WorldWideScience

Sample records for dutch environmental policy

  1. Developments in Dutch Environmental Policy: Target Rationality or Cultural Shift?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Klok, Pieter J.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we have discussed developments in Dutch environmental policy from a certain 'rational' and a certain 'cultural' perspective. Both perspectives appear to be satisfactory only to a certain degree. The interpretation of the development of policy as a consequence of a learning process

  2. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  3. Changing track, changing tack: Dutch ideas for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogervorst, N.; Hajer, M.; Dietz, F.; Timmerhuis, J.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the essay ‘Changing track, changing tack’, PBL summarises 40 years of Dutch environmental policy and draws lessons for the future; lessons that may also be interesting to other countries in the developed world. Looking back, we learned that the Dutch approach to environmental problems has been ve

  4. Institutional and policy responses to uncertainty in environmental policy: A comparison of dutch and US styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2000-01-01

    Uncertainties regarding problem definition and policy response are an endemic pan of environmental decisionmaking. Some standard responses to uncertainty in decisionmaking are analyzed and then used to suggest the importance of learning-oriented policy processes in open, flexible, and adaptive

  5. Environmental Voluntary Agreements in the Dutch Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; de Bruijn, Theo; Croci, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the use of environmental voluntary agreements, or covenants, in Dutch environmental policy. Covenants have become a widely used policy instrument in the Netherlands. This trend reinforces the strong neo-corporatist traits of Dutch society with its tendency towards

  6. Elements of Sustainable Development. Contents and backgrounds of policy scenario III in the Dutch National Environmental Policy Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas RJM

    1991-01-01

    The report "Concern for Tomorrow - a National Environmental survey 1985-2010" (RIVM, 1989) lead to the conclusion that traditional environmental policy measures were insulfficient to combine further growth of production and consumption with the realisation of a 70-90% reduction goal, which

  7. Stimulating environmental management capability deployment: towards a differentiated environmental policy. The case of the Dutch food and drink industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, D.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the institutional and network context on the adoption of environmental management capabilities. The aim is to gain insight into the managerial drivers for environmental pro-activeness and learn lessons for environmental policy renewal. A longitudinal empirica

  8. Towards translation of environmental determinants of physical activity in children into multi-sector policy measures: study design of a Dutch project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oers Hans AM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in children is a major health problem in The Netherlands as well as in many other Western countries. In addition to health promotion among parents and children, creating "active" neighbourhoods can contribute to the solution of this health problem. However, changing environmental characteristics is often the responsibility of policy sectors outside the Public Health domain. Therefore this project identifies and evaluates the possibilities of multi-sector policy measures to stimulate physical activity in children. Methods and design The project consists of quantitative as well as qualitative research methods and is conducted in four medium sized Dutch cities. To identify perceived environmental determinants of physical activity in children, a large scale health survey was conducted at 42 primary schools. Written questionnaires including topics on the children's physical activity behaviour (i.e. sports participation, outdoor play, active commuting, television watching and computer usage and physical and social environmental characteristics were completed by 6,601 parents of children aged 3-13 years old and 3449 children aged 9-13 years old. In addition, 33 neighbourhood audits (systematic observations were conducted to assess objective neighbourhood characteristics. Furthermore, a policy analysis was conducted in the four participating municipalities to provide an overview of the current local policy measures directed at stimulation of physical activity in children. Policy plans of six different policy sectors (Public Health, Sports, Education & Youth, Spatial Planning, Traffic & Transport, and Safety were screened for their content on physical activity in children. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy makers of each of these sectors to identify critical success factors in the development and realization of multi-sector policy plans aimed at stimulating physical activity in

  9. Cogeneration- and Total Energy potentials at an alternative natural gas price policy and environmental policy in the Dutch National Energy Outlook scenarios. WKK- en TE-potentielen bij een alternatief gasprijs- en milieubeleid in de NEV-scenario's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Verhagen, L.

    1989-09-01

    By request of the Dutch Ministry of VROM (public health, planning and environment) the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation carried out new calculations with regard to the title subject. New developments in the Dutch energy and environmental policies made that necessary. For eight cases the results for large-scale industrial cogeneration capacity are presented, i.e. the future industrial steam demand with gas turbine-, combined steam and power generation-, total energy gas- and total energy coal-installations or with coal- or gas boilers. The same calculations are made for small-scale Total Energy capacities. Finally some conclusions are given with regard to the total cogeneration potential. 8 tabs.

  10. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  11. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  12. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  13. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  14. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  15. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  16. On the scope of Dutch monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, S.K.; E. STERKEN

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the Netherlands central bank and its monetary policy in the face of its inability to control monetary supply is analysed through a structural model. Findings show that the monetary policy that the Dutch bank has adopted, considering the above constraint, should be fairly effective especially if there is a perfect substitutability between domestic and foreign assets. This fact, however, has not been clearly established.

  17. The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchert, Luciana [Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Lago, 876, CEP 05508.900, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    This article explores the institutionalization of environmental policies in the Dutch building sector and the applicability of the current model to developing countries. First, it analyzes the transition of sustainable building practices in the Netherlands from the 1970s until today, exploring how these were originally embedded in a discourse on 'de-modernization', which attempted to improve the environmental performance of building stocks by means of self-sufficient technologies, whereas nowadays they adopt a framework of 'ecological modernization', with integrative approaches seeking to improve the environmental performance of building stocks through more efficient-rather than self-sufficient-technologies. The study subsequently shows how the current Dutch sustainable building framework has thereby managed to achieve a pragmatic and widely accepted rationale, which can serve to orient the ecological restructuring of building stocks in developing countries. (author)

  18. Quantifying fishers' and citizens' support for Dutch flatfish management policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fisheries policy is most effective when supported by fishers and the general public. Dutch citizens' and fishers' support for a selection of policy alternatives to enhance the sustainability of the Dutch North Sea cutter fleet is estimated, and the same groups' support for policy alternatives is exp

  19. Quantifying fishers' and citizens' support for Dutch flatfish management policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fisheries policy is most effective when supported by fishers and the general public. Dutch citizens' and fishers' support for a selection of policy alternatives to enhance the sustainability of the Dutch North Sea cutter fleet is estimated, and the same groups' support for policy alternatives is

  20. Experiences with the Dutch Working Party on antibiotic policy (SWAB).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.M.; Degener, J.E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (Stichting Werkgroep AntibioticaBeleid, SWAB) was founded in 1996 as an initiative of the Society for Infectious Diseases, the Dutch Society for Medical Microbiology, and the Dutch Association of Hospital Pharmacists. Its primary goal is to contribute to

  1. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes : The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Arno J.; Withagen, Cees; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  2. Technical efficiency under alternative environmental regulatory regimes: The case of Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der A.J.; Withagen, C.; Folmer, H.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the performance of small and medium sized enterprises in Dutch horticulture under different environmental policy regimes across time. We address the question whether technical performance differs under these alternative regulatory regimes to test Porter's hypothesis that stricter environ

  3. European Environmental law in the Dutch Polder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gronden, J.W. van de

    2000-01-01

    This article which is based on my (Dutch) Ph.D. thesis De implementatie van het EG-milieurecht door Nederlandse decentrale overheden (Deventer, 1998) focuses on the role the decentralized authorities have in implementation of EC environmental law in the Netherlands. Decentralized authorities must ob

  4. European Environmental law in the Dutch Polder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gronden, J.W. van de

    2000-01-01

    This article which is based on my (Dutch) Ph.D. thesis De implementatie van het EG-milieurecht door Nederlandse decentrale overheden (Deventer, 1998) focuses on the role the decentralized authorities have in implementation of EC environmental law in the Netherlands. Decentralized authorities must ob

  5. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  6. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  7. Between prohibition and legalization : The Dutch experiment in drug policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.; Haen Marshall, I.

    1994-01-01

    This book gives an account of the national Dutch drug control strategy. Many researches in this field are described. Most of the chapters touch, in one way or another, on one of three key questions: (1) how is Dutch drug policy different from that of other countries; (2) how is the increasing intern

  8. Euthanasia in the Broader Framework of Dutch Penal Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have regarded euthanasia in the broader framework of Dutch penal policies. They present euthanasia as a typical example of the pragmatic - rather than dogmatic - way the Dutch try to tackle difficult moral problems in connection with the criminal justice system. Definitions, statutory la

  9. Euthanasia in the Broader Framework of Dutch Penal Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.; van Laanen, F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have regarded euthanasia in the broader framework of Dutch penal policies. They present euthanasia as a typical example of the pragmatic - rather than dogmatic - way the Dutch try to tackle difficult moral problems in connection with the criminal justice system. Definitions, statutory

  10. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between......This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research...... international policy agreements and local practice, and (2) an interactive policy-engaged approach to research....

  11. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of interest.

  12. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of

  13. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of interest.The model is fairly

  14. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dorothee; Harting, Janneke; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Jantine; de Vries, Nanne; Stronks, Karien

    2016-06-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a continuum of less-to-more policy integration, going from intersectoral action (IA) to healthy public policy (HPP) to health in all policies (HiAP). Our case study included 34 municipal projects of the Dutch Gezonde Slagkracht Programme (2009-15), which supports the development and implementation of IPHP on overweight, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking. Our content analysis of project application forms and interviews with all project leaders used a framework approach involving the policy strategies and the following policy variables: initiator, actors, policy goals, determinants and policy instruments. Most projects showed a combination of policy strategies. However, manifestations of IPHP in overweight projects predominantly involved IA. More policy integration was apparent in alcohol/drugs projects (HPP) and in all-theme projects (HiAP). More policy integration was related to broad goal definitions, which allowed for the involvement of actors representing several policy sectors. This enabled the implementation of a mix of policy instruments. Determinants of health were not explicitly used as a starting point of the policy process. If a policy problem justifies policy integration beyond IA, it might be helpful to start from the determinants of health (epidemiological reality), systematically transform them into policy (policy reality) and set broad policy goals, since this gives actors from other sectors the opportunity to participate.

  15. The Effectiveness of Dutch Municipal Recycling Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The EU advocates a household waste recycling rate of more than 70%. Although the Netherlands already years ago invested in recycling policies heavily, this is still a large challenge as nowadays on average this rate is approximately 50% and nearly no municipalities

  16. Positive Positive Law: a Dworkinian Move in Dutch Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, H.; van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts with the practice of spatial development, and with legal practice, to come up with three reasons why a new environmental act is necessary. The Dutch legislature is working on that these years and in its commission we’ve been looking for change within environmental law. Our first st

  17. Dutch nature protection between policy and public.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution four periods are distuinguished. 1. Nature monuments and natural beaty (1900-1940), 2. Nature and landscape planned (1940-1970); 3. On the wings of the environmental movement (1970-1990); 4. New natures, new alliances (1990-present)

  18. Governing climate change in Dutch cities: anchoring local climate strategies in organisation, policy and practical implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter, den R.; Lenhart, J.L.; Kern, K.

    2015-01-01

    Although Dutch cities were among the forerunners in local climate policy, a systematic overview on climate mitigation and adaptation policy is still missing. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing 25 Dutch cities using indicators for the level of anchoring in policy, organisation and

  19. The Netherlands and Liberia : Dutch policies and interventions with respect to the Liberian civil war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van K.

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses Dutch foreign policy towards Liberia during the civil war between 1990 and 1997 with the aim of identifying policy options for the improvement of the Dutch contribution to international interventions in violent conflicts in Third World countries. An introductory chapter on

  20. Antitrust Policy and Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Matsumoto; Hajime Sugeta

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects of antitrust policy (the prohibition of a input price discrimination) when an emission tax is used for environmental protection. We show that antitrust policy reduces pollution emission and improves social welfare. Therefore, antitrust policy contributes to environmental protection.

  1. Innovation policy for the Dutch energy transition Operationalising transition management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe term transition is a key term of the fourth national environmental policy plan (NMP4, 2001), which put forward transition management (Rotmans et al, 2000) as a new policy approach for dealing with persistent and highly complex societal problems such as climate change, loss of biodive

  2. Innovation policy for the Dutch energy transition Operationalising transition management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe term transition is a key term of the fourth national environmental policy plan (NMP4, 2001), which put forward transition management (Rotmans et al, 2000) as a new policy approach for dealing with persistent and highly complex societal problems such as climate change, loss of biodive

  3. Science-Policy Interactions in MPA Site Selection in the Dutch Part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haastrecht, Eline K.; Toonen, Hilde M.

    2011-04-01

    At the 7th conference of the parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD-COP7, Kuala Lumpur, 2004) it was agreed to establish a global network of marine and coastal protected areas by 2012. The defined objectives of this MPA-network are based on the ecosystem approach: to protect biodiversity and other ecological values, and to ensure sustainable use. The (inter)national policy guidelines state that the selection of MPAs should be based on scientific information and ecological criteria only. As a signatory to the Convention, the Netherlands is now faced with meeting this obligation, and the process of designating the first Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Dutch part of the North Sea is currently in progress. We focus on the science-policy interactions that are part of this Dutch MPA selection process. By taking a closer look at the contemporary site selection process as well as its historical background, we show that ecological, socio-economic and political considerations cannot always be easily separated. Uncertainty is high and the ultimate selection and delimitation of candidate sites rather seems to be the result of a balancing act between ecological, socio-economic and political interests, in which scientific and policy guiding procedures blend with ad-hoc political decision making, and with expert judgment in cases where data is lacking. As such, this paper presents an example of present-day environmental policy making in action.

  4. Conflicts about water: a case study about conflict and contest in Dutch rural policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Frouws, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch countryside forms the scene for pressing problems of management and allocation of land and water. These problems underscore the need for comprehensive rural policies. For that purpose, area-based rural policy has been initiated. This new policy is part of a larger policy shift, labelled in

  5. Market performance and environmental policy. A scenario study for a market oriented environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boom, J.T.; Duizendstraal, A.; De Jong, R.; Koster, J.M.M.; Nentjes, A.; Zhang, Z.X. [Department of Economics and Public Finance of the University of Groningen ECOF, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Buiren, K.; Van Es, G.A.; De Groot, A.W.M.; Velthuijsen, J.W. [Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam SEO, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Duyse, P.; Heijnes, H. [Applied Environmental Economics TME, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E.; Varkevisser, M. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCfEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wiersma, D.

    1998-08-01

    Different sets of instruments to realize targets set in the Dutch environmental policy are assessed by comparing scenarios. They have in common their aim to realise the targets set for the year 2010 in the Dutch National Environmental Policy plans, but they differ in the sets of instruments. In the reference scenario mainly conventional instruments are applied. The tradeable permit scenario introduces tradeable environmental permits. The right price scenario introduces competition instead of public monopoly and reduces tax exemptions and subsidies. Chapter 2 of this study deals with the essential features of tradeable permit systems and describes the specific schemes that are part of the tradeable permit scenario. This chapter also compares the economic results of each separate scheme with the corresponding policy in the reference scenario. Chapter 3 deals with the influence of (semi-)public monopoly in markets for environmental services and other services with major environmental impacts on costs and prices. Furthermore, a number of price distorting tax exemptions and subsidies with major environ- mental impacts are identified. This chapter then describes the specific measures aimed at the introduction of competition, control of monopolistic pricing prac- tices and termination of tax exemptions and subsidies that are part of the right price scenario. It also compares the economic results of each separate measure with the corresponding policy in the reference scenario. Whereas Chapters 2 and 3 present the economic consequences of market oriented policies one by one (partial analysis), Chapter 4 presents the economic im- pacts of simultaneous application of conventional versus market oriented instruments (comprehensive analysis). This is done by incorporating a selected num- ber of the instruments described in Chapters 2 and 3 in a computable general equilibrium model of the Dutch economy. Both (selective) scenarios are con- structed for the year 2010. First is the

  6. Evaluating the UK and Dutch defined benefit policies using the holistic balance sheet framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Pelsser, A.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the UK and Dutch occupational defined-benefit pension policies using the holistic balance sheet (HBS) framework. The UK DB pension system differs from the Dutch one in terms of the steering tools and adjustment mechanisms. In addition to the sponsor guarantee, the UK system has t

  7. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim

  8. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim

  9. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen......In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge...... in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside...

  10. Embedding energy saving policies in the Dutch non-profit housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Kroese, R.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies on policy implementation have emphasized the difficulties of putting policies into practice. The paper presents several ways in which Dutch non-profit housing providers incorporate their energy saving policies in their ‘regular’ housing management regarding the existing stock, such as

  11. Institutionalizing environmental valuation into policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phelps, Jacob; Dermawan, Ahmad; Garmendia, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    Monetary valuation of the environment is increasingly embedded in policy. Despite broad claims that valuation is policy-relevant, there is widespread frustration that it has not widely improved environmental outcomes, that it obscures many other types of values, and presents unintended consequences.

  12. Institutionalizing environmental valuation into policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phelps, Jacob; Dermawan, Ahmad; Garmendia, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    Monetary valuation of the environment is increasingly embedded in policy. Despite broad claims that valuation is policy-relevant, there is widespread frustration that it has not widely improved environmental outcomes, that it obscures many other types of values, and presents unintended consequences.

  13. Environmental policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift-Simeonova, van der Vanya; Valk, van der Arnold

    2016-01-01

    As urban areas continue to expand, the need to consider nature conservation objectives in planning is growing. Policy makers across Europe recognize that effective nature conservation requires an integrated approach to land use planning that includes relevant ecological and spatial knowledge. Alt

  14. SWAB/NVALT (Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy and Dutch Association of Chest Physicians) Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. J.; Bonten, M. J.; Boersma, W. G.; Jonkers, R. E.; Aleva, R. M.; Kullberg, B. J.; Schouten, J. A.; Degener, J. E.; Janknegt, R.; Verheij, T. J.; Sachs, A. P. E.; Prins, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (SWAB) and the Dutch Association of Chest Physicians (NVALT) convened a joint committee to develop evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The guidelines are intended for adult patients with CAP who

  15. SWAB/NVALT (Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy and Dutch Association of Chest Physicians) Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. J.; Bonten, M. J.; Boersma, W. G.; Jonkers, R. E.; Aleva, R. M.; Kullberg, B. J.; Schouten, J. A.; Degener, J. E.; Janknegt, R.; Verheij, T. J.; Sachs, A. P. E.; Prins, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (SWAB) and the Dutch Association of Chest Physicians (NVALT) convened a joint committee to develop evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The guidelines are intended for adult patients with CAP who

  16. Integrating climate change adaptation into Dutch local policies and the role of contextual factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.; Coenen, F.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Moving towards a more sustainable adaptation process requires closer integration of policies related to the environment. An important actor in this is the local government. This paper examines to what extend adaptation is currently being integrated into Dutch local policies, and what the role is of

  17. Social Uncertainties in Social-Ecological Systems: Policy dynamics in the Dutch Delta Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijermans, F.E.H.; Vreugdenhil, H.

    2012-01-01

    Policy arenas are of major importance for long-term water management. Here, decisions are made. Nevertheless, the uncertainties deriving from the policy arenas have gained very limited attention so far in future studies. We analyse longterm water management in The Netherlands, i.e. the Dutch Delta P

  18. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  19. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environ......In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge...... on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen...... by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing...

  20. Policy networks across portfolio boundaries: An analysis of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D.T.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Regardless efforts by the (municipal) public health sector, public health still faces major problems. The involvement of other policy sectors is generally assumed as necessary. Because, in contrast to the public health sector, they have policy instruments to address the environmental determinants of

  1. Policy networks across portfolio boundaries: An analysis of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D.T.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Regardless efforts by the (municipal) public health sector, public health still faces major problems. The involvement of other policy sectors is generally assumed as necessary. Because, in contrast to the public health sector, they have policy instruments to address the environmental determinants of

  2. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  3. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  4. International environmental policy; Internasjonal miljoepolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Boasson, Elin Lerum; Hoenneland, Geir (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The global climate crisis has brought the questions on environment forward to top level in international politics. 'International environmental policy' gives an overview over the most central international cooperation directed on solving the environmental problems of the world, such as problems connected to climatic changes, marine pollution and loss of the diversity of nature. The authors describe the problems, how they are sought solved in agreements, which results are achieved globally and in Norway. They explain why cooperation varies in success and discuss how to improve them. How can reality get closer to ideals? This book is the first total exposition of international environmental policy in Norwegian. It is aimed for students in social studies and science, to participants in environmental debate and others interested in the theme. (AG). 50 refs

  5. Developing an environmental performance standard for the materials in buildings for the Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Groot-Van Dam, A. de; Kortman, J.G.M.; Huppes, G.; Ven, B. van der; Schuurmans, A.; Anink, D.

    2001-01-01

    After consulting the building industry the Dutch government decided in February 1998 to implement sustainability requirements in the Dutch Building Decree by the year 2001. Part of these requirements will be the material-based environmental performance of a building, mepb.. An energy performance

  6. Interactions management in environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Franco-Garcia, Maria-Laura; Micallef, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to address regulator-management interactions in environmental policy with reference to direct regulations, social regulations and market-based regulation. Design/methodology/approach: Revision of literature to identify the European Union regulations for companies producing po

  7. Interactions management in environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Micallef, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to address regulator-management interactions in environmental policy with reference to direct regulations, social regulations and market-based regulation. Design/methodology/approach: Revision of literature to identify the European Union regulations for companies producing

  8. "The man, the administration and the counter-discourse”: An analysis of the sudden turn in Dutch nature conservation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Mattijssen, T.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands were at the forefront of European nature conservation policy until recently. For years, a stable ‘social contract’ around Dutch nature conservation existed. To the surprise of many, this stability suddenly disappeared and Dutch nature policy has taken a dramatic shift with changing d

  9. Dutch Lifelong learning : A Policy Perspective bringing together parallel Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dellen, Teije; Klercq, Jumbo; Buiskool, Bert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong learning has never been an integral part of the Dutch educational culture. Nevertheless, nowadays yearly many adults (about 17.8% in 2015) are after either or not finishing initial education in some respect emergently participating in (continuing) second, third or more learning paths throug

  10. In search of religious elements in the Dutch nature policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter; Stoep, Van Der Jan; Keulartz, Jozef; Jochemsen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The way people or organizations describe or depict nature conveys their view of nature. In the Dutch discourse, views of nature are mostly conceived as socio-cultural constructs regarding the character, value, and appreciation of nature. Views of nature tell us how we perceive nature and how we want

  11. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D.; Harting, J.; van Oers, H.; Schuit, J.; de Vries, N.; Stronks, K.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a contin

  12. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D.; Harting, J.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, J.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a contin

  13. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D.; Harting, J.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, J.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a

  14. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, D.; Harting, J.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, J.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a contin

  15. THE PKI-FDR UPRISING OF 1948 AND US POLICY REGARDING THE DUTCH-INDONESIAN DISPUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mason

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the abortive PKI-FDR uprising in Indonesia during the last quarter of 1948 marked an important turning point in the American policy toward the Indonesian struggle for independence against the Dutch. Before 1948, American policy toward Southeast Asia was almost exclusively dictated by the imperatives of European considerations, hence was pro-Dutch. The outbreak of the PKI-FDR not only raised the scepter of Communism in Indonesia but also underscored the belief Indonesian nationalism had to be settled in a just and practical way as a precondition to fight communism. In the final analysis, however, it cannot be said that the PKI-FDR revolt was ultimately responsible for the American decision to support the Indonesians. When threat of sanction was finally instituted against the Dutch, it was again European considerations which dictate the move.

