieve these goals.In the present research, the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on the internalflo...

  1. Understanding Combustion and Soot Formation in Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    distributions of PLII signals help understand the soot distributions within diesel/ biodiesel flames. In addition, planar laser-induced Figure 1. Transported ...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 9/14/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll This project investigated biodiesel ...emissions testing. 1 FINAL REPORT Project title: Understanding combustion and soot formation in biodiesel fuelled diesel engines Lead Institute and

  2. Utilization of Variable Consumption Biofuel in Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The depletion of oil fields and the deteriorating environmental situation leads to the need for the search of new alternative sources of energy. Actuality of the article due to the need for greater use of the alternative fuels in internal combustion engines is necessary. The advantages of vegetables origin fuels using as engine fuels are shown. Diesel engine operation on mixtures of petroleum diesel and rapeseed oil is researched. A fuel delivery system of mixture biofuel with a control system of the fuel compound is considered. The results of the system experimental researches of fuel delivery of mixture biofuel are led.

  3. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  4. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  5. A Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine Speed Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajendra Prasad; Balaji, Rajoo

    2018-02-01

    Diesel engine is inherently an unstable machine and requires a reliable control system to regulate its speed for safe and efficient operation. Also, the diesel engine may operate at fixed or variable speeds depending upon user's needs and accordingly the speed control system should have essential features to fulfil these requirements. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a marine diesel engine speed control system with droop governing function. The mathematical model includes static and dynamic characteristics of the control loop components. Model of static characteristic of the rotating fly weights speed sensing element provides an insight into the speed droop features of the speed controller. Because of big size and large time delay, the turbo charged diesel engine is represented as a first order system or sometimes even simplified to a pure integrator with constant gain which is considered acceptable in control literature. The proposed model is mathematically less complex and quick to use for preliminary analysis of the diesel engine speed controller performance.

  6. [Real world instantaneous emission simulation for light-duty diesel vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Dai, Pu; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Cheng, Zhen; Jia, Ji-Hong

    2008-10-01

    Core architecture and input parameters of CMEM model were introduced to simulation the second by second vehicle emission rate on real world by taking a light-duty diesel car as a case. On-board test data by a portable emission measurement system were then used to validate the simulation results. Test emission factors of CO, THC, NO(x) and CO2 were respectively 0.81, 0.61, 2.09, and 193 g x km(-1), while calculated emission factors were 0.75, 0.47, 2.47, and 212 g x km(-1). The correlation coefficients reached 0.69, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.72. Simulated instantaneous emissions of the light duty diesel vehicle by CMEM model were strongly coherent with the transient driving cycle. By analysis, CO, THC, NO(x), and CO2 emissions would be reduced by 50%, 47%, 45%, and 44% after improving the traffic situation at the intersection. The result indicated that it is necessary and feasible to simulate the instantaneous emissions of mixed vehicle fleet in some typical traffic areas by the micro-scale vehicle emission model.

  7. An experimental study of the combusition and emission performances of 2,5-dimethylfuran diesel blends on a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Helin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. The combustion and emission performances of diesel-dimethylfuran blends were investigated under various loads ranging from 0.13 to 1.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure, and a constant speed of 1800 rpm. Results indicate that diesel-dimethylfuran blends have different combustion performance and produce longer ignition delay and shorter combustion duration compared with pure diesel. Moreover, a slight increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency occurs when a Diesel engine operates with blended fuels, rather than diesel fuel. Diesel-dimethylfuran blends could lead to higher NOx emissions at medium and high engine loads. However, there is a significant reduction in soot emission when engines are fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. Soot emissions under each operating conditions are similar and close to zero except for D40 at 0.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The total number and mean geometric diameter of emitted particles from diesel-dimethylfuran blends are lower than pure diesel. The tested fuels exhibit no significant difference in either CO or HC emissions at medium and high engine loads. Nevertheless, diesel fuel produces the lowest CO emission and higher HC emission at low loads of 0.13 to 0.38 MPa brake mean effective pressure.

  8. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  9. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  10. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A; Northrop, William F; Bohac, Stanislav V; Assanis, Dennis N

    2012-11-15

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NO x brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM 2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM 2.5 . The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for

  11. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.; Northrop, William F.; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Assanis, Dennis N.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  12. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  13. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM 2.5 , Σ 15 PAHs, Σ 11 NPAHs, Σ 5 Hopanes and Σ 6 Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM 2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM 2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  14. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  15. Experimental evaluation of Diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and Diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Bawady, A.H.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate Diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative Diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, Diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO x and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend

  16. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  17. Urea-SCR Temperature Investigation for NOx Control of Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SCR (selective catalytic reduction system is continuously being analyzed by many researchers worldwide on various concerns due to the stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions legislation for heavy-duty diesel engines. Urea-SCR includes AdBlue as urea source, which subsequently decomposes to NH3 (ammonia being the reducing agent. Reaction temperature is a key factor for the performance of urea-SCR system, as urea decomposition rate is sensitive to a specific temperature range. This particular study was directed to investigate the temperature of the SCR system in diesel engine with the objective to confirm that whether the appropriate temperature is attained for occurrence of urea based catalytic reduction or otherwise and how the system performs on the prescribed temperature range. Diesel engine fitted with urea-SCR exhaust system has been operated on European standard cycle for emission testing to monitor the temperature and corresponding nitrogen oxides (NOx values on specified points. Moreover, mathematical expressions for approximation of reaction temperature are also proposed which are derived by applying energy conservation principal and gas laws. Results of the investigation have shown that during the whole testing cycle system temperature has remained in the range where urea-SCR can take place with best optimum rate and the system performance on account of NOx reduction was exemplary as excellent NOx conversion rate is achieved. It has also been confirmed that selective catalytic reduction (SCR is the best suitable technology for automotive engine-out NOx control.

  18. PILCs for trapping phosphorus in a heavy duty engine exhaust system : An experimental evaluation of the phosphorus sorption capability of different clay materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarned, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements in the EURO VI standard, regulating emissions from heavy duty vehicles, the exhaust aftertreatment system needs to maintain its efficiency for at least seven years or 700 000 km. In diesel applications the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is located closest to the engine and is thus the most vulnerable to poisoning contaminants, such as phosphorus originating from fuel and oil additives, which deactivates the catalyst. An idea to reduce the impact from phosp...

  19. Engine Performance Test of the 1975 Chrysler - Nissan Model CN633 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An engine test of the Chrysler-Nissan Model CN633 diesel engine was performed to determine its steady-state fuel consumption and emissions (HC, CO, NOx) maps. The data acquired are summarized in this report.

  20. Quasi-Dimensional Modelling and Parametric Studies of a Heavy-Duty HCCI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-dimensional modelling study is conducted for the first time for a heavy duty, diesel-fuelled, multicylinder engine operating in HCCI mode. This quasidimensional approach involves a zero-dimensional single-zone homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion model along with a one-dimensional treatment of the intake and exhaust systems. A skeletal chemical kinetic scheme for n-heptane was used in the simulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio (CR were the two parameters that were altered in order to deal with the challenges of combustion phasing control and operating load range extension. Results from the HCCI mode simulations show good potential when compared to conventional diesel performance with respect to important performance parameters such as peak firing pressure, specific fuel consumption, peak pressure rise, and combustion noise. This study shows that HCCI combustion mode can be employed at part load of 25% varying the EGR rates between 0 and 60%.

  1. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  2. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  3. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  4. Waste Heat Recovery from a High Temperature Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonas E.