  16. Tightening the Dutch coffee shop policy: Evaluation of the private club and the residence criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooyen-Houben, M.M.J.; Bieleman, B.; Korf, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Dutch coffee shop policy was tightened in 2012. Two additional criteria that coffee shops must adhere to in order for them to be tolerated came into force: the private club and the residence criterion. Coffee shops were only permitted to give access to members and only residents of

  17. Unemployment and house price crises: lessons for fiscal policy from the Dutch recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teulings, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008, the Dutch economy lost 6% of gdp relative to Germany, even though the Netherlands (unlike the GIPSI countries) did not face serious problems to finance its sovereign debt. This bad performance is explained by the interaction of fiscal policy and t

  18. Beyond the Dutch "Multicultural Model": The Coproduction of Integration Policy Frames in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duyvendak (J. W.); P.W.A. Scholten (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe Netherlands has been internationally known for its multicultural approach to immigrant integration. The aim of this article is to delve into the "coproduction" by researchers and policy makers of this so-called Dutch "multicultural model". As this article shows, researchers and polic

  19. Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) Policy Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Policy Compendium summarizes operational decisions made to date by participants in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to encourage consistency among the ETV centers. The policies contained herein evolved fro...

  20. Specifying information needs for Dutch national policy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Beinat, E.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Cofino, W.P.

    2010-01-01

    There is mutual dissatisfaction among policy makers and monitoring specialists about producing what is considered useful information for policy development, implementation and evaluation. Insufficient or inappropriate communication between information users and producers is considered to be a main

  1. 24 CFR 50.3 - Environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental policy. 50.3 Section... Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General: Federal Laws and Authorities § 50.3 Environmental policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department to reject proposals which have significant...

  2. The Hidden Curriculum of Youth Policy: A Dutch Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.; De Winter, M.; Koops, W.

    2014-01-01

    Youth policy is more than a mere response to the actual behavior of children, but it is equally influenced by values and beliefs of policy makers. These values are however rarely made explicit and, therefore, the authors refer to them as “the hidden curriculum” of youth policy. The study investigati

  3. The integration of the protection of nature conservation areas in Dutch spatial planning law and environmental management law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomberg, A.B.; De Gier, A.A.J.; Robbe, J.

    2009-01-01

    An important question concerning the protection of designated areas in Dutch environmental law is the extent to which area protection plays a part in other fields of Dutch law. The question of integrating the protection of nature reserves as regulated in the Dutch Nature Conservation Act 1998, which

  4. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  5. Global environmental policy; Globale Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varwick, J. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    For some years, the interest in global environmental problems and global environmental policy increased substantially. In order to prevent a sustainable and irreversible damage of the global ecological systems, it requires an ecological restructuring of the economy of the industrial nations and a environmental compatible development in the developing countries. Under this aspect, the book under consideration dedicates itself to this problem by means of five scientific contributions: (a) The principle sustainability (Felix Ekardt); (b) Climate change as a world problem (Andreas Rechkemmer); (c) The role of the pioneer of the European Union in the international climate policy: Successes and challenges (Sebastian Oberthuer); (d) Cause for conflict water (Tobias Lindenberg); (e) Environmental political instruments in theory and practice (Johanna Reichenbach/Till Requate). Instruction practice also is concerned with a cross section topic consisting of environmental and European politics: Competent instructions concerning to the European Union - an instruction series for the secondary school I (George Wiesseno, Valentin Eck). Two forum contributions go beyond the topic: (a) Against rigid (society-)political borders in the science (Tim Engartner); (b) Elections in Hamburg - Schwarz-Gruen as new coalition model for the federation? In the column 'the current topic' Gotthard Breit reports on the protests against China on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2008. The author focuses some strangenesses in the debate and pleads for a sober view of the topic. With a report on 'the Beutelsbacher discussions' at 18th to 20th February, 2008, Timo Web finishes this book.

  6. Between marketing and financial support: Dutch municipal policy instruments to improve the quality of private housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, M.; Meijer, F.; Visscher, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch municipalities are faced with an ageing private housing stock, of which parts show a diversity of quality backlogs, including their energy quality. Dutch municipalities are in the process of developing a combination of communicative and economic policy instruments to seduce private homeowners

  7. Between marketing and financial support: Dutch municipal policy instruments to improve the quality of private housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, M.; Meijer, F.; Visscher, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch municipalities are faced with an ageing private housing stock, of which parts show a diversity of quality backlogs, including their energy quality. Dutch municipalities are in the process of developing a combination of communicative and economic policy instruments to seduce private homeowners

  8. Building Castles in the (Dutch) Air: Understanding the Policy Deadlock of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol 1989 - 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the 1950s, the Dutch national government has struggled intensely with the trade-off between the economic significance and environmental impact of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, the largest airport of the Netherlands. By 2005, the ambition to combine the growth of ‘Mainport’ Schiphol with com

  9. Econometric analysis of economic and environmental efficiency of Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch government aims for competitive and sustainable farms, that use marketable inputs efficiently as well as apply environmentally detrimental variables efficiently in the production process. The objective of this research is to define, to estimate and to evaluate environmental efficiency. Env

  10. Environmental Performance and firm strategies in the Dutch automotive sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how automotive firms positioned their portfolio since the introduction of energy labels for cars. Using data on product characteristics of automobiles offered on the Dutch market over the period 2001-2010, we analyse how car manufacturers' product portfolios have changed. Portfol

  11. Plant gene flow and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental policy development and interpretation often require the consideration and application of scientific information. "Boundary work" can happen at the science-policy interface. I will discuss two different areas of boundary work in which emerging studies of pl...

  12. Environmental Education Policy Implementation Challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis of key documents and interviews with policy makers. A post-structural analysis ... policy text, environment and environmental education concepts. The analysis ... This form of governance influences classroom practice. In addition to the ...

  13. Disability Management: Organizational Diversity and Dutch Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haafkens, Joke A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction While Human Resource Managers (HRM) and line managers could play a significant role in the prevention of job-related problems and in promotion of early job-continuation, it is not clear wether the chronically ill workers are recognized as a group. Unlike some other groups, distinguished by gender, age or ethnicity, those with chronic illness are less distinct and may not be included in diversity management programs. The aim of this research is to address theory and evidence in literature about the topic, as well as to inquire whether chronic illness of the employees is ‘visible’ in practice. Methods For desk research, we used a systematic search strategy involving medical, statistical, management, and social science databases (Web of Science, MedLine, Pub Med, Psych Info, etc.). Research results are based on case studies conducted with the managers and HRM of government and commercial organizations between March 2007 and October 2008 and between October 2008 and April 2009. These case studies were based on open interviews and focus group sessions (for human resource departments) which were consequently analyzed using thematical analysis. For group sessions, we used concept mapping to collect information from two groups of HRM professionals and managers. Secondary analysis included thematic and content analysis of ‘best practice’ organizations carried out by the Dutch organization Gatekeeper. Conclusions We have discovered that the chronically ill employees are largely invisible to HRM practitioners, line managers who do not always have the right instruments for implementation of the European or national frameworks. Most practitioners are unaware of the impact of chronic illness in their organizations and in employees work life. PMID:20383740

  14. Environmental Policy, Practice and Education in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflection on the concept of sustainable development is not within the scope of the paper (see for example ... The paper then raises environmental policy practice and environmental .... Likewise, the methods of data analysis were somewhat ...

  15. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration National Environmental Policy Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Railroad...) or environmental impact statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FRA's... National Environmental Policy Act (Nov. 23, 2010), FRA consulted with CEQ prior to publishing this...

  16. Dutch climate and energy policy. Analysis of policy reviews 1989-2012; Het Nederlandse Klimaat- en Energiebeleid. Analyse van beleidsevaluaties 1989-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Blom, M.J.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Nelissen, D.; Aarnink, S.J.; De Buck, A.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F.H.; Kuik, O.J. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The Dutch government has had climate policy in place since 1989. Since 1999 that policy has been intensified with a view to meeting Kyoto commitments for the period 2008-2012. The Dutch Parliament requested a review of the costs and effects of the measures implemented in the context of Dutch climate and energy policy, based on the available review studies, with led to the commissioning of the present report [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid voert sinds 1989 klimaatbeleid. Vanaf 1999 is het beleid geïntensiveerd met het oog op het halen van de Kyoto-doelstelling in de periode 2008-2012. De Tweede Kamer wil een overzicht hebben van de kosten en effecten van beleidsinstrumenten van het Nederlandse klimaat- en energiebeleid, op basis van bestaande evaluatiestudies en heeft daarom deze studie laten uitvoeren.

  17. Street litter reduction programs in the Netherlands: reflections on the implementation of the Dutch litter reduction program for 2007-2009. Lessons from a public private partnership in environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Hans; Bruijn, de Theo; Franco-Garcia, Laura

    2013-01-01

    On a daily basis one is confronted with litter. Most forms of litter are, however, of no concern to people. Nonetheless, litter accounts for serious economic costs, and causes negative effects to health, safety and biodiversity. Most countries implement litter reduction policy programs, often in the

  18. Environmental policies in competitive electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langestraat, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we model and analyze several environmental policies in an existing mathematical representation of a perfectly competitive electricity market. We contribute to the literature by theoretically and numerically establishing a number of effects of environmental policies on investment strat

  19. A global public-goods perspective on the environment and poverty reduction. Implications for Dutch foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, M.; Brons, J.; Witmer, M.

    2011-06-15

    Climate change, overexploitation of fish stocks, land erosion and resource scarcities are examples of environmental issues that require globally coordinated solutions. This is in the interest both of developing countries and of the Netherlands. Only in a combined effort will developing countries be able to sustainably exploit their natural resources. Livelihoods may otherwise be at risk of disappearing, and conflicts over water, land or minerals are likely to increase. Internationally coordinated development cooperation that enhances sustainable use of natural resources may significantly contribute to poverty reduction. For the Dutch Government this requires the setting of priorities and collaboration with other countries, international organisations and the business sector. Coherence between development cooperation and other foreign policies would be necessary, for example, those on trade, agriculture and climate.

  20. Environmental systems and local actors: decentralizing environmental policy in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveer, Peter; Van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  1. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  2. Do stakeholder groups influence environmental management system development in the Dutch agri-food sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Haverkamp, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey that included 492 companies in the Dutch agri-food sector with respect to the influence of stakeholder groups on the companies' level of environmental management system (EMS) implementation. It is concluded that primary stakeholders (government, clients) a

  3. Built environmental correlates of walking and cycling in dutch urban children: Results from the SPACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.I. de; Hopman-Rock, M.; Bakker, I.; Hirasing, R.A.; Mechelen, W. van

    2010-01-01

    This study examined built environmental correlates of children's walking and cycling behavior. Four hundred and forty-eight children from 10 Dutch neighborhoods completed a seven-day physical activity diary in which the number of walking and cycling trips for transportation, to school, and for recre

  4. Built environmental correlates of walking and cycling in dutch urban children: Results from the SPACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.I. de; Hopman-Rock, M.; Bakker, I.; Hirasing, R.A.; Mechelen, W. van

    2010-01-01

    This study examined built environmental correlates of children's walking and cycling behavior. Four hundred and forty-eight children from 10 Dutch neighborhoods completed a seven-day physical activity diary in which the number of walking and cycling trips for transportation, to school, and for recre

  5. Environmental impact assessment of dutch tomato crop production in a Venlo glasshouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antón, A.; Torrellas, M.; Montero, J.I.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Vermeulen, P.C.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2012-01-01

    This environmental impact assessment of the current situation of Dutch tomato production in a Venlo greenhouse in a temperate climate was developed as part of the EUPHOROS project. The project aims to develop a more sustainable greenhouse system with a reduction of external inputs yet with high prod

  6. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking r

  7. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  8. Regulatory reform of Finnish environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sairinen, R.

    2000-07-01

    The main question of this study concerns the regulatory reform i.e. formation and design of new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy. The research question is divided into two parts: (1) How have the new policy instruments evolved and been designed (2) What are the political, administrative, historical and ideological factors underlying the processes of policy instrument formation and design? Three main approaches for analysis are introduced: the model of policy instrument choice by Linder and Peters, the model of policy explanation by Jaenicke, and the concept of governmentality developed by Foucault. Within the developed theoretical framework, the general societal background of regulatory reform is composed of the various features of 'environmental governmentality'. The research questions are divided into two empirical research tasks. (1) Analysis of the historical development of Finnish environmental governing and policy style provides background information about the national institutional settings and policy cultures in order to understand the role of the new policy instruments in the Finnish environmental policy during last two decades. Here, Finnish environmental policy divides into consensual pollution policies and adversial nature conservation. Four main periods of environmental governmentality in Finland is presented: the early nature conservation initiatives (1800-1939), the neglect of environmental issues (1945-1969), the environmental institutionalisation (1970-1986), and the regulatory reform (1987-). (2) The contextual case studies concerns: the drafting of the EIA Act in 1982-1994; the formation of the carbon tax policy in 1989-1996; and the implementation of voluntary environmental agreements in 1987-99. The study shows that regulatory reform has not been an easy policy process in Finland. There has been no common environmental governmentality behind the on-going regulatory reform. The new policy instruments have been

  9. Excellence and diversity: The Emergence of Selective Admission Policies in Dutch Higher Education - A Case Study on Amsterdam University College

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, Christoffel; Wende, van der Marijk

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of selective admission policies in Dutch university education. Such policies are being developed to promote excellence in a higher education system that is generally known to be “egalitarian” and increasingly criticized for a lack of differentiation. The changing po

  10. Contested e-literacies in Dutch as a Second Language : Exploring the Interface between Policy and ICT Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spotti, M.; Kurvers, J.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Building on an overview of the history of civic integration policy in the Netherlands, we show how – parallel to the development of a stricter integration policy – we see an exponential growth of ICT in the Dutch as a second language sector. While ICT used to be a means for learning support in secon

  11. Emission taxes versus other environmental policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, Michael

    1997-06-01

    In most countries, various forms of quotas and direct regulation play a more important role in environmental policy than environmental taxes. This report discusses four arguments often given against emission taxes. Three of the arguments, which are related to information asymmetries and non-convexities, are valid arguments in the sense that they point at complications which make the use of environmental taxes less straightforward than what elementary textbooks would suggest. The fourth argument is related to the employment effects of different types of environmental policies in economies with unemployment. This is perhaps the argument most often used by politicians against environmental taxes. The analysis did not justify this type of argument. On the contrary: In the model used, employment is higher with environmental taxes than with non revenue-raising environmental policies. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Influences of transaction costs in environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggan, Anthea [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, Qld, 4067 (Australia); Whitten, Stuart M. [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Gungahlin Homestead, Bellenden St., Gungahlin, Canberra (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    There is a growing literature reporting the extent of transaction costs for environmental policies. However understanding why transaction costs occur and why they are small or large is also important for efficient policy selection and evaluation. Following an analysis of the organisational economics literature and reports of the extent of transaction costs for a number of environmental policies, three key influences to transaction costs in environmental policies are identified. These are the following: (1) the characteristics of the transaction for the environmental good; (2) the nature of the transactors; and (3) the current institutional environment and arrangements. These affect transaction costs to the government and all other parties influenced by a policy. Transaction costs occur due to actions of information collection and policy design, policy enactment and establishment, implementation and contracting, administration and monitoring, and enforcement. An interrogation of transaction cost influences reveals that: (1) the influence varies between parties and is affected by the actions and interactions of and between all parties to a policy; (2) how transaction costs are experienced varies across time; and (3) who experiences transaction costs depends on the policy itself. Future policy selection and refinement will benefit from empirical analysis of the causes of transaction costs. (author)

  13. Participation and coordination in Dutch health care policy-making. A network analysis of the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamping, Antonie J; Raab, Jörg; Kenis, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care as the crucial system to understand health care policy-making in the Netherlands. We argue that the Dutch health care system can be understood as a system consisting of distinct but inter-related policy domains. In this study, we analyze four such policy domains: Finances, quality of care, manpower planning and pharmaceuticals. With the help of network analytic techniques, we describe how this highly differentiated system of >200 intermediate organizations is structured and coordinated and what (policy) consequences can be observed with regard to its particular structure and coordination mechanisms. We further analyze the extent to which this system of intermediate organizations enables participation of stakeholders in policy-making using network visualization tools. The results indicate that coordination between the different policy domains within the health care sector takes place not as one would expect through governmental agencies, but through representative organizations such as the representative organizations of the (general) hospitals, the health care consumers and the employers' association. We further conclude that the system allows as well as denies a large number of potential participants access to the policy-making process. As a consequence, the representation of interests is not necessarily balanced, which in turn affects health care policy. We find that the interests of the Dutch health care consumers are well accommodated with the national umbrella organization NPCF in the lead. However, this is no safeguard for the overall community values of good health care since, for example, the interests of the public health sector are likely to be marginalized.

  14. Strategic Delegation of Environmental Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelfsema, H. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-04-15

    A common claim is that nations should cooperate in environmental policy making. However, there is little empirical support that noncooperative decision making results in too low environmental standards and taxes. We develop a theoretical model and show that if the median voter cares sufficiently for the environment, she has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares more for the environment than she does herself. By doing so, she mitigates the 'race to the bottom' in environmental taxes. In contrast, if environmental policies are determined cooperatively with other countries, the median voter has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares less for the environment than she does herself, so as to free ride on international environmental agreements.

  15. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  16. Essays on Environmental Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. Reed

    A central feature of modern government is its role in designing welfare improving policies to address and correct market failures stemming from externalities and public goods. The rationale for most modern environmental regulations stems from the failure of markets to efficiently allocate goods and services. Yet, as with any policy, distributional effects are important there exist clear winners and losers. Despite the clear theoretical justification for environmental and energy policy, empirical work credibly identifying both the source and consequences of these externalities as well as the distributional effects of existing policies remains in its infancy. My dissertation focuses on the development of empirical methods to investigate the role of environmental and energy policy in addressing market failures as well as exploring the distributional implications of these policies. These questions are important not only as a justification for government intervention into markets but also for understanding how distributional consequences may shape the design and implementation of these policies. My dissertation investigates these questions in the context of programs and policies that are important in their own right. Chapters 1 and 2 of my dissertation explore the economic costs and distributional implications associated with the largest environmental regulatory program in the United States, the Clean Air Act. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the social costs of air pollution in the context of transportation externalities, showing how effective transportation policy has additional co-benefits in the form of environmental policy. My dissertation remains unified in both its subject matter and methodological approach -- using unique sources of data and sound research designs to understand important issues in environmental policy.

  17. Tax Competition Leading to Strict Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Withagen, Cees; Halsema, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We study tax competition when pollution matters. Most notably we present a dynamic setting, where the supply of capital is endogenous. It is shown that tax competition may involve stricter environmental policy than the cooperative outcome.

  18. Environmental Policy Integration: Towards an Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, William M.; Hovden, Eivind

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) is a key defining feature of sustainable development. Despite the fact that EPI has been the subject of much debate both in academic and policy-making circles, conceptual issues relating to EPI have received relatively little treatment. The conceptual work that

  19. The politics of federal environmental education policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Richard Craig

    Both environmental governance1 and education governance 2 occupy contested territory in contemporary US political discourse. Environmental education (EE) policy has emerged at this intersection and taken on aspects of both controversies. Central to debates surrounding environmental education are still unresolved issues concerning the role of the federal government in education, the role of education in citizen-making, and the role of the public in environmental governance. As a case study of the politics of environmental education policy, I explore these issues as they relate to the National Environmental Education Act of 1990,3 attempts at its reauthorization, its continued appropriations, and its current state of policy stasis. The political controversy over the federal role in environmental education is an appropriate case study of environmental education politics insofar as it reflects the different positions held by actor groups with regard to the definition, efficacy, and legitimacy of environmental education. At the core of these debates, as we will see, is a definitional crisis---that is, there is no common understanding across the relevant actor groups as to what environmental education is, or should be. I suggest here that this definitional issue can be best understood as having technical, ideological, and structural components4---all of which are mutually reinforcing and thus perpetuate the stasis in federal environmental education policy. 1I rely on Durant, Fiorino and O'leary's definition of environmental governance in Environmental Governance Reconsidered ; "In the term environmental governance, we refer to the increasingly collaborative nature of [environmental and natural resource] policy formulation and implementation. In this vein, a wide array of third parties (for example, actors in the profit sector, the nonprofit sector, and civic society), in addition to government agencies, comprise non hierarchical networks of actors wielding a variety of

  20. Future agenda for environmental policy in the Netherlands; Toekomstagenda Milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    An overview is given of the planning of the Dutch government for a goal-oriented and secure and targeted environmental policy. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de agenda van de Nederlandse regering voor een doelgerichte en toekomstvaste aanpak van het milieubeleid. Hoofdstuk 2 (Toekomstvast Milieubeleid) van deze agenda heeft een strategisch en agenderend karakter en er wordt in beschreven hoe de aanpak van het milieubeleid zal worden vernieuwd en aangepast aan nieuwe inzichten en veranderde omstandigheden. Het agenderende karakter is omdat het kabinet het van belang acht met maatschappelijke partners te overleggen, in andere gevallen omdat voorstellen nog moeten worden uitgewerkt. Hoofdstuk 3 (Beleidsprogramma: toekomstvast) beschrijft voor de belangrijkste beleidsterreinen de maatregelen die het kabinet neemt of gaat voorbereiden om het beleid beter op de toekomst te richten, en besteedt apart aandacht aan de maatregelen die het kabinet voorstelt om de efficientie van het beleid te verbeteren. Hoofdstuk 4 (Doelgericht milieubeleid) beschrijft kort en bondig de aanvullende maatregelen die nodig zijn om de afgesproken doelen van het milieubeleid te halen (met als referentie de Milieubalans 2005)

  1. The environmental policy of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Cuéllar, Edgar Ramiro

    2010-01-01

    Thanks of the wealth at natural resources was classified Colombia within the Environmental Sustainability Index 2002 by "The global Leaders for Tomorrow Environment task Force", World Economic forum, on rank 22 under 142 countries. Nevertheless the current not lasting processes could lead the country medium-term to an environmental crisis. Some for the degradation of the environmental situation in Colombia responsible person factors are: the poverty of an important part of the Colombi...

  2. Tightening the Dutch coffee shop policy: Evaluation of the private club and the residence criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooyen-Houben, Marianne M J; Bieleman, Bert; Korf, Dirk J

    2016-05-01

    The Dutch coffee shop policy was tightened in 2012. Two additional criteria that coffee shops must adhere to in order for them to be tolerated came into force: the private club and the residence criterion. Coffee shops were only permitted to give access to members and only residents of the Netherlands were permitted to become a member. This tightened policy sought to make coffee shops smaller and more controllable, to reduce the nuisance associated with coffee shops and to reduce the number of foreign visitors attracted by the coffee shops. Enforcement began in the southern provinces. The private club criterion was abolished at the end of 2012. A sample of fourteen municipalities with coffee shops was drawn. Seven in the south were treated as an 'experimental group' and the others as 'comparison group'. A baseline assessment and follow-ups at six and 18 months were performed. A combination of methods was applied: interviews with local experts, surveys with neighbourhood residents, coffee shop visitors and cannabis users, and ethnographic field work. Drugs tourism to coffee shops swiftly declined in 2012. The coffee shops also lost a large portion of their local customers, since users did not want to register as a member. The illegal market expanded. Neighbourhood residents experienced a greater amount of nuisance caused by dealer activities. After abolishment of the private club criterion, residents of the Netherlands largely returned to the coffee shops. Drug tourists still remained largely absent. Neighbourhood residents experienced more nuisance from coffee shops again. Illegal cannabis sale was tempered. No effect on cannabis use was found. The quick and robust shifts in the users' market in reaction to the policy changes illustrate the power of policy, but also the limitations caused by the dynamic and resilient nature of the Dutch cannabis supply market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [At the limits of viability: Dutch referral policy for premature birth too reserved].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits-Kuiper, J A; de Heus, R; Bouwers, H A A; Visser, G H A; den Ouden, A L; Kolleé, L A A

    2008-02-16

    Evaluation of policy and treatment of deliveries at the limits of viability in the Netherlands and resulting survival figures. Cohort study. Within the framework of the European 'Models of organising access to intensive care for very preterm births in Europe' (MOSAIC) study, data was collected on all 512 births in 2003 (terminations excluded) following 22-31 weeks gestation in the catchment areas of the perinatal centres in Nijmegen and Utrecht, the Netherlands. Gynaecologists and neonatologists practised a reserved policy for the active treatment of pregnancies under 25 weeks (5/77; 6%); all infants died. At 25 weeks, an active obstetric policy was used in one quarter of pregnancies, but none of the infants survived. Even at 26 weeks pregnancy, the obstetric policy was reserved and the mortality relatively high (9/31; 29%). From the neonatal deaths, 86 out of 92 (93%) were preceded by a decision either not to start or to discontinue treatment. Dutch obstetricians and neonatologists practised a reserved policy at the limits of neonatal viability. There is more need for active antenatal transfer to perinatal centres for those at the lower limit of neonatal viability to enable well-balanced decisions to take place. The parents' wishes should always be taken into account.

  4. Costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a Dutch hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijen, M M L; Kluytmans, J A J W

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a Dutch hospital during 2001 through 2006. Variable costs included costs for isolation, contact tracing, treatment of carriers and closure of wards. Fixed costs were the costs for the building of isolation rooms and the salary of one full-time infection control practitioner. To determine the benefits of the Search and Destroy policy, the transmission rate during the study period was calculated. Furthermore, the number of cases of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia prevented was estimated, as well as its associated prevented costs and patient lives. The costs of the MRSA policy were estimated to be euro 215,559 a year, which equals euro 5.54 per admission. The daily isolation costs for MRSA-suspected and -positive hospitalised patients were euro 95.59 and euro 436.62, respectively. Application of the Search and Destroy policy resulted in a transmission rate of 0.30 and was estimated to prevent 36 cases of MRSA bacteraemia per year, resulting in annual savings of euro 427,356 for the hospital and ten lives per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 8-14). In conclusion, application of the MRSA Search and Destroy policy in a hospital in a country with a low endemic MRSA incidence saves money and lives.

  5. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  6. Applied decision research and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the construction of scenarios as a tool to improve the quality of decision making, research in environmental risk assessment and the public's perception of risks, and cost-benefit analyses of environmental policy. The actual and possible role of (behavioral) decision theory and the

  7. Anthropology and environmental policy: What counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; William H. Durham

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we call for enhanced quantitative and environmental analysis in the work of environmental anthropologists who wish to influence policy. Using a database of 77 leading monographs published between 1967 and 2006, 147 articles by the same authors, and a separate sample of 137 articles from the journal Human Organization, we document a...

  8. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...... waste, energy taxaton, and freight transport (from EC Poncelet, Books of note, Environment Jun 1998; 40:5)....

  9. Unravelling the concept of integrated public health policy: Concept mapping with Dutch experts from science, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbing, Luuk; Harting, Janneke; Stronks, Karien

    2015-06-01

    While expectations of integrated public health policy (IPHP) promoting public health are high, assessment is hampered by the concept's ambiguity. This paper aims to contribute to conceptual clarification of IPHP as first step in further measurement development. In an online concept mapping procedure, we invited 237 Dutch experts, 62 of whom generated statements on characteristics of IPHP. Next, 100 experts were invited, 24 of whom sorted the statements into piles according to their perceived similarity and rated the statements on relevance and measurability. Data was analyzed using concept mapping software. The concept map consisted of 97 statements, grouped into 11 clusters and five themes. Core themes were 'integration', concerning 'policy coherence' and 'organizing connections', and 'health', concerning 'positioning health' and 'addressing determinants'. Peripheral themes were 'generic aspects', 'capacities', and 'goals and setting', which respectively addressed general notions of integrated policy making, conditions for IPHP, and the variety in manifestations of IPHP. Measurability ratings were low compared to relevance. The concept map gives an overview of interrelated themes, distinguishes core from peripheral dimensions, and provides pointers for theories of the policy process. While low measurability ratings indicate measurement difficulties, the core themes provide pointers for systematic insight into IPHP through measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental policy in India. Umweltpolitik in Indien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyska, B.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of its strict environmental protection legislation, India is faced with a disastrous level of environmental destruction. The national ecological problems must be faced with great determination if India's ever-growing population is to survive. India's environmental policy is discussed and analyzed in theory and practice. Legal measures and their implementation in reality are discussed for the following examples: Destruction of vegetation, pollution of water and air, nuclear pollution. (orig.).

  11. New directions in Mexican environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Stephen P.; Sanchez, Roberto A.

    1992-07-01

    Since taking office 1 December 1988, Mexico's incumbent president, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, has introduced important innovations in environmental policy that distinguish his administration from those of his predecessors. Greater administrative continuity, improved regulatory capacity achieved through statutory change, focused priorities centering on pollution abatement in Mexico City, and an aggressive search for external financing for pollution control are hallmarks of Salinas' approach. The success of these environmental reforms depends heavily on economic recovery, however, and environmental policy still suffers from underfunding, bureaucratic fragmentation, and heavy reliance on voluntarist enforcement mechanisms. Recently, U.S. congressional debate on a proposed free trade agreement with Mexico has been a factor in spurring the Salinas government to take new antipollution and conservation measures. Mexico's growing environmental movement is also an important force behind the government's new responsiveness in environmental matters. The Salinas administration recognizes the issue's political salience and has sought to defuse environmental criticism using a large arsenal of resources at its disposal. Salinas' environmental policy strategy may thus be characterized as both proactive and reactive in nature. While the reforms are evidence that Mexico is beginning to take environmental matters more seriously, economic recovery and sustained environmental activism remain vital to further progress.

  12. Coordination of environmental policy for transboundary environmental problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reach a Pareto optimal outcome with transboundary environmental problems, there must be some kind of international agreement. One possibility would be an international agreement focusing directly on emissions in each country. Given such an agreement, an important issue is whether one should supplement the agreement with some kind of policy coordination, or if the choice of environmental policies should be left for each country to decide for itself. The present paper shows that under ``ideal`` conditions, policies need not be coordinated across countries. Such ideal conditions include, among other things, that all markets, including the labour market, are competitive. However, if one has imperfect competition in goods markets, or unemployment, it may be desirable to let an international environmental agreement not only specify emission levels, but also the policy mix between emission taxes and direct regulation. 16 refs.

  13. Path-dependency and policy learning in the Dutch delta: toward more resilient flood risk management in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, Van Arwin; Ellen, Gerald Jan; Warner, Jeroen F.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch flood management policy was for a long time dominated by a protection-oriented approach. However, in the last 10 years a more risk-oriented approach has gained ground, denoted by the introduction of the concept of multilayered safety in 2009 in the National Water Plan. Since then, the dominant

  14. Contracts Contrary to Public Policy under English and Dutch Law : The Case of Agreement Commercializing the Human Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoor, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Both English and Dutch law contain general rules that result in the invalidity of contracts which conflict with morality and/or public policy. Working on the premise that each country has its own unique set of factors shaping public interests, this article highlights methodological aspects of identi

  15. Contracts Contrary to Public Policy under English Law and Dutch Law : The Case of Agreements Affecting Matrimony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansoor, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Both English law and Dutch law contain general rules that result in the invalidity of contracts that conflict with morality or public policy. Working on the premise that each country has its own unique set of factors shaping public interests, this article highlights methodological aspects of identif

  16. Path-dependency and policy learning in the dutch delta: Toward more resilient flood risk management in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); G.J. Ellen (G.); J. Warner (Jeroen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDutch flood management policy was for a long time dominated by a protection-oriented approach. However, in the last 10 years a more risk-oriented approach has gained ground, denoted by the introduction of the concept of multilayered safety in 2009 in the National Water Plan. Since then,

  17. A review of science-policy interactions in the Dutch Wadden Sea - The cockle fishery and gas exploitation controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor, J.R.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential ecological effects of cockle fisheries and gas exploitation in the Dutch Wadden Sea and their implications for policy and management have been the topic of vigorous societal debates. Ecological science has played crucial but controversial roles in these debates. Several social science

  18. Policy plans and management measures to restore eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, V. N.; de Jong, D. J.; van Katwijk, M. M.

    2000-07-01

    The Dutch Wadden Sea has been changed dramatically over the last centuries by human activities like land reclamation and different forms of fishery. This has, amongst other things, led to changes in the number of biological communities. One of the changes was the near extinction of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The deterioration of the area led to policy plans in the late 1980s that aimed at restoring the original natural communities of which the eelgrass community was one. This paper presents a restoration strategy which contains a selection procedure for suitable transplantation sites. The selection procedure is based on factors such as sediment composition, exposure time, current velocity and wave action. These were combined in a GIS-based map integrating these factors. One important action in the restoration process is to increase the number of freshwater discharge points to meet the requirements of the brackish water community in general and the growing conditions for eelgrass in particular.

  19. Translating language policy into practice: Language and culture policy at a Dutch university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje

    2016-01-01

    The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of internationaliz

  20. RUSSIAN GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS: SEARCHING FOR THE WAY OF RECOVERY FROM “DUTCH DISEASE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kapkanshchikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the market failure theory the author argues that market mechanism is unable to undertake solid structural change in the national economics concluding that establishment of the governmental industrial policy is necessary. Mechanism of the “Dutch disease” with its local implications is disclosed. On the basis of comparison of various industrial policy scenarios appropriate for the Russian economics the author defines the most suitable one.

  1. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  2. Volatility and Uncertainty in Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniloff, Peter Taylor

    Environmental policy is increasingly implemented via market mechanisms. While this is in many ways a great success for the economics profession, a number of questions remain. In this dissertation, I empirically explore the question of what will happen as environmental outcomes are coupled to potentially volatile market phenomena, whether policies can insulate environmental outcomes and market shocks, and policymakers should act to mitigate such volatility. I use a variety of empirical methods including reduced form and structural econometrics as well as theoretical models to consider a variety of policy, market, and institutional contexts. The effectiveness of market interventions depends on the context and on the policy mechanism. In particular, energy markets are characterized by low demand elasticities and kinked supply curves which are very flat below a capacity constraint (elastic) and very steep above it (inelastic). This means that a quantity-based policy that acts on demand, such as releasing additional pollution emission allowances from a reserved fund would be an effective way to constrain price shocks in a cap-and-trade system. However, a quantity-based policy that lowers the need for inframarginal supply, such as using ethanol as an oil product substitute to mitigate oil shocks, would be ineffective. Similarly, the benefits of such interventions depends on the macroeconomic impacts of price shocks from the sector. Relatedly, I show that a liability rule designed to reduce risk from low-probability, high-consequence oil spills have very low compliance costs.

  3. 75 FR 33838 - National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for NASA's Scientific Balloon Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  4. Choosing environmental policy instruments: An assessment of the 'environmental dimension' of EU energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Schulze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although they have formerly constituted distinct traditions in the European integration process, EU regulatory activities in environmental and energy policy have now become highly interwoven. Environmental concerns increasingly influence the formulation of the EU’s energy policy, especially given the twofold challenge of securing sufficient energy supply whilst also addressing the necessity of combating climate change. In this context, a key question is, how exactly does the EU approach environmental policy objectives as part of its energy policy? Is the ‘environmental dimension’ of EU energy policy subject to a different regulatory approach than EU environmental policy in general? This paper addresses these questions from a neo-functionalist perspective by comparing the different types of policy instruments adopted by the EU in the two interrelated areas over the past four decades. Overall, this work finds that the EU continues to rely heavily on traditional command and control regulation in the context of air pollution control, whereas the environmental dimension of EU energy policy is frequently controlled by new, less interventionist forms of governance.

  5. Exporting climate change and environmental degradation. How Dutch public money is used to finance the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.; Stockman, L.; Muttitt, G.; Horta, K.; Kochladze, M.; Lisitsyn, D.; Barannikova, N.

    2005-06-15

    According to this report Dutch public money is being used to support oil production in developing countries through Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) such as the World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and other International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as Atradius (the Dutch Export Credit Agency) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). The Dutch government contributes to MDBs in two ways: through financial contributions using public money and by voting on the boards of the banks. This report demonstrates the need for far greater parliamentary oversight over the Dutch role in MDBs to keep the use of Dutch public money in line with Dutch government policy. Three case studies illustrate that recent oil projects financed and supported by MDBs and other Dutch government departments are failing the poor and undermining national and international targets on development and climate change: the Cameroon Pipeline in West Africa; the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan pipeline system in the South Caucasus and the Sakhalin-II Oil and Gas Project in far eastern Russia.

  6. Environmental policy - a diaspora for market economists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, A.

    1987-03-01

    The environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany still leaves more than enough room for the implementation of marketing elements. With the help of evaluation processes borrowed from the market mechanism all those in search of appropriate environmental policies are able to better analyse the very priorities they have made their aim. Democratic decision making should make it a point to see to the integration of information gained on the preferences of the citizen. Market-analogous evaluation processes currently seem about to be given a better chance. The vehicles of environmental policy are obviously suffering even more from a suppressed demand for market impulses. In the Federal Republic of Germany environmental vehicles generally tend to be lead and determined by regulations. For the benefit of economy and the environment data and certificates (or compensatory regulations) could be combined much more than before with the traditional regulation-oriented policy. For the time being chances seem to be poor for completions to come in from the market. The revised Clean Air Technical Guide (TA Luft) has wasted a promising chance. (orig./HSCH).

  7. Health Educators as Environmental Policy Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kimberly J.; Baker, Judith A.

    1993-01-01

    Health educators must complement individual-level change with communitywide policy and legislative initiatives, focusing on environmental issues such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and toxic waste disposal. Recent increases in discomfort and disease related to the physical environment call for immediate action from health professionals…

  8. Does ICT policy improve interorganisational ICT for SMEs? A Dutch policy evaluation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Hertog, P. den

    2011-01-01

    Interorganisational ICT has become critical for the performance of both small and large organisations. SMEs however, traditionally lag behind in the uptake of these systems. In many countries, various policy programmes are initiated to improve ICT uptake by SMEs and support them in digital linking t

  9. Environmental policies in an international mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets. We suppose that the firm in the home country is a welfare-maximizing public firm, while the firm in the foreign country is its own profit-maximizing private firm. We find that the environmental tax can be a strategic instrument for the home government to distribute production from the foreign private firm to the home public firm. An additional effect of the home environmental tax is the reduction of the foreign private firm's output for local consumption, thereby expanding the foreign market for the home public firm.

  10. NitroGenius: a nitrogen decision support system. A game to develop the optimal policy to solve the Dutch nitrogen pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Hensen, Arjan; de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; van de Wal, Tamme; de Winter, Wim; Wien, Jan Erik; van Elswijk, Mark; Maat, Matthijs; Sanders, Kaj

    2002-03-01

    A nitrogen decision support system in the form of a game (NitroGenius) was developed for the Second International Nitrogen Conference. The aims were to: i) improve understanding among scientists and policy makers about the complexity of nitrogen pollution problems in an area of intensive agricultural, industrial, and transportation activity (The Netherlands); and ii) search for optimal policy solutions to prevent pollution effects at lowest economic and social costs. NitroGenius includes a model of nitrogen flows at relevant spatial and temporal scales including emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides and contamination of surface- and groundwaters. NitroGenius also includes an economic model describing relationships for important sectors and impacts of different nitrogen control measures on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, energy use, and environmental costs. About 50 teams played NitroGenius during the Second International Nitrogen Conference. The results show that careful planning and selection of abatement options can solve Dutch nitrogen problems at reasonable cost.

  11. Exploring the characteristics of innovation alliances of Dutch Biotechnology SMEs and their policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp J.P. Garbade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the fact that R&D intensive SMEs play a pivotal role in providing sustainable economic growth by maintaining a high rate of innovation. To compensate for their financial vulnerability, these SMEs increasingly conduct innovation in alliances. This paper aims to explore the impact of different alliance characteristics on the performance of Dutch biotechnology SMEs. The conceptual model was tested using a sample of 18 biotech SMEs reporting about 40 alliances. The main findings indicate that alliance performance is positively related to the level of complementarity, the cognitive distance and tacit knowledge transfer by the human resources exchanges. Policy makers are recommended to support innovation alliances by providing the infrastructure in which alliances can flourish, e.g. through stimulating the foundation of cluster organizations that can function as innovation brokers. These cluster organizations can provide network formation, demand articulation, internationalization and innovation process support to their member companies and can act as a go-between among alliance partners. As part of the innovation process support activities, they can organize special workshops for biotech SMEs on how to successfully behave in an innovation alliance.

  12. 7 CFR 1940.328 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Environmental Policy Acts. 1940.328 Section 1940... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.328 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Numerous States have enacted environmental policy acts or regulations similar to...

  13. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; Schuit, Albertine J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2013-04-12

    Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the policy, its implementation and its support by parents, teachers and principals. The aim of this study is to detect opportunities to improve the school food policy and/or implementation at Dutch primary schools. Therefore, this study explores the school food policy and investigates schools' (teachers and principals) and parents' opinion on the school food policy. Data on the schools' perspective of the food policy was collected from principals and teachers by means of semi-structured interviews. In total 74 principals and 72 teachers from 83 Dutch primary schools were interviewed. Data on parental perceptions about the school food policy were based on a cross-sectional survey among 1,429 parents from the same schools. Most principals (87.1%) reported that their school had a written food policy; however in most cases the rules were not clearly defined. Most of the principals (87.8%) believed that their school paid sufficient attention to nutrition and health. Teachers and principals felt that parents were primarily responsible to encourage healthy eating habits among children, while 49.8% of the parents believed that it is also a responsibility of the school to foster healthy eating habits among children. Most parents reported that they appreciated the school food policy and comply with the food rules. Parents' opinion on the enforcement of the school food policy varied: 28.1% believed that the school should enforce the policy more strongly, 32.1% was satisfied, and 39.8% had no opinion on this topic. Dutch primary schools could play a more important role in fostering healthy eating habits among children. The school food policy could be improved by clearly formulating food rules, simplifying

  14. Environmental regulation & environmental innovation: The case of waste water treatment, waste and energy-efficiency in the Dutch paper and board industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chappin, M.M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Aim presentation Part 1: discuss relation environmental innovation and environmental regulation Part 2: role of an industry association in the development and implementation of environmental policy measures

  15. Environmental regulation & environmental innovation: The case of waste water treatment, waste and energy-efficiency in the Dutch paper and board industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, M.M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Aim presentation Part 1: discuss relation environmental innovation and environmental regulation Part 2: role of an industry association in the development and implementation of environmental policy measures

  16. Environmental regulatory and policy framework in China: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    China has developed one of the most comprehensive environmental regulatory and policy framework in the world. This paper provides a description of the main institutions for environmental management in China, and overviews the regulatory and policy framework in place.

  17. Environmental Policy under Imperfect Competition : A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Requate, Till

    2005-01-01

    In this article I survey the theoretical literature on environmental policy in the presence of imperfect competition, ranging from early contributions in the 1960s to the present. I cover the following market structures when polluting firms have market power in the output market: monopoly, Cournot oligopoly, Bertrand duopoly with homogeneous products, pricesetting duopoly with differentiating commodities, and models of monopolistic competition. Among the latter I consider Cournot oligopoly wi...

  18. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on a draft Environmental Planning and Historic...

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things, the...

  20. Eliminating Social Inequality by Reinforcing Standard Language Ideology? Language Policy for Dutch in Flemish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarue, Steven; De Caluwe, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Flanders, the northern, Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, is experiencing growing intra- and interlingual diversity. On the intralingual level, Tussentaal ("in-between-language") has emerged as a cluster of intermediate varieties between the Flemish dialects and Standard Dutch, gradually becoming "the" colloquial language. At the…

  1. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  2. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing......Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...

  3. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  4. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  5. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  6. Towards Bi-Inclusive Policies: Suggestions Based on Research on Dutch Same-Sex Attracted Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lisdonk, Jantine; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Dutch national LGBT policies are not bi-inclusive and this study provides suggestions for improvement, based on empirical research. Attention for bisexuality in policy appears simply to pay lip service and to endorse the construction of sexual orientation as a hetero/homo binary. The outcomes of our survey (n = 1449) and in-depth interviews (n = 38) of Dutch same-sex attracted young people suggest that special attention for bisexual people is warranted. Compared to exclusively same-sex attracted participants, the equally both-sex attracted participants scored worse on openness about their sexual attraction, visibility discomfort, perceived acceptance, and suicide attempts. Unique issues for bisexual-identified young people were identified as follows: marginalization of bisexuality; difficulty expressing bisexuality, particularly in relationships; and a lack of bisexual or bi-inclusive communities. These issues were all related to the hetero/homo binary and mononormativity. Suggested implications for more bi-inclusive policies focus on awareness of marginalization and invisibility of bisexuality, biphobia, community and capacity building, and comprehensive sexuality and gender education. Furthermore, rather than policies focusing on sameness, a comprehensive diversity perspective on sexuality and gender offers more space for bisexuality. This may be particularly relevant for young people who are exploring their sexuality and developing a sense of their sexual self.