    Government-mandated improvements in fuel economy and emissions from internal combustion engines (ICEs) are driving innovation in engine efficiency. Though incremental efficiency gains have been achieved, most combustion engines are still only 30-40% efficient at best, with most of the remaining fuel energy being rejected to the environment as waste heat through engine coolant and exhaust gases. Attempts have been made to harness this waste heat and use it to drive a Rankine cycle and produce additional work to improve efficiency. Research on waste heat recovery (WHR) demonstrates that it is possible to improve overall efficiency by converting wasted heat into usable work, but relative gains in overall efficiency are typically minimal ( 5-8%) and often do not justify the cost and space requirements of a WHR system. The primary limitation of the current state-of-the-art in WHR is the low temperature of the engine coolant ( 90 °C), which minimizes the WHR from a heat source that represents between 20% and 30% of the fuel energy. The current research proposes increasing the engine coolant temperature to improve the utilization of coolant waste heat as one possible path to achieving greater WHR system effectiveness. An experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of running a diesel engine at elevated coolant temperatures and to estimate the efficiency benefits. An energy balance was performed on a modified 3-cylinder diesel engine at six different coolant temperatures (90 °C, 100 °C, 125 °C, 150 °C, 175 °C, and 200 °C) to determine the change in quantity and quality of waste heat as the coolant temperature increased. The waste heat was measured using the flow rates and temperature differences of the coolant, engine oil, and exhaust flow streams into and out of the engine. Custom cooling and engine oil systems were fabricated to provide adequate adjustment to achieve target coolant and oil temperatures and large enough temperature differences across the

  5. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  6. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  7. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  8. Diesel engine performance as influenced by fuel temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, H.R.; Best, W.D.; Monroe, G.E.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of diesel fuel temperature on the efficiency of a 4.4-L diesel engine were studied. Fuel temperatures of 41, 67, and 81 C were used with engine loads of 0 to 100% of full load at three engine frequencies. Regression equations were developed that predicted fuel economy as a function of PTO power at three engine frequencies. An increase in engine fuel temperature did not improve fuel economy, but did result in reduced fuel mass flow through the injector pump and reduced maximum PTO power. Reducing engine frequency improved fuel economy and supported the 'throttle back shift up' technique for saving fuel. 4 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  9. Visualization techniques in diesel engine research. Diesel Engine kenkyu ni okeru kashika gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K. (New ACE., Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    In order to grasp the phenomena actually occurring in the combustion chamber for improving the combustion and for reducing the exhaust gas emission of the diesel engines, the visualization techniques are becoming to be essential and indispensable. The authors have observed the spray and combustion, when proceeding the combustion improvement by the high pressure injection, and then have performed the image processing and simulation calculation based on them. The high pressure injection devices used for the experiment are the intensifier type and accumulator type which can generate the injection pressure more than 200MPa, and both of them are the electronic controlled hydraulic drive type, and are driven separately from the engine. Since it was found that the analysis of high pressure injection by the hologram is limited in the conditions, as for the spray, the spray analysis was performed by the transmitted light attenuation method and laser sheet method. As for the combustion, the engine for observing the combustion was trially made, and then the combustion state was observed by the high speed photograph. Furthermore, the flame temperature analysis by the image processing using the combustion photograph and the analysis of flow and turbulence of the flame were carried out. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  10. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  11. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop......Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  16. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  17. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  18. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Radivoje B Pešić; Saša T Milojević; Stevan P Veinović

    2010-01-01

    The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minim...

  19. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R. [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  20. An Efficient Energy Regeneration System for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ying; YANG, Fuyuan; OUYANG, Minggao; CHEN, Lin; GAO, Guojing; He, Yongsheng

    2010-01-01

    In order to further improve the fuel economy of vehicles, an efficient energy regeneration system for diesel engines is designed and constructed. An additional automatic clutch is added between the engine and the motor in a conventional ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) system. During regenerative braking, the clutch can be disengaged and the engine braking is avoided. Control strategy is redesigned to determine the braking torque distribution and coordinate all the components. The gener...

  1. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, R J; Yusoff, M Z; Palanisamy, K

    2013-01-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research and development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R and D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  2. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-06-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  5. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT) are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that target PM and NOx emissions, respectively, have recently become standard equipment on new HDDT. DPFs can also be installed on older engines as a retrofit device. Previous work has shown that DPF and SCR systems can reduce NOx and BC emissions by up to 70% and 90%, respectively, compared to modern trucks without these after-treatment controls (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). DPFs can have the undesirable side-effect of increasing ultrafine particle (UFP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. While SCR systems can partially mitigate DPF-related NO2 increases, these systems can emit nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We report new results from a study of HDDT emissions conducted in fall 2015 at the Port of Oakland and Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. We report pollutant emission factors (g kg-1) for emitted NOx, NO2, BC, PM2.5, UFP, and N2O on a truck-by-truck basis. Using a roadside license plate recognition system, we categorize each truck by its engine model year and installed after-treatment controls. From this, we develop emissions profiles for trucks with and without DPF and SCR. We evaluate the effectiveness of these devices as a function of their age to determine whether degradation is an issue. We also compare the emission profiles of trucks traveling at low speeds along a level, arterial road en route to the port and at high speeds up a 4% grade highway approaching the tunnel. Given the climate impacts of BC and N2O, we also examine the global warming potential of emissions from trucks with and without DPF and SCR.

  6. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  7. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital high-speed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  8. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles(HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and createsstrong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to totalparticle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used toestimate t...

  9. Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of Bryton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks is presented. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. If installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or 170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified. Related studies in the area of waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines and NASA-CR-168255 (Steam Rankine) and CR-168256 (Organic Rankine).

  10. The Influence of Fuel Sulfur on the Operation of Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov

    The present work focusses on SO3/H2SO4 formation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) condensation in a large low speed 2-stroke marine diesel engine. SO3 formation is treated theoretically from a formulated multizone engine model described in this work that includes a detailed and validated sulfur reaction...... mechanism. Model results show that for a large marine engine generally about 3 % - 6 % of the fuel sulfur converts to SO3 while the remainder leaves the engine as SO2 from which the SO3 is formed during the expansion stroke. SO3 formation scales with the cylinder pressure and inversely with the engine speed...... as also demonstrated by a number of SO3 experiments described in this work. The experiments are carried out with a heavy duty medium speed 4 stroke diesel engine operating on heavy fuel oil including ≈ 2 wt. % sulfur. SO3 was measured successfully in the exhaust gas with the PENTOL SO3 analyzer...

  11. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  12. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  13. Fuel supply system for diesel engines. Kraftstoffzufuhrsystem fuer Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowbray, D F; Jarrett, B A

    1979-10-05

    The invention deals with a fuel feeding system, in particular for diesel engines with direct injection, provided with electromagnetic fuel pumps and injection nozzles for every combustion chamber. The pumps are equiped with control systems, which are actuated during the injection process. Switch valves with magnetic control devices serve as controllers.

  14. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; van Schijndel, J.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  15. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  16. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  17. Dynamic programming for Integrated Emission Management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, J. van; Donkers, M.C.F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that aims at minimizing the operational costs of diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In previous work on IEM, a suboptimal real-time implementable solution

  18. Optimal control of diesel engines with waste heat recovery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.; Waschl, H.; Kolmanovsky, I.; Steinbuch, M.; Del Re, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO 2 - NO x trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  19. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  20. Automated model fit method for diesel engine control development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  1. TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF PISTON RING IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian

    From a tribology point of view, it is the two dead centers that are the main area of interest for experimental study of piston rings in large marine diesel engines. Therefore, in this work the performance of piston rings is studied to mark the importance of the two dead centers. A test rig based...

  2. Swirling flow in a two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations are performed for the turbulent swirling flow in a scale model of a low-speed two-stroke diesel engine with a moving piston. The purpose of the work is to investigate the accuracy of different turbulence models including two-equation Reynolds- Averaged Navier...

  3. Optimization of diesel engine performance by the Bees Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfanizam Ahmad, Siti; Sunthiram, Devaraj

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel recently has been receiving a great attention in the world market due to the depletion of the existing fossil fuels. Biodiesel also becomes an alternative for diesel No. 2 fuel which possesses characteristics such as biodegradable and oxygenated. However, there are facts suggested that biodiesel does not have the equivalent features as diesel No. 2 fuel as it has been claimed that the usage of biodiesel giving increment in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The objective of this study is to find the maximum brake power and brake torque as well as the minimum BSFC to optimize the condition of diesel engine when using the biodiesel fuel. This optimization was conducted using the Bees Algorithm (BA) under specific biodiesel percentage in fuel mixture, engine speed and engine load. The result showed that 58.33kW of brake power, 310.33 N.m of brake torque and 200.29/(kW.h) of BSFC were the optimum value. Comparing to the ones obtained by other algorithm, the BA produced a fine brake power and a better brake torque and BSFC. This finding proved that the BA can be used to optimize the performance of diesel engine based on the optimum value of the brake power, brake torque and BSFC.