  7. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis [Erasmus University and Tinbergen Institute, Burg. Oudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Padron-Fumero, N. [Dept. de Economia de las Instituciones y Estadistica, Universidad de La Laguna, Facultad de CC.EE, Campus de Guajara, 38071 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges.

  8. 76 FR 9981 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Part 1021 RIN 1990-AA34 National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures AGENCY: Office of the... amendments to its regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), made... Rulemaking Comments, Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance (GC-54), U.S. Department of Energy,...

  9. A review of science-policy interactions in the Dutch Wadden Sea - The cockle fishery and gas exploitation controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor, Judith R.; van Koppen, C. S. A. (Kris); Lindeboom, Han J.

    2013-09-01

    The potential ecological effects of cockle fisheries and gas exploitation in the Dutch Wadden Sea and their implications for policy and management have been the topic of vigorous societal debates. Ecological science has played crucial but controversial roles in these debates. Several social science studies have been dedicated to analysing these roles and making recommendations for the improvement of science-policy interactions. In reviewing these studies, this article aims to draw lessons for (ecological) scientists and policy makers on how to understand and guide the interactions of science and policy in Wadden Sea management. Studies addressing science-policy interactions in the Dutch Wadden Sea can be grouped into three main perspectives, emphasizing the social and economic dynamics of resource management, the role of nature views and discourses in controversies, and the influence of science dynamics in policy and management debates. The review demonstrates that ecological knowledge and ecological scientists have played important roles in the controversies on cockle fisheries and gas exploitation. However, scientific knowledge was not always the most important factor in the decision-making process, and scientific insights were not always used as expected by the scientists. How scientific knowledge is used and interpreted by stakeholders was dependent on their interests, their nature views and on the dominant policy discourses. Ecological knowledge and scientists themselves became part of the policy debates, e.g. in discussions on uncertainty and reliability. The position of scientists in policy debates was strongly influenced by the policy setting and by changes in this setting, e.g. by the operation of mediators or by new interpretations of legal rules. A lesson to be drawn for scientists is that they should reflect on the sort of position - e.g. independent outsider, or engaged stakeholder - they take in a debate. They should also be aware that this position

  10. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67... Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91.67 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Coordination. OJP will coordinate with grantees to...

  11. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.); the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40...

  12. Food and environmental policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, M R; Biswas, A K

    1986-08-01

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

  13. Uncertainty, Irreversibility and the Timing Problems of Environmental Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haisheng; Jia Jia; Zhou Yongzhang

    2006-01-01

    Most environmental issues and policy designing are uncertain and irreversible; therefore, the timing of environmental policy implementation becomes especially important. This paper establishes a random dynamic programming model and analyzes the optimal timing problems in environmental policy under uncertain variables. This model results indicate that two variables have a significant impact on the timing of environmental policy implementation and they work in opposite direcfons: on one hand, the more uncertain the economy is, the higher the cost of policies implementation will be, and consequently the incentive to immediately adopt the policy will be stronger. On the other hand, the higher the uncertainty of the environment is, the stronger the irreversibility of ecological harm caused by pollutants per unit will be. Therefore, the government should implement new environmental policies as early as possible in order to gain more ecological benefits.

  14. The Dutch Green Building Council (DGBC) and the Dutch version of the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM-NL). International label assesses sustainability of buildings; De DGBC en BREEAM-NL. Internationaal label beoordeelt duurzaamheid gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Uffelen, S. [Dutch Green Building Council, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    The development of the DGBC (Dutch Green Building Council) and the first Dutch version of BREEAM-NL (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) are described. BREEAM-NL will be used as a label for the assessment of new buildings by completion. Specific versions for district development and for existing buildings are also under construction. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de ontwikkelingen rondom de DGBC (Dutch Green Building Council) en de eerste, Nederlandse versie van BREEAM-NL (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method). BREEAM-NL zal worden gebruikt als label voor de beoordeling van nieuwe gebouwen bij oplevering. Er wordt tevens gewerkt aan een versie voor gebiedsontwikkeling en voor bestaande bouw.

  15. Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Policy Implementation Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a generation, governments around the world have been committed to sustainable development as a policy goal. This has been supported by an array of new policies ranging from international agreements, to national strategies, environmental laws at many levels of government, regional programs, and local plans. Despite these efforts, decades of scientific monitoring indicate that the world is no closer to environmental sustainability and in many respects the situation is getting worse. This paper argues that a significant contributing factor to this situation is policy implementation failure. A systematic review of the literature reveals that the failure to achieve the intended outcomes of environmental policies is due to economic, political and communication factors. Conflict between the objectives of environmental policies and those focused on economic development, a lack of incentives to implement environmental policies, and a failure to communicate objectives to key stakeholders are all key factors that contribute to the inability to attain environmental sustainability.

  16. Strict environmental liability and NGO [non-governmental organisation] damages and enforcement claims: a Dutch and international law perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betlem, G. [University of Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2001-11-01

    The European Commission's 2000 White Paper on Environmental Liability identifies two main functions for civil liability in the context of environmental protection. In addition to compensation for damage to the environment, civil liability is perceived as a tool for the enforcement of EC (public) environmental law. Private actors at the national level are considered to carry out watchdog functions in addition to the Commission at Community level. One way in which non-governmental organisations (NG0s) involved with environmental protection have been recognised by both Dutch and international law is by entitling them to claim the costs of pollution prevention measures. This possibility is included in definition of compensable loss rather than as a separate remedy explicitly made available to NGOs. Insofar as enforcement actions are concerned, a Dutch case against the State is examined in order to identify the legal issues relevant to successful enforcement actions at national level This case is an illustration of the role NGOs can play in using civil liability actions in the context of environmental law. Notable here is what form of injunctive relief is available under Dutch law against the State. The possibilities of ordering the State to comply with a duty to implement a directive are considered. (author)

  17. Soil processes as a guiding principle in precision agriculture : a case study for Dutch arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, van J.

    2002-01-01

    The fact that conventional agricultural practices have many detrimental effects is widely acknowledged (Rabbinge, 1997). To mitigate these effects, Dutch policy makers have implemented environmental laws that are essentially based on characteristic indicators for groundwater quality. This

  18. Transnational communication and domestic environmental policy learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske VEENMAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide patterns of how transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning. Existing theories of policy learning, policy diffusion and policy convergence assume that transnational communication may lead to domestic policy learning and policy change, but do not suggest general, empirically investigated patterns. Two case studies on the policy of noise abatement around airports and the policy of contaminated land show that different venues in which transnational communication takes place may induce different types of policy change at the national level.

  19. Individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors that underlie sense of coherence in Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Emily; Bouwman, Laura; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan; Aarts, Noelle; Koelen, Maria

    2016-06-30

    Antonovsky's salutogenesis is a theoretical perspective on health development that explores physical, mental, and social factors that contribute to a 'healthy life orientation' and also a theoretical approach to behavior change. Previous studies applying salutogenesis show that a high sense of coherence (SOC), a composite measure from salutogenesis indicating one's capacity to cope with stress, is associated with a healthy life orientation and lifestyle behaviors, including healthy eating patterns. However, limited evidence exists on the factors that underlie SOC, which could be used to strengthen this capacity as a means to enable healthier eating. Dutch adults (N = 781) participated in a cross-sectional study examining the relationship between SOC and a set of individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors. The main findings indicate that high SOC was associated with a diverse set of factors including lower doctor-oriented health locus of control; higher satisfaction with weight; higher perceived levels of neighborhood collective efficacy; higher situational self-efficacy for healthy eating; lower social discouragement for healthy eating; and higher neighborhood affordability, accessibility and availability of healthy foods. These findings can inform the design of nutrition interventions that target these factors that strengthen SOC and provide the building blocks for a healthier life orientation.

  20. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different app

  1. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different app

  2. The effects of energy policy of the Dutch province Overijssel; De effecten van het energiebeleid van de Provincie Overijssel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W.; Van Hout, M.; Jablonska, B.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Kroon, P.; Lako, P.; Plomp, A.J.; Volkers, C.H. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The Dutch Province of Overijssel has the ambition to reach a 20% share of renewable energy in 2020. The province is using a range of policy instruments to improve the investment climate for renewable energy and energy savings. Overijssel has asked ECN to investigate which effects can be expected in the period 2007-2020. The policies have significant positive effects on renewable energy, energy efficiency and employment, but are not sufficient for the province to reach the target of 20% renewable energy in 2020 [Dutch] De Provincie Overijssel heeft de ambitie om in 2020 een aandeel van 20% hernieuwbare energie te bereiken. Overijssel richt zich op het creëren van een goed investeringsklimaat voor hernieuwbare energie en energiebesparing. Het is de bedoeling dat het provinciale energiebeleid bijdraagt aan lastenverlichting, energiezekerheid, werkgelegenheid en innovatie. De Provincie Overijssel heeft ECN gevraagd onderzoek te doen naar de effecten van het Overijsselse energiebeleid. De twee onderzoeksvragen zijn: (1) Wat zijn de beleidseffecten van het Energiepact en het programma Nieuwe Energie; en (2) Wat is de verwachting met betrekking tot het halen van de doelen tot en met 2020.

  3. Farm growth and exit: consequences of EU dairy policy reform for Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Ooms, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse farm growth and exit and its interaction in Dutch dairy farming as consequences of the 2003 CAP reform and 2008 CAP Health Check. Results indicate that the decision to exit dairy farming is largely determined by household characteristics as age and the size of

  4. Wither Dutch Corporatism? Two decades of employment policies and welfare reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors document empirical relations between job search, job offers, and mobility for Dutch employees during the 1980s. Their earlier research suggested little stability in structural models of job mobility. The authors' stripped-down model of the search decision shows modest variability in coef

  5. Policy changes in Dutch higher education : Quality in diversity: what works?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, Rutger; Poell, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Presentation at EFYE Conference, Bergen, Norway. Overview: •Dutch higher education in a nutshell •Quality in diversity: Strategic agenda for higher education Focus on: student-study fit •Moving forward enrolment date •Matching activities •First results

  6. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  7. 75 FR 8045 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and Revising...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, Establishing, Applying, and Revising Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality... Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act.'' SUMMARY: On February 18, 2010, the Council...

  8. 76 FR 68183 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and...

  9. 78 FR 74129 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  10. 77 FR 2719 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, ] and management issues. NACEPT members represent...

  11. 77 FR 8859 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Cancellation and Rescheduling of National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy... 12, 2012 a National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Meeting to...

  12. 78 FR 17395 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting for the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT.... NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology,...

  13. 75 FR 52941 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 92463, EPA gives notice of a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy... environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT represents diverse interests from...

  14. 78 FR 9689 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT represents diverse interests...

  15. 77 FR 1931 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT members represent...

  16. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T. [Capacity for Sustainable Development CAP SD, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  17. 76 FR 53057 - National Environmental Policy Act Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 775 National Environmental Policy Act Procedures AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Postal Service's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance procedures to...

  18. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...

  19. Environmental and policy change to support healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Rebecca H; Sykes, Kathy; Lowman, Sarah G; Duncan, Richard; Satariano, William A; Belza, Basia

    2011-10-01

    Given the growing evidence of the influence of the environment on older adult health, the need to design and implement effective environmental policy around healthy and vital aging is urgent. This article describes issues amenable to improvement through policy change, evidence supporting specific policy approaches and outcomes, and promising strategies for implementing those approaches. Key areas of focus are neighborhood design and safety, housing, transportation, and mobility. Strategies to build capacity for policy change are also addressed. Our goals are to foster greater attention to environmental change in support of healthy aging and to illuminate directions for policy change.

  20. Environmental Policy Performance Revisited: Designing Effective Policies for Green Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    instruments directed at the demand-side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policies based on the balance between supply-side and demand-side policy instruments applied....... On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross...

  1. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  2. How the Second Delta Committee Set the Agenda for Climate Adaptation Policy: A Dutch Case Study on Framing Strategies for Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H. Verduijn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Second State Delta Committee, commissioned by the Dutch Secretary of Public Works and Water Management, provided suggestions on how to defend the Netherlands against the expected impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, longer periods of drought, more intense periods of rainfall and additional land subsidence over the coming two hundred years (Veerman, 2008. In this paper we show that even though no crisis actually occurred, the Second Delta Committee succeeded in three areas. First, the committee managed to create awareness and set the agenda for climate adaptation policy and the issue of safety in Dutch water management. Second, the committee succeeded to a large extent in getting the media, the public and politics to accept its frame and framing of the problems, causes, moral judgments and suggested remedies. Third, the committee has to a certain degree already succeeded in having its recommendations translated into policy programmes. It will be argued that framing strategies were key to the committee’s success and that the committee used various framing strategies to convince the Cabinet, citizens and others of the urgency and necessity of implementing adaptation measures. The most important framing strategies identified were adherence to the climate adaptation narrative, using the story of our delta identity, creating a sense of urgency and collectiveness, and creating a crisis narrative.

  3. Systematic environmental monitoring model for decision in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Cunha Cardoso Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addresses the existing interdisciplinary between Information Science and public policies, and proposes to environmental monitoring tool as a relevant tool for improving the process of evaluating the effectiveness of these social policies and social programs, there included the legislative branch, through the collection, processing and provision of information allowing to identify the environmental changes and propose, consistently, the improvement of public policies that meet the demands of citizens.

  4. Environmental policy for engineers and natural scientists: a teaching module

    OpenAIRE

    Zingerli, Claudia; Zimmermann, Willi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a new course entitled “Environmental Policy for Engineers and Natural Scientists” that is currently being developed in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Its overarching goal is that students of the technical and natural sciences acquire skills for critically examining and assessing complex environmental policy issues and for expressing themselves clearly in writing and speech. The didactic concept of the co...

  5. Delivering planning objectives through regionalbased land-use planning and land policy instruments : An assessment of recent experiences in the Dutch provinces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straalen, Fennie M.; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie B.; van den Brink, Adri

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the extent to which the introduction of four new regional planning and land policy instruments in the Netherlands improves the delivery of regional planning objectives. On the basis of case-study research, we identify why and to what extent the Dutch regional authorities-the pro

  6. Policy statements and practice guidelines for medical end-of-life decisions in Dutch health care institutions: Developments in the past decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, H.R.W.; Wolf, de JT; Hesselink, B.A.M.; Heide, van der A.; Wal, van der G.; Maas, van der P.J.; Philipsen, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the existence of policy statements on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and practice guidelines for all medical end-of-life decisions in Dutch health care institutions in 2005, whether the existence of practice guidelines is related to characteristics of institu

  7. Very long term development of the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport System: Policy analysis, transport projections, shipping scenarios, and a new perspective on economic growth and future discounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses how a new method for the evaluation of policies with a very long term impact on the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) system can be developed. It proposes an outline for a very long term transport model, prepares a number of very long term scenarios, and indicates that a di

  8. Towards Adaptive Management: Examining the Strategies of Policy Entrepreneurs in Dutch Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Brouwer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of the complexities and uncertainties in water management has put into question the existing paradigms in this field. Increasingly more flexible, integrated, and adaptive policies are promoted. In this context, the understanding of how to effect policy change is becoming more important. This article analyzes policy making at the micro level, focusing on the behavior of policy entrepreneurs, which we understand here as risk-taking bureaucrats who seek to change policy and are involved throughout the policy-change process. Policy entrepreneurs have received a certain level of attention in the adaptive co-management literature and the policy sciences in past decades. Yet, the understanding of the actions they can take to facilitate policy change remains limited. This study addresses this gap in focusing on the strategies that policy entrepreneurs employ in their efforts to effect policy change. The article draws on both theoretical exploration and in-depth field research on water management in the Netherlands, which included a series of semi-structured interviews and a focus group with policy entrepreneurs. We conclude that policy entrepreneurs employ four types of strategies: (1 attention and support-seeking strategies, to demonstrate the significance of a problem and to convince a wide range of participants about their preferred policy; (2 linking strategies, to link with other parties, projects, ideas, and policy games; (3 relational management strategies, to manage the relational factor in policy-change trajectories; and finally, (4 arena strategies, to influence the time and place wherein decisions are made. Our study suggests that by employing these strategies when the "time is right," the development of policy streams and consequently their coupling can, to some extent, be influenced and steered. In other words, policy entrepreneurs can, to a degree, prepare for a window of opportunity and hence direct policy change.

  9. Leaders and laggards in environmental policy: a quantitative analysis of domestic policy outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.; Arts, B.J.M.; Kamstra, J.; Ooijevaar, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the domestic characteristics of 'leaders' and 'laggards' in environmental policy in 21 European countries as well as the USA, Mexico and Japan from 1970. Data with regard to environmental policy strength are related to a set of potentially explanatory domestic factors. By way

  10. Leaders and laggards in environmental policy: a quantitative analysis of domestic policy outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, D.; Arts, B.; Kamstra, J.; Ooijevaar, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the domestic characteristics of 'leaders' and 'laggards' in environmental policy in 21 European countries as well as the USA, Mexico and Japan from 1970. Data with regard to environmental policy strength are related to a set of potentially explanatory domestic factors. By way

  11. Biotechnology: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  12. Biotechnology: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  13. 77 FR 47862 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... Final National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures. SUMMARY: This notice announces the addition of a new categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to be...

  14. 77 FR 26314 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to..., (703) 390-6470. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA.... Dated: April 20, 2012. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  15. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  16. Trees and Water: Mainstreaming Environmental Policy in the Graduate Public Policy Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Tankha, Sunil; Gasper, Des

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we describe and evaluate a teaching project embedded within a core policy analysis course that allows students to engage with a major public policy issue—in our case, environmental policy—without a corresponding cost in terms of reducing curricular space for developing general policy analysis skills. We think that a win-win arrangement is attainable: a fairly intense immersion into a key thematic area of public policy and a correspondingly more vivid, realistic, a...

  17. Notification: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    October 29, 2012. The EPA's OIG plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s reviews of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental impact statements (EIS) as submitted to EPA under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act.

  18. Energy Planning Policies With Environmental Considerations In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. U. Ike, and S. S. N. Okeke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a fundamental change in the planning process for development in Nigeria. It is now recognized that the dimension of environment protection is of vital importance for sustainable development. From the comparative survey of available energy planning models, it was found that the environmental considerations are limited only to estimating the pollution load, thus sending false price signals to the technology market and leading to environmentally distorted policy decisions. The main focus of this research is a methodology for integrated energy sector planning, policy impact assessment, and policy mix analysis, incorporating the impact of environmental externality cost of energy supply and use into the planning process. The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage.

  19. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Policy and Environmental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on policy and environmental supports for physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding. This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps...

  20. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Policy and Environmental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on policy and environmental supports for physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding. This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps...

  1. Policy towards the elderly : Twenty-five years of Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the developments in national policy, formulated by the stare and discussed in parliament, towards the elderly in the Netherlands during the last 25 years. A first policy memorandum was published in 1970, based on work of governmental bodies in the sixties. This memorandum serv

  2. Energy Transition Dynamics; Understanding Policy Resistance in the Dutch Energy System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.; Breen, H.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Various countries seek to establish an energy transition, a structural change towards a more sustainable energy system. Countries implement a combination of energy policies aimed at establishing an energy transition, but these policies frequently result in unintended negative consequences. This stud

  3. Backcasting as a Tool for Sustainable Transport Policy Making. The Environmentally Sustainable Transport Study in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurs, K. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van Wee, B. [Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the backcasting approach used in the OECD's Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) Study, in which several countries participated. The backcasting approach can be seen as an innovative tool for policy making, which aims at generating alternative images of the future. These images have been thoroughly analysed as to their feasibility, consequences and policy implications. Here, results and implications for backcasting shown in the Netherlands case study are highlighted and conclusions drawn that EST criteria will only be attainable if a substantial increase in development of technology and stringent behavioural adaptations, with changes in economic structures at an international level, are assumed. If EST is to be realised, measures will have to be taken and instruments will have to be implemented in the short term. Timely implementation will probably mean a necessary radical change in the current Dutch policy ''life cycle''.

  4. 78 FR 25079 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... AGENCY Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements... Agreements. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency's Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM) is... and Technology Policy Council) established the Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM) as a standing...

  5. How to make housing sustainable? The Dutch experience

    OpenAIRE

    Priemus, H.

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable housing has been a major topic of national policy in the Netherlands for fifteen years. The author argues that sustainable housing is a badly defined concept, both in scientific literature and in policy documents. The Dutch government has never indicated how the sustainability of housing could be measured, or realized a zero measurement, which would enable researchers to evaluate environmental policies to promote sustainable housing properly. A narrow definition of sustainability ...

  6. Essential psychology for environmental policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this article major environmental problems and their different levels and global spheres of impact are surveyed. Environmental exploitation is discussed as an inherent characteristic of free market economies under limited cognitive-motivational inclinations of individual actors. A conceptual model

  7. The role of multi-target policy instruments in agri-environmental policy mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Christian; Lampkin, Nicholas; Muller, Adrian; Stolze, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The Tinbergen Rule has been used to criticise multi-target policy instruments for being inefficient. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of multi-target policy instruments using the case of agri-environmental policy. Employing an analytical linear optimisation model, this paper demonstrates that there is no general contradiction between multi-target policy instruments and the Tinbergen Rule, if multi-target policy instruments are embedded in a policy-mix with a sufficient number of targeted instruments. We show that the relation between cost-effectiveness of the instruments, related to all policy targets, is the key determinant for an economically sound choice of policy instruments. If economies of scope with respect to achieving policy targets are realised, a higher cost-effectiveness of multi-target policy instruments can be achieved. Using the example of organic farming support policy, we discuss several reasons why economies of scope could be realised by multi-target agri-environmental policy instruments.

  8. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  9. Heat Waves, Droughts, and Preferences for Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Ann L.; Conover, Emily; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a new household survey on environmental attitudes, behaviors, and policy preferences, we find that current weather conditions affect preferences for environmental regulation. Individuals who have recently experienced extreme weather (heat waves or droughts) are more likely to support laws to protect the environment. We find…

  10. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  11. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandrett, Eurig [Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  12. Resource conservation program in terms of Vostokgazprom environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Nadyumov, S. V.; Adam, A. M.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article examines a number of key areas of environmental policy of Vostokgazprom. The Associated Petroleum Gas program is an important step within the resource conservation and environmental protection framework. In addition, the company undertakes the extensive work on emergency response programs, and carries out continuous protection of the subsurface and control over environmental safety in all production sites. Vostokgazprom continuously modernizes the basic industrial facilities and invests money in new projects. The study analyzes the steps being taken by the company within the energy saving policy that leads to significant costs cut.