  4. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response

  5. Finite element analysis of a crankshaft of diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikiv, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    This research was a part of the project aimed at the increase in power of the direct injection turbocharged twelve- cylinder V-type diesel engine. Crankshaft of a high power high speed diesel engine is subjected to complex loading conditions and undergoes high cyclic loads of the order of 107 to 108 cycles. Therefore, durability of this component is of critical importance. Strength analysis was based on the assessment of factor of safety (FOS) of the engine augmented by brake mean effective pressure (bmep) and/or engine speed. In the first part of the study, mechanical loads due to gas pressure and inertia forces were obtained from engine cycle simulation. Relationships for displacement, velocity and acceleration of an articulated connecting rod piston as a function of engine geometry and crank angle were derived. In the second part, the range of bmep and engine speed was determined over which engine performance is satisfactory on the basis of fatigue. It was shown that with limitations imposed (unchanged design and material of the crankshaft) the crankshaft of the given engine can withstand increase in power up to 15%. It was recommended, that required increase in engine power should be realized by the increase in bmep, since the increase in engine speed would deteriorate combustion efficiency. Finite Element Analysis was used to verify stresses calculations. New features of procedure used and relationships obtained in this research apply to strength analysis of other types of internal combustion engines. (author)

  6. Experimental study on combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with 2,5-dimethylfuran–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guisheng; Shen, Yinggang; Zhang, Quanchang; Yao, Mingfa; Zheng, Zunqing; Liu, Haifeng

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, combustion and emissions of a multi-cylinder CI (compression-ignition) engine fueled with DMF–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends were experimentally investigated, and fuel characteristics of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were compared. Diesel was used as the base fuel. And 30% of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were blended with the base fuel by volume respectively, referred to as D30, B30 and G30. Results show that compared to B30 and G30, D30 has longer ignition delay because of lower cetane number, which leads to faster burning rate and higher pressure rise rate. With increasing EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate, D30 gets the lowest soot emissions, and extended ignition delay and fuel oxygen are two key factors reducing soot emissions, and ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen on soot reduction. In addition, D30 and B30 improve the trade-off of NO x -soot remarkably and extend low-emission region without deteriorating fuel efficiency by utilizing medium EGR rates ( x , THC and CO emissions and BSFC, but reduce soot greatly. • Fuel oxygen is more efficient than air oxygen while ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen to reduce soot. • As diesel additive, DMF is superior to n-butanol and gasoline for reducing soot emissions. • Using DMF–diesel blends combined with medium EGR may be a better way to meet future emission standards

  7. Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement: The hypothesis is that the lower performance of CNG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pressure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is conducted to investigate the cylinder pressure of CNG engine as a new engine compared to diesel engine as a baseline engine. Approach: The research approach in this study is b...

  8. On-road emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Jing, Qiguo; Wang, Haikun; Pan, Hansheng; Li, Li; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Huang, Haiying; Schipper, Lee; Streets, David G.

    On-road vehicle tests of nine heavy-duty diesel trucks were conducted using SEMTECH-D, an emissions measuring instrument provided by Sensors, Inc. The total length of roads for the tests was 186 km. Data were obtained for 37,255 effective driving cycles, including 17,216 on arterial roads, 15,444 on residential roads, and 4595 on highways. The impacts of speed and acceleration on fuel consumption and emissions were analyzed. Results show that trucks spend an average of 16.5% of the time in idling mode, 25.5% in acceleration mode, 27.9% in deceleration mode, and only 30.0% at cruise speed. The average emission factors of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), and NO x for the selected vehicles are (4.96±2.90), (1.88±1.03) and (6.54±1.90) g km -1, respectively. The vehicle emission rates vary significantly with factors like speed and acceleration. The test results reflect the actual traffic situation and the current emission status of diesel trucks in Shanghai. The measurements show that low-speed conditions with frequent acceleration and deceleration, particularly in congestion conditions, are the main factors that aggravate vehicle emissions and cause high emissions of CO and THC. Alleviating congestion would significantly improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce CO and THC emissions.

  9. Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Molina, S.; Novella, R.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed on the potential of the Atkinson cycle and reducing intake oxygen concentration for pollutant control in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In this study the Atkinson cycle has been reproduced advancing the intake valve closing angle towards the intake stroke. In addition, the intake oxygen concentration has been reduced introducing exhaust gas recirculation. This research has been carried out at low engine load (25%), where the Atkinson cycle is known to improve the efficiency of the spark-ignition engines. The main interest of this investigation has been the comparison between the Atkinson cycle and the conventional diesel cycle at the same oxygen concentration in the intake gas. This analysis has been focused on in-cylinder gas thermodynamic conditions, combustion process, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency. In compression ignition engines, the Atkinson cycle basically promotes the premixed combustion, but in the range of these tests, a complete premixed combustion was not attained. Regarding exhaust emissions, the Atkinson cycle reduces notably the nitrous oxides but increases soot emissions. Finally, better global results have been found reducing intake oxygen concentration by the recirculation of exhaust gas than by the operation of an Atkinson cycle

  10. Emission comparison of urban bus engine fueled with diesel oil and 'biodiesel' blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Battistelli, Chiara L.; Conti, Luigi; Crebelli, Riccardo; De Berardis, Barbara; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Gambino, Michele; Iannaccone, Sabato

    2004-01-01

    The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from an urban bus engine fueled with diesel and biodiesel blend were studied. Exhaust gases were produced by a turbocharged EURO 2 heavy-duty diesel engine, operating in steady-state conditions on the European test 13 mode cycle (ECE R49). Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs), carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter (PM) was also evaluated. The use of biodiesel blend seems to result in small reductions of emissions of most of the aromatic and polyaromatic compounds; these differences, however, have no statistical significance at 95% confidence level. Formaldehyde, on the other hand, has a statistically significant increase of 18% with biodiesel blend. In vitro toxicological assays show an overall similar mutagenic potency and genotoxic profile for diesel and biodiesel blend emissions. The electron microscopy analysis indicates that PM for both fuels has the same chemical composition, morphology, shape and granulometric spectrum, with most of the particles in the range 0.06-0.3 μm

  11. Cylinder-Pressure Based Injector Calibration for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    König, Johan

    2008-01-01

    One way of complying with future emission restrictions for diesel engines is to use pressure sensors for improved combustion control. Implementation of pressure sensors into production engines would lead to new possibilities for fuel injection monitoring where one potential use is injector calibration. The scope of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of using pressure sensors for finding the minimal energizing time necessary for fuel injection. This minimal energizing time varies ov...

  12. Thermographic study of the preheating plugs in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Royo Pastor, Rafael; Albertos Arranz, M.A.; CÁRCEL CUBAS, JUAN ANTONIO; Payá Herrero, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct injection diesel engines has been widely applied during the past ten years. In such engines, the preheating plugs are a key element which has a significant contribution in the pollutant emissions. In this paper, two different plug designs from Renault are analyzed. The new plug reduces substantially the required electrical consumption. Nevertheless, the pollutant emissions are higher (fundamentally CO and HCs) and hereby a thorough analysis is required to underst...

  13. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  14. Modeling the effects of late cycle oxygen enrichment on diesel engine combustion and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, D. K.; Foster, D. E.; Poola, R. B.; Longman, D. E.; Chanda, A.; Vachon, T. J.

    2002-01-01

    A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NO(sub x) emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NO(sub x) emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NO(sub x) through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing. These studies have shown that this window occurs during the late combustion cycle, from 20 to 60 crank angle degrees after top-dead-center. During this time, the combustion chamber temperatures are sufficiently high that soot oxidation increases in response in increased mixing, but the temperature is low enough that NO(sub x) reactions are quenched. The effect of the oxygen composition of the injected air is studied for the range of compositions between 21% and 30% oxygen by volume. This is the range of oxygen enrichment that is practical to produce from an air separation membrane. Simulations showed that this level of oxygen enrichment is insufficient to provide an additional benefit by either increasing the level of soot oxidation or prolonging the window of opportunity for increasing soot oxidation through enhanced mixing

  15. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  17. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  18. Modeling the effects of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate shape on diesel engine combustion and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Daniel Kelly

    1998-11-01

    The effect of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate-shaping on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied using KIVA a multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code. Auxiliary gas injection (AGI) is the injection of a gas, in addition to the fuel injection, directly into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The objective of AGI is to influence the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce emissions of pollutants (soot and NO x). In this study, the accuracy of modeling high speed gas jets on very coarse computational grids was addressed. KIVA was found to inaccurately resolve the jet flows near walls. The cause of this inaccuracy was traced to the RNG k - ɛ turbulence model with the law-of-the-wall boundary condition used by KIVA. By prescribing the lengthscale near the nozzle exit, excellent agreement between computed and theoretical jet penetration was attained for a transient gas jet into a quiescent chamber at various operating conditions. The effect of AGI on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied by incorporating the coarse grid gas jet model into a detailed multidimensional simulation of a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of AGI timing, composition, amount, orientation, and location were investigated. The effects of AGI and split fuel injection were also investigated. AGI was found to be effective at reducing soot emissions by increasing mixing within the combustion chamber. AGI of inert gas was found to be effective at reducing emissions of NOx by depressing the peak combustion temperatures. Finally, comparison of AGI simulations with experiments were conducted for a TACOM-LABECO engine. The results showed that AGI improved soot oxidation throughout the engine cycle. Simulation of fuel injection rate-shaping investigated the effects of three injection velocity profiles typical of unit-injector type, high-pressure common-rail type, and accumulator-type fuel injectors in the Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty

  19. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  20. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  1. Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Armas, Octavio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jose [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela, s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The call for the use of biofuels which is being made by most governments following international energy policies is presently finding some resistance from car and components manufacturing companies, private users and local administrations. This opposition makes it more difficult to reach the targets of increased shares of use of biofuels in internal combustion engines. One of the reasons for this resistance is a certain lack of knowledge about the effect of biofuels on engine emissions. This paper collects and analyzes the body of work written mainly in scientific journals about diesel engine emissions when using biodiesel fuels as opposed to conventional diesel fuels. Since the basis for comparison is to maintain engine performance, the first section is dedicated to the effect of biodiesel fuel on engine power, fuel consumption and thermal efficiency. The highest consensus lies in an increase in fuel consumption in approximate proportion to the loss of heating value. In the subsequent sections, the engine emissions from biodiesel and diesel fuels are compared, paying special attention to the most concerning emissions: nitric oxides and particulate matter, the latter not only in mass and composition but also in size distributions. In this case the highest consensus was found in the sharp reduction in particulate emissions. (author)

  2. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  3. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  4. Performance Analysis of a Reciprocating Piston Expander and a Plate Type Exhaust Gas Recirculation Boiler in a Water-Based Rankine Cycle for Heat Recovery from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Latz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine provides favorable conditions for a waste-heat recovery (WHR system. The highest potential is achieved by the Rankine cycle as a heat recovery technology. There are only few experimental studies that investigate full-scale systems using water-based working fluids and their effects on the performance and operation of a Rankine cycle heat recovery system. This paper discusses experimental results and practical challenges with a WHR system when utilizing heat from the exhaust gas recirculation system of a truck engine. The results showed that the boiler’s pinch point necessitated trade-offs between maintaining adequate boiling pressure while achieving acceptable cooling of the EGR and superheating of the water. The expander used in the system had a geometric compression ratio of 21 together with a steam outlet timing that caused high re-compression. Inlet pressures of up to 30 bar were therefore required for a stable expander power output. Such high pressures increased the pump power, and reduced the EGR cooling in the boiler because of pinch-point effects. Simulations indicated that reducing the expander’s compression ratio from 21 to 13 would allow 30% lower steam supply pressures without adversely affecting the expander’s power output.

  5. Heat Transfer Analysis of a Diesel Engine Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diviš

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the research carried out at the Josef Božek Research Center of Engine and Automotive Engineering dealing with extended numerical stress/deformation analyses of engines parts loaded by heat and mechanical forces. It contains a detailed description of a C/28 series diesel engine head FE model and a discussion of heat transfer analysis tunning and results. The head model consisting of several parts allows a description of contact interaction in both thermal and mechanical analysis.

  6. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  7. Analysis of BJ493 diesel engine lubrication system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmaster flow simulation software. The properties of the diesel engine lubrication system, such as the oil flow rate and pressure at different rotational speeds were analyzed for the schemes involving large- and small-scale oil filters. The calculated values of the main oil channel pressure are in good agreement with the experimental results, which verifies the proposed model feasibility. The calculation results show that the main oil channel pressure and maximum oil flow rate values for the large-scale oil filter scheme satisfy the design requirements, while the small-scale scheme yields too low main oil channel’s pressure and too high. Therefore, application of small-scale oil filters is hazardous, and the large-scale scheme is recommended.

  8. Vibration aging of diesel-engine mounted electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Morton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be a component which is essential to safe plant operation. Failures of auxiliary equipment directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 requires addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring devices and other engine modifications require design and installation of new equipment to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper discusses the engine vibration characteristics, and the acquisition of extensive field vibration data on the diesel engine under operating conditions. The data is then used to develop life cycle vibration qualification test profiles that can be applied with confidence in a laboratory environment to qualify engine-mounted equipment. The intent is to validate a product's ability to survive under worst case, extended service on-engine conditions. This paper describes the procedures and approaches used to achieve those goals, and provides developed profile examples and test results

  9. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  10. Effects of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Kyritsis, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of n-butanol (normal butanol) with conventional diesel fuel, with 8%, 16% and 24% (by volume) n-butanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a standard, fully instrumented, four-stroke, high-speed, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat diesel fuel, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at three different loads. In each test, fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters of the three butanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the diesel engine, i.e., when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. It is revealed that this fuel, which can be produced from biomass (bio-butanol), forms a challenging and promising bio-fuel for diesel engines. The differing physical and chemical properties of butanol against those for the diesel fuel are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior.

  11. Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst (ETV Mobile Source Emissions Control Devices) Verification Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst is a diesel engine retrofit device for light, medium, and heavy heavy-duty diesel on-highway engines for use with commercial ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The BA-B particulate filter is composed of a pre-catalyst ...

  12. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the backpressure effect of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) evaporator on the exhaust line of a turbocharged heavy duty diesel power generator for marine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michos, Constantine N.; Lion, Simone; Vlaskos, Ioannis; Taccani, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery on internal combustion engines is studied. • The backpressure effect of the Organic Rankine Cycle boiler has been evaluated. • Three different state-of-the art turbocharging technologies have been assessed. • Six different fluids for medium-high temperature recovery have been considered. • A reduction up to 10% in fuel consumption can be achieved. - Abstract: In marine and power generation sectors, waste heat recovery technologies are attracting growing attention in order to increase heavy duty diesel engines efficiency and decrease fuel consumption, with the purpose of respecting stringent emissions legislations. In this work, the backpressure effect of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) evaporator on the exhaust line of a turbocharged, V12 heavy duty diesel engine, for typical marine and power generation applications has been investigated using the commercial software Ricardo WAVE. Three different state-of-the art turbocharging strategies are assessed in order to counterbalance the increased pumping losses of the engine due to the boiler installation: fixed turbine, Waste-Gate (WG) and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT). At the same time, the steady-state thermodynamic performance of two different ORC configurations, simple tail-pipe evaporator and recuperated simple tail-pipe evaporator layouts, are assessed, with the scope of further increasing the engine power output, recovering unutilized exhaust gas heat. Several different working fluids, suitable for medium-high temperature waste heat recovery, are evaluated and screened, considering, as well, health and safety issues. Thermodynamic cycle parameters such as, for example, evaporation and condensing pressures, working fluid mass flow and cycle temperatures, are optimized in order to obtain the maximum improvement in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (bsfc). From the engine side point of view, a VGT turbocharger is the most favorable solution to withstand increased

  14. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions, with special emphasis on the influence of low temperature on fueling. Furthermore, for each tested fuel the optimal injection pump timing is determined. The obtained optimal injection pump timings for individual fuels are then used to determine and discuss the most important injection and combustion characteristics, engine performance, as well as the emission, economy, and tribology characteristics of the engine at all modes of emission test cycles test. The results show that for each tested fuel it is possible to find the optimized injection pump timing, which enables acceptable engine characteristics at all modes of the emission test cycles test.

  15. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  16. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  17. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  18. Effect of Engine Modifications on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Alternative Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, B.S.R

    2010-01-01

    Performance and emission characteristics unmodified diesel engines operating on different alternative fuels with smaller blend proportions are comparable with pure diesel operation. But with increased blend proportions due to the associated problems of vegetable oils like high viscosity and low volatility pollution levels increase which however is accompanied by operating and durability problems with the long term usage of engine. This paper discusses the necessary modifications required to o...

  19. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  20. Thermodynamic monitoring and misfunction detection in turbocharged diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, A.N.; Bidini, G.

    1992-01-01

    Many kinds of fault detection systems for reciprocating engines have been proposed. Mostly these systems rely on dynamic analysis of engine behavior or chemical analysis of exhaust. Very few systems achieve a real on line diagnosis. On the other hand, land based and aeronautic turbine power plants are mostly equipped with thermodynamic fault detection systems (gas path analysis). The authors are trying to design a simple, cheap and reliable diesel engine monitoring system, performing a real time, continuous service. State of the art dynamics, gas path analysis and some new ideas will be used. Here we present the first part of this project, dealing with thermodynamic engine analysis. Soon we hope to present also a different approach, relying on engine dynamic analysis. This paper is mainly concerned with diesel engines. It seems reasonable to concentrate ourselves on large and based engines, whose size and cost justify the implementation of a fault detection system. Anyway many results are fairly general, and could be used for smaller engines, like vehicle engines, and other cases in which large number of units can lower costs

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty...

  2. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  3. Role of biodiesel-diesel blends in alteration of particulate matter emanated by diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shahid, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study is focused on the investigation of the role of biodiesel in the alteration of particulate matter (PM) composition emitted from a direct injection-compression ignition. Two important blends of biodiesel with commercial diesel known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume) and B50 were used for the comparative analysis of their pollutants with those of 100% or traditional diesel (D). The experiments were performed under the auspices of the Chinese 8-mode steady-state cycle on a test bench by coupling the engine with an AC electrical dynamometer. As per experimental results, over-50 nm aerosols were abated by 8.7-47% and 6-51% with B20 and B50, respectively, on account of lofty nitrogen dioxide to nitrogen oxides (NO2/NO) ratios. In case of B50, sub-50 nm aerosols and sulphates were higher at maximum load modes of the test, owing to adsorption phenomenon of inorganic nuclei leading to heterogeneous nucleation. Moreover, trace metal emissions (TME) were substantially reduced reflecting the reduction rates of 42-57% and 64-80% with B20 and B50, respectively, relative to baseline measurements taken with diesel. In addition to this, individual elements such as Ca and Fe were greatly minimised, while Na was enhanced with biodiesel blended fuels. (author)

  4. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  5. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  6. Tomorrow`s diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    After a review of the main principles governing combustion in diesel engines and the influence of ambient air conditions on pollutant emissions (and more especially NOx), emission level limits concerning NOx, CO, HC and ashes are presented and discussed according to their applications in the various types of diesel engines. The influence of fuel type is also examined and several ways to reduce NOx emissions in liquid fuel diesel engines are reported: mechanical modifications (compression ratio), water injection, exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust gas processing, fume and ash filtration. Cost issues are also discussed, through comparisons with gas turbines

  7. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abbasi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel about combustion, performance and emission parameters of engines. One of the parameters that have been less discussed is energy balance. In providing alternative fuels, biodiesel from waste cooking oil due to its low cost compared with biodiesel from plant oils, is the promising option. The properties of biodiesel and diesel fuels, in general, show many similarities, and therefore, biodiesel is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. The conversion of waste cooking oil into methyl esters through the transesterification process approximately reduces the molecular weight to one-third, reduces the viscosity by about one-seventh, reduces the flash point slightly and increases the volatility marginally, and reduces pour point considerably (Demirbas, 2009. In this study, effect of different percentages of biodiesel from waste cooking oil were investigated. Energy distribution study identify the energy losses ways in order to find the reduction solutions of them. Materials and Methods Renewable fuel used in this study consists of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil by transesterification process (Table 1. Five diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with values of 0, 12, 22, 32 and 42 percent of biodiesel that are signs for B0, B12, B22, B32 and B42, respectively. The test engine was a diesel engine, single-cylinder, four-stroke, compression ignition and air¬cooled, series 3LD510 in the laboratory of renewable energies of agricultural faculty, Tarbiat Modarres

  8. Combined effects of thermal barrier coating and blending with diesel fuel on usability of vegetable oils in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using pure vegetable oils in a thermally insulated diesel engine has been experimentally investigated. Initially, the standard diesel fuel was tested in the engine, as base experiment for comparison. Then the engine was thermally insulated by coating some parts of it, such as piston, exhaust and intake valves surfaces with zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ). The main purpose of engine coating was to reduce heat rejection from the walls of combustion chamber and to increase thermal efficiency and thus to increase performance of the engine that using vegetable oil blends. Another aim of the study was to improve the usability of pure vegetable oils in diesel engines without performing any fuel treatments such as pyrolysis, emulsification and transesterification. Pure inedible cottonseed oil and sunflower oil were blended with diesel fuel. Blends and diesel fuel were then tested in the coated diesel engine. Experimental results proved that the main purpose of this study was achieved as the engine performance parameters such as power and torque were increased with simultaneous decrease in fuel consumption (bsfc). Furthermore, exhaust emission parameters such as CO, HC, and Smoke opacity were decreased. Also, sunflower oil blends presented better performance and emission parameters than cottonseed oil blends. -- Highlights: ► Usability of two different vegetable oils in a coated diesel engine was experimentally investigated. ► A diesel engine was coated with ZrO 2 layer to make the combustion chamber insulated. ► Test results showed significant improvements in performance parameters. ► While only minor reductions were observed in emissions with coated engine operation

  9. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    run for hundreds of hours in heavy-duty diesels provided insights into the kinds of complexity that the contact conditions in engines can produce, and suggested the physical basis for the current approach to modeling. The model presented here involves four terms, two representing the valve response and two for its mating seat material. The model's structure assumes that wear that takes place under a complex combination of plastic deformation, tangential shear, and oxidation. Tribolayers form, are removed, and may reform. Layer formation affects the friction forces in the interface, and in turn, the energy available to do work on the materials to cause wear. To provide friction data for the model at various temperatures, sliding contact experiments were conducted from 22 to 850 C in a pin-on-disk apparatus at ORNL. In order to account for the behavior of different materials and engine designs, parameters in all four terms of the model can be adjusted to account for wear-in and incubation periods before the dominant wear processes evolve to their steady-state rates. For example, the deformation rate is assumed to be maximum during the early stages of operation, and then, due to material work-hardening and the increase in nominal contact area (which reduces the load per unit area), decreases to a lower rate at long times. Conversely, the rate of abrasion increases with time or number of cycles due to the build-up of oxides and tribo-layers between contact surfaces. The competition between deformation and abrasion results in complex, non-linear behavior of material loss per cycle of operation. Furthermore, these factors are affected by valve design features, such as the angle of incline of the valve seat. Several modeling scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the wear profile versus number of cycles changes in response to: (a) different relative abrasion rates of the seat and valve materials, (b) the friction coefficient as a function of temperature, (c) the

  10. In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

    2007-02-01

    Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  12. Emission characteristics of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds and fish wastes in a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Kathirvelu; Sendilvelan Subramanian; Nagarajan Govindan; Sampath Santhanam

    2017-01-01

    The concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role for the development of any economy. The reuse of fish waste and use of wasteland for cultivation of jatropha seeds have led to resource conservation and their use as blend with diesel as an alternative fuel to diesel engines has contributed to pollution reduction. In this work, the results of using blends of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds, fish wastes and diesel in constant speed diesel engines are presented. The ex...

  13. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    fixation of man country life, the excellent and varied climatic conditions and several types of terrain become the country, with extensive workable areas, stand out in the world scenery if considering its great potentiality on generation of alternative fuels. The environmental preservation, important subject nowadays, makes that the human being work in searches for the development of alternative energies, mainly those originating from renewable and biodegradable sources of sustantable character. Taking in consideration those searches, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of a diesel engine working in different moments with mineral diesel and mixtures of mineral diesel and biodiesel in the equivalent proportions B2 (98% mineral diesel and 2%biodiesel, B5 (95% mineral diesel and 5%biodiesel, B20 (80% mineral diesel and 20%biodiesel, and, finally, B100 (100% biodiesel. The rehearsal was accomplished in the dependences of the Engineering Department at UFLA - Federal University of Lavras, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, in July, 2005. For the accomplishment of the rehearsals it, was used an engine cycle diesel of a tractor VALMET 85 id, of 58,2kW (78 cv, following it methodology established by the norm NBR 5484 of ABNT (1985, that refers to the rehearsal dynamometric of engines cycle Otto and Diesel being proceeded. One noticed ended that the potency of the motor when using biodiesel was lower than one when using mineral diesel. One observed that, in some rotations, the mixtures B5 and B20 presented the same potency or even higher, in some situations, than the one when if using mineral diesel. The best thermal efficiency of the motor was verified in the rotation of 540 rpm of equivalent TDP to 1720 rpm of the motor.