  13. From Practice to Policy in Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assumptions about education, science, history and, in general, the ..... worry that suggesting alternative ideas introduces 'bias', framed by the ..... Based on this argument, we could say that the infusion of environmental concerns into the.

  14. Norwegian environmental policy-making and the role of NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetvedt, Hilmar; Farsund, Arild Aurvaag; Melberg, Kjersti

    1997-12-31

    This publication examines the role of pressure groups and their influence in the environmental policy-making processes in Norway. Fields concerned in this connection are in which ways do environmental and industrial organizations influence political authorities, and what kind of impact do the different organizations have on the processes mentioned. The publication presents firstly a classification of different types of relations between organized interests and public authorities, and of the different methods used to influence policy-making. Based on this classification and more general developmental trends in Norwegian politics, the publication then gives an elaboration of some hypotheses regarding environmental and industrial organizations and their influence on environmental policy. The validity of these hypotheses is examined through empirical data from surveys and case-studies. 27 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Environmental Policy Tools: A User’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    involved in RECLAIM development including firms such as Allied signal Aerospace Co., ARCO, Chevron, Hughes, Mobil Oil, and the Walt Disney Company, among...Threat of Environmental Racism ," National Resources and the Environment, winter 1993, pp. 23-26, 55-56. 160 1 Environmental Policy Tools: A User’s Guide...Bullard, R.D., "The Threat of Environmen- 545, spring 1994. tal Racism ," National Resources and the 35. Collin, R.W., "Environmental Equity: A Environment

  16. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing.

  17. Environmental policy integration in bioenergy: policy learning across sectors and levels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Charlotta

    2011-07-01

    A central principle within UN and EU policy is environmental policy integration (EPI), aiming at integrating environmental aspirations, targets and requirements into sector policy in order to promote sustainable development. The focus of this study is EPI in bioenergy policy. Bioenergy is a renewable energy source of increasing importance in the EU and Swedish energy mix. At the same time, it is debated how environmentally friendly bioenergy really is. Furthermore, bioenergy can be considered both a multi sector and a multi-level case, since bioenergy is produced in many different sectors and bioenergy policy is formulated and implemented on different levels. Therefore, EPI in bioenergy policy is here analysed over time in two sectors (energy and agriculture) and on three levels (EU, national, subnational). A cognitive, policy learning perspective on EPI is adopted, tracing EPI through looking for reframing of policy towards incorporating environmental objectives in policy rhetoric and practice. Furthermore, institutional and political explanations for the development are discussed. Paper I analyses EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper II analyses institutional conditions for multi-sector EPI in Swedish bioenergy policy. Paper III analyses EPI in EU bioenergy policy within energy and agriculture. Paper IV analyses sub-national EPI in the case of the Biofuel Region in north Sweden. The material examined consists of policy documents complemented by semi-structured interviews. Together, the four papers provide a more complex and holistic picture of the EPI process than in previous research, which mainly has focused on studying EPI in single sectors and on single levels. The study shows that priorities are different on different levels; that EPI has varied over time; but that EPI today is detectable within bioenergy policy in both studied sectors and on all levels. Policy learning in bioenergy is found to be mainly a topdown process

  18. Trees and Water: Mainstreaming Environmental Policy in the Graduate Public Policy Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tankha (Sunil); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we describe and evaluate a teaching project embedded within a core policy analysis course that allows students to engage with a major public policy issue—in our case, environmental policy—without a corresponding cost in terms of reducing curricular space for developing

  19. Evaluating efficacy of an environmental policy to prevent biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah A; Deneau, Matthew G; Jean, Laurent; Wiley, Chris J; Leung, Brian; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2011-04-01

    Enactment of any environmental policy should be followed by an evaluation of its efficacy to ensure optimal utilization of limited resources, yet measuring the success of these policies can be a challenging task owing to a dearth of data and confounding factors. We examine the efficacy of ballast water policies enacted to prevent biological invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We utilize four criteria to assess the efficacy of this environmental regulation: (1) Is the prescribed management action demonstrably effective? (2) Is the management action effective under operational conditions? (3) Can compliance be achieved on a broad scale? (4) Are desired changes observed in the environment? The four lines of evidence resulting from this analysis indicate that the Great Lakes ballast water management program provides robust, but not complete, protection against ship-mediated biological invasions. Our analysis also indicates that corresponding inspection and enforcement efforts should be undertaken to ensure that environmental policies translate into increased environmental protection. Similar programs could be implemented immediately around the world to protect the biodiversity of the many freshwater ecosystems which receive ballast water discharges by international vessels. This general framework can be extended to evaluate efficacy of other environmental policies.

  20. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  1. The Biomanizales: A local environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe documentation of the experience in Urban Environmental Management of the city of Manizales, Colombia has been prepared between the years 1999 and 2.000 within the framework of the implementation of the SINPA project (Support for the Implementation of National Plans of Action) –

  2. Environmental Education Policy Implementation in Botswana: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tional innovation in the curriculum grouped together with HIV/AIDS and ... This entailed the use of a survey technique in which questionnaires were given to the ... education implementation in schools; in-service training; support materials; and .... they are required to take part in environmental education is not practical as ...

  3. Financing environmental policy in East Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van der Weij, E.

    1998-01-01

    The transition in East Central Europe created a general optimism which was reflected in a belief that a solution to the environmental problems faced by these countries would be found. There were great expectations regarding the blessings of the market economy, which would diminish state-guided waste

  4. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  5. Supporting policy analysis in the Dutch rail sector using System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, A.; Van Daalen, C.; Van Luipen, J.; Meijer, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    With a sizeable expected growth of demand for rail transport in the Netherlands in the coming decades, and limited resources for expansion of the rail network, intensified utilization of the infrastructure is to be expected. To adequately manage this growth, appropriate tools for policy analysis are

  6. Flexible information infrastructures in Dutch e-government collaboration arrangements: experiences and policy implication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHow can the flexibility of an information architecture in e-government chains - defined as a set of multi-rational agreements - be achieved, if one acknowledges the fact that the use of ICT may automate the status quo between organizations which work together in a policy chain? Research

  7. Dutch general practitioners’ weight management policy for overweight and obese patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, C.J.J.; Tol, J.; Veenhof, C.; Wulp, I. van der; Swinkels, I.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) can play an important role in both the prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Current general practice guidelines in the Netherlands allow room for GPs to execute their own weight management policy. Objective: To examine GPs’ current weight

  8. Nonconformity of policy ambitions with biomass potentials in regional bioenergy transition: A Dutch example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Evren; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous regional authorities within the European Union are committed to meet renewable energy targets in line with the EU-20-20-20 strategy. Energy from biomass occupies a pivotal position in the renewable energy strategy of many regions. Effective bioenergy policy often depends on an assessment of

  9. Shifting identifications in Dutch-South African migration policies (1910-1961)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the migratory movement from the Netherlands to South Africa and the associated migration policies in both countries over the years 1910 to 1961. Migration acts as a lens through which shifting constructions of national, transnational and racial identities can be observed.

  10. Dutch general practitioners’ weight management policy for overweight and obese patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, C.J.J.; Tol, J.; Veenhof, C.; Wulp, I. van der; Swinkels, I.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) can play an important role in both the prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Current general practice guidelines in the Netherlands allow room for GPs to execute their own weight management policy. Objective: To examine GPs’ current weight manag

  11. [At the limits of viability: Dutch referral policy for premature birth too reserved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits-Kuiper, J.A.; Heus, R. de; Bouwers, H.A.; Visser, G.H.; Ouden, A.L. den; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of policy and treatment of deliveries at the limits of viability in the Netherlands and resulting survival figures. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHOD: Within the framework of the European 'Models of organising access to intensive care for very preterm births in Europe' (MOSAIC) stud

  12. Palliative care for terminally ill patients in the Netherlands: Dutch government policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    There is a broad range of palliative care available in the Netherlands. There are many options for obtaining palliative care at home. The care that terminally ill patients need can also be provided in nursing homes, care homes, hospitals and hospices. Government policy in this field is one of the re

  13. Concepts of Nature as Communicative Devices: The Case of Dutch Nature Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, F.W.J.; Windt, H.; Swart, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent widespread shift in governance from the state to the market and to civil society, in combination with the simultaneous shift from the national level to supra-national and sub-national levels has led to a significant increase in the numbers of public and private players in nature policy. T

  14. Concepts of nature as communicative devices : The case of Dutch nature policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, Jozef; van der Windt, Henny; Swart, Jacobus

    2004-01-01

    The recent widespread shift in governance from the state to the market and to civil society, in combination with the simultaneous shift from the national level to supra-national and sub-national levels has led to a significant increase in the numbers of public and private players in nature policy. T

  15. Concepts of Nature as Communicative Devices. The Case of Dutch Nature Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, F.W.J.; Windt, v.d. H.; Swart, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent widespread shift in governance from the state to the market and to civil society, in combination with the simultaneous shift from the national level to supra-national and sub-national levels has led to a significant increase in the numbers of public and private players in nature policy. T

  16. The war on antisocial behaviour : rationeles underlying antisocial behaviour policies : comparing British and Dutch discourse analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, Monique Louise

    2011-01-01

    Only fifteen years ago, measures against antisocial behaviour on the street (ASB) were on the fringe of crime policies. Now this kind of behaviour is the focus of many new anti-crime actions. If this sort of sub-crime is addressed as a major security problem what does that say about the current Dutc

  17. Exploring the characteristics of innovation alliances of Dutch Biotechnology SMEs and their policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbade, P.J.P.; Omta, S.W.F.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the fact that R&D intensive SMEs play a pivotal role in providing sustainable economic growth by maintaining a high rate of innovation. To compensate for their financial vulnerability, these SMEs increasingly conduct innovation in alliances. This

  18. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence.

  19. Environmental Accounts of the Netherlands. Greenhouse gas emissions by Dutch economic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Climate change is one of the major global challenges of our time. There is abundant scientific evidence that the emission of greenhouse gases caused by economic activities contributes to climate change. Accelerating emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases since the beginning of the 20th century have increased the average global temperature by about 0.8C and altered global precipitation patterns. Combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, but also specific agricultural activities and industrial processes are the main drivers of the increased emission of greenhouse gasses. Enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere will increase global temperatures by radiative forcing. Likewise, climate change has a direct impact on all kinds of economic processes. These impacts may be positive or negative, but it is expected that the overall impact will be primarily negative. In order to design effective mitigation policies, one must have a good conception of the economic driving forces of climate change. The air emission accounts can be used to analyse the environmental implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, of production and consumption patterns. Because of their compatibility with the national accounts, greenhouse gas data can be directly linked to the economic drivers of global warming. There are several frameworks for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions for a country, yielding different results. Well-known are the emissions reported to the UNFCCC (United National Framework Convention on Climate Change) in particular under the Kyoto Protocol, but also environment statistics as well as the air emission accounts provide independent greenhouse gas estimates. The differences are not the result of disputes about the accuracy of the estimates themselves, but arise from different interpretations of what has to be counted. The inclusion or exclusion of certain elements depends on the concepts and definitions that underlie

  20. Environmental Policy Beliefs of Stakeholders in Protected Area Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  1. Environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2007-04-01

    Although the importance of understanding stakeholder beliefs regarding environmental policy has been noted by many authors, research focusing on the heterogeneity of stakeholder views is still very scarce and concentrated on a product-oriented definition of stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to address this gap by examining environmental policy beliefs of stakeholder groups engaged in protected area management. Questionnaires containing 73 five-point Likert scale items were administered to eight different stakeholder groups involved in the management of Greek protected areas. Items referred to core beliefs on environmental policy, namely, the value framework and sustainable development, and secondary beliefs, that is, beliefs on social consensus and ecotourism development. Our study used as a starting point respondent recruitment on the basis of a traditional product-centered approach. We investigated whether environmental policy beliefs can be used to effectively segregate stakeholders in well-defined segments, which override the product-oriented definition of stakeholders. Indeed, K-means clustering revealed an innovation-introduction and an implementation-charged sample segment. The instrument utilized in this research proved quite reliable and valid in measuring stakeholder environmental policy beliefs. Furthermore, the methodology implied that stakeholder groups differ in a significant number of belief-system elements. On the other hand, stakeholder groups were effectively distinguished on a small set of both core and secondary beliefs. Therefore, the instrument used can be an effective tool for determining and monitoring environmental policy beliefs of stakeholders in protected area management. This is of considerable importance in the Greek case, given the recent establishment of 27 administrative bodies of protected areas, all of which are required to incorporate public consultation into management practices.

  2. The Dutch dominant perspective on water: risks and opportunities involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermans, Astrid; Valkering, Pieter; Vreugdenhil, Heleen; Wijermans, Nanda; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2013-01-01

    To implement or continue water management strategies social support is needed. Social support highly depends on people's perspectives on water. However, these perspectives are not static and may change over time leading to changes in social support for strategies. Therefore, sustainable water management strategies should be robust. Robust strategies are able to cope with changing social and environmental developments. Lacking robustness runs the risk of losing social support, which may force policymakers into sudden or expensive measures. We use the Perspectives Method to analyze the present Dutch policy perspective and the dominant perspective on water among Dutch water professionals, by respectively studying the Dutch Delta report and questionnaire outputs and distinguishing between Hierarchical, Egalitarian, Individualistic and Fatalistic perspectives. A comparison between the policy and professional perspective shows similarities and differences. Topics regarding drought, water supply, and waters' relation to spatial planning need serious reconsideration to guarantee enough present and future social support to implement the measures suggested in the policy report.

  3. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  4. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  5. Environmental refugees: Consequences and policies from a western perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Nash

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Canada as an example, this paper argues that the phenomenon of the environmental refugee poses a series of important public policy issues for countries of resettlement. Arguing that Canada has an obligation to aid environmental refugees, for reasons of both self-interest and self-sacrifice, the paper then explores those reasons that have, so far, prevented Canada acting on these obligations. These lie, the paper argues, in a conjunction of both present public opinion and government practice. It is therefore in these realms that action to remove impediments to policy change must now occur.

  6. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Office of the Secretary Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Department of Commerce (DOC) National Environmental Policy Act...

  7. 75 FR 29533 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... U.S.C. App.2, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a...

  8. Editorial: Sustainable Democracy, Development and Environmental Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Martin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanisation, climate change, footloose economies, multi-culturality and resource constraints pose unprecedented challenges for local governments today. In the developing world the gulf between needs and finance remains acute. Many western countries forced to reduce public spending in the wake of the sovereign debt crisis, are struggling to reconcile the need for efficiency savings with local pressure to maintain service standards and working conditions. This special double issue of the journal features a selection of papers presented at the third Commonwealth Local Government Research Colloquium held in Cardiff on 13-15 March 2011 which explored these and other important contemporary challenges. Hosted by the School of City and Regional Planning and the Centre for Local and Regional Government Research at Cardiff University, the colloquium provided a valuable opportunity for scholars from across the Commonwealth to present research on three key themes: sustainable democracy and governance, sustainable economic development and environmental sustainability.

  9. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  10. Indonesian "Adat" Customs as the Backbone of Effective Environmental Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen F.

    "Adat" is a term in Indonesia that defines culture, customs, and traditions to foreigners, but to the people of Indonesia it means basically the rules of the village life. Villages are predominant and overseen by chiefs. Adat's rules are the roots of Islamic religion. Many of Indonesia's environmental policies stem from the teachings of…

  11. 75 FR 13139 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: The National Indian Gaming... comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR... March 4, 2010 (75 FR 3756). ] DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual is...

  12. 75 FR 3756 - The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission The National Environmental Policy Act Procedures Manual AGENCY: National... period for comments on the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2009 (74 FR 63765, 74 FR 63787). DATES: The comment period for the Draft NEPA Procedures Manual...

  13. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategies, action plans and other policy processes in southern Africa.This was done .... The evolution of environmental education in southern Africa can be linked to developments both within and ..... As outlined above, the audit revealed that more attention has been paid historically to the ..... PROTECTION_ACT.pdf. Stiles ...

  14. The road to Environmental Policy Integration is paved with obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrhauge, Helene

    2014-01-01

    . The article analyses the co-decision process which led to the adoption of the 2011 Eurovignette Directive, and examines how intra-organizational conflicts in the European Parliament and the Council shaped inter-organizational negotiations and thus the level of environmental policy integration in the adopted...

  15. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrow, Douglas D.; Fazio, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow" (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2009). Answers to the following two curricular questions: "What should be taught?" and "How it should be taught?" frame the critique. Scrutiny of the latter…

  16. 46 CFR 385.39 - Socio-economic and environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Socio-economic and environmental policies. 385.39... DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS General Policies § 385.39 Socio-economic and environmental policies. A number of socio-economic and environmental policies of the Federal Government...

  17. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  18. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  19. Empirically derived guidance for social scientists to influence environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina; Crissman, Charles; De Young, Cassandra; Gooch, Margaret; James, Craig; Jessen, Sabine; Johnson, Dave; Marshall, Paul; Wachenfeld, Dave; Wrigley, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Failure to stem trends of ecological disruption and associated loss of ecosystem services worldwide is partly due to the inadequate integration of the human dimension into environmental decision-making. Decision-makers need knowledge of the human dimension of resource systems and of the social consequences of decision-making if environmental management is to be effective and adaptive. Social scientists have a central role to play, but little guidance exists to help them influence decision-making processes. We distil 348 years of cumulative experience shared by 31 environmental experts across three continents into advice for social scientists seeking to increase their influence in the environmental policy arena. Results focus on the importance of process, engagement, empathy and acumen and reveal the importance of understanding and actively participating in policy processes through co-producing knowledge and building trust. The insights gained during this research might empower a science-driven cultural change in science-policy relations for the routine integration of the human dimension in environmental decision making; ultimately for an improved outlook for earth’s ecosystems and the billions of people that depend on them. PMID:28278238

  20. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary committee which is in the... environmental policy, technology and management issues. Inquiries may be directed to Mark Joyce, U.S. EPA,...

  1. 75 FR 38810 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting... teleconference of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and...

  2. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory... a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology,...

  3. Sustainability and the cultural factor. Results from the Dutch GOES Mass Public Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P.; Vinken, H. [Institute for Globalization and Sustainable Development GLOBUS, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    GOES stands for the GlObal Environmental Survey. The Dutch government declared sustainable development as the cornerstone of its environmental policy. This strategic policy shift presupposes a concerned citizenry willing to accept the way this might affect private lifestyles. The Dutch GOES MASS PUBLIC MODULE - part of a large-scale international study on citizens' environmental perceptions, values, and behaviors - shows the Dutch are concerned about environmental problems. Though they are most worried about classic environmental problems (e.g. air pollution), they realize that more long-term issues (e.g. global warming) are pressing too. They define themselves as being well-informed, feel the individual can make a difference, display a high self-efficacy, and prioritize ecological concerns over economic gains. They, however, do not accept policies that limit personal choice. The Dutch favor soft policies, voluntary lifestyle change, and softer ways of taking action (e.g. checkbook participation). Water and energy conservation no longer seem on the household agenda. Explaining policy preferences, protective action, and individual environmentally-friendly behavior shows environmental attitudes hardly make a difference. Basic values (e.g. post materialism), supporting the environment over economic growth, and a higher education do have an impact as regards protective action. This is less so for policy preferences or environmentally-friendly behavior. The Dutch GOES MASS PUBLIC MODULE points at the imperative necessity to bridge the grand environmental narratives of policy makers, particularly when they frame ecological problems as global, abstract, and long-term issues, and the here-and-now narratives of the well-informed and concerned citizens in their role of responsible consumers.

  4. Guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielusiak, C.

    1993-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.

  5. Guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielusiak, C.

    1993-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) sets forth national policy for the protection of the environment. The NEPA process is intended to help officials of the federal government make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. The California Environmental Quality Act of 1970 (CEQA) is similar to NEPA. The California legislature established CEQA to inform both state and local governmental decision-makers and the public about potential significant environmental effects of proposed activities, to identify ways to avoid or reduce environmental impacts, and to disclose to the public the reasons why a project is approved if significant environmental effects are involved. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), complies with the provisions of both NEPA and CEQA. This document defines the responsibilities and authorities for NEPA/CEQA compliance at LBL.

  6. Deconstructing the Dutch multicultural model: a frame perspective on Dutch immigrant integration policymaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvendak, J.W.; Scholten, P.

    2012-01-01

    Dutch immigrant integration policies have often been labelled ‘multiculturalist’. This article empirically and conceptually challenges the idea of a Dutch multicultural model. First, it deconstructs the image that Dutch policies would have been driven by a single, coherent and consistent model, by

  7. Research paper 2000-B-6: adjustments in the Dutch domestic waste incineration sector in the context of the European directive 89/429/EEC. A case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch sector of domestic waste incineration in the context of the European Directive Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC. The case study was done and indicators for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a document to coordinate the efforts in the four IMPOL countries. The European Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC regulate Plants for Domestic waste Incineration on the emissions of several pollutants. These emissions are relevant for air quality in general, acidification and the spreading of toxic substances. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on 'existing' incineration plants, being permitted before 1990. In chapter 2 of this report the implementation of the directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC in the Netherlands is described. In section 2.1 already existing 'older' Dutch policy and regulation is presented. In paragraph 2.2 the integration of the European Directives into Dutch national law is described. In chapter 2.3 the efforts and outcomes on monitoring and enforcement are presented. Chapter 3 goes into the environmental effectiveness. Section 3.1 describes the abatement performance of the whole municipal waste incineration sector during the period of research. Section 3.2 goes into factors that explain the environmental outcomes. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on a number of pollutants of existing waste incinerators. In section 3.3 the data for the existing incinerators are given. In chapter 4 the allocative efficiency of adjustments is elaborated. In section 4.1 the abatement patterns of existing municipal waste incineration plants are presented

  8. Extending environmental management beyond the firm boundaries: An empirical study of Dutch food and beverage firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grekova, E.; Bremmers, H.J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer demand for environmental sustainability and for affordable prices calls for cooperation and information exchange in food chains to reduce joint environmental impact, known as externally-oriented environmental management (E-EM). E-EM is increasingly regarded as a management tool to simultane

  9. Connecting reason to power: assessments, learning, and environmental policy integration in Swedish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Maans

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policy-making system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Policy integration has been put forward as something of a 'holy grail' of public policy in Europe and is even stated in the European Treaty. However, so far progress appears to have been slow and partial. Furthermore, neither analysts nor policy practitioners are in agreement on what policy integration really means. A starting point is to clarify policy integration from a theoretical interpretation of the political principle. The thesis presents a framework for analysing environmental policy integration as a policy-learning process, defined to occur when sectoral actors reframe their understanding of key problems, objectives, and strategies towards sustainable development. This framework combines theoretical perspectives such as policy networks, learning, institutionalism, and knowledge-policy studies. The empirical analysis is concerned with analysing patterns of policy learning and policy integration in Swedish energy policy and policymaking processes, and with tracing these processes and their outcomes in different rounds and stages of policy formation over the last two decades. The analysis is based on a triangulation of: a) qualitative analysis of arguments and reasoning in publicly-available documents; b) characterisation of policy decisions; and c) complementary information from 30 semi-structured interviews with policy actors, carried out between 2002 and 2004. Energy policy in general since the late 1980s has undergone major reframing, from a distinct central planning frame towards an international and market-based understanding of the sector, and towards partial EPI. This has induced important policy shifts primarily in relation to climate policy, but also how the sector is governed in general, moving away from national taxes and subsidies and into marker-based systems and

  10. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  11. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusko Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims – subjects – objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  16. Market performance and environmental policy. Four tradeable permits schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boom, J.T.; Duizendstraal, A.; De Jong, R.; Koster, J.M.M.; Nentjes, A.; Zhang, Z.X. [Department of Economics and Public Finance of the University of Groningen ECOF, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Buiren, K.; Van Es, G.A.; De Groot, A.W.M.; Velthuijsen, J.W. [Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam SEO, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Duyse, P.; Heijnes, H. [Applied Environmental Economics TME, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E.; Varkevisser, M. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCfEB, Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wiersma, D.

    1998-08-01

    Six feasible schemes of tradeable permits are presented and the cost savings arising from the application of such schemes instead of conventional policies have been calculated. In this background study four other schemes are discussed. The major reason for their separate presentation is twofold: there was insufficient statistical information available to calculate potential cost savings that are sufficiently reliable and further study is needed to determine the most appropriate design of the schemes. Only after the questions about cost savings and design have been answered it can be established whether indeed introduction of the schemes will improve environmental effectiveness and cost effectiveness of environmental policy. The schemes to be presented in the next sections are tradeable permits for winning sand, for mortar and cement, for noise control on industrial sites, for packaging materials and for heavy metals in waste water and sludge. 13 refs.

  17. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  18. Internalization of agri-environmental policies and the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Bishop, C.; Hall, J.; Pretty, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations have indicated that environmental and conservation policies frequently fail to reach anticipated aims, which raises concern over the cost-effectiveness of governmental policy-related expenditure. The limited effectiveness of policies is often attributed to methodological aspect

  19. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...... the useful life into the post-consumer stage. [2] IPP is a public policy strategy, which seeks to reduce the life cycle environmental impacts of products from the mining of raw materials to production, distribution, use and waste management....

  20. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  1. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  2. The impact of educational and environmental interventions in Dutch worksite cafeterias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); G.J.P. van Breukelen (Gerard); K. Glanz; G.J. Kok (Gerjo); H. de Vries (Hein)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEnvironmental interventions as labeling of healthy foods and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet the guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias alon

  3. The impact of educational and environmental interventions in Dutch worksite cafeterias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); G.J.P. van Breukelen (Gerard); K. Glanz; G.J. Kok (Gerjo); H. de Vries (Hein)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEnvironmental interventions as labeling of healthy foods and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet the guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias alon

  4. The environmental impact of flooding of the Dutch "Delta-metropole"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, L.C.P.M.; Reinders, J.E.A.; Hoek, van der E.E.; Hermans, E.G.M.; Muinck Keizer, de M.; Icke, J.

    2007-01-01

    Model studies into the consequences of flooding events usually focus on damage to buildings, infrastructure, economic losses and casualties yet ignore the risk of environmental damage. In this project, a model study was made to assess the environmental consequences of the release of pollutants

  5. Green Activism. The European Parliament's Environmental Committee promoting a European Environmental Policy in the 1970s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the standard assumption in the academic literature on the European Parliament (EP) that the EP only became a more assertive and activist institution after the first direct elections of 1979. Instead, I argue that already in the 1970s the EP was asserting its role...... the new policy, to insert citizens' views into the policy process, thus linking the EC to its constituency, and contributing to the legitimacy of EC policy-making. Clearly, the EP began to assert its role in (environmental) policymaking already well before direct elections, even though it would require...

  6. Environmental Scenarios for the Future Nitrogen Policy in Flanders, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    stijn M.M. Overloop

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector accounts for two thirds of nitrogen losses in Flanders, Belgium. Since 1991 both the government and the farmers have been taking measures to reduce the nitrogen surplus. Initially, the manure policy was aimed at distributing the manure surplus equally across Flanders. At the same time, the growth of livestock was stopped by a strict licensing policy, which required “command and control” measures. In recent years, the policy has switched to the use of individual target commitments by farmers. The Flemish manure policy will be tightened even more as a result of international pressures. An ex ante evaluation of possible policy options was carried out using three different scenarios spread out until 2010 (Business As Usual, Additional Measures, and Sustainable Development. To do this, a sector-economic, regionalized, environmental, comparative static, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming model of the Flemish agriculture was developed. The nitrogen emission into the agricultural soil was calculated by means of a regional soil balance. European targets can only be reached with manure processing, reduced fertilizer usage, and a strong reduction of intensive livestock breeding activities. The atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds will strongly decrease in 2010 if additional measures are taken. This will also result in a strong reduction of nitrous oxide emissions.

  7. 78 FR 44138 - National Environmental Policy Act; Implementing Procedures; Addition of Categorical Exclusion for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Implementing Procedures; Addition of Categorical... Property Disposal under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This CATEX amends the United States... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Recently, Congress passed two pieces of legislation that directly authorize...

  8. 76 FR 19309 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest To Participate in National Environmental Policy Act Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Environmental Policy Act Pilot Project AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... part 340 to participate in a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project. The NEPA Pilot... plant pest risk of the article. In accordance with The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969...

  9. 36 CFR 800.8 - Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act. 800.8 Section 800.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ADVISORY COUNCIL... Coordination With the National Environmental Policy Act. (a) General principles—(1) Early coordination. Federal... steps taken to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Agencies...

  10. 78 FR 39307 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...; FXFR13360900000-134-FF09F14000] National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The proposed categorical exclusion...-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Under the National Environmental Policy Act (42...

  11. 78 FR 50079 - National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to Categorical Exclusions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Office of the Secretary National Environmental Policy Act: Implementing Procedures; Addition to... proposed categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the U.S. Fish and... 12, 2013. Willie R. Taylor, Director, Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance. BILLING...

  12. 77 FR 3935 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 17, 22, 24, 25, 27, 80, 87 and 90 National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for... Commission considers categorically excluded from review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA....'' Forty Most Asked Questions Concerning CEQ's National Environmental Policy Act Regulations, 46 FR...

  13. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  14. Organizational frame of environmental policy convergence of Ukraine with EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlovska Juliia Valeriivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to elaborate organizational frame of environmental policy convergence of Ukraine with EU. The emphasis was placed on one of the goals of Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement, in particular: “to establish conditions for strengthening economic and trade relations, which will lead to the gradual integration Ukraine in the EU internal market”. It has been revealed that the primary constraints that hinder deepening trade relationships between Ukraine and the EU are factors, which by their nature relate to structural and technological aspects of Ukrainian economy. The results of the analysis. The effectiveness of harmonization process can be tracked through the progress in implementing the priorities agenda EU-Ukraine Association. The data of 2013 evidence that Ukraine is gradually moving towards the implementation of the international conventions. A considerable attention should be paid to the progress in diffusion process, because it greatly contributes to the development and applying innovations. The latter is on the agenda for Ukraine as it can solve both the problems concerning technology and environmental effectiveness. Another fundamental problem of poor ecological condition in Ukraine could be seen in uneven spatial concentration of production. Indeed, the present conditions of sector entities activities create significant anthropogenic environmental change, its degradation and destruction due to a combination of large amounts of industrial and agricultural production in some areas and the same. It should be noted that the influence of public on environmental decision-making is absent. Thus, the Law “On regulation of urban development” doesn't realize compliance with the relevant legal procedures by which public participation would be determined in the decision-making on urban development, that in turn eliminates the provisions of the Aarhus Convention “On Access to

  15. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products:hot spots and environmental policies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials ...

  16. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  20. Impact of policy decisions on the future environmental quality of Flanders, Belgium; Impact beleidsbeslissingen op toekomstige milieukwaliteit Vlaanderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Steertegem, M.; De Geest, C.; Vancraeynest, L. [Dienst Milieurapportering MIRA, Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij, Erembodegem (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    The Environmental Outlook 2030 of the Flemish Environment Agency examines to what extent (alternative) policy strategies allow for realizing the European and Flemish targets. This article illustrates two subjects from the scenario report: the future emissions of greenhouse gases and the particulate matter from transport and the future air quality based on the concentrations of fine particles and ozone. [Dutch] De Milieuverkenning 2030 van de Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij gaat na in welke mate (alternatieve) beleidsstrategieen toelaten Europese en Vlaamse doelstellingen te halen. In dit artikel worden twee onderwerpen uit het scenariorapport belicht: de toekomstige emissies van broeikasgassen en fijn stof door transport en de toekomstige luchtkwaliteit aan de hand van de concentraties fijn stof en ozon.

  1. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) to implement enhanced environmental protection measures, as necessary, for... potential environmental impacts of specific Coast Guard vessel and aircraft operations on MPS and MPAs...

  2. Rapid policy network mapping: a new method for understanding governance structures for implementation of marine environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, John Michael; Potts, Tavis; O'Higgins, Tim Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relationships and dependencies in the development and implementation of environmental policy is essential to the effective management of the marine environment. A new method of policy network analysis called 'Rapid Policy Network Mapping' was developed that delivers an insight for both technical and non-technical users into the lifecycle, relationships and dependencies of policy development. The method was applied to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Water Framework Directive in the UK. These case studies highlight the environmental policy challenges to protect the UK's marine coastal environment and they identify differences in the styles of policy implementation between the devolved authorities of the UK. Rapid Policy Network Mapping provides an opportunity to create a collaborative policy data environment with a relatively small investment. As a tool for civil society it should assist in their ability to understand and influence policy making and implementation.

  3. Environmental Technology Policy in a Consensus Mode: The Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the historical, political and cultural factors which influenced the development of environmentalism and the formulation of policies for environmental technology in Denmark......This paper provides an analysis of the historical, political and cultural factors which influenced the development of environmentalism and the formulation of policies for environmental technology in Denmark...

  4. 75 FR 25240 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 92463, EPA gives notice of a meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental...

  5. 77 FR 3475 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of advisory... notice of a public teleconference of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental...

  6. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... in conservation biology, and the necessary next step for the field is to consider ways in which conservation policy makers and managers can proactively manipulate evolutionary processes to achieve their goals. In this review, we aim to illustrate the potential conservation benefits of an increased understanding...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...

  7. Environmental Risk Assessment of Produced Water Discharges on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The OSPAR Offshore Industry Committee (OIC) has decided, in its meeting of 2008, to evaluate the possibility of implementing a risk based approach towards produced water management. Currently, Norway has made most progress in this field as it has fully implemented the Environmental Impact Factor as

  8. Beyond size : Predicting engagement in environmental management practices of Dutch SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlaner, L.M.; Berent-Braun, M.M.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Wit, de G.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of the engagement of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in environmental management practices, based on a random sample of 689 SMEs. The study finds that several endogenous factors, including tangibility of sector, firm size, innovative orientation, famil

  9. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  10. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  11. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  12. Policy makers are from Saturn,..citizens are from Uranus….: Involving citizens in environmental governance in the Drentsche Aa area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Turnhout, E.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Boonstra, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, theoretically as well as empirically, the relationship between public support for nature conservation policy - in the sense of citizen involvement - and governance in Dutch nature policy practices. It involved an in-depth case study of the relation between citizen

  13. Policy makers are from Saturn,..citizens are from Uranus….: Involving citizens in environmental governance in the Drentsche Aa area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, S.; Turnhout, E.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Boonstra, F.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated, theoretically as well as empirically, the relationship between public support for nature conservation policy - in the sense of citizen involvement - and governance in Dutch nature policy practices. It involved an in-depth case study of the relation between citizen involvemen

  14. A critical assessment of environmental policy studies - Towards a discursive analysis and critique of the ideology of policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gabriel Foa Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks, from a critical evaluation of a range of environmental public policy studies, to question their most important theoretical assumptions, in order to propose and put the focus of discourse analysis and ideology critique of policies. Faced with perspectives that emphasize the management function of the state, intends to focus on discursive and ideological conditions that make possible the stabilization and political transformation of those social practices related to the formulation and implementation of environmental policies.

  15. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.;

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...

  16. On the design of incentive mechanisms in environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, K.; Wang, Jianmin (Fakultaet fuer Volkswirtschaftslehre, Mannheim Univ., Mannheim (Germany))

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present environmental policy as a simple game in two stages within a principal-agent framework. At the outset the authority adopts a transfer payment rule. Then the firms react by carrying out abatement activities, based on their chosen levels of emission and output. Next the authority measures the emissions (and residual profit of the industry) and revises the level of its instrument. Then the game starts again. It is the authors' purpose to narrow the scope of ad hoc incentive schemes by characterizing families of optimal linear schemes. 2 figs., 2 appendices, 10 refs.

  17. From Energy to Environmental Analysis : Improving the Resolution of the Environmental Impact of Dutch Private Consumption with Hybrid Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Nijdam, Durk S.

    2012-01-01

    Unsustainable private consumption causes energy and environmental problems. This occurs directly (resource depletion and emissions through using cars for transport) or indirectly (purchase of consumer goods and services for which the production uses energy and emits damaging gases). A hybrid energy

  18. The environmental and political policies in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, E.P.

    1980-12-01

    Due to the active demographic and industrial growth, the permanent incorporation of new lands to agricultural and cattle industries, the increasing heavy pressure on the renewable natural resources, the demand for new articles and products for human, conford, and the growing needs of water for human, agricultural, industrial and energetic uses, the present situation of Colombia as a developing country points out to the urgent need of a permanent and effective action by the state, that has been delegated to the National Institute of Natural Renewable Resources and the Environment (Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente-INDERENA). Accordingly a national environmental policy is being implemented by INDEPENA, based on primary fields of activity such as Environmental Education, a system of environmental information and environmental planning, coupled with the necessary actions for control and protection of natural renewable resources. A dynamic cooperation with the neighbowring Latin American countries would imply a meaningful diminution of possible duplicated efforts that usually are the result of efforts carried on when each country individually attempts to solve problems of a common nature.

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  20. Environmental policy plans in comparison. Main focus: emission; Umweltplaene im Vergleich. Schwerpunkt: Emissionen/Immissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochte-Clemens, B.; Ballschmiter, K.

    2000-07-01

    This study compares the environmental policy plans of the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria, New Zealand, South-Korea and Switzerland as well as the draft of an ecopolitical programme of selective problems and measures established in 1998 by Angela Merkel, former Minister of the Environment. In this connection the main focus is on the one hand on the comparison of the reduction objectives referring to emissions of substances and on the other hand on the measures suggested in order to achieve these objectives. In addition, the report contains a summary of the EU-environmental plan as well as an insight into the draft of an environmental plan of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The top priority of the environment policy plans is the problem area 'climate change' followed by 'transport and traffic' and 'biodiversity and conservation'. For a big part, the quality of the plan's basic objectives and measures are similar. There are differences in the ideas about time and quantity concerning specific target values in order to reach an emission reduction of the individual substances. In the environmental policy plans 92 different substances in total are brought up in the discussion. Most of them are specified in the environmental policy plan of the Netherlands and in the German draft, and also in Austria's environmental plan. The environmental aims and the measures to reduce carbon dioxide (minimisation of the greenhouse effect), ozone layer-destroying substances (problems of CFC), sulphur dioxide (acidification, eutrophication), nitrogen oxide (acidification, ozone precursor), volatile organic compounds (VOC) (ozone precursor), nitrogen and phosphor discharge into the soil and water (eutrophication) as well as proposals for measures in the traffic and transport sector are compared with each other. The Dutch plan includes almost thoroughly quantitative specifications respectively precise temporal stipulations. Such detailed information is only given

  1. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and NASA's NEPA policy and...

  2. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research... Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act, as... Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and NASA's NEPA policy and...

  3. Governmentality in Environmental Education Policy Discourses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketlhoilwe, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental education policy discourses have influenced policy construction in Botswana and how teachers conduct themselves and teaching in environmental learning. The researcher uses Foucault's notion of governmentality to understand the effects of power/knowledge relations in policy. The analysis is taken further through a…

  4. Governmentality in Environmental Education Policy Discourses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketlhoilwe, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental education policy discourses have influenced policy construction in Botswana and how teachers conduct themselves and teaching in environmental learning. The researcher uses Foucault's notion of governmentality to understand the effects of power/knowledge relations in policy. The analysis is taken further through a…

  5. The need for a Communicative Approach to improve Environmental Policy integration in urban Land Use Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeonova, V.; Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The debate on sustainable development emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental policy into all policy sectors. It is increasingly recognized that this integration is needed at both the national and the local levels of governance. The Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) principle agr

  6. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  7. Integration of freshwater environmental policies and wastewater treatment plant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Acuña, Vicenç; Ginebreda, Antoni; Poch, Manel

    2013-02-15

    In the last decade the political awareness of river water quality issues has grown substantially over the world and legislation is accordingly adapting. In the European Union (EU), two different directives regulate separately the characteristics of the discharged water and the chemical status of the receiving freshwater ecosystem. On the one hand, the characteristics of the urban effluents are regulated by the EU Directive 91/271/EEC, which defines limits on different elements set in the form of both static emission limits and minimum percentage load reductions. On the other hand, the characteristics of the receiving freshwater ecosystems are described in the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EEC), which sets minimum 'good' chemical and ecological status in water bodies that should be achieved by 2015, and aims for an ecosystem-based management. With the support of an example, we show that there is a gap in these EU environmental policies leading to non-integrated management, which may result on adverse environmental and economical consequences. We believe that these policies should be updated and tuned to account for an integrated perspective, allowing a more efficient and sustainable management of wastewater treatment plants, maximizing the ecological, economical and social benefits of the system as a whole.

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  9. Very long term development of the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport System: Policy analysis, transport projections, shipping scenarios, and a new perspective on economic growth and future discounting: Extended summary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report, that provides an extended summary of a similar named thesis, addresses how a new method for the evaluation of policies with a very long term impact on the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) system can be developed. It proposes an outline for a very long term transport model, prepares

  10. The impact of educational and environmental interventions in Dutch worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid; Van Assema, Patricia; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Glanz, Karen; Kok, Gerjo; De Vries, Hein

    2004-09-01

    Environmental interventions such as labeling and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias along with an educational program. The aim of the interventions was to reduce fat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable intake. In the labeling program, low-fat products were labeled. The food supply program comprised an increased availability of low-fat products and fruits and vegetables in worksite cafeterias. The educational program consisted of information about healthy nutrition through brochures, table tents, a self-help manual and posters. The design consisted of a pre-test-post-test experimental control group design, with four conditions: the educational program; the food supply program plus educational program; the labeling program plus educational program; and a control group. Seventeen worksites were randomly assigned to one of the four research conditions. Total fat, fruit and vegetable intake was measured with a quantitative, self-administered food frequency questionnaire (35 questions). Intake during lunch was measured by asking respondents to write down which food items they had purchased during their last lunch in the cafeteria. Furthermore, sales data for some targeted product categories were collected (milk, butter, cheese, meat products, desserts). For the whole study population, no significant effects on consumption data were found for any of the programs. The data showed a beneficial and significant treatment effect of the labeling program on total fat intake for respondents who believed they ate a high-fat diet. Sales data revealed a significant effect of the labeling program on desserts, but not for the other products.

  11. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  12. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Agri-Environmental Policies (AEP) in the EU have developed with relative nationalautonomy and according to the subsidiarity principle. The environmental directives represent an increasein EU-level environmental ambitions and challenge the current implementation of EU AEP b...

  13. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  14. 75 FR 885 - 40th Anniversary of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... of the National Environmental Policy Act, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Forty years ago, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was signed into law with overwhelming bipartisan support, ushering in a new era of environmental awareness and citizen participation in...

  15. 76 FR 72218 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch... (FONSI). SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the...

  16. 76 FR 52694 - National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Launch of NASA Routine Payloads on Expendable... availability and request for comments on the draft environmental assessment (``Draft EA'') for launch of NASA routine payloads on expendable launch vehicles. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy...

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  19. National Environmental Policy Act source guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1998-09-30

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODS, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  20. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  1. Colloquial Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in colloquial Dutch was originally prepared for use by American Armed Forces personnel who needed to develop a working command of the spoken language in a short period of time. Thirty-one lessons, based on activities common to Dutch culture, are contained in the text. Each lesson provides three parallel columns of sentences: the…

  2. Colloquial Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in colloquial Dutch was originally prepared for use by American Armed Forces personnel who needed to develop a working command of the spoken language in a short period of time. Thirty-one lessons, based on activities common to Dutch culture, are contained in the text. Each lesson provides three parallel columns of sentences: the…

  3. The EU environmental policy context for monitoring for and with raptors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Guy

    2008-09-01

    This paper outlines the importance of the policy context for monitoring with and for raptors, and, conversely, of the importance of such monitoring for policy. It then outlines two key areas of European Union (EU) environmental policy most relevant to monitoring for and with raptors, namely biodiversity policy and pollution policy. For each of the policy areas, the pertinent objectives and actions of the current EU policy are identified, and their relevance for raptor monitoring is discussed. The potential contribution of raptor monitoring to the further development of these policy areas is also addressed.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  5. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  6. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  8. Environmental policy discourse and its material objects: Bridging the gap with 'modest realism'

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Discourse theories offer a penetrating approach to environmental policy analysis, as they focus on the interpretive worlds produced in policy actors' utterances and writings, and the argumentative struggles that lead to one view dominating over others in a policy domain. However they fail to theorise the relationships between policy discourse and the material realities that are the objects of policy. This is because their social constructivist epistemology deprives them of criteria for judgin...