  14. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  15. A computational study of free-piston diesel engine combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikalsen, R.; Roskilly, A.P. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Devonshire Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates the in-cylinder gas motion, combustion process and nitrogen oxide formation in a free-piston diesel engine and compares the results to those of a conventional engine, using a computational fluid dynamics engine model. Enhanced radial gas flow (squish and reverse squish) around top dead centre is found for the free-piston engine compared to a conventional engine, however it is found that this has only minor influence on the combustion process. A higher heat release rate from the pre-mixed combustion phase due to an increased ignition delay was found, along with potential reductions in nitrogen oxides emissions formation for the free-piston engine. (author)

  16. Energy storage technologies and hybrid architectures for specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles: Design and system integration aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, M.; Prenleloup, P.; Schmid, S.; Palacin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed integration of energy storage systems into hybrid system architectures. • We considered mechanical and electrical energy storage systems. • Potential of different combinations has been analyzed by standardized duty cycles. • Most promising are diesel-driven suburban, regional and shunting operations. • Double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential. - Abstract: The use of diesel-driven traction is an intrinsic part of the functioning of railway systems and it is expected to continue being so for the foreseeable future. The recent introduction of more restrictive greenhouse gas emission levels and other legislation aiming at the improvement of the environmental performance of railway systems has led to the need of exploring alternatives for cleaner diesel rolling stock. This paper focuses on assessing energy storage systems and the design of hybrid system architectures to determine their potential use in specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles. Hydrostatic accumulators, flywheels, Lithium-ion batteries and double-layer capacitors have been assessed and used to design hybrid system architectures. The potential of the different technology combinations has been analyzed using standardized duty cycles enhanced with gradient profiles related to suburban, regional and shunting operations. The results show that double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential to be successfully integrated into the system architecture of diesel-driven rail vehicles. Furthermore, the results also suggest that combining these two energy storage technologies into a single hybridisation package is a highly promising design that draws on their strengthens without any significant drawbacks.

  17. ELECTRONIC CONTROL FOR FUEL SUPPLY OF DIESEL ENGINE ON THE BASIS OF PROGRAMMABLE PID-REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a schematic diagram of the Euro-3 diesel engine electronic control and describes hard- and software platform of the high pressure fuel pump pneumatic actuator control that allows to realize the concept of electronic fuel supply control of diesel engine KamAZ-740. The strategic dependence beetwen the angular position of fuel pump governor lever and the angular position of electronic accelerator pedal were put on the basis of electronic control concept. Implementation of this dependence was carried out by applying a modulated PWM signal with determined duty cycle by the controller to the coil proportional solenoid valve, which is responsible for the amount of air pressure in the working chamber of the power air cylinder, connected by articulated-type to the governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump. In this case, the feedback control by position of governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump was introduced in the control circuit, but engine crankshaft speed control was carried out using a software continuous PID governor. Developed strategy gives possibility to track the deflection  of control parameter from a predetermined value by real-time and almost instantly, to make a control action on actuators to eliminate this deflection, while providing a minimum time of transition. Governor’s setting (proportional, integral and differential component performed empirically using the classical Ziegler – Nichols method, based on the analysis of the safety factor of automatic control system. The results of calculating the coefficients of proportional integral-differential regulator and oscillograms HIL experiment on testing the proposed diesel engine throttle control strategies using visualization CoDeSys V2.3 are given in activity.

  18. Multi-zone modeling of Diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or Diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a model of fuel sprays development in the cylinders of Diesel engines that is two-dimensional, multi-zone, with the issuing jet (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection as well as across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber before and after wall impingement. After the jet break up time, a group of droplets is generated in each zone, with the model following their motion during heating, evaporation and mixing with the in-cylinder air. The model is applied for the interesting case of using vegetable oils or their derived bio-diesels as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives to petroleum distillates since they are derived from biological sources. Although there are numerous experimental studies that show curtailment of the emitted smoke with possible increase of the emitted NO x against the use of Diesel fuel, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these biologically derived fuels. Thus, in the present work, a theoretical detailed model of spray formation is developed that is limited to the related investigation of the physical processes by decoupling it from the chemical effects after combustion initiation. The analysis results show how the widely differing physical properties of these fuels, against the normal Diesel fuel, affect greatly the spray formation and consequently the combustion mechanism and the related emissions

  19. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đặng Van Uy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixed fuel supplying to diesel engines inline. In order to ensure a quality of the mixed fuel created by continuous mixer, a homogeneous testing was introduced with believable results. Then, the continuous mixer has been installed into fuel supply system of diesel engine 6LU32 at a lab of Vietnam Maritime University in terms of checking a real operation of the fuel continuous mixer with diesel engine.

  20. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  1. AC maintenance and repair manual for diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Pallas, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book with its detailed step-by-step colour photographs and diagrams, is to enable every owner to fix their diesel engine with ease. Troubleshooting tables help diagnose potential problems, and there is advice on regular maintenance and winterising and repair. Jean-Luc Pallas's enthusiasm for passing on his knowledge, as well as his clear explanations, precise advice and step-by-step instructions make this a unique book.

  2. Inspection of diesel engine injectors by several electromagnetic nondestructive methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Balassa, P.; Gasparics, A.; Tomáš, Ivan; Mészáros, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2017), s. 449-459 ISSN 1383-5416 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electromagnetic nondestructive testing * diesel engine injector * eddy current testing * magnetic hysteresis measurements * magnetic adaptive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.769, year: 2016

  3. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  4. Experimental investigations of combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil–diesel blends in a two cylinder agricultural diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Lee, C.F.; Jia, C.C.; Wang, P.P.; Wu, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The main properties of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel were measure and analyzed. • The cylinder pressure of the rapeseed oil–diesel blends was measured and compared. • The heat release rate of the test fuels was calculated and the combustion process was analyzed. • The fuel consumption and emissions characteristics were measured and compared. - Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using rapeseed oil–diesel blends. The main fuel properties of rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel. The experimental results showed that the viscosity and density of the blends were decreased and approached to that of diesel fuel when RSO volume fraction was less than 20%. At low engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was almost similar to that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were higher. At high engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was slightly earlier than that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were identical. For the blends, there was slightly higher brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) and brake specific energy consumptions (BSEC) at low engine loads. Smoke emission was higher at low engine loads, but lower at high engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission was observed slightly lower at low engine loads and almost identical at high engine loads. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission were higher under all range of engine loads for the blends

  5. Further developments in performance prediction techniques of adiabatic diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasihhan, Y

    1990-01-01

    The engine cycle simulation program 'SPICE', developed at Bath University, has been used extensively for insulated diesel engine research. The present study introduces more comprehensive engine heat transfer models thus enabling us to study the insulated engine heat transfer and performance characteristics in more detail. The new version of 'SPICE' separates the gas to wall heat transfer into two parts, convective and radiative. For this purpose, a detailed radiative heat transfer model which considers both the flame (gas and soot) and wall to wall radiative heat transfer is written. The previous engine resistance model is refined and replaced by a more detailed resistance model which considers piston-liner conduction heat transfer and 2-D heat flow in the liner. The wall surface temperature swing is also included in the engine heat transfer calculations which is quite significant in low conductivity ceramic insulated engines. A 1-D finite difference model is written for the transient heat transfer region of the wall and linked to the engine resistance model. This new version of 'SPICE' is used to predict the insulated engine heat transfer and performance for the experimental Petter PH1W engine for various insulation levels and schemes. An answer to the controversy of increase in engine heat loss with insulation is looked for. The effect of wall deposits on engine heat transfer and its significance for the insulated engine is highlighted. (Author).

  6. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of oxygenate additive on diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions operating with biodiesel-diesel blend at idling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, F. Y.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Yusri, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine but idling is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. Vehicles running with idling condition cause higher fuel supply and higher emission level due to being having fuel residues in the exhaust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additive on fuel consumption and emissions parameters under idling conditions when a multicylinder diesel engine operates with the diesel-biodiesel blend. The study found that using 5% butanol as an additive with B5 (5% Palm biodiesel + 95% diesel) blends fuel lowers brake specific fuel consumption and CO emissions by 38% and 20% respectively. But the addition of butanol increases NOx and CO2 emissions. Based on the result it can be said that 5% butanol can be used in a diesel engine with B5 without any engine modifications to tackle the idling problem.

  8. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 deg. C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized.

  9. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mech. Eng. Dept., UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi 17555 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-15

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized. (author)

  10. Experimental Study of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Four Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhrieh, A.; Fouad, R. H.; Yamin, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value at 5% water and 2000 rpm, the torque, the BMEP and efficiency are found to have maximum values under these conditions. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions.

  11. Sliding Mode Control of Diesel Engine Air-path System With Dual-loop EGR and VGT Based on the Reduced-order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sooyoung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a model-based controller for the diesel engine air-path system. The controller is implemented based on a reduced order model consisting of only pressure and power dynamics with practical concerns. To deal with the model uncertainties effectively, a sliding mode controller, which is robust to model uncertainties, is proposed for the air-path system. The control performance of the proposed control scheme is verified through simulation with the valid plant model of a 6,000cc heavy duty diesel engine.

  12. Characterization of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds From Diesel Emissions: Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yost, Douglas M; Schulman, Matthew E; Frame, Edwin A

    2004-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine fitted with a common-rail fuel injection system was calibrated on several alternative type test fuels to achieve low engine-out oxides of nitrogen (NOx) exhaust emissions...

  13. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  14. Modeling the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia over a Vanadia-based catalyst from heavy duty diesel exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Byoung Kyu; Kim, Man Young

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation for prediction of NO X conversion over a commercial V 2 O 5 catalyst with NH 3 as a reductant was performed for a heavy duty diesel engine applications. The chemical behaviors of the SCR reactor are described by using the global NO X kinetics including standard, fast, and NH 3 oxidation reactions with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism incorporated into the commercial Boost code. After introducing mathematical models for the SCR reaction with specific reaction parameters, the effects of various parameters such as space velocities, the O 2 , H 2 O, NO 2 , and NH 3 concentrations on the NOx conversion are thoroughly studied and validated by comparing with the experimental data available in the literature. It is found that NO X conversion increases with decreasing space velocity, H 2 O concentration, and NH 3 /NO X ratio, and increasing O 2 concentration and NO 2 /NO X ratio. The study shows that not only is the present approach adopted is flexible in treating performance of the commercial V 2 O 5 based SCR catalyst, it is also accurate and efficient for the prediction of NO X conversion in diesel exhaust environments. - Highlights: ► To find the reaction parameters for LH mechanism over a commercial V2O5 catalyst. ► To investigate the effects of various parameters on the SCR NO X conversion. ► To present benchmark solutions on SCR behavior with diesel exhaust environments.

  15. A concise wall temperature model for DI Diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torregrosa, A.; Olmeda, P.; Degraeuwe, B. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Reyes, M. [Centro de Mecanica de Fluidos y Aplicaciones, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2006-08-15

    A concise resistor model for wall temperature prediction in diesel engines with piston cooling is presented here. The model uses the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure and some usually measured operational parameters to predict the temperature of the structural elements of the engine. The resistor model was adjusted by means of temperature measurements in the cylinder head, the liner and the piston. For each model parameter, an expression as a function of the engine geometry, operational parameters and material properties was derived to make the model applicable to other similar engines. The model predicts well the cylinder head, liner and piston temperature and is sensitive to variations of operational parameters such as the start of injection, coolant and oil temperature and engine speed and load. (author)

  16. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.

    2001-02-14

    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  17. Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Padhee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100 were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustion characteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Knock in a Dual Fuel Gas/Diesel Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gharehghani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional compression ignition engines can easily be converted to a dual fuel mode of operation using natural gas as main fuel and diesel oil injection as pilot to initiate the combustion. At the same time, it is possible to increase the output power by increasing the diesel oil percentage. A detailed performance and combustion characteristic analysis of a heavy duty diesel engine has been studied in dual fuel mode of operation where natural gas is used as the main fuel and diesel oil as pilot. The influence of intake pressure and temperature on knock occurrence and the effects of initial swirl ratio on heat release rate, temperature-pressure and emission levels have been investigated in this study. It is shown that an increase in the initial swirl ratio lengthens the delay period for auto-ignition and extends the combustion period while it reduces NOx. There is an optimum value of the initial swirl ratio for a certain mixture intake temperature and pressure conditions that can achieve high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions while decreases the tendency to knock. Simultaneous increase of intake pressure and initial swirl ratio could be the solution to power loss and knock in dual fuel engine.

  19. Heat transfers through diesel-engine cylinder liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R T; Jambunathan, K; Probert, S D

    1983-01-01

    A computer package has been developed, using a finite-element technique, to predict the steady-state rate of heat transfer radially through the cylinder liner, or other axisymmetric components, of a medium-speed diesel engine. Comparisons between experimentally measured and computer predicted results have been made: better corroboration occurs for engine loads above 1034 k N m/sup -2/ BMEP. The predictive computer package DIESHT needs only a simple 'user input' and produces a complete graphical output of generated mesh and computed isotherms. Computational storage requirements are modest so that the program can be used with a CAD system, if required, in order to facilitate an interactive design procedure.

  20. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  1. FUEL CONTAMINATION IN A MARINE DIESEL ENGINE. A RADIOTRACER STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B. E.

    1964-04-15

    A radiotracer method was applied to the problem of elucidating the mechanism of contamination of crankcase oil by fuel combustion products in a marine diesel engine. The method consisted of adding an oil soluble radioisotope to the fuel and tracing its route to the various lubricants used in the engine. It was found that of the total amount of combustion products and by-products which enter the crankcase oil, 65% enters by simple contamination via reintroduction of used cylinder lubricant and 35% by a condensation mechanism. (auth)

  2. Effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emission for diesel dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Shihnan, A.H.; Nasri, N.S.; Sharer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine and emission characteristics of biodiesel DDF engine system were measured. • Biodiesel DDF fuelled system produced high engine performance. • Lower hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide was emitted by biodiesel DDF system. • Biodiesel DDF produced slightly higher carbon monoxide and nitric oxides emission. - Abstract: Biodiesel derived from biomass is a renewable source of fuel. It is renovated to be the possible fuel to replace fossil derived diesel due to its properties and combustion characteristics. The integration of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engine known as diesel dual fuel (DDF) system offered better exhaust emission thus become an attractive option for reducing the pollutants emitted from transportation fleets. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emission of HINO H07C DDF engine; fuelled by diesel, biodiesel, diesel–CNG, and biodiesel–CNG, were experimentally studied. Biodiesel and diesel fuelled engine system respectively generated 455 N m and 287 N m of torque. The horse power of biodiesel was found to be 10–20% higher compared to diesel. Biodiesel–CNG at 20% (B20-DDF) produced the highest engine torque compared to other fuel blends Biodiesel significantly increase the carbon monoxide (15–32%) and nitric oxides (6.67–7.03%) but in contrast reduce the unburned hydrocarbons (5.76–6.25%) and carbon dioxide (0.47–0.58%) emissions level. These results indicated that biodiesel could be used without any engine modifications as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel especially the heavy transportation fleets

  3. Experimental studies on natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled with corn seed oil methyl ester as a bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna Reddy, E.; Dhana Raju, V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluates the possibilities of using corn seed oil methyl ester as a fuel for compression ignition engines. The biodiesels are contained high oxygen content, and high Cetane number, due to this properties efficiency of biodiesel is higher than diesel fuel. The experiments were conducted with different biodiesel blends of (B10, B15, B20 and B25) corn seed oil on single cylinder four stroke natural aspirated diesel engines. Performance parameters and exhaust emissions are investigated in this experimental with the blends of the corn seed oil methyl ester and diesel fuel. The test results showed that the bio-diesel blends gives improved results for brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when compared with the diesel fuel. The emissions of corn seed methyl esters follow the same trend of diesel but the smoke opacity was reduces for all blends. From the investigation, corn seed methyl ester is also having the properties similar to diesel fuel; it is biodegradable and renewable fuel, so it will be used as an alternative for diesel fuel.

  4. USING CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO AS DIESEL ENGINE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heating was used to lower the viscosity of CPO to an acceptable level. 60°C was found to be the optimum heating temperature for CPO to ensure smooth flow in the fuel system, but heating further up to 100°C did not improve the engine performance. A comparison between CPO and diesel in terms of engine performance, combustion characteristics and emission showed that the brake specific fuel consumprion (bsfc for CPO was 13% higher at 400 kPa brake mean effective pressure (bmep, and the highest bmep achieved was 13.5% lower. However, CPO fuel gave a brake thermal efficiency. Combustion analyses indicated that CPO combustion produced a 7% higher peak pressure, a 3.3-degree earlier ignition and an 11.6-degree longer burning duration, but a 26% lower peak heat release rate. After 500 hours of  running CPO, performance and power of the engine dropped even while running with diesel. With a 26% higher bsfc and a 20% lowe maximum bmep. Visual inspection of the dismantled engine parts discovered heavy carbon deposits but normal wear. Overhaul of the engine restored the power and performance.