  9. Ecological Situation and Environmental Protection Policy in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Olegovna Tagaeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present ecological situation and negative influence of ecological factors on public health in the Russian Federation are analysed in this article. Russia is one of the most polluted countries in the world, and the environmental problem is very important here. In spite of some decrease in pollution during the crisis period, nature does not have time to neutralize pollution accumulated before, and as a result, there is an increase in the pollution concentration. In 66 cities (40 million people with excess 10 times and more than permitted maximum concentration level, the morbidity is above the average Russian level of 1.6 — 2 times. The forecast of emission according to the various scenarios of Russian development has been done: a pessimistic scenario with a slowdown in economic growth and an optimistic scenario with the acceleration of economic growth. The optimistic scenario is realized under the hypothesis about the oil prices increase and the real rouble exchange rate strengthening at the end of 2015, the revival of investment processes, the successful policy of import substitution, and the competent using of the instruments of monetary and fiscal policy. The pessimistic scenario is implemented under the assumption of negative economic tendency prolongation of 2014. For the forecast analysis, the dynamic inter-industry model with the ecological block was used. At the optimistic scenario implementation, the additional burden on the natural environment should be expected. The most important result of the research is the estimation of the rates of ecological payments which are necessary for performing the functions stimulating the environmental protection activity. The article presents the findings about the need to improve the institutional ecological structures, the scientific basis of pollution taxes, the introductions of the stimulating tools of the economic nature protection mechanism. The results presented in the article may be used

  10. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in si

  11. Typology of diatom communities in the Dutch delta: recognizing patterns of environmental drivers in nutrient rich ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg Vilar, A.; van Dam, H.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    The extensive network of waters in the lower part of the Dutch delta is loaded with nutrients and accordingly a uniform ecological classification ‘moderate’ has been derived. The present study sets out to typify the diatom communities in this apparently homogenous environment via self-organizing

  12. Typology of diatom communities in the Dutch delta: Recognizing patterns of environmental drivers in nutrient rich ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg Vilar, Alejandra; Vonk, J. Arie; van der geest, Harm; van Dam, Herman; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The extensive network of waters in the lower part of the Dutch delta is loaded with nutrients and accordingly a uniform ecological classification ‘moderate’ has been derived. The present study sets out to typify the diatom communities in this apparently homogenous environment via self-organizing

  13. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  14. The Effects of North America Free Trade Agreement on Mexican Environmental Policy (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningu J.   Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to analyze the implementation of the environmental policy and the way Mexico has integrated the environmental aspects into a North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA. We are aware of the fact that many environmental costs do not necessarily reflect the environmental damage. Environmental costs are often defined by determining either the willingness of the users to pay for the damages or for admittance of claims for damage. Since everyone has the right to a clean and thriving natural environment it is the policy maker who determines the basis of admittance of the most correct means to determine environmental costs in order to reduce the damages. Methodologically, we analyzed the existence and implementation of environmental policy. Instead of looking at the tradeoff between trade related incentives and environmental considerations, we analyzed how trade-offs changes under free trade effects the policy issues. When compared the countries environmental policy and the NAFTA stipulations we found that Mexico has a well-defined environmental policy but less integrated in the free trade agreement. The decision makers have increased the concessions of consumption of fixed capital as a means to increase gains from trade. This has lead to increased environmental damage, natural resource depletion and environmental costs.

  15. School food policy at Dutch primary schools: Room for improvement? Cross-sectional findings from the INPACT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.C. van Ansem (Wilke); C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A.J. Schuit (Jantine); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity, e.g. by providing an environment that stimulates healthy eating habits and by developing a food policy to provide such an environment. The effectiveness of a school food policy is affected by the content of the

  16. Cost of the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus search and destroy policy in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulens, E; Broex, E; Ament, A; Deurenberg, R H; Smeets, E; Scheres, J; van Tiel, F H; Gordts, B; Stobberingh, E E

    2008-01-01

    Costs related to a search and destroy policy and treatment for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in the University Hospital Maastricht were calculated for the period 2000 and 2004. The financial cost-benefit break-even point of the search and destroy policy was determined by modelling. On average 22

  17. Centralization and diversity: Evaluating the effects of government policies in U.S.A. and Dutch higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; Morphew, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    The article details a comparative study of higher education policies in the U.S.A. and The Netherlands. The policies are similar in their attempt to centralize the governance of public higher education in state and national systems in an attempt to promote and maintain diversity. The authors examine

  18. Scientific commentary: Strategic analysis of environmental policy risks--heat maps, risk futures and the character of environmental harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpich, G; Dagonneau, J; Rocks, S A; Lickorish, F; Pollard, S J T

    2013-10-01

    We summarise our recent efforts on the policy-level risk appraisal of environmental risks. These have necessitated working closely with policy teams and a requirement to maintain crisp and accessible messages for policy audiences. Our comparative analysis uses heat maps, supplemented with risk narratives, and employs the multidimensional character of risks to inform debates on the management of current residual risk and future threats. The policy research and ensuing analysis raises core issues about how comparative risk analyses are used by policy audiences, their validation and future developments that are discussed in the commentary below. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calburean Raluca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policy has become an object for description and analysis. A global environmental mechanism intents to promote collective action at the international scale and to build an integrated environmental policymaking and management framework concerning the tasks of a shared global ecosystem. Governments use a number of different types of environmental policy instruments to implement their environmental policies: legislative, technical and economic-financial instruments. The encounter is to combine the environmental protection with continuing economic growth in an over the long term sustainable way. This paper tries to underline that there is an under appreciation of the adaptability of social structures even within economics of environmental policy, to the extent that it is necessary to fully acknowledge and highlight the inborn trade-off between economy and environment.

  20. Switching slips. Building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century; Wissels omzetten. Bouwstenen voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de 21e eeuw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogervorst, N.; Hajer, M.; Dietz, F.; Timmerhuis, J.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2013-06-15

    With this 'signal report', PBL (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) offers building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the twentyfirst century, such as changes in consumer behavior, new coalitions of interests and stakeholders, and the establishment of an investment fund for eco-innovation. Which track does the Netherlands want to follow? With this essay, PBL is calling for a broad public debate on this issue [Dutch] In dit signalenrapport reikt het PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) bouwstenen aan voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de eenentwintigste eeuw, zoals gedragsverandering van consumenten, nieuwe coalities van belangen en betrokkenen, en de oprichting van een investeringsfonds voor eco-innovatie. Welk spoor wil Nederland bewandelen? Met dit essay roept het PBL op tot een breed maatschappelijk debat over deze vraag.

  1. Importance of strengthening of the democratic and political capacity in environmental policy of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadić Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policy is one of the new policies in the corpus of public policies in Serbia. Although the beginning of environmental policy in Serbia, or organized directing of society towards the environment, can be noticed even at the beginning of the nineties, the real development and intensification of this policy occurs only in the last five years. The slowness of the acceptance of the political idea that society and the state must change their attitude towards the environment is one of the causes of inefficiency of environmental policy in Serbia. This is also supported by the fact that in the process of conception and implementation of environmental policy in Serbia an essential element is missing that is reflected in the lack of sufficient democratic and political capacity. Environmental policy in Serbia is still defined and viewed as a strictly national policy, as a right and obligation of public authorities to protect the environment, while completely neglecting the role of other social institutions and especially the citizens. The lack of democracy in decision-making on environmental image of Serbia is also visible in the non-use of different models of direct democracy, and lack of objective and timely information of citizens about environmental problems in the country. In that way, the combination of impairment of democracy in decision-making, lack of information, as well as slowness of solving environmental problems and so-called "black spots" in Serbia leads to the conclusion that the environmental policy of the Republic of Serbia, led by the state authorities, shows signs of a specific "eco-monopolism" that is inappropriate in the democratic spirit of environmental policy.

  2. Dynamics in National Agri-environmental Policy implementation under Changing EU Policy Priorities: does one size fit all?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, Pia; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    directiveobjectives nationally in the future. In this paper, we first investigate the dynamics in the implementationof national Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) through changes in (i) AES policy objectives over time,(ii) administrative implementation structures, and (iii) administrative policy decision structures...... in theNetherlands, Denmark, Greece, Austria and Romania. Second, we examine the extent to which variousfactors have influenced the development of national policies over time. The study identifies developmentbased on the theory of ‘process of institutional change’, i.e. we qualitatively estimate the costs...... and trans-formation, which are characteristic of the national responses to changing AEP at the EU level. We discussAES dynamics; whether policy content or structures should be in focus for future policy design and theimplications of these findings for the future role of AEP in fulfilling environmental...

  3. 77 FR 9964 - Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook AGENCY... announcing the availability of its updated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Handbook. This handbook... of authority. Reclamation is announcing the availability of its NEPA Handbook to assure transparency...

  4. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  5. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  6. 15 CFR 930.37 - Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consistency determinations and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. 930.37 Section 930.37 Commerce and Foreign Trade... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements. A Federal agency may use its NEPA documents as...

  7. Plain Language in Environmental Policy Documents: An Assessment of Reader Comprehension and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natasha; McDavid, Justin; Derthick, Katie; Dowell, Randy; Spyridakis, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Several government agencies are seeking quality improvement in environmental policy documents by asking for the implementation of Plain Language (PL) guidelines. Our mixed-methods research examines whether the application of certain PL guidelines affects the comprehension and perceptions of readers of environmental policy documents. Results show…

  8. Two effective causal paths that explain the adoption of US state environmental justice policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yushim; Verweij, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Over two decades have passed since the federal policy on environmental justice (EO 12898) was issued. However, empirical evidence indicates that injustice persists and that US states vary in their adoption of the terms of the environmental justice (EJ) policy. Moreover, studies of the explanations

  9. 42 CFR 137.287 - What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.287 What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)? The NEPA is a procedural law...

  10. Better spent. Towards an 'Evidence-based' environmental policy; Beter besteed. Naar 'Evidence-based' milieubeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the 'Groene Rekenkamer' (Green Audit Office) is to examine and review the scientific value of white papers, bills and other proposals on different environmental subjects. Also attention will be paid to the suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of laws and regulations with respect to public health and environmental targets and to analyze and clarify possible risks of the implementation of policy (cost benefit analysis) [Dutch] Milieu- en volksgezondheidsregels en -wetten blijken te vaak een zeer beperkte wetenschappelijke basis te hebben. Maatregelen op deze terreinen worden veelal ingegeven door publieke en politieke perceptie in plaats van harde wetenschappelijke gegevens. Met name op het gebied van milieu, ruimtelijke ordening en volksgezondheid heeft dit geleid tot dure, onnodige en soms zelfs contraproductieve maatregelen. De Groene Rekenkamer heeft als doel beleid- en wetsvoorstellen op verschillende terreinen te toetsen aan beschikbare wetenschappelijke gegevens. Daarnaast zal het haar taak zijn de doelmatigheid van wet en regelgeving (in termen van gestelde volksgezondheid en milieudoelen) te analyseren en de mogelijke risico's van beleidsimplementatie te verhelderen (kosten-baten analyse)

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector: effects of the environmental legislation; Politica socio-ambiental do setor eletrico brasileiro: efeitos da legislacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, A.C.; Menezes, C.F.S. [Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral (DNPM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Projeto RADAMBRASIL

    1993-12-31

    This work discusses the socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector. Implications of environmental legal aspects on the electric sector are also discussed. The main problems concerning the implementation of the socio-environment policy are presented 3 refs.

  13. Multi-basket approaches to climate and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa

    2014-05-01

    Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) receive increasing attention because emission abatements of most of these substances not only reduce air pollution but also slow down the global warming. Cutting the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), a long-lived gas in contrast, is of primary importance to mitigate the global climate change as well as to stop ocean acidification. To keep abreast of such multiple challenges in a flexible and cost-effective manner, emission caps can be specified in terms of a reference gas (e.g., CO2) and emissions of different components can be converted according to emission metrics. However, under a current one-basket approach (used continuously in the Kyoto Protocol), which allows trading for all the components, any emission metrics may not be scientifically acceptable due to their diverse atmospheric lifetimes among many other reasons. Here we question whether an emerging multi-basket approach, which groups substances based on their atmospheric lifetimes and permits trading for components within each basket, is more robust in guiding us to achieve multiple policy targets and more useful to maintain the balance between SLCP and CO2 abatements with relatively small additional costs. In a wider context a multi-basket approach may simplify the dialogue among stakeholders and underpin a parallel pursuit of multiple climate and environmental challenges that our society faces.

  14. U.S. nanotechnology policy and the decay of environmental law, 1980--2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Jeffrey D.

    2009-11-01

    Environmental law's authority to protect humans and the environment from pollution and resource exploitation began to deteriorate in the early 1980s. The dissertation is a modest attempt to answer the question, "What caused the gradual erosion in environmental law's normative authority?" It argues that the emergence of a neoliberal, market-centered ideology redefined the relationship between economic and environmental policies, causing environmental law's transformation into an instrument of economic discourse. This ethical transformation weakened environmental law's authority to protect humans and the environment from risks posed by unbridled economic growth policies. It also sparked the rise of an ideology to counter neoliberalism's power over environmental policy: sustainable development or "sustainability." Sustainable development reaffirms environmental law's normative authority and relies upon deliberative democratic principles similar to those that drove the enactment of environmental legislation during the 1960s and 1970s. The dissertation analyzes environmental law's transformation through two complementary case studies. First, it shows how the expansion of regulatory agencies' legislative power has combined with cost-benefit analysis mandates to undermine the goals of environmental law and limit democratic debate about environmental policy. Second, it analyzes the genesis and development of nanotechnology policy in the United States to show how neoliberalism's economic logic subtly erodes environmental law's normative authority. These case studies illuminate pragmatic differences in substance and process between neoliberalism and sustainable development. They also show that the relative balance of institutional authority over risk-related information determines the effectiveness and durability of legislative mandates intended to protect the environment.

  15. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coria, Jessica [University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-09-15

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  16. The Dutch Delta Committee as a boundary organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezeman, D.; Vink, M.J.; Leroy, P.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars stress the need to bring science and policy together for effective policy making. This paper highlights an interesting site of co-production: the second Dutch Delta Committee. Consisting of representatives of science, politics, policy and industry, this state committee advised the Dutch gov

  17. The Dutch Delta Committee as a boundary organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezeman, D.; Vink, M.J.; Leroy, P.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars stress the need to bring science and policy together for effective policy making. This paper highlights an interesting site of co-production: the second Dutch Delta Committee. Consisting of representatives of science, politics, policy and industry, this state committee advised the Dutch

  18. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.

  19. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  20. Policy, systems, and environmental approaches for obesity prevention: a framework to inform local and state action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Rodney; Aytur, Semra; Davis, Tobey A; Eyler, Amy A; Evenson, Kelly R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Cradock, Angie L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Litt, Jill; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-01-01

    The public health literature has not fully explored the complexities of the policy process as they relate to public health practice and obesity prevention. We conducted a review of the literature across the policy science and public health fields, distilled key theories of policy making, and developed a framework to inform policy, systems, and environmental change efforts on obesity prevention. Beginning with a conceptual description, we focus on understanding three domains of the policy process: the problem domain, the policy domain, and the political domain. We identify key activities in the policy process including the following: (a) assessing the social and political environment; (b) engaging, educating and collaborating with key individuals and groups; (c) identifying and framing the problem; (d) utilizing available evidence; (e) identifying policy solutions; and (f) building public support and political will. The article provides policy change resources and case studies to guide and support local and state efforts around obesity prevention.

  1. Space for a national environmental policy in the Netherlands. Ruimte voor nationaal milieubeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, J.L. (Landelijk Milieu Overleg, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Van der Burg, T. (Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken, Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Rouw, M. (Milieudienst, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-03-10

    The advice of the SER (Dutch Socio-Economic Council) on regulating energy levies contains useful comments on a similar proposal of the European Committee (EC). According to the authors, however, further accentuations should be made. A right of restitution seems to be more efficient than the degressive energy levy of the EC or the levy-free threshold of the SER. Unfortunately the SER ignores for a great deal the desirability to realize the national environmental goals. After a brief overview of comments of the AER (the Dutch General Energy Council) and the Dutch Council for the Research on the Environment and Nature on the final report of the steering group Regulating Energy Levies (stuurgroep-Wolfson) the authors comment the SER-advice. They do not support the recommendation to wait until 1995 to evaluate the option of a national or Northwest European implementation of an energy levy. An energy levy for the Netherlands or the northwestern part of Europe should be prepared parallel with the decision making process of the EC in order not to have wasted valuable years if a decision of the EC to implement a regulating energy levy should not be made. 10 refs.

  2. Economic Policy Instruments and Evaluation Methods in Dutch Water Management: An analysis of their contribution to an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn international water policy, a trend can be observed towards more attention for economic approaches in water management. In 1992, at the International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE) in Dublin, the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water Courses and I

  3. A conceptual history of livability. Dutch scientists, politicians, policy makers and citizens and the quest for a livable city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, H.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for livability is currently a key urban issue throughout the world. Judging from policy programs, political manifestos and business philosophies, maintaining or improving a city's degree of livability appears to be one of the main concerns of a variety of actors, ranging from the spheres o

  4. Explaining Dutch fertility Rates in a Comparative European perspective : The role of economy, social policy and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, Arieke J.; Knijn, Trudie

    2008-01-01

    This article contributes to the search for explanations of the cross-national variation in fertility rates by studying the influence of social policy, economic and cultural factors on fertility in the former EU15, while giving special attention to one case: The Netherlands. This country lacks good s

  5. 77 FR 36177 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 17, 22, 24, 25, 27, 80, 87, and 90 National Environmental Policy Act Compliance... on the environmental effects of a proposed structure that requires registration; determining if the... application while the ASR application is going through the new environmental notice process as required by...

  6. 78 FR 39283 - Forum on Environmental Measurements Announcement of Competency Policy for Assistance Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 126 (Monday, July 1, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 39283-39284] [FR Doc No: 2013-15753] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9829-9] Forum on Environmental Measurements... Protection Agency's Forum on Environmental Measurements (FEM) is implementing a policy requiring...

  7. Analyzing environmental policy change: United States Landsat policy, 1964--1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald B.

    In recent years there has been an increase in the attention paid by policy scholars to the subject of policy change. Early attempts at studying this phenomena produced typologies of policy change and interesting case studies of specific instances of significant policy change. Recently, some policy scholars have worked to develop theoretical models of policy change that include explicit explanations of how and why public policies change over time. In general, scholars have identified two major sources of change: policy-oriented conflict and policy-oriented learning. One of the most advanced theoretical models of policy change is Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith's (1993, 1997) Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF). This comprehensive theoretical model is at the forefront of policy change research because, among other things, it explicitly integrates both conflict and teaming as interdependent sources of policy change. This dissertation uses the case of changes in U.S. land remote sensing (Landsat) policy between 1964 and 1998 to demonstrate a combined qualitative/quantitative application of the ACF, test several of the ACF's key theoretical propositions, and generate a set of criteria for solidifying the policy subsystem concept. The first part of this study uses a detailed case-study of Landsat politics to demonstrate the emergence of this policy arena as a semi-autonomous policy subsystem from the larger U.S. science and technology policy domain during the 1970's and 80's. This case study also serves to illuminate the importance of policy-oriented conflict, policy-oriented learning, and exogenous events in influencing the significant policy changes that have occurred in U.S. Landsat policy over the last 35 years. The second part of this study uses historical data on the preferences of key Landsat policy elites (generated from the systematic content analysis of 163 testimonies, reports, and official statements), in combination with survey data collected on current Landsat

  8. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  9. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.

  10. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    for land, resulting in higher land prices, and stimulation of intensive animal husbandry in the Netherlands, while in Denmark environmental policies more strongly coupled manure production to land area. As a result the Dutch pig farmers have focused on intensification of livestock production on small...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...

  11. Environmental agricultural policy in Japan in harmony with WTO agricultural agreements: current situation and its development (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaaki ISHIDA

    2005-01-01

    Environmental agricultural policies in Japan have yet to be initiated in earnest, being in what might be called a “preparation stage.” The reasons for this have already been discussed above, but in fact it is not only the environmental agricultural policies that are incomplete; so too are the environmental measures that would form the foundations for these policies.

  12. 25 CFR 224.70 - Will the Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act? 224.70 Section 224.70 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Secretary review a proposed TERA under the National Environmental Policy Act? Yes, the Secretary will conduct a review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of the potential impacts on...

  13. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

    This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

  14. Environmetal report 2016. Impulses for an integrative environmental policy; Umweltgutachten 2016. Impulse fuer eine integrative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-08-01

    The ecological challenges in the EU and Germany are so large that they can no longer simply be addressed using the remedial and even the technically-oriented, preventive environmental protection measures of the past. In relation to climate protection and many other fields, impacts on natural ecosystems must be substantially reduced in order to ensure that key ecosystem services remain functional. Yet, environmental policies continue to encounter stiff opposition, which is targeted at supposedly unnecessary regulatory burdens and restrictions. Opponents of environmental protection claim that environmental policies jeopardize the competitiveness of the German industrial and agricultural sectors by imposing unduly high costs. Or they bring up social issues, such as the current housing crisis or energy poverty, as arguments against an effective environmental policy. Such arguments call for nuanced assessments - and in some cases should be clearly rejected. Defusing such conflicts calls for approaches that promote compromise and that appeal to the general public. In the Environmental Report 2016, the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) sets itself the task of addressing this challenge, by focusing on six key topics. What these topics all have in common is that they exhibit tensions between environmental and economic or social policy goals. The Environmental Report aims to stimulate ideas about environmental oriented reforms and approaches to managing these issues which cut across policy fields.

  15. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 61 - Bureau of Prisons Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act A Appendix A to Part 61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY... of the National Environmental Policy Act 1. Authority: (CEQ Regulations) NEPA, the...

  16. Pricing Policies of a Dual-Channel Supply Chain Considering Channel Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dual-channel supply chain in which the differentiation of the environmental sustainability of channels is considered. We analyze the influences of the level of environmental sustainability of channels on the pricing policies for the supply chain members in both centralized and decentralized models using the Stackelberg game model under inconsistent price policy. We obtain the optimal level of environmental sustainability of channels and pricing decisions for the players in the centralized and decentralized dual-channel supply chains. Results show that the influence mechanisms of the level of environmental sustainability of channels on the pricing decisions are different in the centralized and decentralized models. Furthermore, numerical analysis has been conducted to investigate the effects of the cross-environmental-sustainability sensitivity factor and the initial proportion of consumers who prefer the retail channel on the level of environmental sustainability of channels, pricing policies and players’ profits.

  17. Spoken Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in spoken Dutch is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. The book is divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening comprehension, and (4)…

  18. Spoken Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in spoken Dutch is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. The book is divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening comprehension, and (4)…

  19. Review on environmental policies in China:Evolvement,features,and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the development of current environmental policies in China and the great progress made during 1979-2006.Applying lessons learned from industrialized countries to its own situation,China's environmental policies have the following main features:(1) to explore command and control measures to their fullest extent,(2) to strive to raise funding for environmental protection,(3) to identify who should take accountability for environmental protection;(4) to encourage strategies of "combination of prevention and control" and "integrated utilization",(5) to embrace openness in the field of environmental policy and early international cooperation.During the past 30 years,China's environmental policies have evolved and deepened:status expanded the national basic policies of environmental protection by adding a sustainable development strategy,focus changed from pollution control to a combination of pollution control and ecological protection,method changed from end control to source control,scope changed form point source control to watershed and territory pollution control,and management style changed from primarily using executive power to using legal and economic measures.This article introduces how they are evaluated by the international community and provides the prospects of the policies.

  20. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  1. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  2. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Community Involvement and Issues Management Dept.; Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  3. Technology, managerial, and policy initiatives for improving environmental performance in small-scale gold mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin; Van der Vorst, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews a series of strategies for improving environmental performance in the small-scale gold mining industry. Although conditions vary regionally, few regulations and policies exist specifically for small-scale gold mining activity. Furthermore, because environmental awareness is low in most developing countries, sites typically feature rudimentary technologies and poor management practices. A combination of policy-, managerial- and technology-related initiatives is needed to facilitate environmental improvement in the industry. Following a broad overview of these initiatives, a recommended strategy is put forth for governments keen on improving the environmental conditions of resident small-scale gold mines.

  4. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmen

  5. 75 FR 8997 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... from the Wallops Island shoreline and the infrastructure behind it. Alternative One, NASA's...

  6. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to

  7. 76 FR 39443 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National... administered portion of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL), Ventura County, California. SUMMARY:...

  8. Is the Jury Still Out? Toward Greater Insight in Policy Learning in Participatory Decision Processes—the Case of Dutch Citizens' Juries on Water Management in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Cornelisse

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the potential for policy learning offered by participatory processes, specifically so-called citizens' juries. We establish the need for policy learning by pointing to the increased complexity of water management tasks and challenges. A conceptual discussion subsequently distinguishes between cognitive, normative, and relational learning. The public participation literature suggests that participatory processes will contribute to various forms of learning. We assess the truth of this assumption on the basis of three case studies: citizens' juries on water management in the Dutch part of Rhine basin. We analyze whether the three forms of learning have occurred among jurors, and among policy makers. We find high levels of cognitive, normative, and relational levels of learning for the jurors, but relatively low levels of learning for policy makers. We analyze the reason for this divergence.

  9. THE POTENTIAL USE OF POLLUTION INSURANCE AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Aihoon, John Komo; Groenewald, Jan A.; von Bach, Helmke J. Sartorius

    1997-01-01

    Market-based environmental policies have been forwarded as alternatives to current pollution control policies. Implementation of the "polluter pays" principle and governmental enforcement of pollution clean-up have led to astronomical environmental liabilities and clean-up costs, which may threaten the survival of many productive ventures, unless producers can spread pollution risk through insurance. An emission constrained target MOTAD LP (TMLP) model showed that pollution insurance for irri...

  10. A Security plan for LMOs - concentrated on environmental policy of Biosafety Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Biotechnology industry in Korea is raised by the national support. Also, Korea imports 70% of entire agricultural products. Considering the present situation in Korea, signing a Biosafety Protocol is necessary to prevent harm by LMOs and to protect associated biotechnological industry. Therefore, the problems on signing Biosafety Protocol were analyzed and the environmental policy to be pursued was proposed. This study result will be a cornerstone to prepare a definite environmental policy by government. 54 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  12. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Environmental Policy Convergence in Europe : the impact of international institutions and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzinger, K.; Knill, C.; Arts, B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Has globalisation led to a convergence in policy-making across nations and, if so, what are the causal mechanisms? This book analyses the extent to which the environmental policies of nation states have converged over the last thirty years and whether this convergence led to a strengthening

  14. Sustainable housing policies and the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    What is the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in the EU and the accession countries? How prepared are the countries to face the challenge of the existing housing stock? This article describes policies and policy instruments currently used to encourage sustainable renovation in

  15. The Integration of Environmental Issues in The Agricultural Policy: The Role of Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Editors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies has attracted significant attention in recent years. The objective of this paper is to discuss the (past and future research questions in this area and the role of economic analysis in supporting decisions regarding the integration of environmental issues into agricultural policies, with a special focus on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP of the European Union (EU. The paper first examines the evolution of the process integrating environmental concerns into the CAP. Then, the role of economic analysis is discussed with reference to selected major issues, including: the evaluation of the relationship between agriculture and environmental impacts, and the economic value of such effects; the evaluation of policy effectiveness and efficiency; optimal policy design; the effects on markets and farm structures; and the coordination and governance of policy measures. The contents of these study areas are discussed and the research priorities required to meet future needs are identified. The work concludes by highlighting the need to develop more detailed policy analysis studies while, at the same time, developing a wider and more innovative vision of the role of agricultural policy in the global context.

  16. The impact of foresight on environmental science and technology policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der Barend

    1999-01-01

    Globalisation, high tech development and environmental issues have made policy makers aware again of the possibilities of future studies for policy making. However, the lack of systematic knowledge about their impact is a major obstruction to a proper use of future studies. Especially since future s

  17. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorn, G.A.K; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.-M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is

  18. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, van G.A.K.; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is

  19. A checklist for model credibility, salience, and legitimacy to improve information transfer in environmental policy assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorn, G.A.K; Verburg, R.W.; Kunseler, E.-M.; Vader, J.; Janssen, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Modelers involved in environmental policy assessments are commonly confronted with the lack of uptake of model output by policy actors. Actors have different expectations of models, condensed into three quality criteria: credibility, salience, and legitimacy. The fulfilment of quality criteria is al

  20. The role of innovators in the introduction of preventive environmental policy in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Reijenga, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the role of innovators in the introduction of 'preventive environmental' policy in local government in the Netherlands. With the help of the configuration theory of Mintzberg and the innovation theory of Rogers a description is given of making this new prevention policy within

  1. The role of innovators in the introduction of preventive environmental policy in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.M.; Reijenga, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the role of innovators in the introduction of 'preventive environmental' policy in local government in the Netherlands. With the help of the configuration theory of Mintzberg and the innovation theory of Rogers a description is given of making this new prevention policy within

  2. Sustainable housing policies and the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    What is the environmental potential of the existing housing stock in the EU and the accession countries? How prepared are the countries to face the challenge of the existing housing stock? This article describes policies and policy instruments currently used to encourage sustainable renovation in Eu

  3. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to exp

  4. Spatial targeting of agri-environmental policy using bilevel evolutionary optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe the optimal designation of agri-environmental policy as a bilevel optimization problem and propose an integrated solution method using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The problem is characterized by a single leader, the agency, that establishes a policy with the goal of optimiz...

  5. Environmental assessment of policy through budgetary analysis: Conceptual framework and methods. Manuscript report No. MR5-93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerrett, M.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    The need to apply environmental assessment to government policies that encourage environmentally damaging human behaviour is now generally accepted by leading environmental experts, although few methods exist for conducting them. Part of the problem lies in the complexity of the policy-making process, which confuses the identification of policies. This problem of policy identification can be partially overcome by focusing on the budget. This report begins with a rationale for why government budgets are the most appropriate unit of analysis for performing environmental assessment on government policy. A literature review is conducted on the methods for assessing the environmental effects of policy, followed by an analysis of the interactions occurring among budgetary policies, human economic behaviour, natural life support systems, and political systems. Methods of assessing the environmental implications of government policy through government analysis are proposed and there is a discussion of promising directions for future research.

  6. Partners for a healthy city: implementing policies and environmental changes within organizations to promote health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerherm, Laura; Tibbits, Melissa; Wang, Hongmei; Schram, Sarah; Balluff, Mary

    2014-07-01

    Current research has suggested that obesity prevention efforts should promote policy and environmental changes. The Partners for a Healthy City project, implemented in Douglas County, Nebraska, focused on collaborating with local organizations to help them select and implement 1 or more policies that promoted healthy eating and physical activity. Of the 346 organizations participating in the project and completing the follow-up assessment, 92% implemented at least 1 new policy or expanded an existing policy related to healthy food and drink options and physical activity, totaling 952 individual policy changes. Common policies included providing water as the primary beverage and installing bike racks to support active commuting to and from work. These findings suggest widespread support for policy changes that promote community health.

  7. Environmental innovation in chains and networks : assessing determinants and performance implications in Dutch food and beverage firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grekova, E.

    2014-01-01

    Challenged by the increasing scale of environmental degradation and corresponding stakeholders’ pressure, firms are increasingly integrating environmental concerns into their operations and into the relationships with external partners. Mainly through the theoretical lens of the Resource-based

  8. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  9. The Policy Use of Environmental Indicators - Learning from Evaluation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...... system and partly to the lack of accountability mechanisms. The article concludes that the analytical framework and the concepts derived from evaluation research are useful starting points, but that further research should extend the analysis to other policy contexts (national or local) and broaden...

  10. 76 FR 16391 - Call for Innovative National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... QUALITY Call for Innovative National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Pilot Project Proposals AGENCY: Council On Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Call for Innovative National..., or excessively burdensome. 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; 40 CFR 1500-1508. DATES: The Call...

  11. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  12. An environmental-economic framework to support multi-objective policy-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: environmental accounting, environmental indicators, farming systems, sustainability, organic farming, ecological-economic modelling, spatial analysis, multi-objective policy-making, opportunity cost.There is a growing awareness in present-day society of the potent

  13. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...

  14. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  15. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  16. Environmental Policy, the Porter Hypothesis and the Composition of Capital : Effects of Learning and Technological Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feichtinger, G.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Veliov, V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the e.ect of environmental policy on the composition of capital is investigated.By allowing for non-linearities it generalizes Xepapadeas and De Zeeuw (Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1999) and determines scenarios in which their results do not carry over.In

  17. the roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...

  18. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Greve; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...

  19. Disease prevalence in flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Dutch Wadden Sea as indicator of environmental quality: A summary of 1988-2005 surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethaak, A. D.

    2013-09-01

    In 1988, epizootics of ulcer disease in the flatfish flounder in the Dutch Wadden Sea were reported near freshwater drainage sluices of IJsselmeer Lake, locally affecting up to 38.9% of fish. Other diseases such as fin rot and lymphocystis were less frequent, but followed a similar pattern. Results of follow-up surveys in the Wadden Sea in 1994-2005 confirm previous findings and also show significantly elevated ulcer prevalences at other smaller drainage works. The most likely stress factors that contributed to the development of the epizootics at these sites include osmotic stress, adverse water quality conditions including chemical contaminants, nutritional deficiencies, and obstruction to fish migration. It was shown that discharges of IJsselmeer Lake freshwater in 1988-96 had a wide effect on the prevalence and distribution of ulcers and lymphocystis in the western Wadden Sea. A general reduction in disease prevalence in flounder in the entire Dutch Wadden Sea was observed during 1988-2005, which was most likely due to a general improvement in water quality and locally improved habitat conditions for flounder near drainage sluices. Ulcer prevalences outside the two IJsselmeer Lake sluices (Den Oever and Kornwerderzand) declined in this period from approximately 30% to 10% for medium-sized fish. Other skin diseases have also displayed a downward trend at both sites in recent years, with prevalences falling sharply to below 1%. Elsewhere in the Wadden Sea and the Ems-Dollard estuary, disease prevalences have declined towards natural background levels (diseases, especially ulcers, are useful indicators of environmental quality in the Wadden Sea.

  20. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design – analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany – to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  1. Change as "Appropriate Adaptation": Administrative Adjustment to European Environmental Policy in Britain and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lenschow

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is looking at European environmental policy from the "second image reversed" perspective. Specifically, it investigates the conditions under which we see administrative change in the EU member states as a consequence of the implementation of EU environmental policies. We adopt a comparative research design analyzing the impact of four environmental policies in Britain and Germany to trace the conditions for adaptation in the context of different administrative structures and traditions. As a starting hypothesis we adopt the institutionalist expectation that administrative adaptation depends on the "goodness of fit" between European policy requirements and existing national structures and procedures. On the basis of our empirical evidence we further refine the notion of "goodness of fit" by looking at the level of embeddedness of national structures in the overall administrative tradition from a static and dynamic perspective. Furthermore, we develop an explanatory framework that links sociological and rational choice variants of institutional analysis.

  2. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport. Promoting environmentally sustainable transport is defined as follows: (1) Reducing the volume of motorised travel; (2) Transferring travel to modes...... generating less external effects, and (3) Modifying road user behaviour in a way that will reduce external effects of transport. External effects include accidents, congestion, traffic noise and emissions to air. Four economic policy instruments are compared: (1) Prices of motor fuel; (2) Congestion charges......; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...

  3. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included.

  4. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. effect of land policy on compensation for environmental damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-21

    Feb 21, 2013 ... monetary terms) to the environment, caused by these oil industry ... government has continued to initiate policies over the years but unfortunately, these ..... and tools was put at N5, 600 annually. A similar oil palm estate at ...

  6. Environmental conflicts in compact cities : complexity, decisionmaking, and policy approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, G

    2000-01-01

    In most parts of Europe compact city policies have become a popular means of planning for sustainability. Dense compact cities were seen as solutions to reduce continually increasing mobility. They were also seen as a way to avoid urbanization of the countryside. Lately planners have been expressing

  7. The Policy Use of Environmental Indicators - Learning from Evaluation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...

  8. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  9. 76 FR 63763 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... from Jean Public (at page 1) listed wildlife, birds, reptiles, and mammals as environmental resources... Protection Agency's Repowering America Program, in partnership with DOE. In response, DOE clarifies that...

  10. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associate

  11. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  12. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  13. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  14. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  15. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villarroya

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1 ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2 identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3 determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4 ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  16. Benchmarking the economic, environmental and societal performance of Dutch dairy farms aiming at internal recycling of nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M.A.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing their environmental impact by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) at farm level. Practices to improve nutrient cycling at these INC farms, however, might not only reduce the environmental impact on-farm, but alter also the off-farm

  17. Benchmarking the economic, environmental and societal performance of Dutch dairy farms aiming at internal recycling of nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M.A.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing their environmental impact by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) at farm level. Practices to improve nutrient cycling at these INC farms, however, might not only reduce the environmental impact on-farm, but alter also the off-farm envir

  18. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP); Nuove prospettive delle politiche ambientali comunitarie. La integrated product policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnimeo, G. [IEFE, Universita' Bocconi, Milan (Italy); Iraldo, F. [IEFE, Universita' Bocconi, Daest-Iuav, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools. [Italian] La Integrated Product Policy - IPP rappresenta una delle priorita' che la Commissione Europea si e' posta nell'ambito delle politiche volte al miglioramento degli aspetti ambientali legati al prodotto. Essa non costituisce una nuova politica, ma piuttosto un approccio attraverso cui coordinare le diverse politiche ambientali, gia' esistenti o di prossima generazione, in un'ottica di integrazione delle politiche stesse, con l'obiettivo di ridurre gli impatti ambientali legati all'intero ciclo di vita dei prodotti. La logica del ciclo di vitra implica la necessita' di gestire ogni singola fase prestando attenzione a cio' che accade in tutte le altre. Dalle esperienze analizzate nell'ambito di una ricerca condotta dallo Iefe Bocconi emerge come, per conseguire questi obiettivi, risulti particolarmente efficace la scelta di attivare forme di collaborazione e cooperazione tra i vari attori coinvolti nella gestione del prodotto

  19. The making of environmental policy in the European Council

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Rasmussen, Lise Nordvig

    1998-01-01

    Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision-making proc......Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision...

  20. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... known or suspected environmental contamination. (5) (6) Policy—planning—management—capacity building...

  1. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring... implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Enacted in 1970, NEPA is a fundamental tool...

  2. Environmental policy, legislation and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Melody Hoi Yin; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Wong, Stella Wing Yu; Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang

    2012-06-01

    Since early 1980s, chemical pollution has become a serious environmental problem in rapidly developing China. This study reviewed the policy and legal framework for monitoring and management of chemical pollutants in China, with reference to the relevant experience in other jurisdictions. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of chemical contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is lagging behind in terms of nationwide monitoring of chemical contamination in human population, and standardization of sampling and analytical protocols. While actively participating in various international treaties and conventions related to pollution control, China also has a very comprehensive set of environmental laws and policies. These include the newly enacted legislation on the control of new chemicals (i.e., China REACH) and the development of a set of National Environmental Standards. In addition to environmental education, these new measures will further enhance the control of chemical pollutants and facilitate effective law enforcement.

  3. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  4. Integrative Models in Environmental Planning and Policy Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyler, David Clinton

    1984-01-01

    Discusses conceptual models of thought that have recently emerged to confront the conventional approaches to analysis and solution to complex environmental problems. In addition to a critical attack on the tradition of specialization and reductionism, several models are summarized that originated from ecology, cybernetics, and system theory. (BC)

  5. Bridging gaps : governing conflicts between transport and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Zuidema, Christian; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Developing new road infrastructure can be problematic in the face of environmental quality ambitions. These conflicts can even undermine the development of such new infrastructure, as occurred for example in the Netherlands in the mid-2000s as a result of European Union air quality standards. To gov

  6. Allies in Biofuels. Opportunities in the Dutch - Argentinean biofuels trade relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, M.

    2007-11-12

    First generation biofuels as an environmental solution are showing their own negative environmental, social and economic side effects. These need to be dealt with, because it is apparent that those same biofuels can be produced in a sustainable manner, thereby contributing to a healthier planet. Since both Argentina and the Netherlands would benefit from sustainable biofuels trade, policy measures need to be taken to guide the proper way. In what manner could bilateral cooperation concerning biofuels, optimize trade and policy output in both countries? By answering this question, one can hand solutions to upcoming problems - barriers to a sustainable energy structure - while at the same time facilitating trade between Argentina and the Netherlands. Besides providing information about the European, Dutch and Argentine market, this report presents an overview of biofuel policies. Special attention is given to the issue of sustainable biofuel production, in order to spread the necessary awareness, create wide support for corresponding politics, and offer opportunities for cooperation to prevent future entrapment. An entrapment, which could easily occur when actors in politics and business ignore international requirements for sustainable biofuel production. The research aims to produce the following output: Policy recommendations regarding the promotion of environmentally sound biofuels in both countries; A set arena to support a policy dialogue between both countries; An overview of current Dutch and Argentinean biofuel policies; Up to date information on current volumes of production, consumption and trade; Data with contact information of partners in both countries. Argentina shows an extremely professional agricultural sector, producing large quantities of vegetable oils, specifically of soybean. This sector has started to turn its attention towards biofuels - particularly to biodiesel. Projected production (for 2007-2008) is astonishingly high. The sector mainly

  7. The snowmobile and environmental quality: A report on social and environmental effects of the snowmobile with suggested policies for its regulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to educate policy-makers on the environmental and social costs and benefits of snowmobiles. It concentrates on the environmental impact of...

  8. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  9. Dutch audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobben, L M; van Ligtenberg, C L

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands audiological care is given at different stages. An attempt is made to screen the hearing of all Dutch babies between the ages of 8 and 12 months. At the age of 4 or over, general audiological care is given by the school medical service; referral is first to a family doctor, who may refer to an otolaryngologist. Curative medical care (examination and therapy) is the province of the family doctor and the otolaryngologist. Otolaryngologists and pediatricians can refer patients to one of 19 Audiological Centers distributed around the country, where a number of workers in different disciplines cooperate for habilitation and rehabilitation. These may include an otolaryngologist in charge, a psychologist, a speech and hearing therapist, an audiologist (usually a physicist or university-trained engineer), social worker, technician, ortho-pedagogue, audiology assistant, and teacher. There are at the moment 25 schools for the hard of hearing and 5 institutes for the deaf. These are often found in conjunction with Audiological Centers, the latter providing paramedical assistance to the pupils by agreement. Finally, the Dutch Organization for Preventive Medicine works to prevent hearing loss in noisy industries.

  10. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  11. Water and environment in decision-making : water assessment, environmental impact assessment, and strategic environmental assessment in dutch planning, a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the urbanised delta of the Netherlands, it is important to take water-related and environmental impacts fully into account when deciding on socio-economic activities. This is the aim behind Water Assessment (WA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).

  12. Energy and environmental policy in a competitive marketplace: The role of the national labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. The recent history of energy and environmental markets is briefly summarized, and factors affecting future policy are discussed. The emphasis of the address is on issues influencing or influenced by the US DOE. Some of the major items addressed are the need for a national energy policy; flexibility and multiple capabilities in energy supply, distribution, and use; and effective research and development. Trends in research and development funding are also discussed.

  13. On the margins of soy farms : traditional populations and selective environmental policies in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Ludivine; Aubertin, Catherine; Toni, Fabiano; Lucio, Silvia; Bosgiraud, Marion

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the Cerrado, the expansion of soybean cultivation since the 1990s has coincided withthe strengthening of environmental regulations. We analyze how the two mainenvironmental policies – Protected Areas and the Forest Code – have played out at theground level in western Bahia state. These policies in Cerrado have not been designedto curb the expansion of this agricultural frontier. These norms have, on the contrary,accommodated this expansion because the way environmen...

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  15. Natural Resource Accounting Systems and Environmental Policy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cabe; Johnson, Stanley R

    1990-01-01

    Natural Resource Accounting (RCA) combines national income and product accounting concepts with analysis of natural resource and environmental issues. This paper considers this approach for the RCA Appraisal required by the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act. Recent natural resource accounting literature is examined in light of requirements of the RCA Appraisal. The paper provides a critique of the economic content of the Second RCA Appraisal and develops a natural resource accounting ...

  16. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Farm Bill Policy Options Using the CEEPES-FAPRI Modeling System, An

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Lakshminarayan; Bruce A. Babcock

    1995-01-01

    This report estimates the economic and environmental trade-offs of the 1995 Farm Bill policy options evaluated by FAPRI. Assessments are provided for the 1995 FAPRI baseline, 25 percent Normal Flex, and the Revenue Assurance program. The authors describe the modeling systems and the CEEPES-FAPRI linkage, delineate the policy options and their likely economic and environmental impacts, and discuss predicted economic and environmental impacts of these policy options.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  18. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  19. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  20. Scientific authority in policy contexts: Public attitudes about environmental scientists, medical researchers, and economists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy L

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses data from the US General Social Survey to examine public support for scientists in policy contexts and its link to scientific disciplines. An analysis of attitudes about the amount of influence that environmental scientists, two kinds of medical researchers, and economists should have over policy decisions reveals that in each discipline the extent to which scientists are thought to serve the nation's best interests is the strongest determinant of attitudes about scientists as policy advisors. Perceptions of scientists' technical knowledge and the level of consensus in the scientific community also have direct, albeit weaker effects on opinions about scientists' appropriate roles in policy settings. Whereas previous research has stressed the importance of local variability in understanding the transfer of scientific authority across institutional boundaries, these results point to considerable homogeneity in the social bases of scientific authority in policy contexts.