  5. Effect of vegetable de-oiled cake-diesel blends on diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C.S. [Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arivalagar, A.; Sendilvelan, S. [MGR Univ., Chennai (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arul, S. [Panimalar College of Engineering, Channai (India)

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the use of coconut oil methyl ester (COME) as a blending agent with the vegetable de-oiled cakes used in biodiesel production. Different proportions of the de-oiled cake were combined with diesel in order to investigate performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics. The experiments were conducted on a 4-stroke single cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine. Fuel flow rates were measured and a thermocouple was used to measure exhaust gas temperatures. A combustion analyzer was used to measure cylinder pressure and heat release rates. Brake thermal efficiency, brake power, and specific fuel consumption performance was monitored. Results of the study showed that rates of heat release were reduced for the de-oiled cake blended fuels as a result of the change in fuel molecular weight. The variation of NOx with load for neat diesel blends was examined. There was no variation of NOx emission up to 50 per cent of load for all blended oils, and it increased with load. Smoke density was reduced for all blends. Soot production was decreased by the oxygen present in the de-oiled cake. The study showed that fossil fuel oil consumption decreased by 14 to 15 per cent when the de-oiled biodiesel was used at low loads, and 4 to 5 per cent at peak loads. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  6. Acoustical monitoring of diesel engines in reverberant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, M.

    1995-10-01

    The feed-back knowledge of emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants shows that some malfunctions, mainly affecting fuel-injection or distribution system of the engine can be heard and detected by experienced maintenance agents. This study consists in the feasibility,v of acoustical monitoring of those diesel engines, taking into account the reverberant environment of the machine. The operating cycle of the diesel is composed of transient events (injection, combustion, valve closure...) which generate highly non stationary acoustical signals. The detection of a malfunction appearing on such transients requires the use of adapted signal processing techniques. Visual analysis of the phenomena is first proceeded using time-frequency and time-scale representations. The second step will be parametric modeling of acoustical signatures for the extraction of characteristic parameters, in order to characterize the fault and to use an automatic classification system. The lest part of the study will concern the evaluation of the robustness of the detection methods in regard to acoustical reverberation. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs

  7. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  8. Characterisation, control, and energy management of electrified turbocharged diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dezong; Winward, Edward; Yang, Zhijia; Stobart, Richard; Steffen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A real-time energy management framework for electrified engines is proposed. • A multi-variable robust controller is designed. • Characterisation on the air system of electrified diesel engines is given. • Reliable for engine downsizing because of the promising transient performance. - Abstract: The electrification of engine components offers significant opportunities for fuel efficiency improvements. The electrified turbocharger is one of the most attractive options since it recovers part of the engine exhaust gas mechanical energy to assist boosting. Therefore, the engine can be downsized through improved transient responsiveness. In the electrified turbocharger, an electric machine is mounted on the turbine shaft and changes the air system dynamics, so characterisation of the new layout is essential. A systematic control solution is required to manage energy flows in the hybrid system. In this paper, a framework for characterisation, control, and energy management for an electrified turbocharged diesel engine is proposed. The impacts of the electric machine on fuel economy and air system variables are analysed. Based on the characterisation, a two-level control structure is proposed. A real-time energy management strategy is employed as the supervisory level controller to generate the optimal values of critical variables, while a model-based multi-variable controller is designed as the low level controller to track the values. The two controllers work together in a cascade to address both fuel economy optimisation and battery state-of-charge maintenance. The proposed control strategy is validated on a high fidelity physical engine model. The tracking performance shows the proposed framework is a promising solution in regulating the behavior of electrified engines.

  9. 75 FR 68179 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... pumps failed as a result of pressure oscillations in the fuel supply line. We are issuing this AD to.... Analyses have shown that high pressure (HP) fuel pumps failed as a result of pressure oscillations in the...

  10. Modeling of Engine Parameters for Condition-Based Maintenance of the MTU Series 2000 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    particles in the analysis of engine oil samples (Jiang and Yan 2008). Lee monitors the exhaust gas temperature of the diesel engine for a roll-on...roll-off-passenger commercial vessel (Lee 2013). Jardine, Lin and Banjevic note other monitoring parameters, such as acoustic, moisture , humidity...expressed in terms of a constant y- intercept , , a disturbance, , an independent variable, , their past, −

  11. Comprehensive Characterization Of Ultrafine Particulate Emission From 2007 Diesel Engines: PM Size Distribution, Loading And Indidividual Particle Size And Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Imre, D.; Shimpi, S.; Warey, A.

    2006-12-01

    The strong absorption of solar radiation by black carbon (BC) impacts the atmospheric radiative balance in a complex and significant manner. One of the most important sources of BC is vehicular emissions, of which diesel represents a significant fraction. To address this issue the EPA has issues new stringent regulations that will be in effect in 2007, limiting the amount of particulate mass that can be emitted by diesel engines. The new engines are equipped with aftertreatments that reduce PM emissions to the point, where filter measurements are subject to significant artifacts and characterization by other techniques presents new challenges. We will present the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted at the Cummins Technical Center in which a suite of instruments was deployed to yield comprehensive, temporally resolved information on the diesel exhaust particle loadings and properties in real-time: Particle size distributions were measured by Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Total particle diameter concentration was obtained using Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD). Laser Induced Incandescence and photoacoustic techniques were used to monitor the PM soot content. Single Particle Laser Ablation Time-of- flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT) provided the aerodynamic diameter and chemical composition of individual diesel exhaust particles. Measurements were conducted on a number of heavy duty diesel engines operated under variety of operating conditions, including FTP transient cycles, ramped-modal cycles and steady states runs. We have also characterized PM emissions during diesel particulate filter regeneration cycles. We will present a comparison of PM characteristics observed during identical cycles, but with and without the use of aftertreatment. A total of approximately 100,000 individual particles were sized and their composition characterized by SPLAT. The aerodynamic size distributions of the characterized

  12. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  13. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  14. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Lu; Changlu Zhao; Zhe Zuo; Fujun Zhang; Shuanlu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S) diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed stat...

  15. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  16. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30 under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa. The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  17. Effect of EGR on a sationary VCR diesel engine using cottonseed biodiesel (B20 fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. Sakhare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view on comparative study of use of diesel fuel with B20 biodieselblend (Diesel (80 %, by vol. and Cotton seed oil (20 %, by vol. derived from Cotton seeds. As higher NOx emission and higher brake specific fuel consumption are main challenges for effective utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine, there is alarming need to find out the long term solution to reduce NOx emission for better utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR is one of the useful technologies to reduce the NOx emission of a diesel engine. In the present research work test is conducted on 3 KW single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR computerized diesel engine using diesel and B20 cotton seed biodiesel blend to study the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine in terms of fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and emissions such as hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and carbon dioxide (CO2 of a diesel engine. The constant engine speed of 1500 rpm was maintained through-out the experiment test. The exhaust gas recirculation was varied as 4 % and 6 % at different loading conditions with diesel and B20 biodiesel. The results show that the significant reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx with 4 % and 6 % EGR for B20 whereas marginal increment in CO and HC emissions.

  18. Effect of partial replacement of diesel or biodiesel with gas from biomass gasification in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, J.J.; Lapuerta, M.; Barba, J.

    2015-01-01

    The injected diesel fuel used in a diesel engine was partially replaced with biomass-derived gas through the intake port, and the effect on performance and pollutant emissions was studied. The experimental work was carried out in a supercharged, common-rail injection, single-cylinder diesel engine by replacing diesel fuel up to 20% (by energy), keeping constant the engine power. Three engine loads (60, 90, 105 Nm), three different EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) ratios (0, 7.5, 15%) and two intake temperatures (45, 60 °C) were tested. Finally, some of the tested conditions were selected to replace diesel injection fuel with biodiesel injection. Although the brake thermal efficiency was decreased and hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions increased with increasing fuel replacement, particulate emissions decreased significantly and NO x emissions decreased slightly at all loads and EGR ratios. Thermodynamic diagnostic results showed higher premixed ratio and lower combustion duration for increasing diesel fuel replacement. High EGR ratios improved both engine performance and emissions, especially when intake temperature was increased, which suggest removing EGR cooling when diesel fuel is replaced. Finally, when biodiesel was used instead of diesel fuel, the gas replacement improved the efficiency and reduced the hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. - Highlights: • Replacing injected fuel with gas permits an efficient valorization of waste biomass. • Inlet gas was inefficiently burned after the end of liquid fuel injection. • Engine parameters were combined to simultaneously reduce particle and NO x emissions. • Hot EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) and biodiesel injection are proposed to improve efficiency and emissions

  19. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator